Gene Summary

Gene:LIMK1; LIM domain kinase 1
Aliases: LIMK, LIMK-1
Summary:There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates actin polymerization via phosphorylation and inactivation of the actin binding factor cofilin. This protein is ubiquitously expressed during development and plays a role in many cellular processes associated with cytoskeletal structure. This protein also stimulates axon growth and may play a role in brain development. LIMK1 hemizygosity is implicated in the impaired visuospatial constructive cognition of Williams syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:LIM domain kinase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • LIM Domain Proteins
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Risk Factors
  • Cell Movement
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Chromosome 7
  • AKT1
  • Mutation
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Proteome
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Lim Kinases
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • LIMK1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • cdc25 Phosphatases
  • Selenomethionine
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Phosphorylation
  • Thyroid Cancer
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LIMK1 (cancer-related)

Velusamy T, Kiel MJ, Sahasrabuddhe AA, et al.
A novel recurrent NPM1-TYK2 gene fusion in cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders.
Blood. 2014; 124(25):3768-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) includes lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Chromosomal translocations targeting tyrosine kinases in CD30-positive LPDs have not been described. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we identified a chimeric fusion involving NPM1 (5q35) and TYK2 (19p13) that encodes an NPM1-TYK2 protein containing the oligomerization domain of NPM1 and an intact catalytic domain in TYK2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed NPM1-TYK2 fusions in 2 of 47 (4%) primary cases of CD30-positive LPDs and was absent in other mature T-cell neoplasms (n = 151). Functionally, NPM1-TYK2 induced constitutive TYK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT3, and STAT5 activation. Conversely, a kinase-defective NPM1-TYK2 mutant abrogated STAT1/3/5 signaling. Finally, short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of TYK2 abrogated lymphoma cell growth. This is the first report of recurrent translocations involving TYK2, and it highlights the novel therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of CD30-positive LPDs with TYK2 translocations.

Lovly CM, McDonald NT, Chen H, et al.
Rationale for co-targeting IGF-1R and ALK in ALK fusion-positive lung cancer.
Nat Med. 2014; 20(9):1027-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Crizotinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), shows marked activity in patients whose lung cancers harbor fusions in the gene encoding anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK), but its efficacy is limited by variable primary responses and acquired resistance. In work arising from the clinical observation of a patient with ALK fusion-positive lung cancer who had an exceptional response to an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R)-specific antibody, we define a therapeutic synergism between ALK and IGF-1R inhibitors. Similar to IGF-1R, ALK fusion proteins bind to the adaptor insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), and IRS-1 knockdown enhances the antitumor effects of ALK inhibitors. In models of ALK TKI resistance, the IGF-1R pathway is activated, and combined ALK and IGF-1R inhibition improves therapeutic efficacy. Consistent with this finding, the levels of IGF-1R and IRS-1 are increased in biopsy samples from patients progressing on crizotinib monotherapy. Collectively these data support a role for the IGF-1R-IRS-1 pathway in both ALK TKI-sensitive and ALK TKI-resistant states and provide a biological rationale for further clinical development of dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitors.

Sheng Y, Li W, Zhu F, et al.
3,6,2',4',5'-Pentahydroxyflavone, an orally bioavailable multiple protein kinase inhibitor, overcomes gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(41):28192-201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most lethal cancer, causing more than 150,000 deaths in the United States in 2013. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib are not perfect clinical therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment due to primary or acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Herein, 3,6,2',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone (36245-PHF) was identified as a multiple kinase inhibitor for NSCLC treatment based on the computational screening of a natural products database. 36245-PHF was shown to inhibit PI3K and Aurora A and B kinases and overcome gefitinib-resistant NSCLC growth. Our data clearly showed that 36245-PHF markedly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines and exerted a substantial chemotherapeutic effect following oral administration in a gefitinib-resistant NSCLC xenograft model. The evidence from three different subsequent methodological approaches, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, all confirmed that 36245-PHF as a multiple protein kinase inhibitor. Overall, we identified 36245-PHF as a multiple protein kinase inhibitor and as a novel therapeutic agent to overcome gefitinib-resistant NSCLC growth, which could provide a new option for clinical NSCLC oral treatment.

Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma.
Nature. 2014; 513(7517):202-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein-Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also known as PD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies.

Phuong NT, Lim SC, Kim YM, Kang KW
Aromatase induction in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer: Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent CREB activation.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 351(1):91-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens are important for the development and growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, for which anti-estrogen therapy is one of the most effective treatments. However, its efficacy can be limited by either de novo or acquired resistance. Aromatase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens, and inhibition of this enzyme leads to profound hypoestrogenism. Here, we found that the basal expression and activity of aromatase were significantly increased in tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant human breast cancer (TAMR-MCF-7) cells compared to control MCF-7 cells. We further revealed that aromatase immunoreactivity in tumor tissues was increased in recurrence group after TAM therapy compared to non-recurrence group after TAM therapy. Phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase were all increased in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed the transactivation of the aromatase gene and its enzyme activity. Furthermore, we have also shown that PI3K/Akt-dependent cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) activation was required for the enhanced expression of aromatase in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that aromatase expression is up-regulated in TAM-resistant breast cancer via PI3K/Akt-dependent CREB activation.

Sakurai K, Talukdar I, Patil VS, et al.
Kinome-wide functional analysis highlights the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in somatic cell reprogramming.
Cell Stem Cell. 2014; 14(4):523-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
The creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors has galvanized the fields of regenerative medicine and developmental biology. Here, we report a kinome-wide RNAi-based analysis to identify kinases that regulate somatic cell reprogramming to iPSCs. We prepared 3,686 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses targeting 734 kinase genes covering the entire mouse kinome and individually examined their effects on iPSC generation. We identified 59 kinases as barriers to iPSC generation and characterized seven of them further. We found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of the serine/threonine kinases TESK1 or LIMK2 promoted mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, decreased COFILIN phosphorylation, and disrupted Actin filament structures during reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Similarly, knockdown of TESK1 in human fibroblasts also promoted reprogramming to iPSCs. Our study reveals the breadth of kinase networks regulating pluripotency and identifies a role for cytoskeletal remodeling in modulating the somatic cell reprogramming process.

Treanor LM, Zhou S, Janke L, et al.
Interleukin-7 receptor mutants initiate early T cell precursor leukemia in murine thymocyte progenitors with multipotent potential.
J Exp Med. 2014; 211(4):701-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) exhibits lymphoid, myeloid, and stem cell features and is associated with a poor prognosis. Whole genome sequencing of human ETP-ALL cases has identified recurrent mutations in signaling, histone modification, and hematopoietic development genes but it remains to be determined which of these abnormalities are sufficient to initiate leukemia. We show that activating mutations in the interleukin-7 receptor identified in human pediatric ETP-ALL cases are sufficient to generate ETP-ALL in mice transplanted with primitive transduced thymocytes from p19(Arf-/-) mice. The cellular mechanism by which these mutant receptors induce ETP-ALL is the block of thymocyte differentiation at the double negative 2 stage at which myeloid lineage and T lymphocyte developmental potential coexist. Analyses of samples from pediatric ETP-ALL cases and our murine ETP-ALL model show uniformly high levels of LMO2 expression, very low to undetectable levels of BCL11B expression, and a relative lack of activating NOTCH1 mutations. We report that pharmacological blockade of Jak-Stat signaling with ruxolitinib has significant antileukemic activity in this ETP-ALL model. This new murine model recapitulates several important cellular and molecular features of ETP-ALL and should be useful to further define novel therapeutic approaches for this aggressive leukemia.

Rolland D, Basrur V, Conlon K, et al.
Global phosphoproteomic profiling reveals distinct signatures in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(5):1331-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Deregulation of signaling pathways controlled by protein phosphorylation underlies the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies; however, the extent to which deregulated phosphorylation may be involved in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) pathogenesis is largely unknown. To identify phosphorylation events important in B-NHLs, we performed mass spectrometry-based, label-free, semiquantitative phosphoproteomic profiling of 11 cell lines derived from three B-NHL categories: Burkitt lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and mantle-cell lymphoma. In all, 6579 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 1701 unique phosphorylated proteins, were identified and quantified. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000658. Hierarchical clustering highlighted distinct phosphoproteomic signatures associated with each lymphoma subtype. Interestingly, germinal center-derived B-NHL cell lines were characterized by phosphorylation of proteins involved in the B-cell receptor signaling. Of these proteins, phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains 1 (PAG1) was identified with the most phosphorylated tyrosine peptides in Burkitt lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. PAG1 knockdown resulted in perturbation of the tyrosine phosphosignature of B-cell receptor signaling components. Significantly, PAG1 knockdown increased cell proliferation and response to antigen stimulation of these germinal center-derived B-NHLs. These data provide a detailed annotation of phosphorylated proteins in human lymphoid cancer. Overall, our study revealed the utility of unbiased phosphoproteome interrogation in characterizing signaling networks that may provide insights into pathogenesis mechanisms in B-cell lymphomas.

Oku Y, Tareyanagi C, Takaya S, et al.
Multimodal effects of small molecule ROCK and LIMK inhibitors on mitosis, and their implication as anti-leukemia agents.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Accurate chromosome segregation is vital for cell viability. Many cancer cells show chromosome instability (CIN) due to aberrant expression of the genes involved in chromosome segregation. The induction of massive chromosome segregation errors in such cancer cells by small molecule inhibitors is an emerging strategy to kill these cells selectively. Here we screened and characterized small molecule inhibitors which cause mitotic chromosome segregation errors to target cancer cell growth. We screened about 300 chemicals with known targets, and found that Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitors bypassed the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which delays anaphase onset until proper kinetochore-microtubule interactions are established. We investigated how ROCK inhibitors affect chromosome segregation, and found that they induced microtubule-dependent centrosome fragmentation. Knockdown of ROCK1 and ROCK2 revealed their additive roles in centrosome integrity. Pharmacological inhibition of LIMK also induced centrosome fragmentation similar to that by ROCK inhibitors. Inhibition of ROCK or LIMK hyper-stabilized mitotic spindles and impaired Aurora-A activation. These results suggested that ROCK and LIMK are directly or indirectly involved in microtubule dynamics and activation of Aurora-A. Furthermore, inhibition of ROCK or LIMK suppressed T cell leukemia growth in vitro, but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells. They induced centrosome fragmentation and apoptosis in T cell leukemia cells. These results suggested that ROCK and LIMK can be a potential target for anti-cancer drugs.

Lim JH, Jang S, Park CJ, et al.
RANBP2-ALK fusion combined with monosomy 7 in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2014 Jan-Feb; 207(1-2):40-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) is located on chromosome 2p23; the chromosomal rearrangements of this gene are common genetic alterations, resulting in the creation of multiple fusion genes involved in tumorigenesis. However, the presence of an ALK fusion in myeloid malignancies is extremely rare. We report a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia in a 31-year-old woman with an unusual rearrangement between RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) and ALK and a karyotype of 45,XX,inv(2)(p23q21),-7[20]. We detected an ALK rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization, identified the ALK fusion partner by using RNA transcriptome sequencing, and demonstrated the RANBP2-ALK fusion transcript by reverse transcriptase--PCR and Sanger sequencing. Immunohistochemistry for ALK showed strong staining of the nuclear membrane in leukemic cells. The patient had an unfavorable clinical course. Our results, together with a literature review, suggest the RANBP2-ALK fusion combined with monosomy 7 may be related to a unique clonal hematologic disorder of childhood and adolescence, characterized by myelomonocytic leukemia and a poor prognosis.

Peng H, Talebzadeh-Farrooji M, Osborne MJ, et al.
LIMD2 is a small LIM-only protein overexpressed in metastatic lesions that regulates cell motility and tumor progression by directly binding to and activating the integrin-linked kinase.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(5):1390-403 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Proteins that communicate signals from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus are prime targets for effectors of metastasis as they often transduce signals regulating adhesion, motility, and invasiveness. LIM domain proteins shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and bind to partners in both compartments, often coupling changes in gene expression to extracellular cues. In this work, we characterize LIMD2, a mechanistically undefined LIM-only protein originally found to be overexpressed in metastatic lesions but absent in the matched primary tumor. LIMD2 levels in fresh and archival tumors positively correlate with cell motility, metastatic potential, and grade, including bladder, melanoma, breast, and thyroid tumors. LIMD2 directly contributes to these cellular phenotypes as shown by overexpression, knockdown, and reconstitution experiments in cell culture models. The solution structure of LIMD2 that was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a classic LIM-domain structure that was highly related to LIM1 of PINCH1, a core component of the integrin-linked kinase-parvin-pinch complex. Structural and biochemical analyses revealed that LIMD2 bound directly to the kinase domain of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) near the active site and strongly activated ILK kinase activity. Cells that were null for ILK failed to respond to the induction of invasion by LIMD2. This strongly suggests that LIMD2 potentiates its biologic effects through direct interactions with ILK, a signal transduction pathway firmly linked to cell motility and invasion. In summary, LIMD2 is a new component of the signal transduction cascade that links integrin-mediated signaling to cell motility/metastatic behavior and may be a promising target for controlling tumor spread.

Kim K, Kim G, Kim JY, et al.
Interleukin-22 promotes epithelial cell transformation and breast tumorigenesis via MAP3K8 activation.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(6):1352-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), one of the cytokines secreted by T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, binds to a class II cytokine receptor containing an IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2 and influences a variety of immune reactions. IL-22 has also been shown to modulate cell cycle and proliferation mediators such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of IL-22 in tumorigenesis. In this paper, we propose that IL-22 has a crucial role to play in controlling epithelial cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the breast. IL-22 increased MAP3K8 phosphorylation through IL-22R1, followed by the induction of MEK-ERK, JNK-c-Jun, and STAT3 signaling pathways. Furthermore, IL-22-IL-22R1 signaling pathway activated activator protein-1 and HER2 promoter activity. In addition, Pin1 was identified as a key positive regulator for the phosphorylation-dependent MEK, c-Jun and STAT3 activity induced by IL-22. Pin1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibited significantly a decrease in IL-22-induced MEK1/2, c-Jun, and STAT3 phosphorylation compared with Pin1(+/+) MEF. In addition, a knockdown of Pin1 prevented phosphorylation induced by IL-22. The in vivo chorioallantoic membrane assay also showed that IL-22 increased tumor formation of JB6 Cl41 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of MAP3K8 and Pin1 attenuated tumorigenicity of MCF7 cells. Consistent with these observations, IL-22 levels positively correlate with MAP3K8 and Pin1 expression in human breast cancer. Overall, our findings point to a critical role for the IL-22-induced MAP3K8 signaling pathway in promoting cancer-associated inflammation in the tumor microenvironment.

Tan DS, Camilleri-Broët S, Tan EH, et al.
Intertumor heterogeneity of non-small-cell lung carcinomas revealed by multiplexed mutation profiling and integrative genomics.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(5):1092-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with a burden of genomic alterations exceeding most other tumors. The goal of our study was to evaluate the frequencies of co-occurring mutations and copy-number aberrations (CNAs) within the same tumor and to evaluate their potential clinical impact. Mass-spectrometry based mutation profiling using a customized lung cancer panel evaluating 214 mutations across 26 key NSCLC genes was performed on 230 nonsquamous NSCLC and integrated with genome-wide CNAs and clinical variables. Among the 138 cases having at least one mutation, one-third (41, 29.7%) showed two or more mutations, either in the same gene (double mutation) or in different genes (co-mutations). In epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant cancers, there was a double mutation in 18% and co-mutations in the following genes: TP53 (10%), PIK3CA (8%), STK11 (6%) and MET (4%). Significant relationships were detected between EGFR mutation and 1p, 7p copy gains (harboring the EGFR gene) as well as 13q copy loss. KRAS mutation was significantly related with 1q gain and 3q loss. For Stage I, tumors harboring at least one mutation or PIK3CA mutation were significantly correlated with poor prognosis (p-value = 0.02). When combining CNAs and mutational status, patients having both KRAS mutation and the highest related CNA (3q22.3 copy loss) showed a significant poorer prognosis (p-value = 0.03). Our study highlights the clinical relevance of studying tumor complexity by integrative genomic analysis and the need for developing assays that broadly screen for both "actionable" mutations and copy-number alterations to improve precision of stratified treatment approaches.

Kim HR, Cho BC, Shim HS, et al.
Prediction for response duration to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutated never smoker lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 83(3):374-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ∼ 20-30% exhibit de novo resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The aim of this study was to examine whether mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may be associated with de novo resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutation-positive patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with an activating EGFR mutation were included in the mutational analysis and 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were analyzed for the treatment outcomes to EGFR-TKIs. We concurrently analyzed mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT and STK11, which are all EGFR-downstream genes. Mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT, and STK11 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing.
RESULTS: PIK3CA mutations were detected in 4.4% (3/68) of patients, PTEN mutations in 16.1% (11/68), AKT mutations in 5.9% (4/68), and STK11 mutations in 13.2% (9/68). One patient with an activating exon 21 L858R mutation concomitantly had an exon 20 T790M mutation in EGFR. The proportion of patients who had mutations in EGFR-downstream genes was 32.4% (22/68). When we analyzed the treatment outcome of 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKI, the presence of mutations in EGFR-downstream genes correlated with a poor overall response rate to EGFR-TKIs (63.6 vs.14.5% in patients with mutation in EGFR-downstream gene, P<0.0001), shorter median progression-free survival (12.0 vs. 3.0 months, P=0.060), and shorter median overall survival (18.9 vs. 25.0 months, P=0.048).
CONCLUSION: Mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may confer resistance to EGFR-TKIs and result in poor treatment outcomes in never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with activating EGFR mutations.

Tan DS, Haaland B, Gan JM, et al.
Bosutinib inhibits migration and invasion via ACK1 in KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
The advent of effective targeted therapeutics has led to increasing emphasis on precise biomarkers for accurate patient stratification. Here, we describe the role of ACK1, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase in abrogating migration and invasion in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Bosutinib, which inhibits ACK1 at 2.7 nM IC50, was found to inhibit cell migration and invasion but not viability in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Knockdown of ACK1 abrogated bosutinib-induced inhibition of cell migration and invasion specifically in KRAS mutant cells. This finding was further confirmed in an in vivo zebrafish metastatic model. Tissue microarray data on 210 Singaporean lung adenocarcinomas indicate that cytoplasmic ACK1 was significantly over-expressed relative to paired adjacent non-tumor tissue. Interestingly, ACK1 expression in "normal" tissue adjacent to tumour, but not tumour, was independently associated with poor overall and relapse-free survival. In conclusion, inhibition of ACK1 with bosutinib attenuates migration and invasion in the context of KRAS mutant NSCLC and may fulfil a therapeutic niche through combinatorial treatment approaches.

Lira ME, Choi YL, Lim SM, et al.
A single-tube multiplexed assay for detecting ALK, ROS1, and RET fusions in lung cancer.
J Mol Diagn. 2014; 16(2):229-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 7% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) harbor oncogenic fusions involving ALK, ROS1, and RET. Although tumors harboring ALK fusions are highly sensitive to crizotinib, emerging preclinical and clinical data demonstrate that patients with ROS1 or RET fusions may also benefit from inhibitors targeting these kinases. Using a transcript-based method, we designed a combination of 3' overexpression and fusion-specific detection strategies to detect ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion transcripts in NSCLC tumors. We validated the assay in 295 NSCLC specimens and showed that the assay is highly sensitive and specific. ALK results were 100% concordant with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (n = 52) and 97.8% concordant with IHC (n = 179) [sensitivity, 96.8% (95% CI 91.0%-98.9%); specificity, 98.8% (95% CI 93.6%-99.8%)]. For ROS1 and RET, we also observed 100% concordance with FISH (n = 46 and n = 15, respectively). We identified seven ROS1 and 14 RET fusion-positive tumors and confirmed the fusion status by RT-PCR and FISH. One RET fusion involved a novel partner, cutlike homeobox 1 gene (CUX1), yielding an in-frame CUX1-RET fusion. ROS1 and RET fusions were significantly enriched in tumors without KRAS/EGFR/ALK alterations. ALK/ROS1/RET/EGFR/KRAS alterations were mutually exclusive. As a single-tube assay, this test shows promise as a more practical and cost-effective screening modality for detecting rare but targetable fusions in NSCLC.

Irwin CR, Favis NA, Agopsowicz KC, et al.
Myxoma virus oncolytic efficiency can be enhanced through chemical or genetic disruption of the actin cytoskeleton.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e84134 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Myxoma virus (MYXV) is one of many animal viruses that exhibit oncolytic properties in transformed human cells. Compared to orthopoxviruses like vaccinia (VACV), MYXV spreads inefficiently, which could compromise its use in treating tumors and their associated metastases. The VACV F11 protein promotes virus exit and rapid spread by inhibiting Rho signalling, which results in a disruption of cortical actin. We have previously shown that although MYXV lacks an F11 homolog, the F11L gene can be introduced into MYXV promoting the spread of this Leporipoxvirus in natural host cells. Here we show that the F11-encoding (F11L(+)) MYXV strain replicates to higher levels in a number of human cancer cells. We also show that F11L(+) MYXV induces better tumor control and prolonged survival of mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that this virus also spreads more efficiently from the site of growth in one injected tumor, to a second untreated tumor. While we focused mostly on the use of a modified MYXV we were able to show that the effects of F11 on MYXV growth in cancer cells could be mimicked through the use of pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated silencing of key regulators of cortical actin (RhoA, RhoC, mDia1, or LIMK2). These data suggest that it may be possible to increase the oncolytic efficacy of wild-type MYXV using chemical inhibitors of RhoA/C or their downstream targets. Furthermore, since all viruses must overcome barriers to exit posed by structures like cortical actin, these findings suggest that the oncolytic activity of other viruses may be enhanced through similar strategies.

Wan L, Zhang L, Fan K, Wang J
MiR-27b targets LIMK1 to inhibit growth and invasion of NSCLC cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 390(1-2):85-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for ~80 % of lung cancer cases, is one of the most common causes for cancer-related death. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play critical roles in the development and progression of NSCLC. miR-27b has recently been reported as a tumor suppressor in several cancers, but its role in NSCLC remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that miR-27b was remarkably decreased in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of miR-27b significantly suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation and invasion. LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), an essential protein for malignant transformation, was found to be a target of miR-27b. Ectopic expression of LIMK1 dramatically dampened mir-27b action of cancer inhibition. Finally, LIMK1 was found to be negatively correlated with miR-27b in NSCLC patients. Our results demonstrated a tumor-suppressive role of miR-27b in NSCLC, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Barnett CM, Heinrich MC, Lim J, et al.
Genetic profiling to determine risk of relapse-free survival in high-risk localized prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(5):1306-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The characterization of actionable mutations in human tumors is a prerequisite for the development of individualized, targeted therapy. We examined the prevalence of potentially therapeutically actionable mutations in patients with high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-eight samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy tissue from a neoadjuvant chemotherapy trial were analyzed. DNA extracted from microdissected tumor was analyzed for 643 common solid tumor mutations in 53 genes using mass spectroscopy-based sequencing. In addition, PTEN loss and erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERC) translocations were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in associated tissue microarrays. Association with relapse during 5 years of follow-up was examined in exploratory analyses of the potential clinical relevance of the genetic alterations.
RESULTS: Of the 40 tumors evaluable for mutations, 10% had point mutations in potentially actionable cancer genes. Of the 47 tumors evaluable for IHC, 36% had PTEN loss and 40% had ERG rearrangement. Individual mutations were not frequent enough to determine associations with relapse. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test, the 16 patients who had PTEN loss had a significantly shorter median relapse-free survival, 19 versus 106 months (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that point mutations in the most common cancer regulatory genes in prostate cancer are rare. However, the PIK3CA/AKT pathway was mutated in 10% of our samples. Although point mutations alone did not have a statistically significant association with relapse, PTEN loss was associated with an increased relapse in high-risk prostate cancer treated with chemotherapy followed by surgery.

Lim B, Park JL, Kim HJ, et al.
Integrative genomics analysis reveals the multilevel dysregulation and oncogenic characteristics of TEAD4 in gastric cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1020-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumorigenesis is a consequence of failures of multistep defense mechanisms against deleterious perturbations that occur at the genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels. To uncover previously unrecognized genes that undergo multilevel perturbations in gastric cancer (GC), we integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic approaches using two recently developed tools: MENT and GENT. This integrative analysis revealed that nine Hippo pathway-related genes, including components [FAT, JUB, LATS2, TEA domain family member 4 (TEAD4) and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1)] and targets (CRIM1, CYR61, CTGF and ITGB2), are concurrently hypomethylated at promoter CpG sites and overexpressed in GC tissues. In particular, TEAD4, a link between Hippo pathway components and targets, was significantly hypomethylated at CpG site cg21637033 (P = 3.8 × 10(-) (20)) and overexpressed (P = 5.2 × 10(-) (10)) in 108 Korean GC tissues compared with the normal counterparts. A reduced level of methylation at the TEAD4 promoter was significantly associated with poor outcomes, including large tumor size, high-grade tumors and low survival rates. Compared with normal tissues, the TEAD4 protein was more frequently found in the nuclei of tumor cells along with YAP1 in 53 GC patients, demonstrating the posttranslational activation of this protein. Moreover, the knockdown of TEAD4 resulted in the reduced growth of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and microarray analysis revealed the oncogenic properties of TEAD4 and its novel targets (ADM, ANG, ARID5B, CALD1, EDN2, FSCN1 and OSR2), which are involved in cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, the multilevel perturbations of TEAD4 at epigenetic, transcriptional and posttranslational levels may contribute to GC development.

Kim SA, Yoon TM, Lee DH, et al.
RON (recepteur d'origine nantais) expression and its association with tumor progression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Auris Nasus Larynx. 2014; 41(2):201-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Several human tumor tissues show an aberrant expression and activation of recepteur d'origine nantais (RON). In this paper, we investigate the expression of RON in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and evaluate whether RON affects the tumor cell progression in human laryngeal SCC cell line.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to assess RON expression in human laryngeal SCC. To evaluate the impact of RON knockdown, the cell invasion assay and cell migration assay using small-interfering RNA were performed.
RESULTS: The expression of RON protein was dominantly observed in laryngeal SCC tissues relative to adjacent normal mucosa in all cases. Knockdown of RON resulted in significantly reduced cell invasion in human laryngeal SCC cells. Cell migration showed a marked decrease in RON knockdown laryngeal SCC cells compared to the negative control laryngeal SCC cells. Laryngeal SCC cell migration was enhanced by incubation with macrophage stimulating protein (MSP).
CONCLUSION: RON is highly expressed in human laryngeal SCC. We suggest that RON plays an important role in invasion, and metastasis of laryngeal SCC.

Zhang HS, Zhao JW, Wang H, et al.
LIM kinase 1 is required for insulin‑dependent cell growth of osteosarcoma cell lines.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(1):103-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a type of malignant bone tumor with high metastasis and poor prognosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) in the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. LIMK1 is overexpressed in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. To further study LIMK1-associated mechanisms, we used shRNA targeted to the LIMK1 gene to block its expression in the osteosarcoma cell lines MG63 and U2OS. Insulin promoted the proliferation of MG63 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, however, this insulin induced proliferation was significantly inhibited by transfection of shRNA targeted to the LIMK1 gene, as well as by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but not by the mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059. The level of cofilin phosphorylation was increased significantly following stimulation of insulin for 24 h, indicating the activation of LIMK1. MG63 cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 1,25(OH)2D3 negated the inhibitory effect of LIMK1 shRNA, indicating that LIMK1 is important in the inhibitory pathway of 1,25(OH)2D3. The present study confirms that LIMK1 is important in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation via the insulin/PI3K/LIMK1 signaling pathway, thus the development of gene therapy for osteosarcoma targeting LIMK1 is warranted.

Beadling C, Patterson J, Justusson E, et al.
Gene expression of the IGF pathway family distinguishes subsets of gastrointestinal stromal tumors wild type for KIT and PDGFRA.
Cancer Med. 2013; 2(1):21-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. While the majority of GISTs harbor activating mutations in either the v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) tyrosine kinases, approximately 10-15% of adult GISTs and 85% of pediatric GISTs lack such mutations. These "wild-type" GISTs have been reported to express high levels of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and IGF1R-targeted therapy of wild-type GISTs is being evaluated in clinical trials. However, it is not clear that all wild-type GISTs express IGF1R, because studies to date have predominantly focused on a particular subtype of gastric wild-type GIST that is deficient in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. This study of a series of 136 GISTs, including 72 wild-type specimens, was therefore undertaken to further characterize wild-type GIST subtypes based on the relative expression of transcripts encoding IGF1R. Additional transcripts relevant to GIST biology were also evaluated, including members of the IGF-signaling pathway (IGF1, IGF2, and insulin receptor [INSR]), neural markers (CDH2[CDH: Cadherin], neurofilament, light polypeptide, LHX2 [LHX: LIM homeobox], and KIRREL3 [KIRREL: kin of IRRE like]), KIT, PDGFRA, CD34, and HIF1A. Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B protein expression was also assessed as a measure of SDH complex integrity. In addition to the previously described SDH-deficient, IGF1R(high) wild-type GISTs, other SDH-intact wild-type subpopulations were defined by high relative expression of IGF1R, neural markers, IGF1 and INSR, or low IGF1R coupled with high IGF2. These results underscore the complexity and heterogeneity of wild-type GISTs that will need to be factored into molecularly-targeted therapeutic strategies.

Lee CS, Jang WH, Park M, et al.
A novel adamantyl benzylbenzamide derivative, AP736, suppresses melanogenesis through the inhibition of cAMP-PKA-CREB-activated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase expression.
Exp Dermatol. 2013; 22(11):762-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanogenesis is essential for the protection of skin against UV, but excessive production of melanin causes unaesthetic hyperpigmentation. Much effort is being made to develop effective depigmenting agents. Here, we found that a tyrosinase inhibitor, AP736 (5-adamantan-1-yl-N-(2,4-dihydroxy-benzyl)-2,4-dimethoxy-benzamide) potently suppresses tyrosinase expression, and the mechanism underlying was elucidated. AP736 attenuated the melanin production induced by diverse melanogenic stimuli in murine and human melanocytes. It suppressed the expression of key melanogenic enzymes; tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 and tyrosinase-related protein-2. The expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), a major promoter of melanogenesis was also decreased. AP736 inhibited the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphokinase A (PKA), and cAMP elevation, reflecting that cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling axis was suppressed, resulting in the downregulation of MiTF and tyrosinase. Along with the previously reported tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the suppression of cAMP-PKA-CREB-mediated MiTF and tyrosinase expression by AP736 may be efficient for the treatment for hyperpigmentation.

Häbig K, Gellhaar S, Heim B, et al.
LRRK2 guides the actin cytoskeleton at growth cones together with ARHGEF7 and Tropomyosin 4.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1832(12):2352-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 function and molecular mechanisms causing the parkinsonian phenotype remain widely unknown. Most of LRRK2 knockdown and overexpression models strengthen the relevance of LRRK2 in regulating neurite outgrowth. We have recently identified ARHGEF7 as the first guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of LRRK2. This GEF is influencing neurite outgrowth through regulation of actin polymerization. Here, we examined the expression profile of neuroblastoma cells with reduced LRRK2 and ARHGEF7 levels to identify additional partners of LRRK2 in this process. Tropomyosins (TPMs), and in particular TPM4, were the most interesting candidates next to other actin cytoskeleton regulating transcripts in this dataset. Subsequently, enhanced neurite branching was shown using primary hippocampal neurons of LRRK2 knockdown animals. Furthermore, we observed an enhanced number of growth cones per neuron and a mislocalization and dysregulation of ARHGEF7 and TPM4 in these neuronal compartments. Our results reveal a fascinating connection between the neurite outgrowth phenotype of LRRK2 models and the regulation of actin polymerization directing further investigations of LRRK2-related pathogenesis.

Chen Q, Jiao D, Hu H, et al.
Downregulation of LIMK1 level inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs.
Oncol Res. 2013; 20(11):491-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a member of a novel class of serine-threonine protein kinases, which plays an important role in malignant transformation. High expression of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) has been detected in various invasive cancers. Here, we showed that LIMK1 was overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer tissues (NSCLC) and cell lines. Expression of LIMK1 was detected in 115 of 150 lung cancer tissues, the frequency being more significant than in lung tissues. In addition, overexpression of LIMK1 was also associated with high TNM stage and lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients. Moreover, RNAi-mediated suppression of LIMK1 expression markedly inhibited migration and invasion of 801D lung cancer cells. Furthermore, silencing of LIMK1 sensitized 801D cells to chemotherapeutic drugs of cisplatin and gemcitabine. These results indicate that the overexpression of LIMK1 is tightly associated with an aggressive phenotype of lung cancer cells, knockdown of LIMK1 suppressed cell migration and invasion, enhanced chemosensitivity, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer.

Sundaramoorthy S, Ryu MS, Lim IK
B-cell translocation gene 2 mediates crosstalk between PI3K/Akt1 and NFκB pathways which enhances transcription of MnSOD by accelerating IκBα degradation in normal and cancer cells.
Cell Commun Signal. 2013; 11:69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) belongs to antiproliferative (ARPO) gene family and the expression of BTG2, human ortholog of rat PC3 and mouse TIS21 gene, has been shown to render cancer cells more sensitive to doxorubicin treatment by upregulating MnSOD expression without regulating any other reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes.
RESULTS: In the present study, by employing exogenous and endogenous BTG2/TIS21/Pc3 expression by transfection and transduction analyses, and by knockdown of gene expression using RNA interference or using gene knockout cells, we observed that BTG2 increased the binding of activated NF-κB (p65/RelA) to the enhancer element of MnSOD gene in the 2nd intron, which was regulated by p-Akt1, and the induction of MnSOD by BTG2 was accompanied with subsequent downregulation of ROS level and cyclin B1 biosynthesis along with the increase of p21WAF1, resulting in the G2/M arrest independent of p53.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show for the first time that BTG2 mediates crosstalk between PI3K-Akt1 and NF-κB pathways, which regulates p53-independent induction of G2/M phase arrest both in normal and cancer cells.

Tam WL, Lu H, Buikhuisen J, et al.
Protein kinase C α is a central signaling node and therapeutic target for breast cancer stem cells.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 24(3):347-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition program becomes activated during malignant progression and can enrich for cancer stem cells (CSCs). We report that inhibition of protein kinase C α (PKCα) specifically targets CSCs but has little effect on non-CSCs. The formation of CSCs from non-stem cells involves a shift from EGFR to PDGFR signaling and results in the PKCα-dependent activation of FRA1. We identified an AP-1 molecular switch in which c-FOS and FRA1 are preferentially utilized in non-CSCs and CSCs, respectively. PKCα and FRA1 expression is associated with the aggressive triple-negative breast cancers, and the depletion of FRA1 results in a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Hence, identifying molecular features that shift between cell states can be exploited to target signaling components critical to CSCs.

Lee HW, Joo KM, Lim JE, et al.
Tpl2 kinase impacts tumor growth and metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(11):1375-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Due to the innate high metastatic ability of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), many patients with RCC experience local or systemic relapses after surgical resection. A deeper understanding of the molecular pathogenesis underlying advanced RCC is essential for novel innovative therapeutics. Tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2), upregulated in various tumor types, has been reported to be associated with oncogenesis and metastatic progression via activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Herein, the relevance of Tpl2 in tumor growth and metastasis of RCC is explored. Inspection of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) indicated that Tpl2 overexpression was significantly related to the presence of metastases and poor outcome in clear cell RCC (ccRCC), which is the most aggressive subtype of RCC. Moreover, expression of Tpl2 and CXCR4 showed a positive correlation in ccRCC patients. Depletion of Tpl2 by RNAi or activity by a Tpl2 kinase inhibitor in human ccRCC cells remarkably suppressed MAPK pathways and impaired in vitro cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anoikis resistance, migration, and invasion capabilities. Similarly, orthotopic xenograft growth and lung metastasis were significantly inhibited by Tpl2 silencing. Furthermore, Tpl2 knockdown reduced CXCL12-directed chemotaxis and chemoinvasion accompanied with impaired downstream signaling, indicating potential involvement of Tpl2 in CXCR4-mediated metastasis. Taken together, these data indicate that Tpl2 kinase is associated with and contributes to disease progression of ccRCC.
IMPLICATIONS: Tpl2 kinase activity has prognostic and therapeutic targeting potential in aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Jung S, Li C, Jeong D, et al.
Oncogenic function of p34SEI-1 via NEDD4‑1‑mediated PTEN ubiquitination/degradation and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1587-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 34-KD protein encoded by the SEI-1 gene (p34(SEI‑1)), is a relatively recently discovered oncoprotein that has multiple important biological functions. Our data show that p34(SEI-1) enhances cancer cell survival and promotes tumorigenesis by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and therefore activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this process, p34(SEI-1) positively affects NEDD4-1 gene expression both at the transcriptional and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression levels of p34(SEI-1) and NEDD4-1 were found to be coordinated in tumor tissues obtained from patients with breast cancer. We also show that p34(SEI-1) affects the subcellular localization of PTEN.

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