Gene Summary

Gene:MMP8; matrix metallopeptidase 8
Aliases: HNC, CLG1, MMP-8, PMNL-CL
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteins. These proteins are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Proteolysis at different sites on this protein results in multiple active forms of the enzyme with distinct N-termini. This protein functions in the degradation of type I, II and III collagens. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:neutrophil collagenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP8 (cancer-related)

Wang X, Qin X, Yan M, et al.
Loss of exosomal miR-3188 in cancer-associated fibroblasts contributes to HNC progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common deadly diseases worldwide. An increasing number of studies have recently focused on the malignant functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in numerous cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms by which CAF-derived exosomes promote tumor progression need to be further elucidated. This study aims to determine whether the loss of specific miRNAs in CAF-derived exosomes may be involved in the malignant transformation of HNC.
METHODS: MiRNA array and real-time PCR assays were used to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in exosomes from normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs. Cell proliferation, EdU incorporation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and xenograft assays were performed to examine the effects of miR-3188 on HNC in vitro and in vivo. Real-time PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the target genes of miR-3188. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mouse models were used to prove the potential therapeutic value of miR-3188-loaded exosomes in HNC.
RESULTS: Our results showed that miR-3188 expression is reduced in exosomes and their parental CAFs from HNC tissues. In addition, miR-3188 can be transferred from fibroblasts to HNC cells by exosomes. Further exploration demonstrated that exosomal miR-3188 can influence the proliferation and apoptosis of HNC cells by directly targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, we also found that miR-3188-loaded exosomes significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that CAF-derived exosomes contain lower miR-3188 levels than NFs, and the loss of miR-3188 in exosomes contributes to the malignant phenotypes of HNC cells through the derepression of BCL2. Furthermore, these data suggest the potential therapeutic value of exosomal miR-3188 for inhibiting HNC growth.

Liu B, Huang G, Zhu H, et al.
Analysis of gene co‑expression network reveals prognostic significance of CNFN in patients with head and neck cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2168-2180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), lymph node (N) metastases are associated with cancer aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Identifying meaningful gene modules and representative biomarkers relevant to the N stage helps predict prognosis and reveal mechanisms underlying tumor progression. The present study used a step‑wise approach for weighted gene co‑expression network analysis (WGCNA). Dataset GSE65858 was subjected to WGCNA. RNA sequencing data of HNC downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and dataset GSE39366 were utilized to validate the results. Following data preprocessing, 4,295 genes were screened, and blue and black modules associated with the N stage of HNC were identified. A total of 16 genes [keratinocyte differentiation associated protein, suprabasin, cornifelin (CNFN), small proline rich protein 1B, desmoglein 1 (DSG1), chromosome 10 open reading frame 99, keratin 16 pseudogene 3, gap junction protein β2, dermokine, LY6/PLAUR domain containing 3, transmembrane protein 79, phospholipase A2 group IVE, transglutaminase 5, potassium two pore domain channel subfamily K member 6, involucrin, kallikrein related peptidase 8] that had a negative association with the N‑stage in the blue module, and two genes (structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 and mutS homolog 6) that had a positive association in the black module, were identified to be candidate hub genes. Following further validation in TCGA and dataset GSE65858, it was identified that CNFN and DSG1 were associated with the clinical stage of HNC. Survival analysis of CNFN and DSG1 was subsequently performed. Patients with increased expression of CNFN displayed better survival probability in dataset GSE65858 and TCGA. Therefore, CNFN was selected as the hub gene for further verification in the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database. Finally, functional enrichment and gene set enrichment analyses were performed using datasets GSE65858 and GSE39366. Three gene sets, namely 'P53 pathway', 'estrogen response early' and 'estrogen response late', were enriched in the two datasets. In conclusion, CNFN, identified via the WGCNA algorithm, may contribute to the prediction of lymph node metastases and prognosis, probably by regulating the pathways associated with P53, and the early and late estrogen response.

Manoharan V, Karunanayake EH, Tennekoon KH, et al.
Nucleotide variants and protein expression of TP53 in a Sri Lankan cohort of patients with head and neck cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):2781-2791 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the leading cancer in Sri Lankan males and second most common cancer among Sri Lankan females. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, that has focused on investigating the association between TP53 somatic DNA variants, with p53 protein expression and risk factors in a cohort of Sri Lankan patients with HNC. A total of 44 patients with cancer and 20 healthy controls were studied. In total, 36 genomic DNA sequence variants were found, including several novel variants (two deletions in exons 4 and 6, two in the 3' untranslated region and several intronic variants). A total of 14 tumour samples carried pathogenic TP53 mutations. A random selection of 24 samples was analysed immunohistochemically for p53 protein expression. All the samples with point missense variants were strongly immuno‑positive, whereas, samples with nonsense and frameshift TP53 variants were immuno‑negative for p53 immunohistochemical staining. Although, the human papilloma virus is a known risk factor for HNC, results from the present study identified an absence or lower level of infection in the Sri Lankan cohort.

Maknı L, Ben Hamda C, Al-ansarı A, et al.
Association of common IL-10 promoter gene variants with the susceptibility to head and neck cancer in Tunisia
Turk J Med Sci. 2019; 49(1):123-128 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background/aim: We investigated the association of three IL-10 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms and altered IL-10 plasma levels with the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC).
Materials and methods: Study subjects comprised 194 HNC patients [137 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and 57 laryngeal cancer (LC)], and 263 healthy controls. Genotyping of rs1800896 (-1082A>G), rs1800871 (-819C>T), and rs1800872 (-592A>C) IL-10 variants was performed by real-time PCR; IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme amplified immuno sensitivity assay (EAISA).
Results: Study subjects comprised 194 HNC patients [137 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and 57 laryngeal cancer (LC)], and 263 healthy controls. Genotyping of rs1800896 (-1082A>G), rs1800871 (-819C>T), and rs1800872 (-592A>C) IL-10 variants was performed by real-time PCR; IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme amplified immuno sensitivity assay (EAISA).
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that IL-10-1082, IL-10-819, and IL-10-592 variants, and haplotypes GC and GT constitute biomarkers for early detection of HNC, especially NPC subtype. IL-10 -819T/C and TA haplotype may be used as biomarkers for early detection of LC.

Elicin O, Cihoric N, Vlaskou Badra E, Ozsahin M
Emerging patient-specific treatment modalities in head and neck cancer - a systematic review.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2019; 28(4):365-376 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is an immunosuppressive disease that demonstrates heterogeneous molecular characteristics and features of tumor-host interaction. Beside radiotherapy and surgery, the current standard of care in systemic treatment involves the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). There are also other modalities being developed under the category of immunotherapy, but they are overshadowed by the recent advancements of immune checkpoint inhibitors.
AREAS COVERED: This systematic review covers recent advancements in 'patient-specific' treatment modalities, which can be only administered to a given patient.
EXPERT OPINION: Currently, patient-specific treatment modalities in HNC mainly consist of active immunotherapy using adoptive cell therapies and/or gene engineered vectors. Despite the slow pace of development, the interest continues in these treatment modalities. The future of HNC treatment is expected to be guided by biomarkers and personalized approaches with tailored combinations of local treatments (radiotherapy, surgery), systemic agents and immune system modulation. Systematic research is required to generate robust data and obtain a high-level of evidence for the effectiveness of such treatment modalities.

You GR, Cheng AJ, Lee LY, et al.
Prognostic signature associated with radioresistance in head and neck cancer via transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is an indispensable treatment modality in head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is the major cause of treatment failure. The aim of this study is to identify a prognostic molecular signature associated with radio-resistance in HNC for further clinical applications.
METHODS: Affymetrix cDNA microarrays were used to globally survey different transcriptomes between HNC cell lines and isogenic radioresistant sublines. The KEGG and Partek bioinformatic analytical methods were used to assess functional pathways associated with radioresistance. The SurvExpress web tool was applied to study the clinical association between gene expression profiles and patient survival using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) dataset (n = 283). The Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were further validated after retrieving clinical data from the TCGA-HNSCC dataset (n = 502) via the Genomic Data Commons (GDC)-Data-Portal of National Cancer Institute. A panel maker molecule was generated to assess the efficacy of prognostic prediction for radiotherapy in HNC patients.
RESULTS: In total, the expression of 255 molecules was found to be significantly altered in the radioresistant cell sublines, with 155 molecules up-regulated 100 down-regulated. Four core functional pathways were identified to enrich the up-regulated genes and were significantly associated with a worse prognosis in HNC patients, as the modulation of cellular focal adhesion, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. Total of 16 up-regulated genes in the 4 core pathways were defined, and 11 over-expressed molecules showed correlated with poor survival (TCGA-HNSCC dataset, n = 283). Among these, 4 molecules were independently validated as key molecules associated with poor survival in HNC patients receiving radiotherapy (TCGA-HNSCC dataset, n = 502), as IGF1R (p = 0.0454, HR = 1.43), LAMC2 (p = 0.0235, HR = 1.50), ITGB1 (p = 0.0336, HR = 1.46), and IL-6 (p = 0.0033, HR = 1.68). Furthermore, the combined use of these 4 markers product an excellent result to predict worse radiotherapeutic outcome in HNC (p < 0.0001, HR = 2.44).
CONCLUSIONS: Four core functional pathways and 4 key molecular markers significantly contributed to radioresistance in HNC. These molecular signatures may be used as a predictive biomarker panel, which can be further applied in personalized radiotherapy or as radio-sensitizing targets to treat refractory HNC.

Powrózek T, Mlak R, Brzozowska A, et al.
Relationship Between -2028 C/T SELP Gene Polymorphism, Concentration of Plasma P-Selectin and Risk of Malnutrition in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2019; 25(2):741-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Until today there is a lack of molecular factors, that could predict either cancer malnutrition or cachexia. Among potential mechanisms, that contribute to development of above syndromes, the systemic inflammatory response with overproduction of cytokines and adhesion molecules is the most likely. Recent papers suggested crucial role of P-selectin adhesion molecule in the initiation of leukocytes recruitment to the site of injury during inflammation, promotion of tumor aggressiveness and contribution to cancer cachexia. The aim of the study was to investigate SELP -2028 C/T polymorphism as a risk factor of malnutrition in 66 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients subjected to radiotherapy. Genotyping was conducted by real-time PCR method by means of TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. P-selectin Human ELISA Kit was used to determine P-selectin concentration in each extracted plasma samples. CC homozygous subjects had 4-fold higher risk score of being qualified as severely malnourished compared to other genotype carriers (p = 0.015). However, the TT homozygous patients were at lowest risk of severe weight loss >10% during the therapy period (OR = 0.20; p = 0.019). We also noted, that CC genotype carriers had significantly higher risk of early death incidence compared to CT or TT genotype (median survival time: 29 vs 34 months; HR = 3.02; p = 0.0085). Studied SELP -2028 C/T seems to be a novel attractive predictive factor of cancer malnutrition in HNC patients, perhaps in a future, patients carrying unfavorable CC genotype could be earlier scheduled for pharmaceutical intervention with parenterall nutrition, therefore they could be prevented from the development of severe malnutrition or even cachexia.

Kochurova EV
Comparative Role of Matrixins in Diagnostics of Parotid Gland Tumors.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2019; 166(3):383-385 [PubMed] Related Publications
The benign and malignant neoplasms in parotid gland have similar clinical presentations despite different tumor growth rates. The study compared the clinical and morphological data as well as the results of ELISA for MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in salivary fluid yielded during primary examination of the patients with pleomorphic adenoma and adenocarcinoma of parotid gland. The examined biomarkers detected in salivary fluid in patients with various cancer types differed significantly (p≤0.05). The correlations between clinical identification of adenoma or adenocarcinoma, on the one hand, and the levels of MMP-8, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, on the other hand, makes it possible to use the latter as biomarkers for early detection and comprehensive noninvasive differential diagnostics of these neoplasms.

Li T, Ling H, Lu Y, et al.
Meta-analysis of the relationship between excision repair cross-complementing Group 5 rs17655 gene polymorphism and head and neck cancer susceptibility.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S1041-S1047 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Published studies have evaluated the association between excision repair cross-complementing Group 5 (ERCC5) rs17655 polymorphism and head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility. However, these studies showed inconsistent results.
Aims: The aim of this study was to get a more comprehensive estimation of this association.
Materials and Methods: Multiple databases were searched for the genetic association on the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism and HNC risk. Ten studies with a total of 3922 cases and 5871 controls were finally identified to be eligible studies in this meta-analysis. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was used to assess the strength of association.
Results: Overall, this meta-analysis showed that there was no association between ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism and HNC risk under all five genetic models. Further, no significant associations between the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism and HNC risk were found under the five genetic models in subgroup analyses based on the source of control. However, in stratified analyses by ethnicity, a significant association was found under the homozygous and recessive models in European.
Conclusions: Our investigations demonstrate that genotypes for the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism may be not associated with overall cancer risk. In a subgroup meta-analysis, the results suggest that the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism is probably associated with HNC risk in European, but the results should be interpreted with caution for the low number of studies.

Lin HH, Limesand KH, Ann DK
Current State of Knowledge on Salivary Gland Cancers.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2018; 23(3-4):139-151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Salivary gland cancers (SGCs), categorized as head and neck cancers (HNCs), constitute about 6% of head and neck cancer diagnoses based on estimate by American Head and Neck Society. Salivary gland tumors originate from different glandular cell types and are thus morphologically diverse. These tumors arise from any of the three major and various minor salivary glands. The incidence of SGCs has slowly increased during the last four decades. The etiology of SGCs is mostly unknown; however, specific gene mutations are associated with certain types of salivary tumors. Treatment options include surgical resection, radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy, and multimodality therapy. HNC patients treated with RT often develop xerostomia and salivary hypofunction due to damaged salivary glands. In this review, we discuss etiology of SGCs, present findings on the role of autophagy in salivary tumorigenesis, review adverse effects of radiation treatment, and examine remedies for restoration of salivary function.

Singh S, Gupta M, Sharma A, et al.
The Nonsynonymous Polymorphisms Val276Met and Gly393Ser of E2F1 Gene are Strongly Associated with Lung, and Head and Neck Cancers.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2018; 22(8):498-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The early gene factor-2 (E2F), a family of transcription factors, is involved in cell cycle regulation. Deregulated expression of most of the members of the E2F family is associated with various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the association between the E2F1 genetic variants rs3213173 (C/T) (Val276Met) and rs3213176 (G/A) (Gly393Ser) with the risk of lung cancer (LC) and head and neck cancer (HNC) in 190 patients and 230 control samples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mutagenic primer-based PCR-RFLP methods to genotype all target polymorphisms.
RESULTS: The rs3213173 (C/T) polymorphism was associated with LC risk in the homozygous model (odds ratio [OR] = 2.954, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.366-6.386; p = 0.004) as well as in heterozygous model (OR = 2.314; 95% CI = 1.369-3.912; p = 0.001). A significant association was also observed for the rs3213176 (G/A) polymorphism with LC risk in homozygous model, GG versus AA (OR = 2.750; 95% CI = 1.236-6.118; p = 0.01); in heterozygous model, GG versus GA (OR = 2.111; 95% CI = 1.256-3.549; p = 0.004); and in combined mutant GG versus GA+AA (OR = 2.214; 95% CI = 1.343-3.650; p = 0.001). The rs3213176 (G/A) marker was also associated with HNC risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that the rs3213173 (C/T) and rs3213176 (G/A) polymorphisms of the E2F1 gene are genetic risk factors for susceptibility to LC and HNC in the North Indian Population.

Mlak R, Powrózek T, Brzozowska A, et al.
RRM1 gene expression evaluated in the liquid biopsy (blood cfRNA) as a non-invasive, predictive factor for radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis and potential prognostic biomarker in head and neck cancer patients.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(4):657-667 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intensified treatment of head and neck cancers (HNC): by radiotherapy (RTH) commonly combined with cytotoxic drugs is associated with oral mucositis (OM). Changes in the functioning of nucleotide synthesis pathway (RNR1, coded by RRM1 gene) can modulate the efficiency of cellular DNA repair mechanisms and influence the risk of occurrence and severity of OM in HNC patients after RTH.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between expression of RRM1 gene measured in free circulating RNA (cfRNA) and the risk of more severe OM and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients undergoing RTH for HNC.
METHODS: The study included 60 patients treated with RTH for HNC. RRM1 gene expression was examined in circulating RNA isolated from peripheral blood plasma (before treatment).
RESULTS: High RRM1 gene expression was significantly associated with higher risk of grade 3 OM after 5 (OR = 4.97), 6 (OR = 4.33) and 7 (OR = 3.50) weeks of RTH. Expression of RRM1 gene was not significantly related with risk of DFS and OS shortening (however well separated Kaplan-Meier curves might suggest its potential prognostic impact).
CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of RRM1 gene expression in cfRNA allows for estimation of the risk of severe OM in patients subjected to RTH.

Powrózek T, Mlak R, Brzozowska A, et al.
Relationship between TNF-α -1031T/C gene polymorphism, plasma level of TNF-α, and risk of cachexia in head and neck cancer patients.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(8):1423-1434 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and cachexia are frequent among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients and these syndromes are associated with both poor quality of life and unfavorable disease prognosis. Unfortunately, there are still no established biomarkers that could predict the development of cachexia. Among potential molecular alterations related to cancer cachexia, there are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate TNF-α -1031T/C SNP as a risk factor of cachexia in 62 HNC patients subjected to radiotherapy. DNA was isolated from whole blood samples and genotyping was conducted using real-time PCR method by means of TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. TNF-alpha Human ELISA Kit was used to determine TNF-α concentration in each extracted plasma sample. Moreover, the relationship between genotype variants of TNF-α and plasma level of TNF-α was examined. Detailed clinical-demographic and nutritional data were collected from each study participant.
RESULTS: CC genotype carriers were at a significantly higher risk of being qualified as cachectic compared with other genotype carriers (p = 0.044; HR = 3.724). Subjects, who carried CC genotype had significantly lower body mass compared to patients with TT and CT genotype (p = 0.045). Moreover, CC individuals had the highest TNF-α plasma level (median 10.70 ± 0.72 pg/mL, p = 0.006) among the studied cases. We also noted, that CC genotype carriers had significantly higher risk of early death incidence compared to other genotype carriers [overall survival (OS): 28 vs 38 months (HR = 3.630, p = 0.013)].
CONCLUSION: Despite the differences between SGA and NRS scoring, the presence of CC genotype could be a useful objective marker allowing for the prediction of cachexia development in both parenterally nourished and non-parenterally nourished patients. Patients with CC genotype had also the highest risk of early death incidence; therefore, such individuals should be qualified for parenteral nutrition and supportive care at the time of diagnosis to improve further therapy outcomes. Moreover, this is the first study demonstrating the relationship between TNF-α -1031T/C polymorphism and plasma level of TNF-α. This is also the first paper investigating the role of TNF-α -1031T/C in cancer cachexia.

Kojima Y, Otsuki N, Kubo M, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated transfer of HPV 16 E6/E7 antisense RNA combined with cisplatin inhibits cellular growth and induces apoptosis in HPV-positive head and neck cancer cells.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2018; 25(9-10):274-283 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been identified as an etiologic factor of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We explored the potential use of antisense HPV RNA transcripts for gene therapy and its effect in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) for HPV-positive HNCs. We introduced the antisense RNA transcripts of the E6 and E7 genes of HPV type 16 into UM-SCC-47 cells harboring HPV 16 and YCU-T892 cells that were HPV-negative using a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad-E6/E7-AS. We then analyzed the effects of the introduction of Ad-E7-AS on cell and tumor growth and the synergistic effect with CDDP in vitro and in vivo. After infection of Ad-E6/E7-AS, the cellular growth of UM-SCC-47 cells were suppressed, but not that of YCU-T892 cells. E7 protein expression was suppressed, and p53 and pRb protein expression increased after infection of Ad-E7-AS. Cell growth and tumorigenicity were greatly suppressed in combination with CDDP compared with Ad-E7-AS or CDDP treatment alone in vitro. Ad-E7-AS combined with CDDP treatment significantly reduced the volumes of established subcutaneous tumors. Transfection with HPV 16 E7 antisense RNA combined with CDDP treatment might be a potentially useful approach to the therapy of HPV 16-positive HNC.

Das R, Kundu S, Laskar S, et al.
Assessment of DNA repair susceptibility genes identified by whole exome sequencing in head and neck cancer.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2018 Jun - Jul; 66-67:50-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck cancer (HNC), the sixth most common cancer globally, stands second in India. In Northeast (NE) India, it is the sixth most common cause of death in males and seventh in females. Prolonged tobacco and alcohol consumption constitute the major etiological factors for HNC development, which induce DNA damage. Therefore, DNA repair pathway is a crucial system in maintaining genomic integrity and preventing carcinogenesis. The present work was aimed to predict the consequence of significant germline variants of the DNA repair genes in disease predisposition. Whole exome sequencing was performed in Ion Proton™ platform on 15 case-control samples from the HNC-prevalent states of Manipur, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Variant annotation was done in Ion Reporter™ as well as wANNOVAR. Subsequent statistical and bioinformatics analysis identified significant exonic and intronic variants associated with HNC. Amongst our observed variants, 78.6% occurred in ExAC, 94% reported in dbSNP and 5.8% & 9.3% variants were present in ClinVar and HGMD, respectively. The total variants were dispersed among 199 genes with DSBR and FA pathway being the most mutated pathways. The allelic association test suggested that the intronic variants in HLTF and RAD52 gene significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the risk (OR > 5), while intronic variants in PARP4, RECQL5, EXO1 and PER1 genes and exonic variant in TDP2 gene showed protection (OR < 1) for HNC. MDR analysis proposed the exonic variants in MSH6, BRCA2, PALB2 and TP53 genes and intronic variant in RECQL5 genetic region working together during certain phase of DNA repair mechanism for HNC causation. In addition, other intronic and 3'UTR variations caused modifications in the transcription factor binding sites and miRNA target sites associated with HNC. Large-scale validation in NE Indian population, in-depth structure prediction and subsequent simulation of our recognized polymorphisms is necessary to identify true causal variants related to HNC.

Hsiao CL, Liu LC, Shih TC, et al.
The Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Promoter Genotypes in Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(4):2181-2185 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) controls homeostasis of the extracellular matrix and their genetic polymorphisms may be associated with personal cancer susceptibility. The serum levels of MMP8 was reported to be higher in patients with breast cancer than in healthy individuals. In this study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of a polymorphism in the promoter region of MMP8 (-799C/T) and two nonsynonymous polymorphisms (Val436Ala and Lys460Thr) to breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MMP8 -799C/T, Val436Ala and Lys460Thr polymorphic genotypes were determined for 1,232 patients with breast cancer and 1,232 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology.
RESULTS: The odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age, gender, smoking and alcohol drinking status for those carrying CT and TT genotypes at the MMP8 promoter C-799T were 1.03 (95% CI=0.88-1.23, p=0.7475) and 1.08 (95% CI=0.91-1.53, p=0.3561), respectively, compared to those carrying the wild-type CC genotype. The OR for the combined T-bearing genotypes were of a similar non-significant level (OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.90-1.26, p=0.5176). Supporting this finding, the adjusted OR for those carrying the T allele at MMP8 C-799T was 1.05 (95% CI=0.86-1.21, p=0.3797), compared to those carrying the wild-type C allele. There was also no significant association of MMP8 Lys460Thr with breast cancer. There was no polymorphic genotype at MMP8 Val436Ala found among any of the investigated individuals.
CONCLUSION: MMP8 -799C/T, Val436Ala and Lys460Thr polymorphisms may only play an indirect role in determining personal cancer susceptibility to breast cancer in Taiwan.

Mirghani H, Lacroix L, Rossoni C, et al.
Does smoking alter the mutation profile of human papillomavirus-driven head and neck cancers?
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 94:61-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients are characterised by a better prognosis than their HPV-negative counterparts. However, this significant survival advantage is not homogeneous and among HPV-positive patients those with a smoking history have a significantly increased risk of oncologic failure. The reason why tobacco consumption impacts negatively the prognosis is still elusive. Tobacco might induce additional genetic alterations leading to a more aggressive phenotype. The purpose of this study was to characterise the mutational profile of HPV-positive OPCs by smoking status. We hypothesise a higher frequency of mutations affecting smokers.
METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing of 39 genes that are recurrently mutated in head and neck cancers (HNCs) caused by tobacco/alcohol consumption was performed in 62 HPV-driven OPC cases including smokers and non-smokers.
RESULTS: The study population included 37 (60%) non-smokers and 25 (40%) smokers. Twenty (32%) patients had no mutation, 14 (23%) had 1 mutation and 28 (45%) had 2 or more mutations. The most commonly mutated genes regardless of tobacco consumption were PIK3CA (19%), MLL2 (19%), TP53 (8%), FAT 1 (15%), FBXW7 (16%), NOTCH1 (10%) and FGFR3 (10%). Mutation rate was not significantly different in smokers compared with non-smokers even when analyses focused on heavy smokers (>20 pack-years vs. <20 pack-years). Similarly, there was no significant difference in mutations patterns according to tobacco consumption.
CONCLUSION: In HPV-positive patients, smoking does not increase the mutation rate of genes that are recurrently mutated in traditional HNC. Additional studies are warranted to further describe the molecular landscape of HPV-driven OPC according to tobacco consumption.

Lee BKB, Gan CP, Chang JK, et al.
GENIPAC: A Genomic Information Portal for Head and Neck Cancer Cell Systems.
J Dent Res. 2018; 97(8):909-916 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck cancer (HNC)-derived cell lines represent fundamental models for studying the biological mechanisms underlying cancer development and precision therapies. However, mining the genomic information of HNC cells from available databases requires knowledge on bioinformatics and computational skill sets. Here, we developed a user-friendly web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing genomics information of commonly used HNC cell lines. We populated the current version of GENIPAC with 44 HNC cell lines from 3 studies: ORL Series, OPC-22, and H Series. Specifically, the mRNA expressions for all the 3 studies were derived with RNA-seq. The copy number alterations analysis of ORL Series was performed on the Genome Wide Human Cytoscan HD array, while copy number alterations for OPC-22 were derived from whole exome sequencing. Mutations from ORL Series and H Series were derived from RNA-seq information, while OPC-22 was based on whole exome sequencing. All genomic information was preprocessed with customized scripts and underwent data validation and correction through data set validator tools provided by cBioPortal. The clinical and genomic information of 44 HNC cell lines are easily assessable in GENIPAC. The functional utility of GENIPAC was demonstrated with some of the genomic alterations that are commonly reported in HNC, such as TP53, EGFR, CCND1, and PIK3CA. We showed that these genomic alterations as reported in The Cancer Genome Atlas database were recapitulated in the HNC cell lines in GENIPAC. Importantly, genomic alterations within pathways could be simultaneously visualized. We developed GENIPAC to create access to genomic information on HNC cell lines. This cancer omics initiative will help the research community to accelerate better understanding of HNC and the development of new precision therapeutic options for HNC treatment. GENIPAC is freely available at .

Sannigrahi MK, Sharma R, Singh V, et al.
DNA methylation regulated microRNAs in HPV-16-induced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Mol Cell Biochem. 2018; 448(1-2):321-333 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Epigenetic modifications have been reported to play an important role in regulating gene expression and these modifications become critical when they have a role in controlling another important layer of epigenetic regulation namely microRNAs. In the present study, we have identified the microRNAs that may be regulated by promoter DNA methylation and histone acetylation in Human papilloma virus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
METHODOLOGY: HPV-negative cell line (UPCI:SCC-116) and HPV-16 +ve cell line (UPCI:SCC-090) were treated with methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, AZA) and acetylation inhibitor (Trichostatin-A, TSA), followed by micro-array analysis. The differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in control (n = 10), HPV-16 +ve (n = 30), and HPV -ve (n = 30) HNC, TCGA (n = 529) tissue samples, and two HPV -ve (SCC116 and Hacat) and two HPV +ve (SCC090 and SiHa) cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) were performed to validate their regulation. In silico and in vitro analyses of identified miRNAs were done to study putative pathways they target and their possible role in carcinogenesis.
RESULTS: Among 10 miRNAs specifically up-regulated in microarray analysis of AZA-treated SCC090 cells, we observed significantly decreased expression of hsa-miR-181c-5p, hsa-miR-132-5p, hsa-miR-658 in HPV +ve HNC cohort, TCGA tissue samples, and cell lines as compared to their HPV -ve counterpart, and their promoter region also possesses CpG islands. MSP and analysis of TCGA data (MethHC) revealed increased frequency of methylation at the promoter of hsa-miR-132-5p that is negatively correlated with its expression. In TSA-treated SCC090 cells, out of 7 miRNAs, two namely Hsa-miR-129-2-3p and Hsa-miR-449a were found to be up-regulated as compared to HPV -ve cells. However, the levels of enrichment by anti-acetyl-H3 and anti-acetyl-H4 were significantly low in cell lines compared to respective controls and both were up-regulated in HPV +ve compared to HPV -ve TCGA tissue samples. In silico analysis revealed hsa-miR-132-5p targeted canonical β-catenin/wnt pathway and modulation of down-stream genes of the pathway was observed on over-expression/inhibition of hsa-miR-132-5p.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests the role of epigenetic modifications in regulating expression of miRNAs in HPV +ve HNSCC.

Zhang DF, Jiang GB, Qin CQ, et al.
Quantitative assessment of the relationship between Fas/FasL genes polymorphisms and head and neck cancer risk.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(6):e9873 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiological studies have demonstrated a closer association between Fas/FasL polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk, and the results of these published studies were inconsistent. We therefore performed this meta-analysis to explore the associations between Fas/FasL polymorphisms and HNC risk.
METHODS: Four online databases (PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang) were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the association between Fas -670A>G, Fas -1377G>A, and FasL -844C>T polymorphisms and HNC risk. In addition, heterogeneity, accumulative/sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were conducted to check the statistical power.
RESULTS: Overall, 9 related publications (20 independent case-control studies) involving 3179 patients and 4217 controls were identified. Significant association of protective effects was observed between FasL -844C>T polymorphism and HNC risk in codominant and dominant model models (CT vs CC: OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79-1.00, P = .05, I = 38.3%, CT+TT vs CC: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.98, P = .02, I = 35.8%). Furthermore, the similar protective effects were observed the subgroup analysis of in Asian population and population-based controls group.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis indicated that FasL -844C>T polymorphism plays a protective role against HNC development, but the Fas -670A>G and Fas -1377G>A polymorphisms maybe not associated with HNC risk.

Luo X, Qiu Y, Jiang Y, et al.
Long non-coding RNA implicated in the invasion and metastasis of head and neck cancer: possible function and mechanisms.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck cancer (HNC) ranks as the 6th most common malignancy across the world. Metastasis is a hallmark of cancer, primarily contributing to the relapse and poor prognosis of HNC. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), previously considered as non-functional, are increasingly appreciated by scholars to play crucial roles in mediating HNC metastasis. LncRNAs, which are located in the nucleus and cytoplasm, mainly exert their function via epigenetic modification, transcriptional control and translational regulation. As several lncRNAs are presently demonstrated to participate in HNC metastasis, we make a summary of the functions and mechanisms regarding these lncRNAs. As shown in the literature, most lncRNAs appear to promote the metastasis of HNC. Hence, we primarily discuss the lncRNAs involved in enhancing metastasis. Additionally, more studies are needed to understand those lncRNAs without clear mechanisms. Furthermore, we introduced the upstream regulator for the aberrant expression of lncRNAs in HNC. Finally, we concisely addressed future research prospects of lncRNAs, particularly the interplay between lncRNAs and tumor immunity as well as lncRNA-targeted therapeutic techniques, and we introduced clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Display as a possibly transformative tool to study lncRNAs. Although lncRNA research is still in the initial stage, it holds great promise to be applied as a prognosticator of HNC and a therapeutic target to inhibit HNC metastasis, which could significantly enhance the outcome of HNC patients.

Vitelli V, Falvo P, G Nergadze S, et al.
Telomeric Repeat-Containing RNAs (TERRA) Decrease in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Is Associated with Worsened Clinical Outcome.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomeres are transcribed into noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA), which are essential for telomere maintenance. Deregulation of TERRA transcription impairs telomere metabolism and a role in tumorigenesis has been proposed. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide, with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) being the predominant type. Since HNSCC patients are characterized by altered telomere maintenance, a dysfunction in telomere transcription can be hypothesized. In this prospective study, we compared TERRA levels in the tumor and matched normal tissue from 23 HNSCC patients. We then classified patients in two categories according to the level of TERRA expression in the tumor compared to the normal tissue: (1) lower expression in the tumor, (2) higher or similar expression in tumor. A significant proportion of patients in the first group died of the disease within less than 34 months postsurgery, while the majority of patients in the second group were alive and disease-free. Our results highlight a striking correlation between TERRA expression and tumor aggressiveness in HNSCC suggesting that TERRA levels may be proposed as a novel molecular prognostic marker for HNSCC.

Liu C, Feng X, Wang B, et al.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote head and neck cancer progression through Periostin-mediated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(3):688-698 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) have been shown to be recruited to the tumor microenvironment and exert a tumor-promoting effect in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms related to the tumor-promoting effect of BMMSC on head and neck cancer (HNC) are not clear. In this study, we investigated Periostin (POSTN) and its roles in the tumor-promoting effect of BMMSC on HNC. In vitro analysis of HNC cells cultured in BMMSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) showed that MSC-CM significantly promoted cancer progression by enhancing cell proliferation, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), and altering expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and inhibition of apoptosis. Moreover, MSC-CM promoted the expression of POSTN and POSTN promoted HNC progression through the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In a murine model of HNC, we found that BMMSC promoted tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and enhanced the expression of POSTN and EMT in tumor tissues. Clinical sample analysis further confirmed that the expression of POSTN and N-cadherin were correlated with pathological grade and lymph node metastasis of HNC. In conclusion, this study indicated that BMMSC promoted proliferation, invasion, survival, tumorigenicity and migration of head and neck cancer through POSTN-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation.

Kim SY, Kim HJ, Kim HJ, et al.
HSPA5 negatively regulates lysosomal activity through ubiquitination of MUL1 in head and neck cancer.
Autophagy. 2018; 14(3):385-403 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HSPA5/GRP78/BiP plays an important role in cell survival or tumor progression. For these reasons, HSPA5 is an emerging therapeutic target in cancer development. Here we report that HSPA5 contributes to head and neck cancer (HNC) survival via maintenance of lysosomal activity; however, a nonthermal plasma (NTP, considered as a next-generation cancer therapy)-treated solution (NTS) inhibits HNC progression through HSPA5-dependent alteration of lysosomal activity. HSPA5 prevents NTS-induced lysosome inhibition through lysosomal-related proteins or regulation of gene expression. However, NTS-induced MUL1/MULAN/GIDE/MAPL (mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of NFKB 1) leads to downregulation of HSPA5 via K48-linked ubiquitination at the lysine 446 (K446) residue. MUL1 knockdown hinders NTS-induced lysosome inhibition or cytotoxicity through the reduction of HSPA5 ubiquitination in HNC cells. While MUL1 was suppressed, HSPA5 was overexpressed in tissues of HNC patients. NTS strongly inhibited HNC progression via alterations of expression of MUL1 and HSPA5, in vivo in a xenograft model. However, NTS did not induce inhibition of tumor progression or HSPA5 reduction in MUL1 knockout (KO) HNC cells which were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system. The data provide compelling evidence to support the idea that the regulation of the MUL1-HSPA5 axis can be a novel strategy for the treatment of HNC.

Dylawerska A, Barczak W, Wegner A, et al.
Association of DNA repair genes polymorphisms and mutations with increased risk of head and neck cancer: a review.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(12):197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA repair mechanisms allow maintain genomic stability and proper functioning within the cells. Any aberrations may cause an increased risk of many diseases such as cancer. The most crucial risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are behavioral factors, predominantly chronic exposure to tobacco, alcohol addiction, and infection with human papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus. These agents can induce DNA damage; therefore, cells must activate appropriate mechanisms in order to function correctly. Cancer cells are marked with genomic instability, which is associated with a greater tendency for the accumulation of a DNA damage and increased chemo- and radioresistance. Multiple studies have assessed the correlation of increased head and neck cancer (HNC) risk with polymorphism in the DNA repair genes. However, they suggest that interaction of DNA repair genes mutations with susceptibility to HNC depends on a patient's race and risk factors, especially tobacco smoking. Further identification of these sequence variations must be performed. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the DNA repair genes mutations and polymorphisms associated with the high risk of head and neck treatment.

Zhong Q, Liu ZH, Lin ZR, et al.
Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 24(3):659-673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Pei JS, Chang WS, Hsu PC, et al.
The Contribution of MMP-8 Promoter Genotypes to Childhood Leukemia.
In Vivo. 2017 Nov-Dec; 31(6):1059-1064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Accumulated evidence has supported the notion that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genotypes are associated with the susceptibility of many types of cancers. However, few reports have studied the contribution of MMP genotypes to either diagnostic or prognostic potential in non-solid tumors such as leukemia. In this study, we firstly investigated the contribution of a polymorphism in the promoter region of MMP-8 (-799C/T) and two non-synonymous polymorphisms (Val436Ala and Lys460Thr) to childhood leukemia.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 266 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 266 non-cancer control patients were collected and the genomic DNA was isolated from their peripheral blood. MMP-8 -799C/T, Val436Ala and Lys460Thr polymorphic genotypes of each subject were determined by the typical polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: The results showed that the three polymorphisms were not significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood ALL in the overall investigated population. Furthermore, when the analyses were stratified by age and gender, no significant association between these genotypes and increased ALL risk was found.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms at MMP-8 -799C/T, Val436Ala and Lys460Thr may not play a major role in determining the personal susceptibility to childhood ALL in Taiwan.

Gribko A, Hahlbrock A, Strieth S, et al.
Disease-relevant signalling-pathways in head and neck cancer: Taspase1's proteolytic activity fine-tunes TFIIA function.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):14937 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common malignancy in the world and its prevailing form, the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is characterized as aggressive and invasive cancer type. The transcription factor II A (TFIIA), initially described as general regulator of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, is part of complex transcriptional networks also controlling mammalian head morphogenesis. Posttranslational cleavage of the TFIIA precursor by the oncologically relevant protease Taspase1 is crucial in this process. In contrast, the relevance of Taspase1-mediated TFIIA cleavage during oncogenesis of HNSCC is not characterized yet. Here, we performed genome-wide expression profiling of HNSCC which revealed significant downregulation of the TFIIA downstream target CDKN2A. To identify potential regulatory mechanisms of TFIIA on cellular level, we characterized nuclear-cytoplasmic transport and Taspase1-mediated cleavage of TFIIA variants. Unexpectedly, we identified an evolutionary conserved nuclear export signal (NES) counteracting nuclear localization and thus, transcriptional activity of TFIIA. Notably, proteolytic processing of TFIIA by Taspase1 was found to mask the NES, thereby promoting nuclear localization and transcriptional activation of TFIIA target genes, such as CDKN2A. Collectively, we here describe a hitherto unknown mechanism how cellular localization and Taspase1 cleavage fine-tunes transcriptional activity of TFIIA in HNSCC.

Saeed S, Mahjabeen I, Sarwar R, et al.
Haplotype analysis of XRCC2 gene polymorphisms and association with increased risk of head and neck cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We aimed to investigate the effect of hotspot variations of XRCC2 gene on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) in 400 patients and 400 controls. Five polymorphisms of XRCC2 gene G4234C (rs3218384), G4088T (rs3218373), G3063A (rs2040639), R188H (rs3218536) and rs7802034 were analyzed using Allele- specific polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) followed by sequence analysis. For rs3218373, the GG genotype indicated a statistically significant 3-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001) after multivariate adjustment. For rs7802034, the GG genotype suggested statistically significant 2-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001). For SNP of rs3218536, the AA genotype indicated a significant 3-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001). Additionally, haplotype analysis revealed that TACAG, TGGAG, TACGG and TAGGA haplotypes of XRCC2 polymorphisms are associated with HNC risk. Two SNPs in XRCC2 (rs2040639 and rs3218384) were found increased in strong linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, joint effect model showed 20 fold (OR = 19.89; 95% CI = 2.65-149.36, P = 0.003) increased HNC risk in patients carrying four homozygous risk alleles of selected polymorphisms. These results show that allele distributions and genotypes of XRCC2 SNPs are significantly associated with increased HNC risk and could be a genetic adjuster for the said disease.

Kansy BA, Concha-Benavente F, Srivastava RM, et al.
PD-1 Status in CD8
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(22):6353-6364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Improved understanding of expression of immune checkpoint receptors (ICR) on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) may facilitate more effective immunotherapy in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A higher frequency of PD-1

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