Gene Summary

Gene:NOS3; nitric oxide synthase 3
Aliases: eNOS, ECNOS
Summary:Nitric oxide is a reactive free radical which acts as a biologic mediator in several processes, including neurotransmission and antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. Nitric oxide is synthesized from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthases. Variations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to coronary spasm. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nitric oxide synthase, endothelial
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NOS3 (cancer-related)

Aouf S, Laribi A, Gabbouj S, et al.
Contribution of Nitric oxide synthase 3 genetic variants to nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk and progression in a Tunisian population.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019; 276(4):1231-1239 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We conduct this study to evaluate the clinical and functional impact of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3) T-786C and G894T genetic variants on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk and progression in a Tunisian population.
METHODS: 259 NPC patients and 169 healthy controls were enrolled into our case-control study. Blood samples were genotyped by the RFLP-PCR analysis. The levels of Nitric oxide (NO) were measured by a colorimetric assay kit in the plasma of NPC patients, healthy controls and according to NOS3 genotypes. The correlation between the NOS3 variants and the clinicopathological parameters was examined.
RESULTS: We found no linkage disequilibrium between NOS3 T-786C and G894T variants. These results showed that NOS3 variants were genetically independent. In contrast to NOS3 T-786C, a significant association was found between NOS3 G894T polymorphism and NPC risk. The 894T allele decreased significantly in NPC patients and appeared as protective factor (OR = 0.65, CI 95%= 0.48-0.88, p = 0.006). NPC patients had significantly higher levels of plasma NO as compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0011). The T-786C mutation reduced the levels of plasma NO and decreased risk of lymph node metastasis in NPC patients (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.43-0.96; p = 0.03). In contrast, NOS3 G894T polymorphism had no effects neither on NO plasma levels nor clinical parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to associate NPC with significantly higher levels of plasma NO. NOS3-derived NO could play key roles in NPC pathogenesis. NOS3 variants differently contribute to NPC risk and progression in a Tunisian population. NOS3 G894T was associated with NPC risk. NOS3 T-786C decreased the levels of plasma NO and reduced the development of regional lymph node metastasis.

Gao Y, Zhou S, Xu Y, et al.
Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors 1400W and L-NIO inhibit angiogenesis pathway of colorectal cancer.
Nitric Oxide. 2019; 83:33-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been widely accepted that angiogenesis plays fundamental roles in colorectal cancer development, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway has achieved promising outcome. Recent reports have highlighted the involvement of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in the development of angiogenesis in cancer; however, the mechanism and therapeutic value of NOS inhibitors in colon cancer are largely unknown.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of the NOS inhibitors 1400W and L-NIO on the angiogenesis pathway in colorectal cancer cells.
METHODS: Two colorectal cancer cell lines, HT 29 and HCT 116, were used for in vitro study. The expression of iNOS and eNOS in cells was knocked down via shRNA transfection. MTS assays and wound healing assays were performed to assess cell proliferation and migration after shRNA transfection or treatment with 1400W, L-NIO, and 5-fluorouracil. Human angiogenesis PCR arrays and proteome profiler human angiogenesis arrays were used to detect changes in key genes/proteins involved in modulating angiogenesis after 1400W and L-NIO treatment.
RESULTS: Knockdown of iNOS and eNOS significantly inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth. Treatment with NOS inhibitors inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth and migration, and was associated with suppression of the expression of key genes/proteins involved in the angiogenesis pathway. In addition, the combined use of NOS inhibitors with 5-fluorouracil showed enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation and migration.
CONCLUSION: NOS inhibitors could suppress colorectal cancer cell growth and migration, likely via suppressing the angiogenesis pathway.

Su CW, Chien MH, Lin CW, et al.
Associations of genetic variations of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and environmental carcinogens with oral cancer susceptibility and development.
Nitric Oxide. 2018; 79:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral cancer is a major head and neck cancer that is reported to be causally associated with genetic factors and environmental carcinogens. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was reported to modulate carcinogenesis and progression through nitric oxide (NO) production. Genetic polymorphisms in the eNOS gene can regulate its transcription and further mediate NO production. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of eNOS gene polymorphisms combined with environmental carcinogens on the predisposition for oral cancer. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the eNOS gene, -786 T > C (rs2070744) and 894G > T (rs1799983), were genotyped in 1200 controls and 1044 patients with oral cancer using a TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that patients who carried the -786 T > C TC genotype were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage (stage III/IV) compared to those with the -786 T > C TT genotype; however, there was no significant association of the two individual SNPs with oral cancer between patients and the control group. According to behavioral exposure to environmental carcinogens, the presence of these two eNOS SNPs combined with tobacco use and/or betel quid chewing profoundly enhanced the risk of oral cancer. Moreover, carriers with the betel quid-chewing habit who had haplotypes of the two eNOS SNPs more easily developed oral cancer. These results indicated an involvement of -786 T > C polymorphisms in the progression of oral cancer and support the interaction between eNOS gene polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens as a predisposing factor of oral carcinogenesis.

Gardini AC, Faloppi L, Aprile G, et al.
Multicenter prospective study of angiogenesis polymorphism validation in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. An INNOVATE study protocol.
Tumori. 2018; 104(6):476-479 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Although sorafenib is the upfront standard of care for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), molecular predictors of efficacy have not been identified yet. In the ALICE-1 study, rs2010963 of VEGF-A and VEGF-C proved to be independent predictive factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis. The ALICE-1 study results were confirmed in the ALICE-2 study, in which VEGF and VEGFR SNPs were analyzed. In the ePHAS study we analyzed the SNPs of eNOS. In univariate analysis, patients homozygous for an eNOS haplotype (HT1: T-4b at eNOS-786/eNOS VNTR) had significantly shorter median PFS and OS than those with other haplotypes. These data were confirmed in the validation set.
METHODS: This nonpharmacological, interventional, prospective multicenter study aims to determine whether eNOS, HIF-1, VEGF, Ang2 and VEGFR polymorphisms play a role in predicting the objective response rate, PFS, and OS of advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib. The study will involve 160 advanced HCC patients with Child-Pugh class A disease. The primary aim is to validate the prognostic or predictive roles of eNOS, Ang2, HIF-1, VEGF and VEGFR polymorphisms in relation to the clinical outcome (PFS) of HCC patients treated with sorafenib.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data may suggest that polymorphism analysis of the VEGF, VEGFR-2, HIF and eNOS genes can identify HCC patients who are more likely to benefit from sorafenib.

Behiry S, Rabie A, Kora M, et al.
Effect of combination sildenafil and gemfibrozil on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity; role of heme oxygenase-1.
Ren Fail. 2018; 40(1):371-378 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in large proportion of patients. The aim of this work is to clarify the effect of combination of sildenafil and gemfibrozil on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity either before or after cisplatin treatment and determination of nephrotoxicity predictors among the measured tissue markers.
METHODS: Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups (G) GI control, GII received cisplatin, GIII received sildenafil and gemfibrozil before cisplatin, GIV received sildenafil and gemfibrozil after cisplatin. Creatinine and urea were measured and animals were sacrificed and kidney was taken for histopathology. The following tissue markers were measured, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, reduced glutathione, quantitative (real-time polymerase chain reaction) RT-PCR for gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS) level.
RESULTS: GII developed AKI demonstrated by significantly high urea and creatinine and severe diffuse (80-90%) tubular necrosis. TNF-α was highly and significantly elevated while the rest of tissue markers were significantly reduced in GI1 compared to other groups. GIV showed better results compared to GIII. There was a significant positive correlation between creatinine and TNF-α when combining GI and GII while there were significant negative correlation between creatinine and other tissue markers in same groups. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that HO-1 was the independent predictor of AKI demonstrated by elevated creatinine among GI and GII.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination of sildenafil and gemfibrozil can be used in treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. HO-1 is a promising target for prevention and/or treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Vimalraj S, Bhuvaneswari S, Lakshmikirupa S, et al.
Nitric oxide signaling regulates tumor-induced intussusceptive-like angiogenesis.
Microvasc Res. 2018; 119:47-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Existing animal models for screening tumor angiogenic process have various setbacks that necessitate further investigations. In this study, we developed an ex-ovo egg yolk angiogenesis model to screen the angiogenic potency of tumor cells (HeLa and SiHa cell lines). The egg yolk angiogenesis assay was applied to study the nitric oxide (NO) influence on switching from sprouting angiogenesis (SA) to intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) under tumor microenvironment. Morphological analysis and SA-like or IA-like markers expression were determined during the development of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from day 5 to 13. Expression of Notch1, Notch2, EphrinB2, and Tie2 were considered as SA-like while TEM8, CALD1, CXCR4 and HOMX1 were followed as IA-like markers. The HeLa and SiHa cell lines embedded CAM showed an increase in micro and macro blood vessels and vascular size, junction and length which are the pivotal morphological parameters of angiogenesis. Further, the study revealed that HeLa is more aggressive than SiHa in inducing tumor angiogenesis. To determine the NO signaling implication in tumor milieu, NO donor (Spermine NONOate (SPNO)), NOS inhibitor (L-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) and VEGF inhibitor (Avastin) were administrated to chick embryo vascular bed with and without HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that HeLa cells promote IA through NO signaling, VEGF and eNOS and it was documented by angiogenic morphological parameters and SA-like or IA-like markers expression. Therefore, our study claims that ex-ovo egg yolk angiogenesis model could be used to study tumor angiogenesis and NO plays a key role in switching of IA under tumor microenvironment.

Verheecke M, Cortès Calabuig A, Finalet Ferreiro J, et al.
Genetic and microscopic assessment of the human chemotherapy-exposed placenta reveals possible pathways contributive to fetal growth restriction.
Placenta. 2018; 64:61-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. A major cause of FGR is placental insufficiency. After in utero chemotherapy-exposure, an increased incidence of FGR has been reported. In a prospective cohort study we aimed to explore which pathways may contribute to chemotherapy-associated FGR.
METHODS: Placental biopsies were collected from 25 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy, and from 66 control patients. Differentially expressed pathways between chemotherapy-exposed patients and controls were examined by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Immunohistochemical studies for 8-OHdG and eNOS (oxidative DNA damage), proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (Cleaved Caspase 3) were performed. The expression level of eNOS, PCNA and IGFBP6 was verified by real-time quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR).
RESULTS: Most differential expressed genes between chemotherapy-exposed patients and controls were related to growth, developmental processes, and radical scavenging networks. The duration of chemotherapy exposure had an additional impact on the expression of genes related to the superoxide radicals degeneration network. Immunohistochemical analyses showed a significantly increased expression of 8-OHdG (P = 0.003) and a decreased expression of eNOS (P=0.015) in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta of cancer patients. A decreased expression of PCNA was detected by immunohistochemistry as RT-qPCR (NS).
CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy exposure during pregnancy results in an increase of oxidative DNA damage and might impact the placental cellular growth and development, resulting in an increased incidence of FGR in this specific population. Further large prospective cohort studies and longitudinal statistical analyses are needed.

Villegas SN, Gombos R, García-López L, et al.
PI3K/Akt Cooperates with Oncogenic Notch by Inducing Nitric Oxide-Dependent Inflammation.
Cell Rep. 2018; 22(10):2541-2549 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, Notch, and other oncogenes cooperate in the induction of aggressive cancers. Elucidating how the PI3K/Akt pathway facilitates tumorigenesis by other oncogenes may offer opportunities to develop drugs with fewer side effects than those currently available. Here, using an unbiased in vivo chemical genetic screen in Drosophila, we identified compounds that inhibit the activity of proinflammatory enzymes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX) as selective suppressors of Notch-PI3K/Akt cooperative oncogenesis. Tumor silencing of NOS and LOX signaling mirrored the antitumor effect of the hit compounds, demonstrating their participation in Notch-PI3K/Akt-induced tumorigenesis. Oncogenic PI3K/Akt signaling triggered inflammation and immunosuppression via aberrant NOS expression. Accordingly, activated Notch tumorigenesis was fueled by hampering the immune response or by NOS overexpression to mimic a protumorigenic environment. Our lead compound, the LOX inhibitor BW B70C, also selectively killed human leukemic cells by dampening the NOTCH1-PI3K/AKT-eNOS axis.

Yang M, Li H, Li Y, et al.
Identification of genes and pathways associated with MDR in MCF-7/MDR breast cancer cells by RNA-seq analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(5):6211-6226 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, next-generation sequencing technology was employed to identify differentially expressed genes in MCF‑7/MDR cells and MCF‑7 cells, and aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of MDR in breast cancer. Differentially expressed genes between MCF‑7/MDR and MCF‑7 cells were selected using software; a total of 2085 genes were screened as differentially expressed in MCF‑7/MDR cells. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database. Finally, a protein‑protein interaction network was constructed and the hub genes in the network were analyzed using the STRING database. GO annotation demonstrated that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in various biological processes, including 'regulation of cell differentiation', 'cell development', 'neuron development', 'movement of cell or subcellular component' and 'cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation'. Cellular component analysis by GO revealed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in 'plasma membrane region' and 'extracellular matrix' terms. Furthermore, KEGG analysis demonstrated that the target genes were enriched in various pathways, including 'cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)', 'calcium signaling pathway', 'tight junction', 'Wnt signaling pathway' and 'pathways in cancer' terms. A protein‑protein interaction network demonstrated that certain hub genes, including cyclin D1, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), NOTCH3, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), paired box 6, neuropeptide Y, phospholipase C β (PLCB) 4, PLCB2 and actin α cardiac muscle 1, may be associated with MDR in breast cancer. Subsequently, RT‑qPCR confirmed that the expression of these 9 hub genes was higher in MCF‑7/MDR cells compared with MCF‑7 cells, consistent with the RNA‑sequencing analysis. Additionally, a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay demonstrated that specific inhibitors of NOS3 and BDNF/neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase, type 2 signaling reduced the IC50 of MCF‑7/MDR cells in response to various anticancer drugs, including adriamycin, cisplatin and 5‑fluorouracil. The results of the present study provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying MDR in MCF‑7 cells and may identify novel targets for the treatment of breast cancer.

Chen CH, Wu SH, Tseng YM, et al.
Distinct role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms from menopausal status in the patients with sporadic breast cancer in Taiwan.
Nitric Oxide. 2018; 72:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer has a high incidence in Taiwanese women and worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that NO has multiple independent roles in carcinogenesis; genetic polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene could modify its transcription and endogenous NO production. Previous studies have reported conflicting results for the relationship between polymorphisms in the eNOS gene and breast cancer risk. Estrogen levels are associated with eNOS expression; accordingly, variation in estrogen levels may contribute to the discordant results. Therefore, in this study, the effects of eNOS polymorphisms on breast cancer susceptibility were examined in terms of menopausal status in Taiwanese women. Three eNOS polymorphisms (-786T > C, VNTR, and 894G > T) were genotyped in 283 patients with breast cancer (139 premenopausal and 144 postmenopausal) and 200 cancer-free controls (100 premenopausal and 100 postmenopausal) by PCR-RFLP. There was a significantly higher breast cancer risk in premenopausal women carrying 894G > T T than in those with the 894G > T GG genotype; however, postmenopausal women carrying 894G > T T had a lower risk of developing breast cancer. In addition, based on a binary logistic regression analysis, interaction effects of these polymorphisms differed according to menopausal status. The relationship between eNOS polymorphisms and breast cancer hazard depended on menopause status, especially for the 894G > T polymorphism, which may provide an explanation for previous conflicting results.

Megias-Vericat JE, Martinez-Cuadron D, Herrero MJ, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of Metabolic Genes of Anthracyclines in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Curr Drug Metab. 2018; 19(1):55-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines in combination with cytarabine have been the standard therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for decades with high efficacy. However, the majority of patients will show initial resistance or will relapse after initial complete remission. Genetic variability in genes involved in anthracyclines metabolic pathway could be one of the causes of the interindividual differences in clinical outcomes.
METHODS: A systematic review of published studies in AML cohorts was carried out in order to analyze the influence of polymorphisms in genes of anthracycline metabolism on efficacy and toxicity.
RESULTS: Polymorphisms in the main enzymes of anthracyclines metabolism (CBR, AKR, NQO1, NOS3) have been related to lower enzymatic activity and higher cardiotoxicity. Moreover, variant alleles in the genes of carcinogens and chemotherapy neutralizing enzymes (GST, SULT, NADP(H) oxidase) have been associated with ROS generation and drug efficacy, influencing the survival rates and cardiac toxicities. In addition, genetic variability in the transporters of anthracyclines could affect the intake in cells, including influx (SLC28A3, SLC22A12, SLCO1B1) and efflux transporters (ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCG2).
CONCLUSION: The knowledge of the role of pharmacogenetics in anthracyclines metabolism could explain the differences observed in their disposition in leukemic cells. These genetic variants are proposed biomarkers in clinical practice in order to individualize chemotherapy schemes, potentially increasing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicities.

Chao J, Guo Y, Li P, Chao L
Role of Kallistatin Treatment in Aging and Cancer by Modulating miR-34a and miR-21 Expression.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017:5025610 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Kallistatin is an endogenous protein that regulates differential signaling pathways and a wide spectrum of biological activities via its two structural elements: an active site and a heparin-binding domain. Kallistatin via its heparin-binding site inhibits vascular inflammation and oxidative stress by antagonizing TNF-

Ulivi P, Scarpi E, Chiadini E, et al.
Right- vs. Left-Sided Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Differences in Tumor Biology and Bevacizumab Efficacy.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
There is evidence of a different response to treatment with regard to the primary tumor localization (right-sided or left-sided) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We analyzed the different outcomes and biomolecular characteristics in relation to tumor localization in 122 of the 370 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled onto the phase III prospective multicenter "Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ITACa)", randomized to receive first-line chemotherapy (CT) or CT plus bevacizumab (CT + B).

Liang N, Li Y, Chung HY
Two natural eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes from Laggera alata inhibit angiogenesis and suppress breast cancer cell migration through VEGF- and Angiopoietin 2-mediated signaling pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(1):213-222 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes are natural sesquiterpenes with anti-inflammatory properties, but their anti-angiogenic activities are not known. The present study demonstrated that 5α-hydroxycostic acid and hydroxyisocostic acid, two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes (ETSs), isolated from the herb Laggera alata, possessed anti-angiogenic effects. Under non-toxic dosage, ETSs suppressed VEGF‑induced proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and vessel formation in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, ETSs inhibited VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration, stress fibers and tube formation. Results from real‑time PCR analysis involving in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that pro-angiogenic-related mRNA levels were downregulated, including VEGFA, VEGFR2 and Tie2 genes after ETS treatments. Western blot analysis showed that ETSs suppressed VEGF-stimulated VEGFR2 phosphorylation and activation of its downstream molecules, such as Src/AKT/eNOS, FAK, PLCγ/ERK1/2 and p38. Moreover, the VEGF-stimulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) mRNA level increase was significantly downregulated in the presence of ETSs. ETSs inhibited Ang2-induced phosphorylation of the receptor Tie2 in HUVECs, which indicated that ETSs not just suppressed VEGF/VEGFR2 axis, but also the Ang2/Tie2 one. Furthermore, the wound-healing assay revealed that ETSs reduced the migration of Ang2-stimulated human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Mechanistically, the anti-migration effect of ETSs correlated with the blockade of Ang2-induced E-cadherin loss and AKT activation. Collectively, the present study suggests that ETSs possess anti-angiogenic ability by interfering the VEGF- and Ang2-related pathways, and they may be good drug candidates.

Marisi G, Scarpi E, Passardi A, et al.
Circulating VEGF and eNOS variations as predictors of outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving bevacizumab.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):1293 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Novel predictive biomarkers are needed to improve patient selection and optimize the use of bevacizumab (B) in metastatic colorectal cancer. We analyzed the potential of five circulating biomarkers to predict B efficacy and monitor response. Peripheral blood samples collected at baseline, at the first clinical evaluation and at progression were available for 129 patients enrolled in the prospective multicentric ITACa trial and randomized to receive FOLFOX4/FOLFIRI (CT) with (64 patients) or without B (65 patients). VEGF-A, eNOS, EPHB4, COX2 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Baseline marker expression levels and their modulation during therapy were analyzed in relation to objective response, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). VEGF and eNOS expression was significantly correlated in both groups (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.80; P < 0.0001 and 0.75; P < 0.0001, respectively). B-treated patients with >30% reduction in eNOS and VEGF levels from baseline to the first clinical evaluation showed better OS than the others (median OS 31.6 months, 95% CI 21.3-49.5 months and median OS 14.4 months, 95% CI 9.0-22.7 months, respectively, HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.78, P = 0.008). A reduction in eNOS and VEGF expression from baseline to the first clinical evaluation may indicate a response to B.

Gupta A, Anjomani-Virmouni S, Koundouros N, et al.
PARK2 Depletion Connects Energy and Oxidative Stress to PI3K/Akt Activation via PTEN S-Nitrosylation.
Mol Cell. 2017; 65(6):999-1013.e7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PARK2 is a gene implicated in disease states with opposing responses in cell fate determination, yet its contribution in pro-survival signaling is largely unknown. Here we show that PARK2 is altered in over a third of all human cancers, and its depletion results in enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) activation and increased vulnerability to PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors. PARK2 depletion contributes to AMPK-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species, and a concomitant increase in oxidized nitric oxide levels, thereby promoting the inhibition of PTEN by S-nitrosylation and ubiquitination. Notably, AMPK activation alone is sufficient to induce PTEN S-nitrosylation in the absence of PARK2 depletion. Park2 loss and Pten loss also display striking cooperativity to promote tumorigenesis in vivo. Together, our findings reveal an important missing mechanism that might account for PTEN suppression in PARK2-deficient tumors, and they highlight the importance of PTEN S-nitrosylation in supporting cell survival and proliferation under conditions of energy deprivation.

Cranford TL, Velázquez KT, Enos RT, et al.
Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression delays mammary tumorigenesis and reduces localized inflammation in the C3(1)/SV40Tag triple negative breast cancer model.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2017; 18(2):85-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been implicated as a major modulator in the progression of mammary tumorigenesis, largely due to its ability to recruit macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are key mediators in the connection between inflammation and cancer progression and have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Thus, MCP-1 may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory and difficult-to-treat cancers such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We examined the effect of MCP-1 depletion on mammary tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC. Tumor measurements were conducted weekly (until 22 weeks of age) and at sacrifice (23 weeks of age) in female C3(1)/SV40Tag and C3(1)/SV40Tag MCP-1 deficient mice to determine tumor numbers and tumorvolumes. Histopathological scoring was performed at 12 weeks of age and 23 weeks of age. Gene expression of macrophage markers and inflammatory mediators were measured in the mammary gland and tumor microenvironment at sacrifice. As expected, MCP-1 depletion resulted in decreased tumorigenesis, indicated by reduced primary tumor volume and multiplicity, and a delay in tumor progression represented by histopathological scoring (12 weeks of age). Deficiency in MCP-1 significantly downregulated expression of macrophage markers in the mammary gland (Mertk and CD64) and the tumor microenvironment (CD64), and also reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland (TNFα and IL-1β) and the tumor microenvironment (IL-6). These data support the hypothesis that MCP-1 expression contributes to increased tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC via recruitment of macrophages and subsequent increase in inflammatory mediators.

Olsen SN, Wronski A, Castaño Z, et al.
Loss of RasGAP Tumor Suppressors Underlies the Aggressive Nature of Luminal B Breast Cancers.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(2):202-217 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Luminal breast cancers are typically estrogen receptor-positive and generally have the best prognosis. However, a subset of luminal tumors, namely luminal B cancers, frequently metastasize and recur. Unfortunately, the causal events that drive their progression are unknown, and therefore it is difficult to identify individuals who are likely to relapse and should receive escalated treatment. Here, we identify a bifunctional RasGAP tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in almost 50% of luminal B tumors. Moreover, we show that two RasGAP genes are concomitantly suppressed in the most aggressive luminal malignancies. Importantly, these genes cooperatively regulate two major oncogenic pathways, RAS and NF-κB, through distinct domains, and when inactivated drive the metastasis of luminal tumors in vivo Finally, although the cooperative effects on RAS drive invasion, NF-κB activation triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is required for metastasis. Collectively, these studies reveal important mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of luminal B tumors and provide functionally relevant prognostic biomarkers that may guide treatment decisions.
SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of insight into mechanisms that underlie the aggressive behavior of luminal B breast cancers impairs treatment decisions and therapeutic advances. Here, we show that two RasGAP tumor suppressors are concomitantly suppressed in aggressive luminal B tumors and demonstrate that they drive metastasis by activating RAS and NF-κB. Cancer Discov; 7(2); 202-17. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Sears and Gray, p. 131This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 115.

Aiello A, Bacci L, Re A, et al.
MALAT1 and HOTAIR Long Non-Coding RNAs Play Opposite Role in Estrogen-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:38414 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
In the complex network of nuclear hormone receptors, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical determinants of hormone action. Here we investigated the involvement of selected cancer-associated lncRNAs in Estrogen Receptor (ER) signaling. Prior studies by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Sequencing showed that in prostate cancer cells ERs form a complex with the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and that in turn these complexes associate with chromatin in an estrogen-dependent fashion. Among these associations (peaks) we focused our attention on those proximal to the regulatory region of HOTAIR and MALAT1. These transcripts appeared regulated by estrogens and able to control ERs function by interacting with ERα/ERβ as indicated by RNA-ChIP. Further studies performed by ChIRP revealed that in unstimulated condition, HOTAIR and MALAT1 were present on pS2, hTERT and HOTAIR promoters at the ERE/eNOS peaks. Interestingly, upon treatment with17β-estradiol HOTAIR recruitment to chromatin increased significantly while that of MALAT1 was reduced, suggesting an opposite regulation and function for these lncRNAs. Similar results were obtained in cells and in an ex vivo prostate organotypic slice cultures. Overall, our data provide evidence of a crosstalk between lncRNAs, estrogens and estrogen receptors in prostate cancer with important consequences on gene expression regulation.

Wilson A, Yakovlev VA
Cells redox environment modulates BRCA1 expression and DNA homologous recombination repair.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 101:190-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer development and progression have been linked to oxidative stress, a condition characterized by unbalanced increase in ROS and RNS production. The main endogenous initiators of the redox imbalance in cancer cells are defective mitochondria, elevated NOX activity, and uncoupled NOS3. Traditionally, most attention has been paid to direct oxidative damage to DNA by certain ROS. However, increase in oxidative DNA lesions does not always lead to malignancy. Hence, additional ROS-dependent, pro-carcinogenic mechanisms must be important. Our recent study demonstrated that Tyr nitration of PP2A stimulates its activity and leads to downregulation of BRCA1 expression. This provides a mechanism for chromosomal instability essential for tumor progression. In the present work, we demonstrated that inhibition of ROS production by generating mitochondrial-electron-transport-deficient cell lines (ρ

Wang J, Yang S, He P, et al.
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Traffic Inducer (NOSTRIN) is a Negative Regulator of Disease Aggressiveness in Pancreatic Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(24):5992-6001 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is refractory to available treatments. Delineating critical pathways, responsible for disease aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance, may identify effective therapeutic targets. We aimed to identify key pathways contributing to disease aggressiveness by comparing gene expression profiles of tumors from early-stage PDAC cases with extremely poor survival (≤7 months) and those surviving 2 years or more following surgical resection.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression profiling was performed in tumors in a test cohort of PDAC (N = 50), which included short (≤7 months, N = 11) and long surviving (≥2 years, N = 14) patients, using affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST array. Key genes associated with disease aggressiveness were identified, using Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier, and pathway analyses with validations in independent cohorts for mechanistic and functional analyses.
RESULTS: Gene expression profiling identified 1,820 differentially expressed genes between short and long survival groups with inflammatory gene network ranking first. Lower expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase traffic inducer (NOSTRIN) was associated with worst survival indicating its potential inhibitory role in disease progression. NOSTRIN overexpression suppressed migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine. NOSTRIN inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO) by suppressing the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Furthermore, miR-221, bound to the 3'UTR of NOSTRIN and suppressed its expression, and an increased miR-221 expression associated with poor survival in PDAC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that NOSTRIN is a potential negative regulator of disease aggressiveness, which may be targeted for designing improved treatment strategy in PDAC. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 5992-6001. ©2016 AACR.

Ceylan GG, Ceylan C, Gülmemmedov B, et al.
Polymorphisms of eNOS, catalase, and myeloperoxidase genes in prostate cancer in Turkish men: preliminary results.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of neoplasm in European males. Genetic and epigenetic factors contribute to PCa development and progression. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between PCa and polymorphisms in the genes encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), catalase (CAT), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In total, 193 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: PCa (78), benign prostate hyperplasia (40), and control males (75). The parameters assessed included body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, presence of prostatism, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason scores of prostate specimens, as well as polymorphisms in eNOS-G894T, CAT- 262T, and MPO G-463T genes. BMI and smoking status of controls and patient groups showed no significant difference. CAT-262T gene polymorphism was found to be homozygous in 35.4% of PCa patients, which was 4.02-fold that in the controls (P = 0.006). There was no statistically significant difference in eNOS-G894T and MPO G-463T gene polymorphisms between any of the groups. In conclusion, we found catalase levels to be associated with PCa diagnosis and PSA value. We did not find any significant differences between groups for other polymorphisms, but we believe that further studies with a large sample size may be needed before drawing definite conclusions.

Polat F, Turaçlar N, Yilmaz M, et al.
eNOS gene polymorphisms in paraffin-embedded tissues of prostate cancer patients.
Turk J Med Sci. 2016; 46(3):673-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms play a role in prostate cancer (PCa).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined three eNOS gene polymorphisms (T-786C promoter region, G894T, and Intron 4 VNTR 4a/b) at extracted DNAs from 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of PCa patients. For the controls, blood samples obtained from 50 healthy men were studied. Genotyping of molecular variants was performed by PCR-RFLP technique.
RESULTS: We found that the TC genotype of the T-786C polymorphism was associated with PCa risk (OR: 3.325, CI: 1.350-8.188, P = 0.008). The eNOS G894T polymorphism was also associated with PCa. The frequency of the 894T allele was significantly higher in PCa patients. No association was identified between intron 4 VNTR polymorphism and PCa.
CONCLUSION: We found significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies between PCa patients and controls for eNOS T-786C and G894T polymorphisms. The presence of the T-786C genotype and 894T allele in carriers increased the risk of PCa. No association was found between intron 4 VNTR polymorphism and PCa patients.

González-Rubio S, Linares CI, Aguilar-Melero P, et al.
AP-1 Inhibition by SR 11302 Protects Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells from Bile Acid-Induced Cytotoxicity by Restoring the NOS-3 Expression.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0160525 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3.

Tran AN, Boyd NH, Walker K, Hjelmeland AB
NOS Expression and NO Function in Glioma and Implications for Patient Therapies.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017; 26(17):986-999 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
SIGNIFICANCE: Gliomas are central nervous system tumors that primarily occur in the brain and arise from glial cells. Gliomas include the most common malignant brain tumor in adults known as grade IV astrocytoma, or glioblastoma (GBM). GBM is a deadly disease for which the most significant advances in treatment offer an improvement in survival of only ∼2 months.
CRITICAL ISSUES: To develop novel treatments and improve patient outcomes, we and others have sought to determine the role of molecular signals in gliomas. Recent Advances: One signaling molecule that mediates important biologies in glioma is the free radical nitric oxide (NO). In glioma cells and the tumor microenvironment, NO is produced by three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3. NO and NOS affect glioma growth, invasion, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, differentiation state, and therapeutic resistance.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS: These multifaceted effects of NO and NOS on gliomas both in vitro and in vivo suggest the potential of modulating the pathway for antiglioma patient therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 986-999.

Sousa C, Ribeiro M, Rufino AT, et al.
Assessment of cell line competence for studies of pharmacological GPR30 modulation.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2017; 37(2):181-188 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Cell lines used to study the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) or G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) as a mediator of estrogen responses have yielded conflicting results. This work identified a simple assay to predict cell line competence for pharmacological studies of GPR30.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phosphorylation or expression levels of ERK1/2, Akt, c-Fos and eNOS were evaluated to assess GPR30 activation in response to known agonists (17β-estradiol and G-1) in MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines and in bovine aortic endothelial cells. GPR30 expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot with two distinct antibodies directed at its carboxy and amino terminals.
RESULTS: None of the agonists, at any of the concentrations tested, activated any of those target proteins. Additional experiments excluded the disruption of the signaling pathway, interference of phenol red in the culture medium and constitutive proteasome degradation of GPR30 as possible causes for the lack of response of the three cell lines. Analysis of receptor expression showed the absence of clearly detectable GPR30 species of 44 and 50-55 kDa previously identified in cell lines that respond to 17β-estradiol and G-1.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Cells that do not express the 44 and 50-55 kDa species do not respond to GPR30 agonists. Thus, the presence or absence of these GPR30 species is a simple and rapid manner to determine whether a given cell line is suitable for pharmacological or molecular studies of GPR30 modulation.

Xu M, Qi F, Zhang S, et al.
Adrenomedullin promotes the growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through recruitment of myelomonocytic cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(34):55043-55056 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Stromal infiltration of myelomonocytic cells is a hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is related to a poor prognosis. However, the detailed mechanism for the recruitment of myelomonocytic cells to pancreatic cancer tissue remains unclear. In the present study, pancreatic cancer cells secreted high levels of adrenomedullin (ADM), and CD11b+ myelomonocytic cells expressed all components of ADM receptors, including GPR182, CRLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3. ADM enhanced the migration and invasion of myelomonocytic cells through activation of the MAPK, PI3K/Akt and eNOS signaling pathways, as well as the expression and activity of MMP-2. ADM also promoted the adhesion and trans-endothelial migration of myelomonocytic cells by increasing expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells. In addition, ADM induced macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to express pro-tumor phenotypes. ADM knockdown in tumor-bearing mice or administration of AMA, an ADM antagonist, significantly inhibited the recruitment of myelomonocytic cells and tumor angiogenesis. Moreover, in vivo depletion of myelomonocytic cells using clodronate liposomes suppressed the progression of PDAC. These results reveal a novel function of ADM in PDAC, and suggest ADM is a promising target in the treatment of PDAC.

Peddireddy V, Badabagni SP, Gundimeda SD, Mundluru HP
Association of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and plasma nitric oxide with risk of non-small cell lung cancer in South India.
Clin Respir J. 2018; 12(1):207-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The role of ACE and eNOS gene polymorphisms and their association with various cancers were reported. However, their role in the lung cancer is unclear.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in South Indian population.
RESULTS: For the eNOS gene, the homozygous "AA" genotypic frequency was significantly associated with NSCLC with an overall risk of 3.6-fold (P = 0.006, odds ratio = 3.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.66, 7.723). The heterozygous "I/D" genotypic frequency of ACE gene was significantly higher in NSCLC patients when compared to the controls with a 2.29-fold risk for NSCLC. Multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, smoking status, and polymorphisms in eNOS and ACE genes as the strongest predicting factors for an increased susceptibility to NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time that polymorphisms in the eNOS "A/A" (homozygous mutant) and ACE "I/D" genotypes might contribute to the increased risk of NSCLC in the South Indian population.

Dai Y, Cui J, Gan P, Li W
Downregulation of tetrahydrobiopterin inhibits tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c-nu mice with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):669-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascular tumor, and treatment options for patients of advanced-stage are limited. Nitric oxide (NO), which is derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), provides crucial signals for angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor eNOS and represents a critical determinant of NO production. To examine whether treatment of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) inhibits angiogenesis of HCC, BALB/c-nu mice were injected with HepG-2 cells with DAHP. Supplemental DAHP treatment decreased K-ras mRNA transcripts, inhibition of phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt, inhibition of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GTPCH), and decreased significantly NO synthesis, and then inhibited angiogenesis, compared with the results observed in the saline group. Histopathology demonstrated angiogenesis and tumor formation were significantly inhibited in HCC. DAHP downregulates GTPCH protein expression, corresponding to decreased levels of BH4 and the contents of NO. In addition, DAHP downregulates eNOS and Akt protein expression, corresponding to decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and Akt phosphorylation, compared with the saline control. We suggest that DAHP, recognized as a specific competitive inhibitor of GTPCH, can decrease tumor BH4 and NO by the inhibition of the wild-type Ras-PI3K/Akt pathway, and then inhibiting angiogenesis, and may provide a novel and promising way to target BH4 synthetic pathways to inhibit angiogenesis and to control potential progression of HCC. Whether DAHP has a therapeutic potential will require more direct testing in humans.

Diler SB, Öden A
The T -786C, G894T, and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) Polymorphisms of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Prostate Cancer Cases.
Genetika. 2016; 52(2):249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
In previously conducted some studies it has been revealed that nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) is regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme which is one of the isoenzymes of NO synthase (NOS). In this study we have tried to come to a conclusion about whether eNOS gene T -786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms might be considered as a risk factor causing prostate cancer (PCa) or not. A total of 200 subjects were included in this research. 84 patients with PCa (mean age 70.0 ± 6.4) and 116 healthy controls (mean age 69.9 ± 7.5) were recruited in this case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (QIAGEN GmbH, Maryland, USA), according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The T-786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms were amplified using polymerase chain reation (PCR), detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). For T -786C polymorphism CC genotype [odds ratio (OR): 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.78, P = 0.009)] and allele frequency (OR: 0.631, CI: 0.421-0.946, P = 0.026) is significant for control. In patients with PCa eNOS G894T polymorphism, both GT (OR: 0.069, CI: 0.027-0.174; P = 0.0001) and TT (OR: 0.040, CI: 0.013-0.123; P = = 0.0001) genotype distribution, and also T allele frequency (OR: 0.237, CI: 0.155-0.362, P = 0.0001) were considered significant statistically. While genotype distribution for the other polymorphism eNOS, intron 4 VNTR (4a/b), is insignificant statistically, "a" allele frequency was found out to be significant (OR: 2.223, CI: 1.311-3.769, P = 0.003). In this study we indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms are statistically significant in patients with PCa. eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms may be associated with PCa susceptibility in the Turkish population. In contrast, intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphism may not be related to PCa susceptibility in these patients.

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