Gene Summary

Gene:MAPK14; mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
Aliases: RK, p38, CSBP, EXIP, Mxi2, CSBP1, CSBP2, CSPB1, PRKM14, PRKM15, SAPK2A, p38ALPHA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), or its autophosphorylation triggered by the interaction of MAP3K7IP1/TAB1 protein with this kinase. The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (68)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (33)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MAPK14 (cancer-related)

Goda AE, Erikson RL, Ahn JS, Kim BY
Induction of G1 Arrest by SB265610 Involves Cyclin D3 Down-regulation and Suppression of CDK2 (Thr160) Phosphorylation.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3235-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of SB265610, a cysteine-amino acid-cysteine (CXC) chemokines receptor 2 (CXCR2) antagonist.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell-cycle progression and regulatory molecules were assessed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, real-time PCR and immunoprecipitation. Target validation was achieved via RNA interference.
RESULTS: G1 arrest induced by SB265610 occurred at concentrations lacking CXCR2 selectivity, persisted upon interleukin 8 (IL8) challenge, and did not affect IL8 downstream target expression. Profiling of G1 regulators revealed cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) (Thr160) hypophosphorylation, cyclin D3 gene down-regulation, and p21 post-translational induction. However, only cyclin D3 and CDK2 contributed towards G1 arrest. Furthermore, SB265610 induced a sustained phosphorylation of the p38MAPK. Pharmacological interference with p38MAPK significantly abrogated SB265610-induced G1 arrest and normalized the expression of cyclin D3, with restoration of its exclusive binding to CDK6, but with weak recovery of CDK2 (Thr160) hypo-phosphorylation.
CONCLUSION: The present study described the mechanisms for the anti-proliferative activity of SB265610 which may be of value in IL8-rich tumor microenvironments.

Challagundla KB, Wise PM, Neviani P, et al.
Exosome-mediated transfer of microRNAs within the tumor microenvironment and neuroblastoma resistance to chemotherapy.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(7) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: How exosomic microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the development of drug resistance in the context of the tumor microenvironment has not been previously described in neuroblastoma (NBL).
METHODS: Coculture experiments were performed to assess exosomic transfer of miR-21 from NBL cells to human monocytes and miR-155 from human monocytes to NBL cells. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to assess miR-155 targeting of TERF1 in NBL cells. Tumor growth was measured in NBL xenografts treated with Cisplatin and peritumoral exosomic miR-155 (n = 6 mice per group) CD163, miR-155, and TERF1 levels were assessed in 20 NBL primary tissues by Human Exon Arrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Student's t test was used to evaluate the differences between treatment groups. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: miR-21 mean fold change (f.c.) was 12.08±0.30 (P < .001) in human monocytes treated with NBL derived exosomes for 48 hours, and miR-155 mean f.c. was 4.51±0.25 (P < .001) in NBL cells cocultured with human monocytes for 48 hours. TERF1 mean luciferase activity in miR-155 transfected NBL cells normalized to scrambled was 0.36 ± 0.05 (P <.001). Mean tumor volumes in Dotap-miR-155 compared with Dotap-scrambled were 322.80±120mm(3) and 76.00±39.3mm(3), P = .002 at day 24, respectively. Patients with high CD163 infiltrating NBLs had statistically significantly higher intratumoral levels of miR-155 (P = .04) and lower levels of TERF1 mRNA (P = .02).
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a unique role of exosomic miR-21 and miR-155 in the cross-talk between NBL cells and human monocytes in the resistance to chemotherapy, through a novel exosomic miR-21/TLR8-NF-кB/exosomic miR-155/TERF1 signaling pathway.

Ameziane-El-Hassani R, Talbot M, de Souza Dos Santos MC, et al.
NADPH oxidase DUOX1 promotes long-term persistence of oxidative stress after an exposure to irradiation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(16):5051-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2015 Related Publications
Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage, but also late effects in several cell generations after the initial exposure. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of IR, and we have recently highlighted that an oxidative stress is responsible for the chromosomal rearrangements found in radio-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma. Using both a human thyroid cell line and primary thyrocytes, we investigated the mechanism by which IR induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) several days after irradiation. We focused on NADPH oxidases, which are specialized ROS-generating enzymes known as NOX/DUOX. Our results show that IR induces delayed NADPH oxidase DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in a dose-dependent manner, which is sustained for several days. We report that p38 MAPK, activated after IR, increased DUOX1 via IL-13 expression, leading to persistent DNA damage and growth arrest. Pretreatment of cells with catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, or DUOX1 down-regulation by siRNA abrogated IR-induced DNA damage. Analysis of human thyroid tissues showed that DUOX1 is elevated not only in human radio-induced thyroid tumors, but also in sporadic thyroid tumors. Taken together, our data reveal a key role of DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in long-term persistent radio-induced DNA damage. Our data also show that DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production, which induces DNA double-strand breaks, can cause genomic instability and promote the generation of neoplastic cells through its mutagenic effect.

Wang S, Wang L, Chen M, Wang Y
Gambogic acid sensitizes resistant breast cancer cells to doxorubicin through inhibiting P-glycoprotein and suppressing survivin expression.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 235:76-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents remains a major challenge to breast cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and resistance to apoptosis are the two key factors that confer cancer drug resistance. Gambogic acid (GA), a major component of Gamboge resin, has potent anticancer effects and can inhibit the growth of several types of human cancers. However, the potential and underlying mechanisms of GA in reversing cancer resistance remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that GA can markedly sensitize doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer cells to DOX-mediated cell death. GA increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX by inhibiting both P-gp expression and activity. Meanwhile, the combination effect was associated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the suppression of anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Scavenging intracellular ROS or overexpression of survivin blocked the sensitizing effects of GA in DOX-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in GA-mediated suppression of survivin expression. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying GA as an anticancer agent for the purpose of combating DOX-resistant breast cancer.

Ma D, Fang Q, Wang P, et al.
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 by Na+-H+ exchanger 1 protein plays a crucial role in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(20):12558-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2016 Related Publications
Resistance toward imatinib (IM) and other BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors remains troublesome in the treatment of advanced stage chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The aim of this study was to estimate the reversal effects of down-regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) on the chemoresistance of BCR-ABL-positive leukemia patients' cells and cell lines. After treatment with the specific NHE1 inhibitor cariporide to decrease intracellular pH (pHi), the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels of the K562R cell line and cells from IM-insensitive CML patients decreased. HO-1, as a Bcr/Abl-dependent survival molecule in CML cells, is important for the resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with newly diagnosed CML or IM-resistant CML. Silencing PKC-β and Nrf-2 or treatment with inhibitors of p38 pathways obviously blocked NHE1-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, treatment with HO-1 or p38 inhibitor plus IM increased the apoptosis of the K562R cell line and IM-insensitive CML patients' cells. Inhibiting HO-1 enhanced the activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Hence, the results support the anti-apoptotic role of HO-1 induced by NHE1 in the K562R cell line and IM-insensitive CML patients and provide a mechanism by which inducing HO-1 expression via the PKC-β/p38-MAPK pathway may promote tumor resistance to oxidative stress.

Jeong HJ, Koo BS, Kang TH, et al.
Inhibitory effects of Saururus chinensis and its components on stomach cancer cells.
Phytomedicine. 2015; 22(2):256-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Saururus chinensis (SC) Baill. (Saururaceae), a perennial herb commonly called Chinese lizard's tail or Sam-baekcho in Korea, has been used in the treatment of edema, gonorrhea, jaundice, and inflammatory diseases. Recently, several reports have been commissioned to examine the anti-cancer activities of this plant. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity and mechanism of action on SC and its components against stomach cancer cells. SC extracts displayed cytotoxic effects on AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SC increased the number of annexin V-positive apoptotic bodies and phosphorylated JNK and p38 in AGS cells. SC also down-regulated anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) genes and up-regulated apoptotic (Bax) genes in AGS cells. We further confirmed that caspase activation plays an important role in SC-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. Furthermore, we examined erythro-Austrobailignan-6 and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, major active constituents of SC, which induced apoptosis in both the AGS and NCI-N87 stomach cancer cell lines. Taken together, our data provide the evidence that SC and its components induce apoptosis in stomach cancer cells, making it a potential candidate as a chemotherapeutic drug.

Yang Y, Cheon S, Jung MK, et al.
Interleukin-18 enhances breast cancer cell migration via down-regulation of claudin-12 and induction of the p38 MAPK pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(3):379-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) was recently reported to have a pro-tumor effect in various cancers. Increased IL-18 levels in the serum of cancer patients correlated with malignancy, and IL-18 acts a crucial factor for cell migration in gastric cancer and melanoma. Claudins, which are the most important tight junction proteins, are also linked with cancer progression and metastasis. However, the relationship between claudins and IL-18 is not well-understood. Here, we show that the migratory ability of MCF-7 cells was reduced when endogenous IL-18 expression was inhibited with IL-18 siRNA. Moreover, exogenous IL-18 enhanced breast cancer cell migration and suppressed the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-12 in MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-12, but not claudin-1, increased breast cancer migration with maximal effects observed in claudin-12 siRNA-transfected cells. To investigate whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in IL-18-induced cell migration and claudin-12 expression, cells were pretreated with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) or PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK1/2) prior to the addition of IL-18. Although pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with SB203580 blocked both the enhanced cell migration and the decreased claudin-12 expression, PD98059 only blocked cell migration and did not affect claudin-12 expression. In addition, exogenous IL-18 induced rapid phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that IL-18 is an important factor inducing breast cancer cell migration through down-regulation of claudin-12 and activation of the p38 MAPK pathway.

Lee JC, Chung LC, Chen YJ, et al.
Upregulation of B-cell translocation gene 2 by epigallocatechin-3-gallate via p38 and ERK signaling blocks cell proliferation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 360(2):310-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a well-known malignancy that accounts for the majority of oral cancers. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is an important regulator of cell cycle dynamics in cancer cells. However, the role of BTG2 in OSCC cells and the influences of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on BTG2 gene expressions have not been well evaluated. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of EGCG-induced BTG2 expression and the potential signal pathways involved. The (3)H-thymidine incorporation and Western-blot assays revealed cell proliferation was attenuated by EGCG via upregulation of BTG2 expression causing cell cycle G1 phase arrest in OSCC cells. BTG2 overexpression decreased tumor cell growth, while BTG2 knockdown illuminated the opposite effect in xenograft animal studies. Overexpressed BTG2 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and downregulated protein expressions of cyclin A, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Western-blot assays indicated that EGCG induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK. However, pretreatments with selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and PD0325901 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), significantly suppressed the activation of EGCG on BTG2 expression. Our results indicate that EGCG attenuates cell proliferation of OSCC cells by upregulating BTG2 expression via p38 and ERK pathways.

Fiocchetti M, Camilli G, Acconcia F, et al.
ERβ-dependent neuroglobin up-regulation impairs 17β-estradiol-induced apoptosis in DLD-1 colon cancer cells upon oxidative stress injury.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 149:128-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Besides other mechanism(s) 17β-estradiol (E2) facilitates neuronal survival by increasing, via estrogen receptor β (ERβ), the levels of neuroglobin (NGB) an anti-apoptotic protein. In contrast, E2 could exert protective effects in cancer cells by activating apoptosis when the ERβ level prevails on that of ERα as in colon cancer cell lines. These apparently contrasting results raise the possibility that E2-induced NGB up-regulation could regulate the ERβ activities shunning this receptor subtype to trigger an apoptotic cascade in neurons but not in non-neuronal cells. Here, human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (DLD-1) that only expresses ERβ and HeLa cells transiently transfected with ERβ encoding vector has been used to verify this hypothesis. In addition, neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells were used as positive control. Surprisingly, E2 also induced NGB up-regulation, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in DLD-1 cells. The ERβ-mediated activation of p38/MAPK was necessary for this E2 effect. E2 induced NGB re-allocation in mitochondria where, subsequently to an oxidative stress injury (i.e., 100μM H2O2), NGB interacted with cytochrome c preventing its release into the cytosol and the activation of an apoptotic cascade. As a whole, these results demonstrate that E2-induced NGB up-regulation could act as an oxidative stress sensor, which does not oppose to the pro-apoptotic E2 effect in ERβ-containing colon cancer cells unless a rise of oxidative stress occurs. These results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a critical role in E2-induced carcinogenesis and further open an important scenario to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target NGB against E2-related cancers.

Kumar R, Verma V, Sharma V, et al.
A precisely substituted benzopyran targets androgen refractory prostate cancer cells through selective modulation of estrogen receptors.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015; 283(3):187-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dietary consumption of phytoestrogens like genistein has been linked with lower incidence of prostate cancer. The estradiol-like benzopyran core of genistein confers estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) selectivity that imparts weak anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells. DL-2-[4-(2-piperidinoethoxy)phenyl]-3-phenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (BP), a SERM designed with benzopyran core, targeted androgen independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells 14-times more potently than genistein, ~25% more efficiently than tamoxifen and 6.5-times more actively than ICI-182780, without forfeiting significant specificity in comparison to genistein. BP increased apoptosis (annexin-V and TUNEL labeling), arrested cell cycle, and significantly increased caspase-3 activity along with mRNA expressions of estrogen receptor (ER)-β and FasL (qPCR) in PC-3 cells. In classical ERE-luc reporter assay BP behaved as a potent ER-α antagonist and ER-β agonist. Accordingly, it decreased expression of ER-α target PS2 (P<0.01) and increased expression of ER-β target TNF-α (P<0.05) genes in PC-3. ER-β deficient PC-3 (siRNA-transfected) was resistant to apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions of SERMs, including stimulation of FasL expression by BP. BP significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and ERK-1/2, JNK and p38 in PC-3 (immunoblotting), and thus adopted a multi-pathway mechanism to exert a more potent anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells than natural and synthetic SERMs. Its precise ER-subtype specific activity presents a unique lead structure for further optimization.

Abdel-Latif MM, Kelleher D, Reynolds JV
Molecular mechanisms of constitutive and inducible NF-kappaB activation in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(4):464-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) regulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in the immune and inflammatory response. NF-κB is constitutively activated in oesophageal tumour tissues and induced in oesophageal cells by bile and acid. The aim of the present study was to define the mechanisms underlying NF-κB activation in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fresh biopsy specimens were obtained from 20 patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The activation of NF-κB in oesophageal tumour specimens and oesophageal SKGT-4 cells was assessed by gel mobility shift and Western blotting. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT/PKB), Ikappa kinase-alpha/beta (IKK-α/β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was examined by Western blotting. High content analysis was used to quantify NF-κB translocation in oesophageal cells.
RESULTS: Oesophageal tumour tissues had higher levels of NF-κB. Increased levels of phosphorylated AKT and IKK-α/β and ERK1/2 were detected in tumour tissues compared with normal oesophageal mucosa. Exposure of SKGT-4 cells to deoxycholic acid (DCA) or acid resulted in NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of AKT, IKK-α/β and ERK1/2. Specific inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PI3K (LY294002 and worhmannin) and ERK1/2 inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed DCA- and acid-induced NF-κB activation. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and the antioxidants vitamin C and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) also inhibited NF-κB activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate a major role for PI3K/AKT-IKK-α/β-ERK1/2 signalling pathway in NF-κB activation in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that NF-κB may be a prognostic marker for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and modulating of NF-κB may uncover new therapeutic strategies.

Boye A, Kan H, Wu C, et al.
MAPK inhibitors differently modulate TGF-β/Smad signaling in HepG2 cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3643-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which crosstalk with TGF-β/Smad signaling via linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3 to promote hepatocarcinogenesis. After DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats showed increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2, we next antagonized TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38, ERK1/2, Smad2/3 signaling in HepG2 cells using SP600125, SB203580, and PD98059, respectively. Cell proliferation and invasion were assessed by MTT assay and transwell invasion chambers, respectively. Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 expressions and PAI-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription were measured by using immuno-precipitation/immuno-blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. All the MAPK-specific inhibitors suppressed cell invasion, while all but PD98059 suppressed cell proliferation. Both SP600125 and SB203580 blocked pSmad2C/L and oncogenic pSmad3L. PD98059 blocked pSmad2L but had no effect on elevated pSmad2C and oncogenic pSmad3L. All but PD98059 blocked Smad2/3/4 complex formation and restored Smad7 expression, while all the three MAPK-Specific inhibitors repressed PAI-1 mRNA transcription. Both SP600125 and SB203580 inhibited HepG2 cells' proliferation and invasion by blocking oncogenic pSmad3L and Smad2/3/4 complex formation. PD98059 repressed PAI-1 mRNA by an unknown mechanism.

Arechederra M, Priego N, Vázquez-Carballo A, et al.
p38 MAPK down-regulates fibulin 3 expression through methylation of gene regulatory sequences: role in migration and invasion.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(7):4383-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/02/2016 Related Publications
p38 MAPKs regulate migration and invasion. However, the mechanisms involved are only partially known. We had previously identified fibulin 3, which plays a role in migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, as a gene regulated by p38α. We have characterized in detail how p38 MAPK regulates fibulin 3 expression and its role. We describe here for the first time that p38α, p38γ, and p38δ down-regulate fibulin 3 expression. p38α has a stronger effect, and it does so through hypermethylation of CpG sites in the regulatory sequences of the gene. This would be mediated by the DNA methylase, DNMT3A, which is down-regulated in cells lacking p38α, but once re-introduced represses Fibulin 3 expression. p38α through HuR stabilizes dnmt3a mRNA leading to an increase in DNMT3A protein levels. Moreover, by knocking-down fibulin 3, we have found that Fibulin 3 inhibits migration and invasion in MEFs by mechanisms involving p38α/β inhibition. Hence, p38α pro-migratory/invasive effect might be, at least in part, mediated by fibulin 3 down-regulation in MEFs. In contrast, in HCT116 cells, Fibulin 3 promotes migration and invasion through a mechanism dependent on p38α and/or p38β activation. Furthermore, Fibulin 3 promotes in vitro and in vivo tumor growth of HCT116 cells through a mechanism dependent on p38α, which surprisingly acts as a potent inducer of tumor growth. At the same time, p38α limits fibulin 3 expression, which might represent a negative feed-back loop.

Huang HL, Chiang WL, Hsiao PC, et al.
Timosaponin AIII mediates caspase activation and induces apoptosis through JNK1/2 pathway in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3489-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) is a steroidal saponin isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides that has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer. However, the effect of TAIII on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear. Here, the molecular mechanism by which TAIII-induced apoptosis affects human AML cells was investigated. The results showed that TAIII significantly inhibited cell proliferation of four AML cell lines (MV4-11, U937, THP-1, and HL-60). Furthermore, TAIII induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells through caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activations and PARP cleavage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis also showed that TAIII increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the TAIII-induced activation of the caspase-8. Taken together, our results suggest that TAIII induces HL-60 cell apoptosis through JNK1/2 pathways and could serve as a potential additional chemotherapeutic agent for treating AML.

Kim RK, Cui YH, Yoo KC, et al.
Radiation promotes malignant phenotypes through SRC in breast cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(1):78-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the fact that ionizing radiation (IR) is widely used as a standard treatment for breast cancer, much evidence suggests that IR paradoxically promotes cancer malignancy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cancer progression remain obscure. Here, we report that irradiation activates SRC signaling among SRC family kinase proteins, thereby promoting malignant phenotypes such as invasiveness, expansion of the cancer stem-like cell population, and resistance to anticancer agents in breast cancer cells. Importantly, radiation-activated SRC induced SLUG expression and caused epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and p38 MAPK signaling. In agreement, either inhibition of SRC or downstream signaling of p38 MAPK or protein kinase B effectively attenuated radiation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition along with an increase in the cancer stem-like cell population. In addition, downregulation of SRC also abolished radiation-acquired resistance of breast cancer cells to anticancer agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, paclitaxel, and IR. Taken together, our findings suggest that combining radiotherapy with targeting of SRC might attenuate the harmful effects of radiation and enhance the efficacy of breast cancer treatment.

Hlaváč V, Brynychová V, Václavíková R, et al.
The role of cytochromes p450 and aldo-keto reductases in prognosis of breast carcinoma patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(28):e255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolism of anticancer drugs affects their antitumor effects. This study has investigated the associations of gene expression of enzymes metabolizing anticancer drugs with therapy response and survival of breast carcinoma patients. Gene expression of 13 aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), carbonyl reductase 1, and 10 cytochromes P450 (CYPs) was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumors and paired adjacent nonneoplastic tissues from 68 posttreatment breast carcinoma patients. Eleven candidate genes were then evaluated in an independent series of 50 pretreatment patients. Protein expression of the most significant genes was confirmed by immunoblotting. AKR1A1 was significantly overexpressed and AKR1C1-4, KCNAB1, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 downregulated in tumors compared with control nonneoplastic tissues after correction for multiple testing. Significant association of CYP2B6 transcript levels in tumors with expression of hormonal receptors was found in the posttreatment set and replicated in the pretreatment set of patients. Significantly higher intratumoral levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, or CYP2W1 were found in responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with nonresponders. Patients with high AKR7A3 or CYP2B6 levels in the pretreatment set had significantly longer disease-free survival than patients with low levels. Protein products of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP3A4, and carbonyl reductase (CBR1) were found in tumors and those of AKR1C1, AKR7A3, and CBR1 correlated with their transcript levels. Small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of AKR1C2 or vector-mediated upregulation of CYP3A4 in MDA-MB-231 model cell line had no effect on cell proliferation after paclitaxel treatment in vitro. Prognostic and predictive roles of drug-metabolizing enzymes strikingly differ between posttreatment and pretreatment breast carcinoma patients. Mechanisms of action of AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CBR1 should continue to be further followed in breast carcinoma patients and models.

Wang K, Kim MK, Di Caro G, et al.
Interleukin-17 receptor a signaling in transformed enterocytes promotes early colorectal tumorigenesis.
Immunity. 2014; 41(6):1052-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/12/2015 Related Publications
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine linked to rapid malignant progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) and therapy resistance. IL-17A exerts its pro-tumorigenic activity through its type A receptor (IL-17RA). However, IL-17RA is expressed in many cell types, including hematopoietic, fibroblastoid, and epithelial cells, in the tumor microenvironment, and how IL-17RA engagement promotes colonic tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that IL-17RA signals directly within transformed colonic epithelial cells (enterocytes) to promote early tumor development. IL-17RA engagement activates ERK, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling and promotes the proliferation of tumorigenic enterocytes that just lost expression of the APC tumor suppressor. Although IL-17RA signaling also controls the production of IL-6, this mechanism makes only a partial contribution to colonic tumorigenesis. Combined treatment with chemotherapy, which induces IL-17A expression, and an IL-17A neutralizing antibody enhanced the therapeutic responsiveness of established colon tumors. These findings establish IL-17A and IL-17RA as therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer.

Happy M, Dejoie J, Zajac CK, et al.
Sigma 1 Receptor antagonist potentiates the anti-cancer effect of p53 by regulating ER stress, ROS production, Bax levels, and caspase-3 activation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(2):683-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the last years, many improvements have been made in the treatment of breast cancer; however, novel and less toxic therapies are still needed, especially for relapsing and chemo-resistant patients. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of p53 and Rimcazole, a Sigma 1 Receptor antagonist. Rimcazole and p53 are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials, respectively. While p53 is a promising antitumor therapeutic agent, antagonists of Sigma 1 Receptor also inhibit tumor cell survival and induce apoptosis. Our current study demonstrates for the first time the synergistic effect of p53 in combination with the Sigma 1 Receptor antagonist Rimcazole. Furthermore, we show that shRNA knockdown of Sigma 1 Receptor in combination with p53, lead to a similar synergistic effect, and that this synergistic effect, in breast cancer growth suppression occurs independent of p53 status. Furthermore, this combination treatment induced ER stress, p38 MAPK activation, ROS production, and proteins involved in apoptosis (caspases-3, Bax) in breast cancer cells. Combining these therapeutic anti-cancer molecules provides an innovative approach for potentially treating human breast cancer.

Wang Y, Tu Q, Yan W, et al.
CXC195 suppresses proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulating TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(1):373-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXC195 showed strong protective effects in neuronal apoptosis by exerting its antioxidant activity. However, the anti-cancer effects of CXC195 is still with limited acquaintance. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells lines (HepG2) and the possible signaling pathways. CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. In addition, CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, including TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL-22 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Moreover, CXC195 inhibited the expressions and interactions of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1, NF-κB translocation to nucleus and its DNA binding activity, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Our results suggested that treatment with CXC195 could attenuate the TLR4-mediated proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, thus might be beneficial for the treatment of HCC.

Gozdecka M, Lyons S, Kondo S, et al.
JNK suppresses tumor formation via a gene-expression program mediated by ATF2.
Cell Rep. 2014; 9(4):1361-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
JNK and p38 phosphorylate a diverse set of substrates and, consequently, can act in a context-dependent manner to either promote or inhibit tumor growth. Elucidating the functions of specific substrates of JNK and p38 is therefore critical for our understanding of these kinases in cancer. ATF2 is a phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor and substrate of both JNK and p38. Here, we show ATF2 suppresses tumor formation in an orthotopic model of liver cancer and cellular transformation in vitro. Furthermore, we find that suppression of tumorigenesis by JNK requires ATF2. We identify a transcriptional program activated by JNK via ATF2 and provide examples of JNK- and ATF2-dependent genes that block cellular transformation. Significantly, we also show that ATF2-dependent gene expression is frequently downregulated in human cancers, indicating that amelioration of JNK-ATF2-mediated suppression may be a common event during tumor development.

El-Khattouti A, Sheehan NT, Monico J, et al.
CD133⁺ melanoma subpopulation acquired resistance to caffeic acid phenethyl ester-induced apoptosis is attributed to the elevated expression of ABCB5: significance for melanoma treatment.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(1):83-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
According to the cancer stem-like cell (CSC) hypothesis, neoplastic clones are maintained by a small fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Also, melanoma resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy is thought to be attributed to melanoma stem-like cells (MSCs). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive molecule, whose antitumor activity is approved in different tumor types. CAPE induced both apoptosis and E2F1 expression in CD133(-), but not in CD133(+) melanoma subpopulations. The resistance of CD133(+) melanoma subpopulation is attributed to the enhanced drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5), since the knockdown of ABCB5 was found to sensitize CD133(+) cells to CAPE. CAPE-induced apoptosis is mediated by E2F1 as evidenced by the abrogation of apoptosis induced in response to the knockdown of E2F1. The functional analysis of E2F1 in CD133(+) melanoma subpopulation demonstrated the ability of E2F1 gene transfer to trigger apoptosis of CD133(+) cells and to enhance the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, and the DNA-binding activities of the transcription factors AP-1 and p53. Also, the induction of E2F1 expression was found to enhance the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Noxa and Puma, and to suppress the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Using specific pharmacological inhibitors we could demonstrate that E2F1 overcomes the chemo-resistance of MSCs/CD133(+) cells by a mechanism mediated by both mitochondrial dysregulation and ER-stress-dependent pathways. In conclusion, our data addresses the mechanisms of CAPE/E2F1-induced apoptosis of chemo-resistant CD133(+) melanoma subpopulation.

Lee JR, Lee MH, Eo HJ, et al.
The contribution of activating transcription factor 3 to apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells by protocatechualdehyde, a naturally occurring phenolic compound.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014; 564:203-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is one of the important compounds found in barley, green cavendish bananas and grapevine leaves. PCA shows anti-cancer activities in breast, leukemia and colorectal cancer cells. Previous study reported that PCA exerts anti-cancer activity through down-regulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) by PCA has not been studied. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects ATF3 expression and ATF3-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PCA decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HCT116 and SW480 cells. In addition, PCA reduced cell viability in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HepG-2 cells. Exposure of PCA activated the levels of ATF3 protein and mRNA in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2/ by PD98059 and p38 by SB203580 inhibited PCA-induced ATF3 expression and transcriptional activation. ATF3-knockdown inhibited PCA-induced apoptosis and cell viability. In addition, ATF3 overexpression enhanced PCA-mediated cleavage of PARP. These findings suggest that inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis by PCA may be result of ATF3 expression through ERK1/2 and p38-mediated transcriptional activation.

Tan B, Li Y, Zhao Q, et al.
Inhibition of Vav3 could reverse the drug resistance of gastric cancer cells by downregulating JNK signaling pathway.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(12):526-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of Vav3 on the multidrug resistance of gastric cancer. Fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assay were used to detect Vav3 and drug resistance genes in gastric cancer tissues as well as gastric cell lines such as SGC7901, SGC7901/adriamycin (ADR) and GES-1. Besides, Vav3-specific small interfering RNA (Vav3-siRNA) was applied to inhibit Vav3 in SGC7901/ADR, and SRB assay was used to determine chemosensitivity. After that, drug resistance genes and proteins in MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were detected after Vav3-siRNA transfection. The results showed that overexpressed Vav3 was found in gastric cancer tissues and SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells. Activity of SGC7901/ADR cells transfected with Vav3-siRNA combined with 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin was much lower than that of control groups, and MDR1/P-gp, GST-π and Bcl-2, Bax genes were significantly downregulated in Vav3-siRNA transfection group. AKT, ERK and p38 total protein and their phosphorylation levels showed no significant change in Vav3-siRNA-transfected SGC7901/ADR cells, whereas the ratio of C-Jun phosphorylation levels to total C-Jun protein was significantly downregulated. The results suggested that Vav3 may play a role in drug resistance of gastric cancer by inhibiting drug resistance genes MDR1/P-gp, GST-π and Bcl-2 through regulating the JNK signaling pathway.

Reeb AN, Li W, Sewell W, et al.
S100A8 is a novel therapeutic target for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(2):E232-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most deadly human malignancies. It is 99% lethal, and patients have a median survival of only 6 months after diagnosis. Despite these grim statistics, the mechanism underlying the tumorigenic capability of ATC cells is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: S100A8 and S100A9 proteins have emerged as critical mediators in cancer. The aim was to investigate the expression and function of S100A8 and S100A9 in ATC and the mechanisms involved.
DESIGN: We determined the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human ATC by gene array analysis and immunohistochemistry. Using RNAi-mediated stable gene knockdown in human ATC cell lines and bioluminescent imaging of orthotopic and lung metastasis mouse models of human ATC, we investigated the effects of S100A8 and S100A9 on tumorigenesis and metastasis.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that S100A8 and S100A9 were overexpressed in ATC but not in other types of thyroid carcinomas. In vivo analysis in mice using ATC cells that had S100A8 knocked down revealed reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis, as well as significantly prolonged animal survival. Mechanistic investigations showed that S100A8 promotes ATC cell proliferation through an interaction with RAGE, which activates the p38, ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways in the tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a novel role for S100A8 in the promoting and enhancing of ATC progression. They further suggest that the inhibition of S100A8 could represent a relevant therapeutic target, with the potential of enabling a more effective treatment path for this deadly disease.

Montesinos-Rongen M, Purschke F, Küppers R, Deckert M
Immunoglobulin repertoire of primary lymphomas of the central nervous system.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014; 73(12):1116-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (PCNSL) is a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confined to the CNS. It has been hypothesized that antigen(s) in the CNS may trigger tumor cell proliferation. Because efforts to identify potential antigens have been unsuccessful to date, we studied the B-cell receptor in detail in a comprehensive series of 50 PCNSLs to obtain indirect information on potential antigens. Potentially functional V-D-J rearrangements were identified in all PCNSLs analyzed. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene segment (IGHV), IGHV4, was the predominant family used by 66% (33 of 50) of PCNSLs with a preferential rearrangement of the IGHV4-34 gene segment (18 [55%] of 33). The IGHV genes showed mutation frequencies from 0% to 29%, with a high average mutation frequency of 10%. In addition to 48% (24 of 50) of PCNSLs being highly mutated, 22% (11 of 50) defined a low-level mutated group. Antigen selection of the tumor cells or their precursors was indicated by replacement/silent mutation ratios and ongoing somatic hypermutation. Complementarity determining region 3 length and composition as well as the lack of stereotyped B-cell receptors suggest involvement of several antigens instead of a unique antigen recognized by the tumor cells.

Kao C, Chao A, Tsai CL, et al.
Bortezomib enhances cancer cell death by blocking the autophagic flux through stimulating ERK phosphorylation.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1510 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
The antitumor activity of an inhibitor of 26S proteasome bortezomib (Velcade) has been observed in various malignancies, including colon cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Bortezomib has been proposed to stimulate autophagy, but scientific observations did not always support this. Interactions between ERK activity and autophagy are complex and not completely clear. Autophagy proteins have recently been shown to regulate the functions of ERK, and ERK activation has been found to induce autophagy. On the other hand, sustained activation of ERK has also been shown to inhibit the maturation step of the autophagy process. In this study, we sought to identify the mechanism of autophagy regulation in cancer cells treated with bortezomib. Our results indicate that bortezomib blocked the autophagic flux without inhibiting the fusion of the autophagosome and lysosome. In ovarian cancer, as well as endometrial cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, bortezomib inhibited protein degradation in lysosomes by suppressing cathepsins, which requires the participation of ERK phosphorylation, but not JNK or p38. Our findings that ERK phosphorylation reduced cathepsins further explain how ERK phosphorylation inhibits the autophagic flux. In conclusion, bortezomib may induce ERK phosphorylation to suppress cathepsin B and inhibit the catalytic process of autophagy in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. The inhibition of cisplatin-induced autophagy by bortezomib can enhance chemotherapy efficacy in ovarian cancer. As we also found that bortezomib blocks the autophagic flux in other cancers, the synergistic cytotoxic effect of bortezomib by abolishing chemotherapy-related autophagy may help us develop strategies of combination therapies for multiple cancers.

Lei YY, Wang WJ, Mei JH, Wang CL
Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction in solid tumors.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):8539-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important signaling pathway in living beings in response to extracellular stimuli. There are 5 main subgroups manipulating by a set of sequential actions: ERK(ERK1/ ERK2), c-Jun N(JNK/SAPK), p38 MAPK(p38α, p38β, p38γ and p38δ), and ERK3/ ERK4/ ERK5. When stimulated, factors of upstream or downstream change, and by interacting with each other, these groups have long been recognized to be related to multiple biologic processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, death, migration, invasion and inflammation. However, once abnormally activated, cancer may occur. Several components of the MAPK network have already been proposed as targets in cancer therapy, such as p38, JNK, ERK, MEK, RAF, RAS, and DUSP1. Among them, alteration of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK(RAS-MAPK) pathway has frequently been reported in human cancer as a result of abnormal activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or gain-of-function mutations in genes. The reported roles of MAPK signaling in apoptotic cell death are controversial, so that further in-depth investigations are needed to address these controversies. Based on an extensive analysis of published data, the goal of this review is to provide an overview on recent studies about the mechanism of MAP kinases, and how it generates certain tumors, as well as related treatments.

Maeda M, Chen Y, Hayashi H, et al.
Chronic exposure to asbestos enhances TGF-β1 production in the human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line MT-2.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(6):2522-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asbestos exposure causes various tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To elucidate the immunological alteration in asbestos-related tumors, an asbestos-induced apoptosis-resistant subline (MT-2Rst) was established from a human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line (MT-2Org) by long-term exposure to asbestos chrysotile-B (CB). In this study, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) knockdown using lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference showed that MT-2Rst cells secreted increased levels of TGF-β1, and acquired resistance to TGF-β1-mediated growth inhibition. We showed that exposure of MT-2Org cells to CB activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1. Furthermore, TGF-β1-knockdown cells and treatment with MAPK inhibitors revealed that MT-2Rst cells secreted a high level of TGF-β1 mainly through phosphorylation of p38. However, an Annexin V assay indicated that TGF-β1 resistance in MT-2Rst cells was not directly involved in the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis that is triggered by CB exposure. The overall results demonstrate that long-term exposure of MT-2Org cells to CB induces a regulatory T cell-like phenotype, suggesting that chronic exposure to asbestos leads to a state of immune suppression.

Wang X, Breeze A, Kulka M
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit IFN-γ-induced IL-18 binding protein production by prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(2):249-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer cells can produce IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in response to interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which may function to neutralize IL-18, an anti-tumor factor formerly known as IFN-γ inducing factor. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with a lower risk of certain types of cancer including prostate cancer, although the precise mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFAs could modify IL-18BP production by prostate cancer cells by altering IFN-γ receptor-mediated signal transduction. Here, we demonstrate that n-3 PUFA treatment significantly reduced IFN-γ-induced IL-18BP production by DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inhibiting IL-18BP mRNA expression and was associated with a reduction in IFN-γ receptor expression. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and P38 were suppressed by n-3 PUFA treatment. By contrast, n-6 PUFA had no effect on IFN-γ receptor expression, but decreased IFN-γ-induced IL-18BP production and IFN-γ stimulation of JAK1, STAT1, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation. These data indicate that both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be beneficial in prostate cancer by altering IFN-γ signaling, thus inhibiting IL-18BP production and thereby rendering prostate cancer cells more sensitive to IL-18-mediated immune responses.

Chun YJ
Knockdown of clusterin expression increases the in vitro sensitivity of human prostate cancer cells to paclitaxel.
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014; 77(22-24):1443-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is a secreted heterodimeric glycoprotein that is implicated in several pathophysiological processes, including tissue remodeling, reproduction, lipid transport, and apoptosis. Although previous studies demonstrated that clusterin is able to protect against apoptosis, the role of the clusterin in cellular proliferation remains elusive. To determine whether clusterin plays an important role in cellular proliferation, the function of clusterin was examined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Transient transfection with clusterin siRNA resulted in significant suppression of clusterin mRNA and protein expression. Clusterin knockdown resulted in a decrease in protein expression of phospho-Akt and an increase in expression of proteins phosphatase type 2AC (PP2AC) and phosphorylation of p38. However, treatment with PP2AC siRNA exerted minimal effects on clusterin expression. Interestingly, clusterin mRNA expression was reduced in paclitaxel-treated cells, and the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel was more potent when cells were incubated with clusterin siRNA. In addition, co-treatment with paclitaxel and clusterin siRNA significantly enhanced PP2AC levels. Taken together, these results indicate that clusterin plays a crucial role in PC3 cell proliferation and that clusterin depletion may contribute to enhanced sensitivity of PC3 cells to anticancer agents such as paclitaxel.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. MAPK14, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 11 August, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999