LOXL2

Gene Summary

Gene:LOXL2; lysyl oxidase-like 2
Aliases: LOR2, WS9-14
Location:8p21.3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase gene family. The prototypic member of the family is essential to the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly conserved amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end appears to be sufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each family member may retain this function. The N-terminus is poorly conserved and may impart additional roles in developmental regulation, senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxis to each member of the family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysyl oxidase homolog 2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 08 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (28)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Proliferation
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factors
  • Isoenzymes
  • Skin Cancer
  • Collagen
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Gene Expression
  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Protein Interaction Maps
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Chromosome 8
  • Transcription Factor 3
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • ras Proteins
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • RTPCR
  • Transfection
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Breast Cancer
  • siRNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Disease Progression
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Liver Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LOXL2 (cancer-related)

Martin A, Salvador F, Moreno-Bueno G, et al.
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 represses Notch1 expression in the skin to promote squamous cell carcinoma progression.
EMBO J. 2015; 34(8):1090-109 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including fibrosis and tumor progression, implicating intracellular and extracellular functions. To explore the specific in vivo role of LOXL2 in physiological and tumor contexts, we generated conditional gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Germ-line deletion of Loxl2 promotes lethality in half of newborn mice mainly associated to congenital heart defects, while Loxl2 overexpression triggers male sterility due to epididymal dysfunction caused by epithelial disorganization, fibrosis and acute inflammation. Remarkably, when challenged to chemical skin carcinogenesis, Loxl2-overexpressing mice increased tumor burden and malignant progression, while Loxl2-deficient mice exhibit the opposite phenotypes. Loxl2 levels in premalignant tumors negatively correlate with expression of epidermal differentiation markers and components of the Notch1 pathway. We show that LOXL2 is a direct repressor of NOTCH1. Additionally, we identify an exclusive expression pattern between LOXL2 and members of the canonical NOTCH1 pathway in human HNSCC. Our data identify for the first time novel LOXL2 roles in tissue homeostasis and support it as a target for SCC therapy.

Lv GQ, Zou HY, Liao LD, et al.
Identification of a novel lysyl oxidase-like 2 alternative splicing isoform, LOXL2 Δe13, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 92(5):379-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) participates in every stage of cancer progression and promotes invasion and metastasis. In this study, we identified a novel alternative splicing isoform of LOXL2, namely LOXL2 Δe13, which lacked exon 13. Deletion of exon 13 caused an open reading frame shift and produced a truncated protein. LOXL2 Δe13 was expressed ubiquitously in cell lines and tissues and was mainly localized to the cytoplasm. Although it showed impaired deamination enzymatic activity compared with full-length LOXL2, LOXL2 Δe13 promoted the cell mobility and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells to greater degrees. In further research on the mechanisms, gene expression profiling and signaling pathway analysis revealed that LOXL2 Δe13 induced the expression of MAPK8 without affecting the FAK, AKT, and ERK signaling pathways. RNAi-mediated knockdown of MAPK8 could block the cell migration promoted by LOXL2De13, but it had little effect on that of full-length LOXL2. Our data suggest that LOXL2 Δe13 modulates the effects of cancer cell migration and invasion through a different mechanism from that of full-length LOXL2 and that it may play a very important role in tumor carcinogenesis and progression.

Wu BL, Lv GQ, Zou HY, et al.
Exploration of potential roles of a new LOXL2 splicing variant using network knowledge in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014:431792 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
LOXL2 (lysyl oxidase-like 2), an enzyme that catalyzes oxidative deamination of lysine residue, is upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A LOXL2 splice variant LOXL2-e13 and its wild type were overexpressed in ESCC cells followed by microarray analyses. In this study, we explored the potential role and molecular mechanism of LOXL2-e13 based on known protein-protein interactions (PPIs), following microarray analysis of KYSE150 ESCC cells overexpressing a LOXL2 splice variant, denoted by LOXL2-e13, or its wild-type counterpart. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of LOXL2-WT and LOXL2-e13 were applied to generate individual PPI subnetworks in which hundreds of DEGs interacted with thousands of other proteins. These two DEG groups were annotated by Functional Annotation Chart analysis in the DAVID bioinformatics database and compared. These results found many specific annotations indicating the potential specific role or mechanism for LOXL2-e13. The DEGs of LOXL2-e13, comparing to its wild type, were prioritized by the Random Walk with Restart algorithm. Several tumor-related genes such as ERO1L, ITGA3, and MAPK8 were found closest to LOXL2-e13. These results provide helpful information for subsequent experimental identification of the specific biological roles and molecular mechanisms of LOXL2-e13. Our study also provides a work flow to identify potential roles of splice variants with large scale data.

Relógio A, Thomas P, Medina-Pérez P, et al.
Ras-mediated deregulation of the circadian clock in cancer.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(5):e1004338 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Circadian rhythms are essential to the temporal regulation of molecular processes in living systems and as such to life itself. Deregulation of these rhythms leads to failures in biological processes and eventually to the manifestation of pathological phenotypes including cancer. To address the questions as to what are the elicitors of a disrupted clock in cancer, we applied a systems biology approach to correlate experimental, bioinformatics and modelling data from several cell line models for colorectal and skin cancer. We found strong and weak circadian oscillators within the same type of cancer and identified a set of genes, which allows the discrimination between the two oscillator-types. Among those genes are IFNGR2, PITX2, RFWD2, PPARγ, LOXL2, Rab6 and SPARC, all involved in cancer-related pathways. Using a bioinformatics approach, we extended the core-clock network and present its interconnection to the discriminative set of genes. Interestingly, such gene signatures link the clock to oncogenic pathways like the RAS/MAPK pathway. To investigate the potential impact of the RAS/MAPK pathway - a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis - on the circadian clock, we used a computational model which predicted that perturbation of BMAL1-mediated transcription can generate the circadian phenotypes similar to those observed in metastatic cell lines. Using an inducible RAS expression system, we show that overexpression of RAS disrupts the circadian clock and leads to an increase of the circadian period while RAS inhibition causes a shortening of period length, as predicted by our mathematical simulations. Together, our data demonstrate that perturbations induced by a single oncogene are sufficient to deregulate the mammalian circadian clock.

Xu J, Li D, Li X, et al.
67 laminin receptor promotes the malignant potential of tumour cells up-regulating lysyl oxidase-like 2 expression in cholangiocarcinoma.
Dig Liver Dis. 2014; 46(8):750-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 67 laminin receptor (67LR) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma, but its mechanism remains unclear.
AIMS: We investigated the clinical significance of 67LR and its relation to lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) in 67LR-mediated invasion and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS: The clinical significance of 67LR and LOXL2 expression and the prognosis of patients were investigated in 73 cancerous and 32 paracancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. The impact of LOXL2 on invasion, metastasis and 67LR expression was evaluated in cholangiocarcinoma cells by shRNA or expressed-plasmid transfection.
RESULTS: Expression of 67LR was recognized in 35.62% cholangiocarcinoma tissue, and none in paracancerous tissues. LOXL2 was positively correlated with expression of 67LR. Expression of 67LR or LOXL2 in cholangiocarcinomas was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, differentiation and poor overall survival. Cox analysis showed that 67LR can act as an independent prognostic biomarker of prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma patients. Expression of LOXL2 decreased by knockdown of 67LR and increased by overexpression of 67LR in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Knockdown of LOXL2 reduced invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: 67LR may regulate the expression of LOXL2 to promote invasion and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma cells. It could be used as an independent prognostic marker in cholangiocarcinoma patients.

Wu BL, Zou HY, Lv GQ, et al.
Protein-protein interaction network analyses for elucidating the roles of LOXL2-delta72 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(5):2345-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a member of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family, is a copper-dependent enzyme that catalyzes oxidative deamination of lysine residues on protein substrates. LOXL2 was found to be overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in our previous research. We later identified a LOXL2 splicing variant LOXL2-delta72 and we overexpressed LOXL2-delta72 and its wild type counterpart in ESCC cells following microarray analyses. First, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of LOXL2 and LOXL2-delta72 compared to empty plasmid were applied to generate protein-protein interaction (PPI) sub-networks. Comparison of these two sub-networks showed hundreds of different proteins. To reveal the potential specific roles of LOXL2- delta72 compared to its wild type, the DEGs of LOXL2-delta72 vs LOXL2 were also applied to construct a PPI sub-network which was annotated by Gene Ontology. The functional annotation map indicated the third PPI sub-network involved hundreds of GO terms, such as "cell cycle arrest", "G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle", "interphase", "cell-matrix adhesion" and "cell-substrate adhesion", as well as significant "immunity" related terms, such as "innate immune response", "regulation of defense response" and "Toll signaling pathway". These results provide important clues for experimental identification of the specific biological roles and molecular mechanisms of LOXL2-delta72. This study also provided a work flow to test the different roles of a splicing variant with high-throughput data.

Canesin G, Cuevas EP, Santos V, et al.
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and E47 EMT factor: novel partners in E-cadherin repression and early metastasis colonization.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(8):951-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with increased aggressiveness and acquisition of migratory properties providing tumor cells with the ability to invade into adjacent tissues. Downregulation of E-cadherin, a hallmark of EMT, is mediated by several transcription factors (EMT-TFs) that act also as EMT inducers, among them, Snail1 and the bHLH transcription factor E47. We previously described lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a member of the lysyl oxidase family, as a Snail1 regulator and EMT inducer. Here we show that LOXL2 is also an E47-interacting partner and functionally collaborates in the repression of E-cadherin promoter. Loss and gain of function analyses combined with in vivo studies in syngeneic breast cancer models demonstrate the participation of LOXL2 and E47 in tumor growth and their requirement for lung metastasis. Furthermore, LOXL2 and E47 contribute to early steps of metastatic colonization by cell and noncell autonomous functions regulating the recruitment of bone marrow progenitor cells to the lungs and by direct transcriptional regulation of fibronectin and cytokines TNFα, ANG-1 and GM-CSF. Moreover, fibronectin and GM-CSF proved to be necessary for LOXL2/E47-mediated modulation of tumor growth and lung metastasis.

Díaz-Martín J, Díaz-López A, Moreno-Bueno G, et al.
A core microRNA signature associated with inducers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
J Pathol. 2014; 232(3):319-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although it is becoming clear that certain miRNAs fulfil a fundamental role in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a comprehensive study of the miRNAs associated with this process has yet to be performed. Here, we profiled the signature of miRNA expression in an in vitro model of EMT, ectopically expressing in MDCK cells one of seven EMT transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, TWIST1, TWIST2 or E47) or the EMT inducer LOXL2. In this way, we identified a core subset of deregulated miRNAs that were further validated in vivo, studying endometrial carcinosarcoma (ECS), a tumour entity that represents an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity. Moreover, epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation of miRNA genes of the miR-200 family and miR-205 that are down-regulated during EMT was evident in both the in vitro (MDCK transfectants) and in vivo (ECS) models of EMT. The strong correlation between expression and DNA methylation suggests a major role for this epigenetic mark in the regulation of the miR-141-200c locus.

Moon HJ, Finney J, Xu L, et al.
MCF-7 cells expressing nuclear associated lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) exhibit an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and are highly invasive in vitro.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(42):30000-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
LOXL2 is a copper- and lysine tyrosylquinone-dependent amine oxidase that has been proposed to function both extracellularly and intracellularly to activate oncogenic signaling pathways leading to EMT and invasion of breast cancer cells. In this study, we selected MCF-7 cells that stably express forms of recombinant LOXL2 differing in their subcellular localizations and catalytic competencies. This enabled us to dissect the molecular functions of intracellular and extracellular LOXL2s and examine their contributions to breast cancer metastasis/invasion. We discovered that secreted LOXL2 (~100-kDa) is N-glycosylated at Asn-455 and Asn-644, whereas intracellular LOXL2 (~75-kDa) is nonglycosylated and N-terminally processed, and is primarily associated with the nucleus. Both forms of LOXL2 can oxidize lysine in solution. However, we found that expression of intracellular LOXL2 is more strongly associated with EMT and invasiveness than secreted LOXL2 in vitro. The results indicate that nuclear associated LOXL2 contributes to the stabilization of Snail1 transcription factor at the protein level to induce EMT and promote invasion in vitro, through repression of E-cadherin, occludin, and estrogen receptor-α, and up-regulation of vimentin, fibronectin, and MT1-MMP.

Chang J, Nicolau MM, Cox TR, et al.
LOXL2 induces aberrant acinar morphogenesis via ErbB2 signaling.
Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15(4):R67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a matrix-remodeling enzyme that has been shown to play a key role in invasion and metastasis of breast carcinoma cells. However, very little is known about its role in normal tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of LOXL2 expression in normal mammary epithelial cells to gain insight into how LOXL2 mediates cancer progression.
METHODS: LOXL2 was expressed in MCF10A normal human mammary epithelial cells. The 3D acinar morphogenesis of these cells was assessed, as well as the ability of the cells to form branching structures on extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated surfaces. Transwell-invasion assays were used to assess the invasive properties of the cells. Clinically relevant inhibitors of ErbB2, lapatinib and Herceptin (traztuzumab), were used to investigate the role of ErbB2 signaling in this model. A retrospective study on a previously published breast cancer patient dataset was carried out by using Disease Specific Genomic Analysis (DSGA) to investigate the correlation of LOXL2 mRNA expression level with metastasis and survival of ErbB2-positive breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: Fluorescence staining of the acini revealed increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and disrupted polarity, leading to abnormal lumen formation in response to LOXL2 expression in MCF10A cells. When plated onto ECM, the LOXL2-expressing cells formed branching structures and displayed increased invasion. We noted that LOXL2 induced ErbB2 activation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ErbB2 inhibition by using Herceptin or lapatinib abrogated the effects of LOXL2 on MCF10A cells. Finally, we found LOXL2 expression to be correlated with decreased overall survival and metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients with ErbB2-positive tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that LOXL2 expression in normal epithelial cells can induce abnormal changes that resemble oncogenic transformation and cancer progression, and that these effects are driven by LOXL2-mediated activation of ErbB2. LOXL2 may also be a beneficial marker for breast cancer patients that could benefit most from anti-ErbB2 therapy.

Ahn SG, Dong SM, Oshima A, et al.
LOXL2 expression is associated with invasiveness and negatively influences survival in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 141(1):89-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is associated with invasiveness and metastasis in breast cancer. We analyzed the prognostic impact of LOXL2 for breast cancer patients and investigated the role of LOXL2 in breast cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical study of LOXL2 expression was done in samples from 309 patients. Survival analysis was performed using log-rank test and Cox regression hazard model. After identification of LOXL2 expression in breast cancer cell lines, we performed matrigel invasion and wound-healing assays with LOXL2-silenced cell lines. In the human study, LOXL2 was expressed in 16.2 % of patients. Comparing the LOXL2-positive versus negative groups, there was a significantly higher proportion of estrogen receptor-negative patients (54.0 vs. 37.0 %, respectively; p = 0.029) and triple-negative patients (34.0 vs. 18.0 %; p = 0.022) in the positive group. In multivariate analysis for overall survival and metastasis-free survival, positive LOXL2 was demonstrated as a poor prognostic factor (HR 2.27 and 2.10, respectively). In vitro study indicated that LOXL2 silencing induces a mesenchymal-epithelial transition-like process in basal cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and BT549) associated with decreased invasive and migratory properties. These clinical and preclinical data confirm that higher LOXL2 expression is associated with invasiveness of basal-like breast cancer cells and lower survival of breast cancer patients. Our results suggest the clinical value of LOXL2 as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Yang J, Du X
Genomic and molecular aberrations in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and their roles in personalized target therapy.
Surg Oncol. 2013; 22(3):e53-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are malignant tumors with a high rate of local recurrence and a significant tendency to metastasize. Its dismal outcome points to the urgent need to establish better therapeutic strategies for patients harboring MPNSTs. The investigations of genomic and molecular aberrations in MPNSTs which detect many chromosomal aberrations, pathway abnormalities, and specific molecular aberrant events would supply multiple potential therapy targets and contribute to achievement of personalized medicine. The involved genes in the significant gains aberrations include BIRC5, CCNE2, DAB2, DDX15, EGFR, DAB2, MSH2, CDK6, HGF, ITGB4, KCNK12, LAMA3, LOXL2, MET, and PDGFRA. The involved genes in the significant deletion aberrations include CDH1, GLTSCR2, EGR1, CTSB, GATA3, SULT2A1, GLTSCR2, HMMR/RHAMM, LICAM2, MMP13, p16/INK4a, RASSF2, NM-23H1, and TP53. These genetic aberrations involve in several important signaling pathways such as TFF, EGFR, ARF, IGF1R signaling pathways. The genomic and molecular aberrations of EGFR, IGF1R, SOX9, EYA4, TOP2A, ETV4, and BIRC5 exhibit great promise as personalized therapeutic targets for MPNST patients.

Lin ZY, Chuang WL
Hepatocellular carcinoma cells cause different responses in expressions of cancer-promoting genes in different cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2013; 29(6):312-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) is one of the most crucial components of the tumor microenvironment to promote the invasiveness of cancer cells. The interactions between cancer cells and CAFs are bidirectional. Our recent study showed that up-regulations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26), interleukin 6 (IL6), and lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) genes in cancer cells were parts of the common effects of CAFs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the subject of how HCC cells to influence the gene expressions of CAFs still needs to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue. Two human HCC (HCC24/KMUH, HCC38/KMUH) and two human CAF cell lines (F26/KMUH, F28/KMUH) were studied. Influence of HCC38/KMUH cancer cells on differential expressions of genes in F28/KMUH CAFs was detected by microarray to select target genes for further analysis. Both HCC cell lines increased proliferation (all p < 0.005) and migration (all p < 0.0001) of two CAF cell lines. HCC24/KMUH cancer cells had stronger ability to promote migration of F26/KMUH CAFs than HCC38/KMUH cancer cells did (p < 0.0001). Eleven up-regulated cancer-promoting genes, including apelin (APLN), CCL2, CCL26, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), IL6, mucin 1 (MUC1), LOXL2, platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide (PDGFA), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) detected by microarray showed good correlation with results of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction study. Among these genes, HCC24/KMUH cancer cells had same tendency of effects on differential expressions of genes in F28/KMUH CAFs as HCC38/KMUH cancer cells did. However, the responses of F26/KMUH CAFs to different HCC cell lines were variable. Only PGK1 gene was consistently up-regulated and PDGFA gene was consistently down-regulated caused by both HCC cell lines in F26/KMUH CAFs. Besides PGK1 gene, HCC38/KMUH cancer cells only up-regulated APLN, LOXL2, and VEGFA genes and HCC24/KMUH cancer cells only up-regulated FGF2 gene in F26/KMUH CAFs. In conclusion, HCC cells can promote proliferation and migration of CAFs. However, the impact of HCC cells on differential expressions of cancer-promoting genes in CAFs is influenced by the characteristics of CAFs. This implies that blocking single or several particular cancer-promoting genes in CAFs is unable to become a common stratagem for the treatment of HCC.

Tadmor T, Bejar J, Attias D, et al.
The expression of lysyl-oxidase gene family members in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Am J Hematol. 2013; 88(5):355-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are malignant disorders originating from clonal expansion of a single neoplastic stem cell and characteristically show an increase in bone marrow reticulin fibers. Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue by crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Expression of LOX gene family members is increased in disorders associated with increased fibrosis. To evaluate involvement of LOX gene family in various MPNs. In-situ hybridization was used to detect Lysyl-Oxidase family members in bone marrow biopsies from patients with different MPNs. We compared normal bone marrows and those from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Serum levels of lysyl-oxidase from patients with PMF and healthy controls were also examined. LOX gene family was not detected in normal bone marrows. All members of the LOX gene family were over expressed in PMF. In other MPNs a differential pattern of expression was observed. Differences in gene expression were statistically significant (P < 0.010). The medianserum LOX levels in normal controls was 28.4 ± 2.5 ng\ml and 44.6 ± 9.44 ng\ml in PMF (P = 0.02). The varying pattern of expression of LOX genes may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of bone marrow fibrosis in these MPNs. These observations could be used as the basis for future targeted therapy directed against bone marrow fibrosis.

Maliszewska A, Leandro-Garcia LJ, Castelblanco E, et al.
Differential gene expression of medullary thyroid carcinoma reveals specific markers associated with genetic conditions.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 182(2):350-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 2% to 5% of thyroid malignancies, of which 75% are sporadic and the remaining 25% are hereditary and related to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome. Despite a genotype-phenotype correlation with specific germline RET mutations, knowledge of pathways specifically associated with each mutation and with non-RET-mutated sporadic MTC remains lacking. Gene expression patterns have provided a tool for identifying molecular events related to specific tumor types and to different clinical features that could help identify novel therapeutic targets. Using transcriptional profiling of 49 frozen MTC specimens classified as RET mutation, we identified PROM1, LOXL2, GFRA1, and DKK4 as related to RET(M918T) and GAL as related to RET(634) mutation. An independent series of 19 frozen and 23 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) MTCs was used for validation by RT-qPCR. Two tissue microarrays containing 69 MTCs were available for IHC assays. According to pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology biological processes, genes associated with the MTC(M918T) group were involved mainly in proliferative, cell adhesion, and general malignant metastatic effects and with Wnt, Notch, NFκB, JAK/Stat, and MAPK signaling pathways. Assays based on silencing of PROM1 by siRNAs performed in the MZ-CRC-1 cell line, harboring RET(M918T), caused an increase in apoptotic nuclei, suggesting that PROM1 is necessary for survival of these cells. This is the first report of PROM1 overexpression among primary tumors.

Luo W, Chang R, Zhong J, et al.
Histone demethylase JMJD2C is a coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 that is required for breast cancer progression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(49):E3367-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates transcription of genes encoding proteins that play key roles in breast cancer biology. We hypothesized that interaction of HIF-1 with epigenetic regulators may increase HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and thereby promote breast cancer progression. We report that the histone demethylase jumonji domain containing protein 2C (JMJD2C) selectively interacts with HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, and that HIF-1α mediates recruitment of JMJD2C to the hypoxia response elements of HIF-1 target genes. JMJD2C decreases trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, and enhances HIF-1 binding to hypoxia response elements, thereby activating transcription of BNIP3, LDHA, PDK1, and SLC2A1, which encode proteins that are required for metabolic reprogramming, as well as LOXL2 and L1CAM, which encode proteins that are required for lung metastasis. JMJD2C expression is significantly associated with expression of GLUT1, LDHA, PDK1, LOX, LOXL2, and L1CAM mRNA in human breast cancer biopsies. JMJD2C knockdown inhibits breast tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis to the lungs of mice following mammary fat pad injection. Taken together, these findings establish an important epigenetic mechanism that stimulates HIF-1-mediated transactivation of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolic reprogramming and lung metastasis in breast cancer.

Semenza GL
Molecular mechanisms mediating metastasis of hypoxic breast cancer cells.
Trends Mol Med. 2012; 18(9):534-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Breast cancers contain regions of intratumoral hypoxia in which reduced O(2) availability activates the hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2, which increase the transcription of genes encoding proteins that are required for many important steps in cancer progression. Recently, HIFs have been shown to play critical roles in the metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs through the transcriptional activation of genes encoding angiopoietin-like 4 and L1 cell adhesion molecule, which promote the extravasation of circulating cancer cells from the lung vasculature, and the lysyl oxidase family members LOX, LOXL2, and LOXL4, which promote invasion and metastatic niche formation. Digoxin, a drug that inhibits HIF-1 activity, blocks primary tumor growth, vascularization, invasion, and metastasis in ex vivo and in vivo assays.

Tanaka T, Yamaguchi J, Shoji K, Nangaku M
Anthracycline inhibits recruitment of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and suppresses tumor cell migration and cardiac angiogenic response in the host.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(42):34866-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents of the topoisomerase inhibitor family are widely used for the treatment of various tumors. Although targeted tumor tissues are generally situated in a hypoxic environment, the connection between efficacy of anthracycline agents and cellular hypoxia response has not been investigated in depth. Here, we report that doxorubicin (DXR) impairs the transcriptional response of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by inhibiting the binding of the HIF heterodimer to the consensus -RCGTG- enhancer element. This pleiotropic effect retarded migration of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-defective renal cell carcinoma and that of VHL-competent renal cell carcinoma in hypoxia. This effect was accompanied by a coordinated down-regulation of HIF target lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members LOX, LOX-like2 (LOXL2), and LOXL4. Furthermore, DXR suppressed HIF target genes in tumor xenografts, inhibited cardiac induction of HIF targets in rats with acute anemia, and impaired the angiogenic response in the isoproterenol-induced heart failure model, which may account for the clinical fragility of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy. Collectively, these findings highlight the impaired hypoxia response by anthracycline agents affecting both tumors and organs of the cancer host and offer a promising opportunity to develop HIF inhibitors using DXR as a chemical template.

Lin ZY, Chuang YH, Chuang WL
Cancer-associated fibroblasts up-regulate CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes related to promotion of cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2012; 66(7):525-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Impact of different cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell lines on proliferation, migration, invasion and differential expressions of genes in different hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was investigated. Two human CAF cell lines (F26/KMUH, F28/KMUH) and two human HCC cell lines (HCC24/KMUH, HCC38/KMUH) were studied. Influence of F28/KMUH cells on expressions of genes in HCC38/KMUH cells was detected by microarray to select genes for further analysis. Both CAF cell lines promoted proliferation (all P<0.05), migration (all P<0.05) and Matrigel invasion (all P<0.0001) of both HCC cell lines. F26/KMUH cells showed stronger promoted effects on, firstly, proliferation of HCC24/KMUH cells (P=0.0064) and, secondly, migration of both HCC cell lines than F28/KMUH cells did (all P<0.002). Ten up-regulated genes (APLN, CCL2, CCL26, CXCR4, IL6, MUC1, LOXL2, PDGFA, PGK1, VEGFA) related to proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of HCC detected by microarray were selected for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both CAF cell lines had same tendency of effects on differential expressions of genes in same HCC cell line, but expressions of genes between different HCC cell lines were not consistent. Only CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes were consistently up-regulated in both HCC cell lines. In conclusion, the effects of CAFs to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells are influenced by the characteristics of both CAFs and HCC cells. Up-regulations of CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes in cancer cells are part of the common effects of CAFs on HCC cells.

Loriot C, Burnichon N, Gadessaud N, et al.
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is activated in metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas caused by SDHB gene mutations.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(6):E954-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neural-crest-derived tumors. They are metastatic in 15% of cases, and the identification of a germline mutation in the SDHB gene is a predictive risk factor for malignancy and poor prognosis. To date, the link between SDHB mutations and malignancy is still missing.
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental event, reactivated in cancer cells to promote cell mobility and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to address the participation of EMT in the metastatic evolution of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Transcriptomic profiling of EMT was performed on 188 tumor samples, using a set of 94 genes implicated in this pathway. Activation of EMT was further confirmed at protein level by immunohistochemistry in a second set of 93 tumors.
RESULTS: Hierarchical unsupervised classification showed that most SDHB-metastatic samples clustered together, indicating that EMT is differently regulated in these tumors. Major actors of EMT, metalloproteases and components of cellular junctions, were either up-regulated (LOXL2, TWIST, TCF3, MMP2, and MMP1) or down-regulated (KRT19 and CDH2) in SDHB-metastatic tumors compared with nonmetastatic ones. Interestingly, within metastatic tumors, most of these genes (LOXL2, TWIST, TCF3, MMP2, and KRT19) also allowed us to discriminate SDHB-mutated from non-SDHB-related tumors. In the second set of tumors, we studied Snail1/2 expression by immunohistochemistry and observed its specific nuclear translocation in all SDHB-metastatic tumors.
CONCLUSION: We have identified the first pathway that distinguishes SDHB-metastatic from all other types of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas and suggest that activation of the EMT process might play a critical role in the particularly invasive phenotype of this group of tumors.

Wong CC, Zhang H, Gilkes DM, et al.
Inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 block breast cancer metastatic niche formation and lung metastasis.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2012; 90(7):803-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Intratumoral hypoxia, a frequent finding in metastatic cancer, results in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are implicated in many steps of breast cancer metastasis, including metastatic niche formation through increased expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) proteins, enzymes that remodel collagen at the metastatic site and recruit bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the metastatic niche. We investigated the effect of two chemically and mechanistically distinct HIF inhibitors, digoxin and acriflavine, on breast cancer metastatic niche formation. Both drugs blocked the hypoxia-induced expression of LOX and LOXL proteins, collagen cross-linking, CD11b⁺ BMDC recruitment, and lung metastasis in an orthotopic breast cancer model. Patients with HIF-1 α-overexpressing breast cancers are at increased risk of metastasis and mortality and our results suggest that such patients may benefit from aggressive therapy that includes a HIF inhibitor.

Barker HE, Chang J, Cox TR, et al.
LOXL2-mediated matrix remodeling in metastasis and mammary gland involution.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(5):1561-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
More than 90% of cancer patient mortality is attributed to metastasis. In this study, we investigated a role for the lysyl oxidase-related enzyme lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) in breast cancer metastasis, in both patient samples and in vivo models. Analysis of a published microarray data set revealed that LOXL2 expression is correlated with metastasis and decreased survival in patients with aggressive breast cancer. In immunocompetent or immunocompromised orthotopic and transgenic breast cancer models we showed that genetic, chemical or antibody-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 resulted in decreased metastasis. Mechanistic investigations revealed that LOXL2 promotes invasion by regulating the expression and activity of the extracellular proteins tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). We found that LOXL2, TIMP1, and MMP9 are coexpressed during mammary gland involution, suggesting they function together in glandular remodeling after weaning. Finally, we found that LOXL2 is highly expressed in the basal/myoepithelial mammary cell lineage, like many other genes that are upregulated in basal-like breast cancers. Our findings highlight the importance of LOXL2 in breast cancer progression and support the development of anti-LOXL2 therapeutics for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

Brekhman V, Lugassie J, Zaffryar-Eilot S, et al.
Receptor activity modifying protein-3 mediates the protumorigenic activity of lysyl oxidase-like protein-2.
FASEB J. 2011; 25(1):55-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase-like protein-2 (LOXL2) induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promotes invasiveness. To understand the mechanisms involved, we examined the effect of LOXL2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells on gene expression. We found that LOXL2 up-regulated the expression of receptor activity modifying protein-3 (RAMP3). Expression of RAMP3 in MDA-MB-231 cells in which LOXL2 expression was inhibited restored vimentin expression, invasiveness, and tumor development. Inhibition of RAMP3 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells mimicked the effects produced by inhibition of LOXL2 expression and was accompanied by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation. LOXL2 overexpression in these cells did not restore invasiveness, suggesting that RAMP3 functions downstream to LOXL2. LOXL2 and RAMP3 are strongly coexpressed in human colon, breast, and gastric carcinomas but not in normal colon or gastric epithelial cells. RAMP3 associates with several G-protein-coupled receptors forming receptors for peptides, such as adrenomedullin and amylin. We hypothesized that RAMP3 could function as a transducer of autocrine signals induced by such peptides. However, the proinvasive effects of RAMP3 could not be abrogated following inhibition of the expression or activity of these peptides. Our experiments suggest that the protumorigenic effects of LOXL2 are partially mediated by RAMP3 and that RAMP3 inhibitors may function as antitumorigenic agents. -

Li T, Li D, Cheng L, et al.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by hepatitis C virus core protein in cholangiocarcinoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2010; 17(7):1937-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We investigated the effect of hepatitis C virus core protein (HCVc) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CC and tried to identify its target trigger.
METHODS: First, we examined expression of HCVc and epithelial and mesenchymal markers in CC tissues. Then we transient-transfected HCVc gene into a CC cell line and examined expression of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and epithelial and mesenchymal markers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. Finally, LOXL2 gene silencing was shown in QBC939/HCVc cells by RNA interference (RNAi), and we further examined expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: Through immunohistochemical staining, the present study showed that HCVc is significantly associated with CC invasion and metastasis. In vitro study showed that HCVc expression induces EMT in CC cell line QBC939, and a mechanism through LOXL2 pathway is suggested. Expression of HCVc was significantly correlated with greater migratory and invasive potential of CC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that HCVc plays a critical role in promoting invasion and metastasis of CC cells.

Sano M, Aoyagi K, Takahashi H, et al.
Forkhead box A1 transcriptional pathway in KRT7-expressing esophageal squamous cell carcinomas with extensive lymph node metastasis.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 36(2):321-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prognosis of cancers with lymph node metastasis is known to be very poor; however, it is still controversial whether metastatic potential can be evaluated by expression profiles of primary tumors. Therefore, to address this issue, we compared gene expression profiles of 24 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) with extensive lymph node metastasis and 11 ESCCs with no metastatic lymph node. However, there was no gene cluster distinguishing these two groups, suggesting that lymph node metastasis-associated genes are varied depending on cases or subgroups. Therefore, we applied a recently developed filtering method (S2N') to identify such genes, and successfully extracted 209 genes associated with node status. Among them, over-expression of CALB1, KRT7/CK7, MUC1 and CEA/CEACAM5 in poor prognostic cases with metastatic lymph nodes was confirmed in two sets of ESCCs by RT-PCR. Each often seemed to have glandular cell type-characteristics in both the gene expression and morphology. It was also revealed that FOXA1 siRNA treatment of esophageal cancer cells reduced the mRNA level of both KRT7 and a stabilizer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator LOXL2, and that both FOXA1 and LOXL2 siRNAs reduced invasion and migration of ESCC cells. In 15 KRT7-expressing ESCCs with metastatic lymph nodes, 60% expressed FOXA1 and 33% expressed both FOXA1 and LOXL2. These results suggest that FOXA1 induces not only KRT7 but also LOXL2 in a subset of poor prognostic ESCCs with metastatic lymph nodes, and it is also plausible, that other FOXA1 downstream genes could be therapeutic targets of poor prognostic ESCCs.

Schietke R, Warnecke C, Wacker I, et al.
The lysyl oxidases LOX and LOXL2 are necessary and sufficient to repress E-cadherin in hypoxia: insights into cellular transformation processes mediated by HIF-1.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(9):6658-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
Hypoxia has been shown to promote tumor metastasis and lead to therapy resistance. Recent work has demonstrated that hypoxia represses E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness. The molecular mechanism of E-cadherin repression is unknown, yet lysyl oxidases have been implicated to be involved. Gene expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and the related LOX-like 2 (LOXL2) is strongly induced by hypoxia. In addition to the previously demonstrated LOX, we characterize LOXL2 as a direct transcriptional target of HIF-1. We demonstrate that activation of lysyl oxidases is required and sufficient for hypoxic repression of E-cadherin, which mediates cellular transformation and takes effect in cellular invasion assays. Our data support a molecular pathway from hypoxia to cellular transformation. It includes up-regulation of HIF and subsequent transcriptional induction of LOX and LOXL2, which repress E-cadherin and induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Lysyl oxidases could be an attractive molecular target for cancers of epithelial origin, in particular because they are partly extracellular.

Rückert F, Joensson P, Saeger HD, et al.
Functional analysis of LOXL2 in pancreatic carcinoma.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010; 25(3):303-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) plays a part in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by stabilizing the transcription factor SNAI1. Previous studies showed that LOXL2 is one of the most highly and specifically upregulated genes in pancreatic cancer. LOXL2 was also found to be strongly upregulated in the secretome of established pancreatic cancer cell lines. To get more insight into the aggressive growth and infiltrating nature of pancreatic cancer, we evaluated the functional role of LOXL2 in pancreatic cancer cells.
METHODS: Gene inhibition by small interfering RNAs was used to silence LOXL2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2 and Panc1. Cell death, proliferation, and morphology of transfected cells were determined. Cell characteristics under cell stress and gemcitabine treatment were analyzed. Gene expression analysis of transfected cells by DNA microarray was used to understand the processes of chemosensitization.
RESULTS: Silencing of LOXL2 in pancreatic cancer cells resulted in an augmented sensitivity toward gemcitabine treatment, with significantly elevated cell death and reduced viable cells. However, transfection had no direct effect on morphology or growth pattern of Mia PaCa-2 and Panc1 cell lines. Gene expression analysis identified among others the transcription factor E2F5 as possible target of LOXL2.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene inhibition of the EMT regulatory gene LOXL2 resulted in a distinct sensitization toward gemcitabine. Additionally, gene expression analysis showed a role for LOXL2 in the regulation of different transcription factors associated with invasion and metastasis. Our results suggest that the improved response toward chemotherapy in LOLX2-silenced pancreatic cancer cells is possibly mediated by the transcription factor E2F5.

Kim Y, Roh S, Park JY, et al.
Differential expression of the LOX family genes in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Oncol Rep. 2009; 22(4):799-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that catalyzes the cross-linking of collage or elastin in the extracellular matrix, regulating the tensile strength and structural integrity of connective tissues. Recently, four paralogues (LOXL, LOXL2, LOXL3 and LOXL4) of LOX have been identified in humans, each containing the functional domains required for the amine oxidase activity toward collagen and elastin. Paradoxical roles of the LOX family members have been reported in various neoplastic tissues as tumor suppressors or promoters depending on tumor status and type. To address expression of the LOX family genes in colorectal adenocarcinomas, we performed real-time PCR analysis with matched tumor/normal tissue specimens from 104 patients. The expression of the LOX family genes was not statistically associated with tumor location, stage, growth type, or differentiation status. However, upregulation of LOX, LOXL2 and LOXL4 was significantly correlated with absence of lymphovascular invasion (P=0.012, 0.014 and 0.005, respectively), suggesting that the oxygen tension in or around the tumors may be an important regulator for the differential expression of LOX, LOXL2 and LOXL4 in colorectal cancer. Additionally, expression of LOX, but not the other LOX family genes, was significantly upregulated in patients with a diffuse cytoplasmic expression pattern of CEA, indicating that LOX upregulation may be associated with increased invasiveness and metastatic potential in colorectal cancer.

Peng L, Ran YL, Hu H, et al.
Secreted LOXL2 is a novel therapeutic target that promotes gastric cancer metastasis via the Src/FAK pathway.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(10):1660-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate invasion- and metastasis-related genes in gastric cancer. To this end, we used the transwell system to select a highly invasive subcell line from minimally invasive parent cells and compared gene expression in paired cell lines with high- and low-invasive potentials. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was overexpressed in the highly invasive subcell line. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that LOXL2 expression was markedly increased in carcinoma relative to normal epithelia, and this overexpression in primary tumor was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and poorer overall survival. Moreover, LOXL2 expression was further increased in lymph node metastases compared with primary cancer tissues. RNA interference-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of LOXL2 showed that LOXL2 promoted tumor cell invasion in vitro and increased gastric carcinoma metastasis in vivo. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that LOXL2 could activate both the Snail/E-cadherin and Src kinase/Focal adhesion kinase (Src/FAK) pathways. However, secreted LOXL2 induced gastric tumor cell invasion and metastasis exclusively via the Src/FAK pathway. Expression correlation analysis in gastric carcinoma tissues also revealed that LOXL2 promoted invasion via the Src/FAK pathway but not the Snail/E-cadherin pathway. We then evaluated secreted LOXL2 as a target for gastric carcinoma treatment and found that an antibody against LOXL2 significantly inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Overall, our data revealed that LOXL2 overexpression, a frequent event in gastric carcinoma progression, contributes to tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and LOXL2 may be a therapeutic target for preventing and treating metastases.

Offenberg H, Brünner N, Mansilla F, et al.
TIMP-1 expression in human colorectal cancer is associated with TGF-B1, LOXL2, INHBA1, TNF-AIP6 and TIMP-2 transcript profiles.
Mol Oncol. 2008; 2(3):233-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The balance of activity between the endogenous enzyme inhibitors known as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and their targets, the matrix metalloproteinases, in the extracellular matrix is thought to play an important role in tumour cell invasion. Supporting this notion, we have shown that colorectal cancer patients have increased plasma levels of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and that high plasma TIMP-1 levels are associated with short colorectal cancer patient survival. However, although TIMP-1 has been extensively studied in cancer, very little is known about how it is regulated. To further elucidate potential mechanisms of regulation of this protein, we did a number of experiments to look at associations between the transcript profile of TIMP-1 with known matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as with expression profiles of other genes differentially regulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and the other TIMPs 2-4, which have also been associated with the progression of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide expression profiling of 172 CRC and normal mucosa samples was used to identify transcript changes for the genes under investigation. We found that TIMP-1 was up-regulated in CRC samples compared with normal tissue, while TIMP-2 was down-regulated. Eight MMPs were up-regulated in CRC compared with normal tissue. Correlating up-regulated genes with the TIMP-1 transcript, we identified 13 that were also up-regulated in cancerous tissue. Among these were genes associated with the synthesis of extracellullar matrix, genes involved in the TGF-beta signalling pathway, and genes that are likely transcribed by the tumour cells. These insights add to the complex picture emerging about the regulation of TIMPs in colorectal cancer.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. LOXL2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/LOXL2.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 08 August, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999