ABCC1

Gene Summary

Gene:ABCC1; ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 1
Aliases: MRP, ABCC, GS-X, MRP1, ABC29
Location:16p13.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra-and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This full transporter is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions as a multispecific organic anion transporter, with oxidized glutatione, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and activated aflatoxin B1 as substrates. This protein also transports glucuronides and sulfate conjugates of steroid hormones and bile salts. Alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been described but their full-length nature is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 March, 2015

Cancer Overview

ABCC1 (MRP1 is associated with multidrug resistance in a wide range of cancers and a marker of tumor aggressiveness.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 17 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (11)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCC1 (cancer-related)

Zhai X, Lu J, Wang Y, et al.
Reversal effect of bufalin on multidrug resistance in K562/VCR vincristine-resistant leukemia cell line.
J Tradit Chin Med. 2014; 34(6):678-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To probe insights into the reversal effect of bufalin on vincristine-acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) in human leukemia cell line K562/VCR.
METHODS: Proliferative inhibition rate and the reversal index (RI) of bufalin were determined by Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The uptake of Adriamycin (ADM) in K562/VCR cells, cell cycle and apoptosis rate were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Cell morphologic changes were observed with Wright-Giemsa staining. The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug-associated protein-1 (MRP1), Bcl-xL and Bax protein were measured by immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: The human leukemia multidrug resistant K562/VCR cells showed no cross-resistance to bufalin. The RIs of bufalin at concentrations of 0.0002, 0.001 and 0.005 μmol/L were 4.85, 6.94 and 14.77, respectively. Preincubation of 0.001 μmol/L bufalin for 2 h could increase intracellular ADM fluorescence intensity to 28.07% (P < 0.05) and down-regulate MRP1 expression simultaneously, but no remarkable effect was found on P-gp protein. Cell cycle analysis indicated increased apoptosis rate and apparent decreased G2/M phase proportion after treatment with bufalin. When exposed to 0.01 μmol/L bufalin, typical morphological changes of apoptosis could be observed. Down-regulation of Bcl-xL and up-regulation of Bax expression in K562/VCR cells could be detected by immunocytochemistry.
CONCLUSION: Bufalin could partly reverse the MDR of K562/VCR cells, with a possible mechanism of down-regulating MRP1 expression and activating apoptosis pathway by altering Bcl-xL/Bax ratio.

Zhu H, Chen X, Chen B, et al.
Activating transcription factor 4 mediates a multidrug resistance phenotype of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through transactivation of STAT3 expression.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(1):142-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge to the clinical treatment of esophageal cancer. The stress response gene activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, relatively little is known about the expression and function of ATF4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) MDR. In this study, we investigate the potential role and mechanisms of ATF4 in ESCC MDR. We demonstrated that overexpression of ATF4 promotes the MDR phenotype in ESCC cells, while depletion of ATF4 in the MDR ESCC cell line induces drug re-sensitization. We also demonstrated that ATF4 transactivates STAT3 expression by directly binding to the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) promoter, resulting in MDR in ESCC cells. Significantly, inhibition of STAT3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a selective inhibitor (JSI-124) reintroduces therapeutic sensitivity. In addition, increased Bcl-2, survivin, and MRP1 expression levels were observed in ATF4-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, ATF4 may promote MDR in ESCC cells through the up-regulation of STAT3 expression, and thus is an attractive therapeutic target to combat therapeutic resistance in ESCC.

Tang SJ, Chen LK, Wang F, et al.
CEP-33779 antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 mediated multidrug resistance by inhibiting its transport function.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2014; 91(2):144-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters often leads to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), which is the major factor contributing to the failure of chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of CEP-33779, a small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), on the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents in MDR cells with overexpression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2). Our results showed that CEP-33779, at nontoxic concentrations, significantly sensitized ABCB1 overexpressing MDR cells to its anticancer substrates. CEP-33779 significantly increased intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of doxorubicin by inhibiting the ABCB1 transport function. Furthermore, CEP-33779 did not alter the expression of ABCB1 both at protein and mRNA levels but did stimulate the activity of ABCB1 ATPase. CEP-33779 was predicted to bind within the large hydrophobic cavity of homology modeled ABCB1. In addition, the down-regulation of JAK2 by shRNA altered neither the expression of ABCB1 nor the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents in ABCB1-overexpressing cells. Significantly, CEP-33779 enhanced the efficacy of vincristine against the ABCB1-overexpressing and drug resistant KBv200 cell xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, we conclude that CEP-33779 enhances the efficacy of substrate drugs in ABCB1-overexpressing cells by directly inhibiting ABCB1 transport function. The findings encouraged to further study on the combination therapy of CEP-33779 with conventional chemotherapeutic agents in ABCB1 mediated-MDR cancer patients.

Sano M, Homma T, Hayashi E, et al.
Clinicopathological characteristics of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with rhabdoid features.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(5):531-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma with rhabdoid features is a rare and aggressive subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. Here, we report the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical phenotypes in six autopsy cases of anaplastic carcinoma with rhabdoid features. The patients ranged between 44 and 76 years of age (median, 61 years) and consisted of four males and two females. All patients except one case died within 3 months of diagnosis, as these tumors were found at an advanced stage and were chemoresistant. At autopsy, tumor masses measuring 4-22 cm in maximum diameter were mainly located in the pancreatic body and tail. Microscopically, all cases showed anaplastic carcinoma with rhabdoid features that were discohesive with round to polygonal eosinophilic cytoplasm with occasional inclusions, and that had vesicular nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed that the rhabdoid cells, particularly the inclusions, were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin. Meanwhile, downregulation or aberrant cytoplasmic localization with focal aggregation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and EMA were frequently observed in the rhabdoid cells. Moreover, the intracytoplasmic inclusions were labeled with selective autophagy-related molecules including p62/SQSTM1, ubiquitin, and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1). In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and overexpression of its target molecule multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) were commonly observed in the rhabdoid cells. Therefore, these results suggest that p62-mediated aggregation of ubiquitinated intermediate filaments and membranous proteins is an important phenomenon in the rhabdoid phenotype. Indeed, the ubiquitinated aggregates of p62 and KEAP1 would induce activation of NRF2 and upregulation of MRP1, leading to potential chemoresistance of anaplastic carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

Chang WT, Cheng HL, Hsieh BS, et al.
Progesterone increases apoptosis and inversely decreases autophagy in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH cells treated with epirubicin.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014:567148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Epirubicin can induce intracellular reactive oxygen species and is widely used to treat unresectable HCC. Progesterone has been found to inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells. This study was designed to test the combined effects of epirubicin and progesterone on human hepatoma cell line, HA22T/VGH. These cells were treated with different concentrations of epirubicin with or without the coaddition of 30 μM progesterone and then analyzed for apoptosis, autophagy, and expressions of apoptotic-related proteins and multidrug-resistant gene. Epirubicin treatment dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HA22T/VGH cells. Addition of 30 μM progesterone, which was inactive alone, augmented the effect of epirubicin on the inhibition of growth of HA22T/VGH cells. Cotreatment with progesterone enhanced epirubicin-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by greater increase in caspase-3 activity and in the ratio of the apoptosis-regulating protein, Bax/Bcl-X(L). The combination also caused a decrease in autophagy and in the expression of multidrug resistance-related protein 1 mRNA compared to epirubicin alone. This study shows the epirubicin/progesterone combination was more effective in increasing apoptosis and inversely decreasing autophagy on HA22T/VGH cells treated with epirubicin alone, suggesting that this combination can potentially be used to treat HCC.

Ma H, Zhou H, Li P, et al.
Effect of ST3GAL 4 and FUT 7 on sialyl Lewis X synthesis and multidrug resistance in human acute myeloid leukemia.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1842(9):1681-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sialyl Lewis X (sLe X, CD15s) is a key antigen produced on tumor cell surfaces during multidrug resistance (MDR) development. The present study investigated the effect of α1, 3 fucosyltransferase VII (FucT VII) and α2, 3 sialyltransferase IV (ST3Gal IV) on sLe X oligosaccharides synthesis as well as their impact on MDR development in acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML). FUT7 and ST3GAL4 were overexpressed in three AML MDR cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) of AML patients with MDR by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A close association was found between the expression levels of FUT7 and ST3GAL4 and the amount of sLe X oligosaccharides, as well as the phenotypic variation of MDR of HL60 and HL60/ADR cells both in vitro and in vivo. Manipulation of these two genes' expression modulated the activity of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, thereby regulating the proportionally mutative expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), both of which are known to be involved in MDR. Blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway by its specific inhibitor LY294002 or Akt short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in the reduced MDR of HL60/ADR cells. This study indicated that sLe X involved in the development of MDR of AML cells probably through FUT7 and ST3GAL4 regulating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and the expression of P-gp and MRP1.

Gu X, Tang X, Zhao Q, et al.
Discovery of alkoxyl biphenyl derivatives bearing dibenzo[c,e]azepine scaffold as potential dual inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014; 24(15):3419-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently reported alkoxyl biphenyl derivatives bearing dibenzo[c,e]azepine scaffold as novel P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) inhibitors. In this study, their ability to reverse breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2)-mediated multidrug resistance was tested in HEK293/BCRP cells which was BCRP-transfected stable HEK293 cells. It was observed that compounds 4d, 4h, 4i increased mitoxantrone accumulation in HEK293/BCRP cells via inhibiting BCRP efflux function. Notably, the inhibitory activity of 4i was comparable to that of the classical BCRP inhibitor Ko143 at an equimolar concentration. Interestingly, 4i had little inhibitory effect on multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), another drug efflux transporter. These results, together with the previous findings, suggest that 4i may be a dual inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP to warrant further investigation.

Ying L, Zu-An Z, Qing-Hua L, et al.
RAD001 can reverse drug resistance of SGC7901/DDP cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the role of RAD001 in the reversing of drug resistance of SGC7901/DDP, we cultured SGC7901/DDP cells with different groups of drugs (RAD001, cisplatin (DDP) alone, or the combination of RAD001 and DDP); after that, we detected the drug sensitivity, cell apoptosis, and levels of P-gp, MRP1, and survivin in the cells of SGC7901/DDP by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphe-nyltetrazolium bromide) assay, flow cytometry, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot analysis. There was no significant difference between DDP 2.5-mg/L group and negative control group. When the cells were pretreated with RAD001 2.5, 5 nmol/L, the proliferation of SGC7901/DDP cells was inhibited by DDP 2.5 mg/L significantly, compared to negative control group, DDP 2.5-mg/L group, and RAD001 2.5, 5-nmol/L group, respectively (P < 0.05); there were significant differences between combination groups (P < 0.05). DDP 2.5 mg/L and RAD001 2.5 nmol/L did not induce apoptosis of SGC7901/DDP cells alone (P > 0.05). When SGC7901/DDP cells were pretreated with RAD001 2.5 nmol/L, DDP 2.5 mg/L increased the apoptosis rate significantly compared to groups of control and DDP 2.5 mg/L alone (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining (Table 5, Fig. 2) and Western blot analysis (Fig. 3) indicated that when SGC7901/DDP cells were pretreated with RAD001 2.5 nmol/L, the expression of P-gp, MRP1, and survivin decreased by different degrees. Our results have confirmed that RAD001 in combination with DDP could overcome chemoresistance of SGC7901/DDP cells by decreasing the levels of P-gp, MRP1, and survivin through the mTOR pathway.

Mrozikiewicz PM, Bogacz A, Bartkowiak-Wieczorek J, et al.
Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters.
Acta Pharm. 2014; 64(2):223-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB.

Zhang H, Zhang YK, Wang YJ, et al.
WHI-P154 enhances the chemotherapeutic effect of anticancer agents in ABCG2-overexpressing cells.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(8):1071-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transmembrane proteins evidently decrease the intracellular accumulation of substrate chemotherapeutic drugs by extruding them against a concentration gradient, thereby inducing drug resistance. Here we reported the effect of WHI-P154, an irreversible inhibitor of Janus kinase 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, on reversing ABC transporters-mediated drug resistance. We found that WHI-P154 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of ABCG2-overexpressing cells to its substrates. WHI-P154 moderately sensitized ABCB1-overexpressing KB-C2 cells to its substrates whereas showed no sensitizing effect on ABCC1-, ABCC2 or ABCC10-mediated drug resistance. Moreover, WHI-P154 produced a significant increase in the intracellular accumulation of [³H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells. The expression levels nor the localization of the ABCG2 protein was altered after treatment of ABCG2-overexpressing cells with WHI-P154. Further studies indicated that WHI-P154 enhanced the ATPase activity of ABCG2 at low concentrations (<10 μM). Additionally, a docking model predicted the binding conformation of WHI-P154 within the transmembrane region of homology-modeled human ABCG2 transporter. Collectively, these findings highlighted WHI-P154 could significantly reverse ABCG2-mediated multidrug drug resistance by directly blocking the efflux function.

Li W, Zhai B, Zhi H, et al.
Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8883-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

Lorendeau D, Dury L, Genoux-Bastide E, et al.
Collateral sensitivity of resistant MRP1-overexpressing cells to flavonoids and derivatives through GSH efflux.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2014; 90(3):235-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) is involved in multidrug resistance of cancer cells by mediating drug efflux out of cells, often in co-transport with glutathione (GSH). GSH efflux mediated by MRP1 can be stimulated by verapamil. In cells overexpressing MRP1, we have previously shown that verapamil induced a huge intracellular GSH depletion which triggered apoptosis of the cells. That phenomenon takes place in the more global anticancer strategy called "collateral sensitivity" and could be exploited to eradicate some chemoresistant cancer cells. Seeking alternative compounds to verapamil, we screened a library of natural flavonoids and synthetic derivatives. A large number of these compounds stimulate MRP1-mediated GSH efflux and the most active ones have been evaluated for their cytotoxic effect on MRP1-overexpressing cells versus parental cells. Interestingly, some are highly and selectively cytotoxic for MRP1-cells, leading them to apoptosis. However, some others do not exhibit any cytotoxicity while promoting a strong GSH efflux, indicating that GSH efflux is necessary but not sufficient for MRP1-cells apoptosis. In support to this hypothesis, structure activity relationships show that the absence of a hydroxyl group at position 3 of the flavonoid C ring is an absolute requirement for induction of MRP1-cells death, but is not for GSH efflux stimulation. Chrysin (compound 8) and its derivatives, compounds 11 and 22, exhibit a high selectivity toward MRP1-cells with a IC₅₀ value of 4.1 μM for compound 11 and 4.9 μM for chrysin and compound 22, making them among the best described selective killer compounds of multidrug ABC transporter-overexpressing cells.

Xing Y, Wang ZH, Ma DH, Han Y
FTY720 enhances chemosensitivity of colon cancer cells to doxorubicin and etoposide via the modulation of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1.
J Dig Dis. 2014; 15(5):246-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of FTY720 on inducing cell growth inhibition and enhancing the cytotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs in the human colon cancer cell line HCT-8 and its multidrug-resistant cell line HCT-8/5-fluorouracil (HCT-8/5-Fu).
METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis after being treated with FTY720 alone or in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) and etoposide (VP16) were tested in HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-Fu cells. The changes in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) were determined at the mRNA and functional levels.
RESULTS: FTY720 showed anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner and could enhance the cytotoxicity of DOX and VP16 in both HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-Fu cell lines. In addition, treatment with FTY720 resulted in the promotion of VP16-induced cell apoptosis and an increased accumulation of intracellular DOX and two specific fluorescent substrates of P-gp and MRP1 through the inhibition of efflux and the suppression of gene expression.
CONCLUSION: FTY720 exerts its chemosensitization effect in HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-Fu cell lines by promoting cell apoptosis and inhibiting P-gp and MRP1, which could be applied as a potential co-adjuvant therapeutic modality.

Banerjee N, Miller N, Allen C, Bendayan R
Expression of membrane transporters and metabolic enzymes involved in estrone-3-sulphate disposition in human breast tumour tissues.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 145(3):647-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two-thirds of newly diagnosed hormone-dependent (HR?) breast cancers are detected in post-menopausal patients where estrone-3-sulphate (E3S) is the predominant source for tumour estradiol. Understanding intra-tumoral fate of E3S would facilitate in the identification of novel molecular targets for HR? post-menopausal breast cancer patients. Hence this study investigates the clinical expression of (i) organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), (ii) multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance proteins (BCRP), and (iii) sulphatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD-1), involved in E3S uptake, efflux and metabolism, respectively. Fluorescent and brightfield images of stained tumour sections (n = 40) were acquired at 4× and 20× magnification, respectively. Marker densities were measured as the total area of positive signal divided by the surface area of the tumour section analysed and was reported as % area (ImageJ software). Tumour, stroma and non-tumour tissue areas were also quantified (Inform software), and the ratio of optical intensity per histologic area was reported as % area/tumour, % area/stroma and % area/non-tumour. Functional role of OATPs and STS was further investigated in HR? (MCF-7, T47-D, ZR-75) and HR-(MDA-MB-231) cells by transport studies conducted in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors. Amongst all the transporters and enzymes, OATPs and STS have significantly (p < 0.0001) higher expression in HR? tumour sections with highest target signals obtained from the tumour regions of the tissues. Specific OATP-mediated E3S uptake and STS-mediated metabolism were also observed in all HR? breast cancer cells. These observations suggest the potential of OATPs as novel molecular targets for HR? breast cancers.

Gonzalez-Sanchez E, Marin JJ, Perez MJ
The expression of genes involved in hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance is affected by mitochondrial genome depletion.
Mol Pharm. 2014; 11(6):1856-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletions and mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are frequent in human tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), may contribute to enhancing their malignant phenotype. Here we have investigated the effect of mtDNA depletion in the expression of genes accounting for mechanisms of chemoresistance (MOC) in HCC. Using human HCC SK-Hep-1 cells depleted of mtDNA (Rho), changes in gene expression in response to antitumor drugs previously assayed in HCC treatment were analyzed. In Rho cells, a decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin-, SN-38-, cisplatin (CDDP)-, and sorafenib-induced cell death was found. Both constitutive and drug-induced reactive oxygen species generation were decreased. Owing to activation of the NRF2-mediated pathway, MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2 expression was higher in Rho than in wild-type cells. This difference was maintained after further upregulation induced by treatment with doxorubicin, SN-38, or CDDP. Topoisomerase-IIa expression was also enhanced in Rho cells before and after treatment with these drugs. Moreover, the ability of doxorubicin, SN-38 and CDDP to induce proapoptotic signals was weaker in Rho cells, as evidenced by survivin upregulation and reductions in Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratios. Changes in these genes seem to play a minor role in the enhanced resistance of Rho cells to sorafenib, which may be related to an enhanced intracellular ATP content together with the loss of expression of the specific target of sorafenib, tyrosine kinase receptor Kit. In conclusion, these results suggest that mtDNA depletion may activate MOC able to hinder the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC.

Zhu Y, Liu XJ, Yang P, et al.
Alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS) alters lipid signaling pathways and supports chemotherapy resistance of glioma and hepatic carcinoma cell lines.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):3219-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy continues to be a mainstay of cancer treatment, although drug resistance is a major obstacle. Lipid metabolism plays a critical role in cancer pathology, with elevated ether lipid levels. Recently, alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the critical step in ether lipid synthesis, was shown to be up-regulated in multiple types of cancer cells and primary tumors. Here, we demonstrated that silencing of AGPS in chemotherapy resistance glioma U87MG/DDP and hepatic carcinoma HepG2/ADM cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation, increased drug sensitivity, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis through reducing the intracellular concentration of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidic acid-ether (LPAe) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), resulting in reduction of LPA receptor and EP receptors mediated PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and the expression of several multi-drug resistance genes, like MDR1, MRP1 and ABCG2. β-catenin, caspase-3/8, Bcl-2 and survivin were also found to be involved. In summary, our studies indicate that AGPS plays a role in cancer chemotherapy resistance by mediating signaling lipid metabolism in cancer cells.

Chen YY, Lukka PB, Joseph WR, et al.
Selective cellular uptake and retention of SN 28049, a new DNA-binding topoisomerase II-directed antitumor agent.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 74(1):25-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: SN 28049 is a new DNA-binding topoisomerase II poison identified by its curative activity against the murine colon 38 carcinoma. Previous studies showed activity to be associated with selective drug accumulation and retention in tumour tissue. Retention varied widely among different tumours and was related to antitumour activity. We determined whether differences in the uptake and retention of SN 28049 could be observed in vitro.
METHODS: The Co38P and LLTC lines were derived from the murine colon 38 carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL), respectively. The NZM4, NZM10 and NZM52 human melanoma lines, as well as the CCRF/CEM, CEM/VLB100 and CEM/E1000 human leukaemia lines were also utilised. Cell-associated drug was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Data for SN 28049 were compared for four SN 28049 analogues, for the structurally related drug N-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and for doxorubicin.
RESULTS: Cellular uptake of SN 28049 was rapid and associated with increased fluorescence in cytoplasmic vesicles or bodies. SN 28049 uptake after an incubation time of 1 h varied widely with different cell lines (2-98 pmol/10⁶ cells) and did not correlate with growth inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀ values), which also varied widely (1.2-19 nM). Changes in the length of the N-linked side chain of SN 28049 had large effects on drug uptake by Co38P cells. SN 28049 uptake by CCRF/CEM cells was only slightly affected by the expression of P-glycoprotein (CEM/VLB100) or MRP1 protein (CEM/E1000). As measured by cytoplasmic fluorescence, SN 28049 was taken up rapidly and retained strongly by Co38P cells, DACA was taken up rapidly and retained poorly, and doxorubicin was taken up slowly and retained moderately.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SN 28049 is actively transported into cytoplasmic vesicles. While vesicle-associated drug is not important for intrinsic cytotoxicity, it may play a key role as a "slow release" form that modifies pharmacokinetics in multicellular structures such as tumours.

Ling S, Feng T, Ke Q, et al.
Metformin inhibits proliferation and enhances chemosensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2611-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family, which is used first-line for type II diabetes with few side-effects. A recent epidemiological study that included 1,828 potential intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) patients showed that metformin use was significantly associated with a 60% reduction in ICC risk in diabetic patients, demonstrating the potential value of metformin in ICC management. In the present study, we firstly showed that metformin exhibited a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferation effect on ICC cell lines, by mechanisms including apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. Metformin targeted the AMPK/mTORC1 pathway in ICC cells. Furthermore, metformin sensitized ICC cells to certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as sorafenib, 5-fluorouracil and As2O3 by targeting the AMPK/mTOR/HIF-1α/MRP1 pathway and ERK. As it is an inexpensive and widely used antidiabetic drug without severe adverse effects, metformin may be a prospective chemotherapeutic agent or a chemosensitizer in future ICC treatment.

Liu C, Li Z, Bi L, et al.
NOTCH1 signaling promotes chemoresistance via regulating ABCC1 expression in prostate cancer stem cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 393(1-2):265-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy is a strategy for patients with advanced prostate cancer, especially those with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are believed to be the origin of cancer recurrence following therapy intervention, including chemotherapy. The mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance of PCSCs are still poorly understood. In the present study, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate PCSCs from LNCaP and PC3 cell lines. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide was used to measure the cell viability. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were utilized to evaluate the mRNA and protein levels. ShRNA was employed to knock down target gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed to explore the detailed mechanism underlying ABCC1 expression. Our results revealed that the sorted PCSCs showed enhanced chemoresistance ability than matched non-PCSCs. Protein level of activated form of NOTCH1(ICN1) was significantly higher in PCSCs. Inhibition of NOTCH1 with shRNA could decrease ABCC1 expression, and improve chemosensitivity in PCSCs. Finally, ChIP-PCR showed ICN1 could directly bind to the promoter region of ABCC1. In conclusion, NOTCH1 signaling could transactivate ABCC1, resulting in higher chemoresistance ability of PCSCs, which might be one of the important mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance of PCSCs.

Jaiswal R, Raymond Grau GE, Bebawy M
Cellular communication via microparticles: role in transfer of multidrug resistance in cancer.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(4):655-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be a major impediment to the successful treatment of cancer. The two efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MRP1 are major contributors to cancer MDR clinically. The upregulation of P-gp leading to MDR was initially understood to occur via pre- and post-transcriptional mechanisms only. However, we demonstrated that microparticles mediate the intercellular exchange and trafficking of bioactive material, including functional P-gp and selected modulatory miRNAs. This exchange of P-gp leads to the dissemination of MDR within a cancer cell population. These findings have significant implications in understanding the cellular basis governing the intercellular acquisition of deleterious traits in cancers, serving to substantially advance our understanding of the molecular basis of the emergence of MDR in cancer clinically.

Queiroz RM, Takiya CM, Guimarães LP, et al.
Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.
Cancer Invest. 2014; 32(6):226-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM.

Wu WR, Zhang R, Shi XD, et al.
Notch1 is overexpressed in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with its proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2515-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play crucial roles in inhibiting hepatocyte differentiation and allowing formation of intrahepatic bile ducts. However, little is known about its significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Notch1 expression in ICC tissues and cells. The expression of Notch1 was examined in paraffin-embedded sections of ICC (n=44) by immunohistochemistry. Notch1 was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured ICC cells (RBE and HCCC-9810). The proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation assays, Transwell assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression levels of several multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes, MDR1-P-glycoprotein (ABCB‑1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG‑2) and the multidrug resistance protein isoform 1 (MRP‑1), were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Notch1 was overexpressed in cell membranes and cytoplasm of ICC compared with the adjacent liver tissue (35/44, 79.5%) and this was more common in cases with tumor size≥5 cm (p=0.021) and HBs-Ag positive (p=0.018). By silencing Notch1, the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells were inhibited and the inhibition rate of 5-FU was markedly increased. In addition, IC50 values of 5-FU in RBE cells were decreased from 148.74±0.72 to 5.37±0.28 µg/ml and the corresponding values for HCCC-9810 cells were 326.92±0.87 to 42.60±0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, Notch1 silencing clearly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells treated by 5-FU compared with the control. Notch1 knockdown led to diminished expression levels of ABCB‑1 and MRP‑1. Therefore, Notch may play important roles in the development of ICC. Silencing Notch1 can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells and increase their sensitivity to 5-FU in vitro.

Ji L, Wei Y, Jiang T, Wang S
Correlation of Nrf2, NQO1, MRP1, cmyc and p53 in colorectal cancer and their relationships to clinicopathologic features and survival.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(3):1124-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Due to emergence of resistant tumor populations, prognosis for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains poor and five-year survival rate is still very low. To guide clinicians in selecting treatment option for CRC patients, reliable markers predictive of poor clinical outcome are desirable. This study analyzed the correlation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1), cmyc and p53 in CRC and their relationships to Duke's stage and clinical prognosis. 76 specimens of CRC tissues were immunohistochemically investigated using Nrf2, NQO1, MRP1, cmyc and p53 antibodies. IHC stain showed that Nrf2, NQO1, MRP1, cmyc and p53 were highly expressed in CRC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Significant positive correlations were found between the expression of Nrf2 and that of NQO1, MRP1, cmyc and p53. Moreover, there was significant correlation between the high level of Nrf2, NQO1, MRP1, p53 expression and Duke's stage, as well as poor clinical prognosis. We confirmed that Nrf2, NQO1, MRP1, and p53 expression exhibits considerable heterogeneity according to CRC clinical stage and prognosis. Nrf2 is the most promising biomarker in identifying a poor prognostic group of CRC.

Wang F, Wang XK, Shi CJ, et al.
Nilotinib enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells and ABC transporter overexpressing leukemia cells.
Molecules. 2014; 19(3):3356-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Incomplete chemotherapeutic eradication of leukemic CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells is likely to result in disease relapse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nilotinib on eradicating leukemia stem cells and enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results showed that ABCB1 and ABCG2 were preferentially expressed in leukemic CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells. Nilotinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone in CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells and led to increased apoptosis. Moreover, nilotinib strongly reversed multidrug resistance and increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 in primary leukemic blasts overexpressing ABCB1 and/or ABCG2. Studies with ABC transporter-overexpressing carcinoma cell models confirmed that nilotinib effectively reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated drug resistance, while showed no significant reversal effect on ABCC1- and ABCC4-mediated drug resistance. Results from cytotoxicity assays showed that CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells exhibited moderate resistance (2.41-fold) to nilotinib, compared with parental K562 cells. Furthermore, nilotinib was less effective in blocking the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl and CrkL (a substrate of Bcr-Abl kinase) in CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells. Taken together, these data suggest that nilotinib particularly targets CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells and MDR leukemia cells, and effectively enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by blocking the efflux function of ABC transporters.

Habicht KL, Singh NS, Khadeer MA, et al.
Characterization of a multiple endogenously expressed adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters using nuclear and cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns.
J Chromatogr A. 2014; 1339:80-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2015 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive form of human astrocytoma, with poor prognosis due to multi-drug resistance to a number of anticancer drugs. The observed multi-drug resistance is primarily due to the efflux activity of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) efflux transporters such as Pgp, MRP1 and BCRP. The expression of these transporters has been demonstrated in nuclear and cellular membranes of the LN-229 human glioblastoma cell line. Nuclear membrane and cellular membrane fragments from LN-229 cells were immobilized on the IAM stationary phase to create nuclear and cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns, (NMAC(LN-229)) and (CMAC(LN-229)), respectively. Pgp, MRP1 and BCRP transporters co-immobilized on both columns were characterized and compared by establishing the binding affinities for estrone-3-sulfate (3.8 vs. 3.7μM), verapamil (0.6 vs. 0.7μM) and prazosin (0.099 vs. 0.033μM) on each column and no significant differences were observed. Since the marker ligands had overlapping selectivities, the selective characterization of each transporter was carried out by saturation of the binding sites of the non-targeted transporters. The addition of verapamil (Pgp and MRP1 substrate) to the mobile phase allowed the comparative screening of eight compounds at the nuclear and cellular BCRP using etoposide as the marker ligand. AZT increased the retention of etoposide (+15%), a positive allosteric interaction, on the CMAC(LN-229) column and decreased it (-5%) on the NMAC(LN-229), while the opposite effect was produced by rhodamine. The results indicate that there are differences between the cellular and nuclear membrane expressed BCRP and that NMAC and CMAC columns can be used to probe these differences.

Pfeil AM, Vulsteke C, Paridaens R, et al.
Multivariable regression analysis of febrile neutropenia occurrence in early breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy assessing patient-related, chemotherapy-related and genetic risk factors.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is common in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Risk factors for FN have been reported, but risk models that include genetic variability have yet to be described. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of patient-related, chemotherapy-related, and genetic risk factors.
METHODS: Data from consecutive breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with 4-6 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) or three cycles of FEC and docetaxel were retrospectively recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess risk of FN during FEC chemotherapy cycles.
RESULTS: Overall, 166 (16.7%) out of 994 patients developed FN. Significant risk factors for FN in any cycle and the first cycle were lower platelet count (OR = 0.78 [0.65; 0.93]) and haemoglobin (OR = 0.81 [0.67; 0.98]) and homozygous carriers of the rs4148350 variant T-allele (OR = 6.7 [1.04; 43.17]) in MRP1. Other significant factors for FN in any cycle were higher alanine aminotransferase (OR = 1.02 [1.01; 1.03]), carriers of the rs246221 variant C-allele (OR = 2.0 [1.03; 3.86]) in MRP1 and the rs351855 variant C-allele (OR = 2.48 [1.13; 5.44]) in FGFR4. Lower height (OR = 0.62 [0.41; 0.92]) increased risk of FN in the first cycle.
CONCLUSIONS: Both established clinical risk factors and genetic factors predicted FN in breast cancer patients. Prediction was improved by adding genetic information but overall remained limited. Internal validity was satisfactory. Further independent validation is required to confirm these findings.

Louisa M, Soediro TM, Suyatna FD
In vitro modulation of P-glycoprotein, MRP-1 and BCRP expression by mangiferin in doxorubicin-treated MCF-7 cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(4):1639-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The multidrug resistance phenotype is one of the major problems in development of cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy. Some natural compounds from medicinal plants have demonstrated promising capacity in enhancing anticancer effects in drug resistant cancer cells. We aimed to investigate whether mangiferin might have an ability to re-sensitize MCF-7 breast cancer cells previously treated with short-term doxorubicin in vitro, through the modulation of efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MRP1 and BCRP. We exposed MCF-7 breast cancer cells pretreated with doxorubicin for 10 days to mangiferin (10, 25 or 50 μM) for 96 hours. Afterwards, we evaluated influence on cell viability and level of mRNA expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP. Doxorubicin given in combination with mangiferin at low concentrations (10 and 25 μM) failed to give significant reduction in cell viability, while at the highest concentrations, the combination significantly reduced cell viability. The mRNA expression analysis of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP showed that mangiferin had inhibitory effects on P-gp but no effects on MRP1 and BCRP. In conclusion, we suggest that mangiferin at high concentrations can be used as chemosensitizer for doxorubicin therapy. This effect might be attributed by inhibitory effects of mangiferin on P-glycoprotein expression.

Winter E, Devantier Neuenfeldt P, Chiaradia-Delatorre LD, et al.
Symmetric bis-chalcones as a new type of breast cancer resistance protein inhibitors with a mechanism different from that of chromones.
J Med Chem. 2014; 57(7):2930-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Potent ABCG2 inhibitors were recently identified as asymmetric chromones with different types of substituents. We here synthesized symmetric bis-chalcones that were differently substituted and screened for their ability to inhibit mitoxantrone efflux from ABCG2-transfected HEK293 cells. Potent bis-chalcone inhibitors were identified, the efficiency depending on both position of the central ketone groups and the number and positions of lateral methoxy substituents. The best derivative, namely, 1p, was selective for ABCG2 over P-glycoprotein and MRP1, appeared not to be transported by ABCG2, and was at least as active on various drug-selected cancer cells overexpressing ABCG2. Compound 1p stimulated the ABCG2 basal ATPase activity by contrast to a chromone lead that inhibited it, suggesting different mechanisms of interaction. Combination of both types of inhibitors produced synergistic effects, leading to complete inhibition at very low concentrations.

Roy M, Mukherjee S
Reversal of resistance towards cisplatin by curcumin in cervical cancer cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1403-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic regulators like histone deacetylases (1 and 2), and viral onco-proteins (E6/E7) are known to be overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on HDACs (1 and 2) and HPV E6/E7 in the cervical cancer cell line SiHa and a drug resistant clone SiHaR (derived from SiHa). It was further intended to investigate whether curcumin could sensitize the cells towards cisplatin induced cell killing by modulation of multi drug resistant proteins like MRP1 and Pgp1. Curcumin inhibited HDACs, HPV expression and differentially increased acetylation and up-regulation of p53 in SiHa and SiHaR, leading to cell cycle arrest at G1-S phase. Up-regulation of pRb, p21, p27 and corresponding inhibition of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were observed. Cisplatin resistance in SiHaR due to over-expression of MRP1 and Pgp1 was overcome by curcumin. Curcumin also sensitized both the cervical cancer cells towards cisplatin induced cell killing. Inhibition of HDACs and HPVs led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase by alteration of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Suppression of MRP1 and Pgp1 by curcumin resulted in sensitization of cervical cancer cells, lowering the chemotherapeutic dose of the drug cisplatin.

DA Silva VA, DA Silva KA, Delou JM, et al.
Modulation of ABCC1 and ABCG2 proteins by ouabain in human breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(3):1441-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
ABCC1 and ABCG2 are two transporters associated with multi-drug resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Ouabain is a cardiotonic steroid, currently considered as a hormone associated with arterial hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that ouabain can modulate ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression in cancer and renal cell lines. The present study investigated the effects of physiological concentrations of ouabain on the expression and activity of ABCC1 and ABCG2 in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, the first known to be responsive to estrogens. Cell viability and proliferation assays showed that 1 μM ouabain reduced proliferation of MCF7, but not if MDA-MB-231 cells. On the other hand, 10 nM ouabain increased proliferation of MDA-MB-231, but not of MCF7 cells. Ouabain (10 nM) prevented the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in MCF7 cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment of cells under different ouabain concentrations for 24 h did not cause any significant effects in the expression of ABCG2 or ABCC1 in either cell line. However, the activity of ABCC1 was increased when MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 10 mM and 1 nM ouabain respectively. These results claim attention to the possibility that breast cancer patients with high levels of endogenous ouabain may have different responses to chemotherapy.

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