Gene Summary

Gene:NEDD9; neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9
Aliases: CAS2, CASL, HEF1, CAS-L, CASS2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CRK-associated substrates family. Members of this family are adhesion docking molecules that mediate protein-protein interactions for signal transduction pathways. This protein is a focal adhesion protein that acts as a scaffold to regulate signaling complexes important in cell attachment, migration and invasion as well as apoptosis and the cell cycle. This protein has also been reported to have a role in cancer metastasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:enhancer of filamentation 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NEDD9 (cancer-related)

Yang X, Liang R, Liu C, et al.
SOX9 is a dose-dependent metastatic fate determinant in melanoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this research, we aimed to resolve contradictory results whether SOX9 plays a positive or negative role in melanoma progression and determine whether SOX9 and its closely related member SOX10 share the same or distinct targets in mediating their functions in melanoma.
METHODS: Immunofluorescence, TCGA database and qPCR were used to analyze the correlation between the expression patterns and levels of SOX9, SOX10 and NEDD9 in melanoma patient samples. AlamarBlue, transwell invasion and colony formation assays in melanoma cell lines were conducted to investigate the epistatic relationship between SOX10 and NEDD9, as well as the effects of graded SOX9 expression levels. Lung metastasis was determined by tail vein injection assay. Live cell imaging was conducted to monitor dynamics of melanoma migratory behavior. RHOA and RAC1 activation assays measured the activity of Rho GTPases.
RESULTS: High SOX9 expression was predominantly detected in patients with distant melanoma metastases whereas SOX10 was present in the different stages of melanoma. Both SOX9 and SOX10 exhibited distinct but overlapping expression patterns with metastatic marker NEDD9. Accordingly, SOX10 was required for NEDD9 expression, which partly mediated its oncogenic functions in melanoma cells. Compensatory upregulation of SOX9 expression in SOX10-inhibited melanoma cells reduced growth and migratory capacity, partly due to elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and lack of NEDD9 induction. Conversely, opposite phenomenon was observed when SOX9 expression was further elevated to a range of high SOX9 expression levels in metastatic melanoma specimens, and that high levels of SOX9 can restore melanoma progression in the absence of SOX10 both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of SOX9 can also promote invasiveness of the parental melanoma cells by modulating the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases. SOX10 or high SOX9 expression regulates melanoma mesenchymal migration through the NEDD9-mediated focal adhesion dynamics and Rho GTPase signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: These results unravel NEDD9 as a common target for SOX10 or high SOX9 to partly mediate their oncogenic events, and most importantly, reconcile previous discrepancies that suboptimal level of SOX9 expression is anti-metastatic whereas high level of SOX9 is metastatic in a heterogeneous population of melanoma.

Yu W, Ding J, He M, et al.
Estrogen receptor β promotes the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and cell invasion via altering the lncRNA-MALAT1/miR-145-5p/NEDD9 signals in lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(8):1225-1238 [PubMed] Related Publications
While estrogen receptor β (ERβ) may impact the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its linkage to alteration of the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation to influence the NSCLC cell invasion remains unclear. Here, we analyzed immunohistochemistry data from NSCLC tissues and found that ERβ-positive NSCLC female patients had worse survival outcomes than those of ERβ-negative NSCLC female patients. In vitro studies using multiple NSCLC cell lines also revealed that ERβ could increase the VM formation and cell invasion. Molecular mechanism dissection suggested that ERβ could increase the lncRNA-MALAT1 (MALAT1) expression via directly binding to the estrogen response elements (EREs) located on the promoter of MALAT1, which could then lead to (i) suppressing the miR145-5p and (ii) increasing the NEDD9 protein expression as miR145-5p can directly target the 3'-UTR of NEDD9-mRNA. A preclinical study using the in vivo mouse model further confirmed the in vitro cell lines data. Together, results from the above studies demonstrated that ERβ can promote NSCLC VM formation and cell invasion via altering the ERβ/MALAT1/miR145-5p/NEDD9 signaling. Targeting this newly identified signaling pathway with small molecules may help the development of novel therapies to better suppress the NSCLC metastasis.

Tang Z
Effects of human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) gene on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells.
J BUON. 2018 May-Jun; 23(3):782-786 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) gene on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells.
METHODS: Three human bladder cancer cell lines (T24, EJ and BIU-87) were selected to extract total RNA at logarithmic growth phase. The relative expression level of HEF1 in these cell lines was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and the cell lines with relatively high expression and relatively low expression level of HEF1 cells were identified. HEF1 overexpression recombinant adenovirus was transfected into the bladder cancer cells with low expression level of HEF1, and HEF1 siRNA was transfected into the bladder cancer cells with high expression level of HEF1. MTT assay, migration assay and invasion assay were performed to detect the proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells.
RESULTS: The relative expression level of HEF1 mRNA in T24 cell line was significantly higher than that in EJ and BIU-87 cells, and BIU-87 cell line showed the lowest expression level (p<0.05). After transfection with HEF1 overexpression recombinant adenovirus, the proliferation, migration and invasion of BIU-87 cells were significantly improved (p<0.05). After siRNA silencing, the proliferation, migration and invasion of T24 cells were significantly inhibited (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: High expression level of HEF1 gene can promote the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells.

Arzi L, Riazi G, Sadeghizadeh M, et al.
A Comparative Study on Anti-Invasion, Antimigration, and Antiadhesion Effects of the Bioactive Carotenoids of Saffron on 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells Through Their Effects on Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Genes.
DNA Cell Biol. 2018; 37(8):697-707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Crocus sativus L. (saffron) has been used as a spice and as a medicine for the past four thousand years. Recently, saffron has been well documented to possess anticancer effects on primary tumors. However studies of its antimetastatic potential are lacking. The present study is a comparative investigation of the antimetastatic effects of saffron carotenoids, crocin and crocetin, on triple negative metastatic breast cancer cells (4T1) and their effects on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that treatment of 4T1 cells with crocin and crocetin resulted in the inhibition of viability in a dose-dependent manner. Scratch and Transwell chamber assays showed that the nontoxic doses of crocin and crocetin significantly inhibited migration, cell mobility, and invasion, also attenuating adhesion to extracellular matrix. Crocin downregulated mRNA expression of FZD7, NEDD9, VIM, and VEGF-α genes and upregulated E-CAD. Crocin and crocetin exhibited comparable anti-invasion properties on 4T1 cells. However, crocin and crocetin exerted more pronounced antimigration and antiadhesion potency, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that the antimetastatic effects of crocin can occur through interfering with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Radulović P, Krušlin B
Immunohistochemical expression of NEDD9, E-cadherin and γ-catenin and their prognostic significance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2018; 18(3):246-251 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extensive research is being conducted to identify novel diagnostic, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as only a few markers have been routinely used so far with limited success. Our aim was to assess the expression of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD9), E-cadherin, and γ-catenin in PDAC in relation to clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. We also investigated if there is a correlation of NEDD9 expression with E-cadherin or γ-catenin. The protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 61 PDAC and 61 samples of normal pancreatic tissue. The log rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival curve were used for survival analysis. E-cadherin and γ-catenin expressions were reduced in PDAC, and completely retained in normal pancreatic tissue. Expression of NEDD9 was significantly increased in PDAC (strong expression in 78.7% of cases and moderate in 21.3%) and reduced in normal pancreatic tissue (strong positivity in 45.9% of cases, moderate in 31.1%, and weak in 23%). There was a positive correlation between reduced E-cadherin and γ-catenin expression in PDAC (p = 0.015). The loss or reduced expression of E-cadherin had a negative impact on patient survival (p = 0.020). A negative correlation between E-cadherin expression and tumor grade was also observed (p = 0.011). Decreased E-cadherin expression was more common in male patients with PDAC (81.3% vs. 60% for females, p = 0.005). γ-catenin and NEDD9 expressions were not statistically correlated with tumor stage and grade, gender, nor with patient survival. Our results support the role of NEDD9, E-cadherin and γ-catenin proteins in PDAC, but further research should clarify in detail their mechanism of action in pancreatic cancer.

Gabbasov R, Xiao F, Howe CG, et al.
NEDD9 promotes oncogenic signaling, a stem/mesenchymal gene signature, and aggressive ovarian cancer growth in mice.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(35):4854-4870 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) supports oncogenic signaling in a number of solid and hematologic tumors. Little is known about the role of NEDD9 in ovarian carcinoma (OC), but available data suggest elevated mRNA and protein expression in advanced stage high-grade cancers. We used a transgenic MISIIR-TAg mouse OC model combined with genetic ablation of Nedd9 to investigate its action in the development and progression of OC. A Nedd9

Zheng H, Wu J, Shi J, et al.
miR-125a-5p upregulation suppresses the proliferation and induces the cell apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma by targeting NEDD9.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(3):1790-1796 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical translational regulators that act as oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes. qRT-PCR assay results showed that the expression levels of miR-125a-5p are lower in lung adenocarcinoma (AD) tissues than expression levels in adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. This relative expression was found to be significantly associated with lymph node metastases. Cell growth, apoptosis, caspase activity and Transwell invasion assay results showed that in two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines transfected with a miR-125a-5p mimic, proliferation and invasion rates were found to be significantly reduced, whereas the apoptosis rate of the miR-125a-5p mimic group was enhanced. Subsequent western blotting and luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-125a-5p is able to bind to putative binding sites within the mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9). Our findings suggest that miR-125a-5p may serve as a therapeutic agent for lung adenocarcinoma through its major target, NEDD9.

Zhou S, Xu M, Shen J, et al.
Overexpression of NEDD9 promotes cell invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017; 41(6):677-686 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), is a focal adhesion scaffold protein which has been associated with metastasis in several cancers. Recent study found that NEDD9 expression was upregulated in HCC. However, the precise function of NEDD9 in HCC is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that high NEDD9 expression was associated with the invasiveness of HCC in clinical samples. Moreover, by gain-and-loss function studies, we revealed that silencing of NEDD9 expression inhibited cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion, while upregulated expression of NEDD9 promoted invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Further studies revealed that NEDD9 inversely regulated E-cadherin in HCC cells and HCC tissues, which indicated that NEDD9 might promotes the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells through the downregulation of E-cadherin, possibly by inducing EMT. On the whole, our findings thus indicate that NEDD9 may serve as a metastasis-promoting gene and potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Zhou Z, Tang M, Liu Y, et al.
Apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting Akt in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(4):446-456 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that APG exerted anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects in A549 human lung cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiszol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenytetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay showed that APG suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed using a wound healing and Transwell assay, suggesting that APG inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the Akt signaling pathways. The results confirmed that APG decreased Akt expression and its activation. Then, cells were transfected with Akt-active and Akt-DN plasmids separately. The migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly changed, constitutively activating Akt or knocking down Akt, indicating that APG can suppress the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results indicated that APG not only suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thereby preventing its activation, but also inhibited its downstream gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and HEF1. Together, APG is a new inhibitor of Akt in lung cancer and a potential natural compound for cancer chemoprevention.

Cui X, Shen K, Xie Z, et al.
Identification of key genes in colorectal cancer using random walk with restart.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(2):867-872 [PubMed] Related Publications
As the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, colorectal cancer (CRC) has received increasing attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of CRC by analyzing the microarray dataset, GSE32323. The GSE32323 dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included 17 pairs of matched cancer and normal colorectal tissue samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package and a search of CRC genes, also denoted as seed genes, was performed using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database. Subsequently, the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was downloaded from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database and the sub‑network (CRC.PPI) of the DEGs and seed genes were obtained. In addition, the top 50 nodes with highest affinity scores in the CRC.PPI were identified using random walk with restart analysis. The potential functions of the DEGs included in the top 50 nodes were analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. Using the Drug Gene Interaction database, drug‑gene interaction analysis was performed to identify antineoplastic drug interacts with genes. A total of 1,640 DEGs between the CRC and normal samples were screened. The obtained seed genes included cyclin D1 (CCND1) and aurora kinase A (AURKA). The enriched functions for the 31 DEGs in the PPI network of the top 50 nodes were predominantly associated with cell cycle. The DEGs may function in CRC by interacting with other genes in the PPI network of the top 50 nodes, for example, DEP domain‑containing MTOR‑interacting protein (DEPTOR)‑CCND1, AURKA‑breast carcinoma amplified sequence‑1 (BCAS1), CCND1‑BCAS1, CCND1‑neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and CCND1‑mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MAP2K2). Only three DEGs (CCND1, AURKA and DEPTOR) had interactions with their corresponding antineoplastic drugs. Taken together, DEPTOR, AURKA, CCND1, BCAS1, NEDD9 and MAP2K2 may act in CRC.

Börnigen D, Tyekucheva S, Wang X, et al.
Computational Reconstruction of NFκB Pathway Interaction Mechanisms during Prostate Cancer.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2016; 12(4):e1004820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular research in cancer is one of the largest areas of bioinformatic investigation, but it remains a challenge to understand biomolecular mechanisms in cancer-related pathways from high-throughput genomic data. This includes the Nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NFκB) pathway, which is central to the inflammatory response and cell proliferation in prostate cancer development and progression. Despite close scrutiny and a deep understanding of many of its members' biomolecular activities, the current list of pathway members and a systems-level understanding of their interactions remains incomplete. Here, we provide the first steps toward computational reconstruction of interaction mechanisms of the NFκB pathway in prostate cancer. We identified novel roles for ATF3, CXCL2, DUSP5, JUNB, NEDD9, SELE, TRIB1, and ZFP36 in this pathway, in addition to new mechanistic interactions between these genes and 10 known NFκB pathway members. A newly predicted interaction between NEDD9 and ZFP36 in particular was validated by co-immunoprecipitation, as was NEDD9's potential biological role in prostate cancer cell growth regulation. We combined 651 gene expression datasets with 1.4M gene product interactions to predict the inclusion of 40 additional genes in the pathway. Molecular mechanisms of interaction among pathway members were inferred using recent advances in Bayesian data integration to simultaneously provide information specific to biological contexts and individual biomolecular activities, resulting in a total of 112 interactions in the fully reconstructed NFκB pathway: 13 (11%) previously known, 29 (26%) supported by existing literature, and 70 (63%) novel. This method is generalizable to other tissue types, cancers, and organisms, and this new information about the NFκB pathway will allow us to further understand prostate cancer and to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Rambow F, Bechadergue A, Luciani F, et al.
Regulation of Melanoma Progression through the TCF4/miR-125b/NEDD9 Cascade.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(6):1229-1237 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma progression from a primary lesion to a distant metastasis is a complex process associated with genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications, and phenotypic switches. Elucidation of these phenomena may indicate how to interfere with this fatal disease. The role of microRNAs as key negative regulators of gene expression, controlling all cellular processes including cell migration and invasion, is now being recognized. Here, we used in silico analysis of microRNA expression profiles of primary and metastatic melanomas and functional experiments to show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is a determinant candidate of melanoma progression: (i) miR-125b is more strongly expressed in aggressive metastatic than primary melanomas, (ii) there is an inverse correlation between the amount of miR-125b and overall patient survival, (iii) invasion/migration potentials in vitro are inversely correlated with the amount of miR-125b in a series of human melanoma cell lines, and (iv) inhibition of miR-125b reduces migratory and invasive potentials without affecting cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we show that neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (i.e., NEDD9) is a direct target of miR-125b and is involved in modulating melanoma cell migration and invasion. Also, transcription factor 4, associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion, induces the transcription of miR-125b-1. In conclusion, the transcription factor 4/miR-125b/NEDD9 cascade promotes melanoma cell migration/invasion.

Mariotti S, Barravecchia I, Vindigni C, et al.
MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1808-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy.

Pathak HB, Zhou Y, Sethi G, et al.
A Synthetic Lethality Screen Using a Focused siRNA Library to Identify Sensitizers to Dasatinib Therapy for the Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular targeted therapies have been the focus of recent clinical trials for the treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The majority have not fared well as monotherapies for improving survival of these patients. Poor bioavailability, lack of predictive biomarkers, and the presence of multiple survival pathways can all diminish the success of a targeted agent. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the Src-family kinases (SFK) and in preclinical studies shown to have substantial activity in EOC. However, when evaluated in a phase 2 clinical trial for patients with recurrent or persistent EOC, it was found to have minimal activity. We hypothesized that synthetic lethality screens performed using a cogently designed siRNA library would identify second-site molecular targets that could synergize with SFK inhibition and improve dasatinib efficacy. Using a systematic approach, we performed primary siRNA screening using a library focused on 638 genes corresponding to a network centered on EGFR, HER2, and the SFK-scaffolding proteins BCAR1, NEDD9, and EFS to screen EOC cells in combination with dasatinib. We followed up with validation studies including deconvolution screening, quantitative PCR to confirm effective gene silencing, correlation of gene expression with dasatinib sensitivity, and assessment of the clinical relevance of hits using TCGA ovarian cancer data. A refined list of five candidates (CSNK2A1, DAG1, GRB2, PRKCE, and VAV1) was identified as showing the greatest potential for improving sensitivity to dasatinib in EOC. Of these, CSNK2A1, which codes for the catalytic alpha subunit of protein kinase CK2, was selected for additional evaluation. Synergistic activity of the clinically relevant inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, with dasatinib in reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis was observed across multiple EOC cell lines. This overall approach to improving drug efficacy can be applied to other targeted agents that have similarly shown poor clinical activity.

Syed P, Gupta S, Choudhary S, et al.
Autoantibody Profiling of Glioma Serum Samples to Identify Biomarkers Using Human Proteome Arrays.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The heterogeneity and poor prognosis associated with gliomas, makes biomarker identification imperative. Here, we report autoantibody signatures across various grades of glioma serum samples and sub-categories of glioblastoma multiforme using Human Proteome chips containing ~17000 full-length human proteins. The deduced sets of classifier proteins helped to distinguish Grade II, III and IV samples from the healthy subjects with 88, 89 and 94% sensitivity and 87, 100 and 73% specificity, respectively. Proteins namely, SNX1, EYA1, PQBP1 and IGHG1 showed dysregulation across various grades. Sub-classes of GBM, based on its proximity to the sub-ventricular zone, have been reported to have different prognostic outcomes. To this end, we identified dysregulation of NEDD9, a protein involved in cell migration, with probable prognostic potential. Another subcategory of patients where the IDH1 gene is mutated, are known to have better prognosis as compared to patients carrying the wild type gene. On a comparison of these two cohorts, we found STUB1 and YWHAH proteins dysregulated in Grade II glioma patients. In addition to common pathways associated with tumourigenesis, we found enrichment of immunoregulatory and cytoskeletal remodelling pathways, emphasizing the need to explore biochemical alterations arising due to autoimmune responses in glioma.

Wang J, Yang WJ, Sun C, et al.
siRNA Suppression of NEDD9 Inhibits Proliferation and Enhances Apoptosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Oncol Res. 2014; 22(4):219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all genitourinary malignancies. NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L is a member of the Cas protein family and is known as a biomarker in multiple cancer types. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that NEDD9 was upregulated in RCC tissue and cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed low expression of NEDD9 in normal renal tissues and high expression in RCC tissues. In addition, in vitro experiments show that expression of NEDD9 was upregulated in RCC cell lines. Through MTT assay, we observed that NEDD9 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that NEDD9 downregulation induced apoptosis. Together, our data suggest that abnormal NEDD9 protein expression may be a marker for RCC, and NEDD9 knockdown suppresses cell growth.

Zhang S, Wu L
Roles of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 in tumor-associated cellular processes (Review).
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5):6415-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), a gene exclusively expressed in the brain during embryonic stages but not in brains of adult mice, is an important cytoskeletal protein and regarded as a 'router/hub' in cellular signal transduction processes connecting external stimulation signals with downstream target proteins that can directly promote tumor metastasis. Numerous studies showed that NEDD9 has an essential role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration and invasion. The roles of NEDD9, including the underlying mechanisms of its regulation of cell migration, its distinctive functions in various tumor stages and its association with other diseases, are required to be elucidated at large. Future studies of NEDD9 may provide a more profound understanding of the development of tumor invasiveness and NEDD9 may serve as a potential novel target for tumor therapy. The present review examined the significant roles of NEDD9 in the abovementioned processes.

Gu X, Wang Y, Wang H, et al.
Upregulated PFTK1 promotes tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(7):195 [PubMed] Related Publications
PFTK1 was a cell division cycle 2-related serine/threonine protein kinase, which was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer lines. And up-regulated PFTK1 was highly associated with grade, axillary lymph node status, and Ki-67. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curve showed that up-regulated PFTK1 was related to the poor breast carcinoma patients' overall survival. Here, we first discovered and confirmed that cyclin B was a new interacting protein of PFTK1, and the complex might increase the amount of DVL2, which triggers Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of PFTK1 attenuated cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and cell migration and invasion by inhibiting the transcriptional activation of β-catenin for cyclin D1, MMP9, and HEF1, whereas exogenous expression of PFTK1 might promote MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, migration, and invasion via promoting PFTK1-DVL2-β-catenin axis. Our findings supported the notion that up-regulated PFTK1 might promote breast cancer progression and metastasis by activating Wnt signaling pathway through the PFTK1-DVL2-β-catenin axis.

Rousseau B, Jacquot C, Le Palabe J, et al.
TP53 transcription factor for the NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L gene: potential targets in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer treatment.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10356 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is a serious public health problem. Although there has been significant progress in chemotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer is still resistant to current treatments, primarily because of the slow rate of cell development. It is thus important to find new molecules directed against targets other than proliferation agents. Considering the high proportion of mutant proteins in tumor cells, and the high rate of mutation of the TP53 gene in all cancers, and in NSCLC in particular, this gene is a perfect target. Certain new molecules have been shown to restore the activity of mutated p53 protein, for example PRIMA-1, which reactivates the His273 mutant p53. In a previous study, we presented triazine A190, a molecule with a cytostatic activity that blocks cells in the G1 phase and induces apoptosis. Here, we show that A190 not only restores mutant p53 activity, but also induces an overexpression of the NEDD9 gene, leading to apoptotic death. These findings might offer hope for the development of new targeted therapies, specific to tumor cells, which spare healthy cells.

Shagisultanova E, Gaponova AV, Gabbasov R, et al.
Preclinical and clinical studies of the NEDD9 scaffold protein in cancer and other diseases.
Gene. 2015; 567(1):1-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer progression requires a significant reprogramming of cellular signaling to support the essential tumor-specific processes that include hyperproliferation, invasion (for solid tumors) and survival of metastatic colonies. NEDD9 (also known as CasL and HEF1) encodes a multi-domain scaffolding protein that assembles signaling complexes regulating multiple cellular processes relevant to cancer. These include responsiveness to signals emanating from the T and B cell receptors, integrins, chemokine receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as cytoplasmic oncogenes such as BCR-ABL and FAK- and SRC-family kinases. Downstream, NEDD9 regulation of partners including CRKL, WAVE, PI3K/AKT, ERK, E-cadherin, Aurora-A (AURKA), HDAC6, and others allow NEDD9 to influence functions as pleiotropic as migration, invasion, survival, ciliary resorption, and mitosis. In this review, we summarize a growing body of preclinical and clinical data that indicate that while NEDD9 is itself non-oncogenic, changes in expression of NEDD9 (most commonly elevation of expression) are common features of tumors, and directly impact tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and response to at least some targeted agents inhibiting NEDD9-interacting proteins. These data strongly support the relevance of further development of NEDD9 as a biomarker for therapeutic resistance. Finally, we briefly discuss emerging evidence supporting involvement of NEDD9 in additional pathological conditions, including stroke and polycystic kidney disease.

Dehghan Esmatabadi MJ, Farhangi B, Safari Z, et al.
Dendrosomal curcumin inhibits metastatic potential of human SW480 colon cancer cells through Down-regulation of Claudin1, Zeb1 and Hef1-1 gene expression.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(6):2473-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death worldwide. The prognosis for advanced colorectal cancers remains dismal, mainly due to the propensity for metastatic progression. Accordingly, there is a need for effective anti-metastasis therapeutic agents. Since a great body of research has indicated anticancer effects for curcumin, we investigated the effects of dendrosomal curcumin (DNC) on cellular migration and adhesion of human SW480 cells and possible molecular mechanisms involved. Different methods were applied in this study including MTT, Scratch and adhesion assays as well as real-time PCR and transwell chamber assays. Based on the results obtained, DNC inhibits metastasis by decreasing Hef 1, Zeb 1 and Claudin 1 mRNA levels and can reduce SW480 cell proliferation with IC50values of 15.9, 11.6 and 7.64 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Thus it might be considered as a safe formulation for therapeutic purpose in colorectal cancer cases.

Lu P, Wang ZP, Dang Z, et al.
Expression of NEDD9 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(5):2375-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) plays an integral role in natural and pathological cell biology. Overexpression of NEDD9 protein has been correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer. However, few available data address the precise function of the NEDD9 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we investigated NEDD9 expression in 40 primary human HCC tissues compared with matched adjacent non-tumor hepatic tissues using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the correlations between NEDD9 expression and clinicopathological factors. Statistical analyses were applied to derive prognostic values of NEDD9 in HCC. The results showed that the NEDD9 mRNA and protein expression levels in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in matched adjacent non-tumor hepatic tissues. High NEDD9 expression was correlated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor grade, metastasis, intrahepatic venous invasion and high UICC TNM stages in HCC patients. Patients with high NEDD9 expression levels exhibited poorer recurrence-free and overall survival than those with a low NEDD9 expression. Additionally, NEDD9 expression status was an independent prognostic factor for survival. This correlation remained significant in patients with early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP levels. The results of this study suggest that NEDD9 may be a valuable prognostic biomarker for HCC, including early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

Han T, Yi XP, Liu B, et al.
MicroRNA-145 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and migration in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting NEDD9.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(6):4115-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non‑coding RNAs regulating gene expression by inducing the degradation of RNA or interfering with translation. Aberrant miRNA expression has been described in several types of cancer in humans. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR‑145 is downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues and the Panc‑1 cell line. Restoration of miR‑145 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration in Panc‑1 cells. Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down‑regulated 9 (NEDD9) has been identified as a novel potential miR‑145 target using bioinformatics. Using luciferase reporter constructs, it was observed that the NEDD9 3'‑untranslated region is the location of the direct binding site for miR‑145. Additionally, it was identified that miR‑145 is inversely correlated with NEDD9 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues and that restoration of miR‑145 in Panc‑1 cells reduced NEDD9 mRNA and protein expression accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In conclusion, these findings indicate that miR‑145 may be an effective target for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Feng J, Zhao J, Xie H, et al.
Involvement of NEDD9 in the invasion and migration of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3621-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is highly expressed in various tumor tissues and cell lines. However, research on the role of NEDD9 in gastric cancer (GC) is rare, and the potential mechanism in tumor progression has not yet been explored. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of NEDD9 in GC. The expression of NEDD9 in GC tissues and cell lines was measured by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively. Inhibiting NEDD9 expression was carried out by siRNA transfection, and upregulating of NEDD9 was via NEDD9 overexpression plasmid. The ability of proliferation, migration, and invasion was detected by MTT assay, scratch wound assay, and transwell assay, respectively. The expression of vimentin, E-cadherin, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was measured by Western blot and qRT-PCR. We found that NEDD9 expression was dramatically increased both in GC tissues and cell lines, and the expression was significantly related to GC development. Knockdown of NEDD9 in SGC-7901 strongly inhibited its malignant capacity in vitro. Meanwhile, upregulation of NEDD9 in GES-1 increased the malignant capacity. In addition, the expression of vimentin, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was positively correlated with NEDD9, while E-cadherin was opposite. Collectively, our findings suggest that NEDD9 acts as an oncogene and promotes GC metastasis via EMT.

Moore NL, Edwards DP, Weigel NL
Cyclin A2 and its associated kinase activity are required for optimal induction of progesterone receptor target genes in breast cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 144 Pt B:471-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A role for the cell cycle protein cyclin A2 in regulating progesterone receptor (PR) activity is emerging. This study investigates the role of cyclin A2 in regulating endogenous PR activity in T47D breast cancer cells by depleting cyclin A2 expression and measuring PR target genes using q-RT-PCR. Targets examined included genes induced by the PR-B isoform more strongly than PR-A (SGK1, FKBP5), a gene induced predominantly by PR-A (HEF1), genes induced via PR tethering to other transcription factors (p21, p27), a gene induced in part via extra-nuclear PR signaling mechanisms (cyclin D1) and PR-repressed genes (DST, IL1R1). Progestin induction of target genes was reduced following cyclin A2 depletion. However, cyclin A2 depletion did not diminish progestin target gene repression. Furthermore, inhibition of the associated Cdk2 kinase activity of cyclin A2 also reduced progestin induction of target genes, while Cdk2 enhanced the interaction between PR and cyclin A2. These results demonstrate that cyclin A2 and its associated kinase activity are important for progestin-induced activation of endogenous PR target genes in breast cancer cells.

Beck TN, Chikwem AJ, Solanki NR, Golemis EA
Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.
Physiol Genomics. 2014; 46(19):699-724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals.

Chang JX, Gao F, Zhao GQ, Zhang GJ
Effects of lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown of NEDD9 on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1543-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological behavior of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following transfection with NEDD9-specific lentiviral particles in vitro and in vivo. NEDD9-specific lentiviral particles were chemically synthesized and transfected into the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. NEDD9 mRNA and protein levels were determined by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation was evaluated using soft agar colony formation assays and flow cytometric analysis. Migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing and transwell assays and xenograft animal models. Transfection was successful, and expression levels of NEDD9 mRNA and protein in the lentivirus-NEDD9-siRNA group were downregulated. As indicated by soft agar colony formation assays, the number of clones in the siRNA group were significantly lower than the number of colonies in the blank and negative control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the percentage of cells in the S phase in the siRNA group was significantly lower than the percentages in the blank and negative control groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, as detected by cell migration and invasion assays, values of wound healing were increased and the number of invading cells were decreased in the siRNA group (both P<0.05). We also showed that lentivirus-mediated NEDD9-siRNA decreased the growth potential of subcutaneous A549 xenografts in vivo. These data imply that knockdown of the NEDD9 gene results in suppression of tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Lentivirus-mediated NEDD9-siRNA may have potential therapeutic utility for human lung adenocarcinoma.

Chou CP, Huang NC, Jhuang SJ, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C is highly expressed in breast microcalcification lesions.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (p<0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer.

Štajduhar E, Sedić M, Leniček T, et al.
Expression of growth hormone receptor, plakoglobin and NEDD9 protein in association with tumour progression and metastasis in human breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6425-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among female population worldwide. Metastases are the common cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer and can remain latent for several years after surgical removal of the primary tumour. Thus, the identification and functional characterisation of molecular factors that promote oncogenic signalling in mammary tumour development and progression could provide new entry points for designing targeted therapeutic strategies for metastatic breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of proteins involved in cell signalling (growth hormone receptor (GHR) and NEDD9) and cell-cell adhesion (plakoglobin) in epithelial and stromal compartments of primary ductal invasive breast carcinomas and their axillary lymph node metastases versus non-metastatic tumours. Obtained data revealed remarkable increase in the expression levels of GHR and NEDD9 proteins in both epithelial and stromal components of axillary lymph node metastases in comparison with those of non-metastatic tumours, suggesting that the expression of these two proteins may provide biomarkers for tumour aggressiveness.

Liu Y, Wang D, Zhao KL, et al.
NEDD9 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6351-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, the expression of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) in benign and malignant gastric tissues was investigated, and the significance of NEDD9 in gastric cancer prognosis was explored. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect NEDD9 expression in gastric cancer, nontumor gastric, and normal gastric tissues. The relationship between NEDD9 expression in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathologic factors was examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. The two factors between NEDD9 expression and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in gastric cancer patients were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare the overall survival of NEDD9 negative, weak positive expression, and strong positive expression group. NEDD9 expression rates were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in gastric cancer tissues (162 out of 187, 86.6 %) compared with normal (2 out of 11, 18.2 %) and nontumor (11 out of 58, 19.0 %) gastric tissues. The upregulated NEDD9 expression in gastric cancer tissue was significantly correlated with high preoperative CEA level (P = 0.044), poor differentiation (P = 0.007), tissue invasion (P = 0.015), present lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and high TNM stage (P < 0.001). NEDD9 expression was positively correlated with clinical TNM stage. Advancing clinical TNM stage corresponded with higher NEDD9 expression (r s = 0.289, P < 0.001). The overall 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients with strong positive NEDD9 expression was significantly shorter compared with the survival of NEDD9 negative and weakly positive expression group. NEDD9 may be used as a biomarker in the clinical setting to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.

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