Gene Summary

Gene:KRT20; keratin 20
Aliases: K20, CD20, CK20, CK-20, KRT21
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. The type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. This cytokeratin is a major cellular protein of mature enterocytes and goblet cells and is specifically expressed in the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The type I cytokeratin genes are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:keratin, type I cytoskeletal 20
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Staging
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Veins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chromosome 17
  • ras Proteins
  • Sequence Homology
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Keratins
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Keratin-20
  • Promoter Regions
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Cancer RNA
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Risk Factors
  • beta Catenin
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Trans-Activators
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Carcinoma
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cancer DNA
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Circulating Cancer Cells
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Skin Cancer
  • Disease-Free Survival
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KRT20 (cancer-related)

Shao K, Wang Y, Xue Q, et al.
Clinicopathological features and prognosis of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019; 14(1):143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: The pulmonary ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is a very rare tumor with only several case reports in published literatures, and its clinicopathological features, standard treatment methods and prognosis has not been well defined.
METHODS: Two cases of CMPT diagnosed and treated in our hospital and 39 cases reported in the published literature were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The cohort of 41 CMPT patients comprised of 20 males and 21 females, aged 9-84 years. The diameter of the primary tumor was 0.3-4.5 cm. Most of these lesions were subsolid nodules, as observed on computed tomography and easily misdiagnosed as early lung adenocarcinoma. Tumors of 26 patients were stained by immunohistochemistry method, which revealed that CK7, CEA, and TTF-1 were positive and CK20 was negative in most patients. The results of gene alternation demonstrated mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF and ALK rearrangements in CMPT. All the patients underwent surgical treatment and did not receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. The follow-up duration was 0-120 months, and no case of tumor recurrence was found until the final follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMPT was low and rate of image misdiagnosis high. Immunohistochemistry is helpful for accurate diagnosis of CMPT. Sub-lobectomy may be proper and adjuvant treatment should be avoided since the disease is now prone to benign lesions. Furthermore, since the biological behavior of this tumor is not yet fully elucidated, additional case data are essential for accurate conclusions.

Zhang X, Zhou F
Successful conservative treatment of primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT type): A case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(16):e15331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] type) is a rare histological type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); therefore, this disease is challenging to diagnosis and treatment.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old (gravidity 2, parity 2) female was admitted complaining of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding for 2 months.
DIAGNOSES: An ultrasound revealed a slightly thickened endometrium. Histology revealed a dense lymphoid infiltrate in the endometrium, which was suggestive of an NHL. The atypical lymphocytes were positive for CD20 and BCL-2. Moreover, the PCR demonstrated monoclonal heavy chain gene rearrangement. Taken together, the diagnosis of primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT type) was established. According to Ann Arbor criteria, the disease was staged IEA.
INTERVENTIONS: Dilatation and curettage was performed, and no additional surgery or radiotherapy and chemotherapy was administered.
OUTCOMES: The patient was alive with no evidence of cancer for ≥41 months.
LESSONS: Primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT Type) is a very rare indolent tumor, and its prognosis seems to be good. Thus, conservative treatment and no further therapy were suggested based on the tumor biology.

Tsagozis P, Augsten M, Zhang Y, et al.
An immunosuppressive macrophage profile attenuates the prognostic impact of CD20-positive B cells in human soft tissue sarcoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):927-936 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immune cells can regulate disease progression and response to treatment in multiple tumor types, but their activities in human soft tissue sarcoma are poorly characterized.
METHODS: Marker-defined immune cell subsets were characterized from a tumor microenvironmental perspective in two independent cohorts of human soft tissue sarcoma by multiplex IHC, quantitative PCR and/or bioinformatics.
RESULTS: B cell profiling revealed a prognostic role for CD20 protein (cohort 1, 33 patients) and MS4A1 gene expression (cohort 2, 265 patients). Multiplex IHC and gene correlation analysis supported a role in antigen presentation, immune cell differentiation and T cell activation. The prognostic role of MS4A1 expressing B cells was only observed in an IL10
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of CD20/MS4A1 expression in soft tissue sarcoma merits further attention as a promising candidate prognostic tool for survival, but not in patients with a pronounced immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are ubiquitous and polarized toward a protumoral phenotype. This provides a rationale for further studies on B cell function and immunotherapy targeting M2-polarized macrophages.

He X, Xu X, Zhu G, Ye H
Circulating uPA as a potential prognostic biomarker for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(9):e14717 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous research showed that the 4 genes of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyto-keratin 20 (CK20), cyto-keratin 19 (CK19) and urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) are detectable in the peripheral blood. All the 4 genes are related to tumor invasion and metastasis. However, whether their expression is associated with clinicopathologic factors and the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still confused. Expression levels of MMP9, CK20, CK19, and uPA were evaluated by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in peripheral blood of 205 ESCC patients who received radical resection. The cut-off value was 1000 copy numbers. Their impacts on clinicopathologic factors and survival were investigated. The uPA expression positively correlated with gender (P = .046) and tumor size (P = .046). Meanwhile, CK19 expression positively correlated with tumor size (P = .029), vascular invasion (P = .024), and CK20 expression positively correlated with tumor size (P = .035) and degrees of differentiation (P = .032). Moreover, the overexpression of MMP9 has a correlation with postoperative radiotherapy (P = .041) and chemotherapy (P = .012). Among the 4 genes, only uPA is a prognostic indicator for disease-free survival and overall survival both in univariate analysis and multivariate analysis (P = .015). This study suggests that circulating uPA mRNA in peripheral blood can serve as a potential unfavorable prognosis biomarker in ESCC. Further perspective, multi-center and large-scale study is still needed.

He Y, Bouwstra R, Wiersma VR, et al.
Cancer cell-expressed SLAMF7 is not required for CD47-mediated phagocytosis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD47 is a prominent new target in cancer immunotherapy, with antagonistic antibodies currently being evaluated in clinical trials. For effective evaluation of this strategy it is crucial to identify which patients are suited for CD47-targeted therapy. In this respect, expression of the pro-phagocytic signal SLAMF7 on both macrophages and cancer cells was recently reported to be a requisite for CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that in fact SLAMF7 expression on cancer cells is not required and does not impact on CD47 antibody therapy. Moreover, SLAMF7 also does not impact on phagocytosis induction by CD20 antibody rituximab nor associates with overall survival of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma patients. In contrast, expression of CD47 negatively impacts on overall and progression free survival. In conclusion, cancer cell expression of SLAMF7 is not required for phagocytosis and, in contrast to CD47 expression, should not be used as selection criterion for CD47-targeted therapy.

Jung M, Lee JH, Kim B, et al.
Transcriptional Analysis of Immunohistochemically Defined Subgroups of Non-Muscle-Invasive Papillary High-Grade Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CK5/6 and CK20 was reported to be correlated with the prognosis of early urothelial carcinoma in a way contrary to that of advanced tumors for unknown reasons. We aimed to characterize the gene expression profiles of subgroups of non-muscle-invasive papillary high-grade upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) classified by CK5/6 and CK20 expression levels: group 1 (CK5/6-high/CK20-low), group 2 (CK5/6-high/CK20-high), and group 3 (CK5/6-low/CK20-high). Expression of group 3 was predictive of worse prognosis of non-muscle-invasive papillary high-grade UTUC. Transcriptional analysis revealed 308 differentially expressed genes across the subgroups. Functional analyses of the genes identified cell adhesion as a common process differentially enriched in group 3 compared to the other groups, which could explain its high-risk phenotype. Late cell cycle/proliferation signatures were also enriched in group 3 and in some of the other groups, which may be used as a prognostic biomarker complementary to CK5/6 and CK20. Group 2, characterized by low levels of genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways, was hypothesized to represent the least cancerous subtype considering its normal urothelium-like IHC pattern. This study would facilitate the application of easily accessible prognostic biomarkers in practice.

Tari K, Shamsi Z, Reza Ghafari H, et al.
The role of the genetic abnormalities, epigenetic and microRNA in the prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):261-267 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is increased proliferation of B-cells with peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement, which is usually observed in older people. Genetic mutations, epigenetic changes and miRs play a role in CLL pathogenesis. Del 11q, del l17q, del 6q, trisomy 12, p53 and IgVH mutations are the most important genetic changes in CLL. Deletion of miR-15a and miR-16a can increase bcl2 gene expression, miR-29 and miR-181 deletions decrease the expression of TCL1, and miR-146a deletion prevents tumor metastasis. Epigenetic changes such as hypo- and hypermethylation, ubiquitination, hypo- and hyperacetylation of gene promoters involved in CLL pathogenesis can also play a role in CLL. Expression of CD38 and ZAP70, presence or absence of mutation in IgVH and P53 mutation are among the factors involved in CLL prognosis. Use of monoclonal antibodies against surface markers of B-cells like anti-CD20 as well as tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the most important therapeutic approaches for CLL.

Kim KH, Cheong HJ, Lee MY, et al.
Bortezomib Is More Effective to Side Population of RPMI8226 Myeloma Cells than Classical Anti-myeloma Agents.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):127-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Cytotoxic chemotherapy-based treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) is not curative, and the disease eventually recurs. This is partially because although currently available anti-MM strategies are effective in targeting the bulk of tumor cells, they do not target the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cancer stem cells. This study investigated the prevalence and biological functions of side population (SP) cells in MM cell lines including RPMI8226, ARH77, MM.1R and IM 9.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry-based Hoechst 33342 staining was used to evaluate the existence of SP cells. In addition, the ability of SP cells to regenerate the original population was determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of SP cells was heterogeneous. Most cell lines (ARH77, IM9, and MM.1R) contained fewer than 1% SP cells; however, RPMI8226 contained approximately 10% SP cells. Sorted SP cells showed a higher proliferative ability and clonogenicity than the MP in the RPMI8226 myeloma cell line. The activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), which is associated with high rates of proliferation, was higher in SP cells. However, the expression of specific surface markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)138, CD34, CD38, CD19, CD20, and CD27 did not differ between SP and MP cells. Bortezomib was the only agent that significantly affected proliferation of both SP and MP cells.
CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated that the SP fraction of myeloma cells possessed clonogenic tumor-initiating potential and revealed new mechanisms of action for bortezomib on SP cells.

Payandeh Z, Bahrami AA, Hoseinpoor R, et al.
The applications of anti-CD20 antibodies to treat various B cells disorders.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:2415-2426 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (called CD20) is known as an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein which is expressed on the surface of all B-cells. CD20 is involved in the regulation of trans-membrane Ca

Shakery A, Pourvali K, Ghorbani A, et al.
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Promotes Proliferation, Migration and Stemness in a Subpopulation of 5FU Treated SW480 Cells: Evidence for Metabolic Plasticity in Colon Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(11):3287-3294 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a ketone body is the metabolic fuel in oxidative phosphorylation pathway. So far the effects of BHB on the biology of tumor cells is contradictory. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BHB on viability, metabolism, proliferation and migration of 5FU treated SW480 colon cancer cell line. Methods: we treated the SW480 cells with IC50 dose of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) for 72 h to isolate a subpopulation of 5FU treated cells that were resistant to it. Effects of BHB on cell viability was investigated by MTT assay. Measurement of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in parallel with extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) upon BHB treatment was used for determination of metabolic profile of these cells. Investigating the relationship between metabolic phenotype and the status of differentiation and stemness was done by analyzing the expression of PGC-1α, c-MYC, NANOG, ALPi and KRT20 genes by qRT-PCR. Clonogenic and scratch assay were performed to determine the proliferation and migration abilities of incubated with BHB compared to untreated cells. Results: BHB increased cell viability in SW480 and 5FU treated SW480 cells. The results showed a significantly decreased ECAR and increased OCR in both cell types following BHB treatment reflecting the superiority of oxidative phosphorylation profile compared to glycolysis in both cell types. Also, treatment with BHB increases the expression of genes normally associated with stemness and mitochondrial biogenesis and decreases the expression of genes related to glycolytic program and differentiation in 5FU treated cells. Self-renewal and migration potential of BHB treated cells increased significantly. Conclusion: These findings suggest that BHB utilization via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism can fuel proliferation, migration and stemness in 5FU treated SW480 colon cancer cells.

Meiss F, Technau-Hafsi K, Kern JS, May AM
Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy: Correlation of molecular characteristics of skin lesions and extracutaneous manifestations of hematologic malignancy.
J Cutan Pathol. 2019; 46(3):175-181 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are frequent in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other hematological neoplasias. Eosinophilic dermatosis (ED) of hematologic malignancy has long been considered a nonspecific cutaneous reaction pattern. Recently neoplastic cells have been shown to be present in ED, thus challenging the classification as a nonspecific dermatosis.
METHODS: We report five patients with ED in association with CLL. We further investigated the presence of neoplastic B-cells in the skin infiltrate by immunohistochemistry and immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement and compared these to extracutaneous manifestations of CLL.
RESULTS: The phenotype of the lymphocytic infiltrate was predominately CD3+ (range: 60%-90%). CD20+ and CD79a+ lymphocytes were less frequent, accounting for up to 15% (range: absent - 15%). CD23+ lymphocytes represented up to 20% (range: absent - 20%) of the infiltrate. The analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement in the skin specimens showed clonal rearrangements in 4/5 patients and in three of these four patients clones were identical to extracutaneous CLL manifestations.
CONCLUSION: Our data show that neoplastic B-cells are very frequently found in ED when systematically evaluated. This findings support the hypothesis that leukemic cells play a pathogenetic role in ED of hematologic malignancy.

Eckstein M, Wirtz RM, Gross-Weege M, et al.
mRNA-Expression of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been subclassified by gene expression profiling, with a substantial impact on therapy response and patient outcome. We tested whether these complex molecular subtypes of MIBC can be determined by mRNA detection of keratin 5 (

Jester R, Znoyko I, Garnovskaya M, et al.
Expression of renal cell markers and detection of 3p loss links endolymphatic sac tumor to renal cell carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation to avoid diagnostic pitfalls.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising in the temporal petrous region thought to originate from endolymphatic sac epithelium. It may arise sporadically or in association with Von-Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). The ELST prevalence in VHL ranges from 3 to 16% and may be the initial presentation of the disease. Onset is usually in the 3rd to 5th decade with hearing loss and an indolent course. ELSTs present as locally destructive lesions with characteristic computed tomography imaging features. Histologically, they show papillary, cystic or glandular architectures. Immunohistochemically, they express keratin, EMA, and variably S100 and GFAP. Currently it is recommended that, given its rarity, ELST needs to be differentiated from other entities with similar morphologic patterns, particularly other VHL-associated neoplasms such as metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Nineteen ELST cases were studied. Immunohistochemistry (18/19) and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray testing was performed (12/19). Comparison with the immunophenotype and copy number profile in RCC is discussed. Patients presented with characteristic bone destructive lesions in the petrous temporal bones. Pathology of tumors showed characteristic ELST morphology with immunoexpression of CK7, GFAP, S100, PAX-8, PAX-2, CA-9 in the tumor cells. Immunostaines for RCC, CD10, CK20, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, and transthyretin were negative in the tumor cells. Molecular testing showed loss of 3p and 9q in 66% (8/12) and 58% (7/12) cases, respectively. Immunoreactivity for renal markers in ELST is an important diagnostic caveat and has not been previously reported. In fact, renal markers are currently recommended in order to rule out metastatic RCC although PAX gene complex and CA-9 have been implicated in the development of the inner ear. Importantly copy number assessment of ELST has not been previously reported. Loss of 3p (including the VHL locus) in ELST suggests similar mechanistic origins as ccRCC.

Orrego E, Castaneda CA, Castillo M, et al.
Distribution of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in glioblastoma.
CNS Oncol. 2018; 7(4):CNS21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Evaluation of features related to infiltrating immune cell level in glioblastoma.
METHODS: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) through H&E staining, and TILs (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20) and macrophage (CD68 and CD163) levels through immunohistochemistry were evaluated through digital analysis.
RESULTS: CD68 (9.1%), CD163 (2.2%), CD3 (1.6%) and CD8 (1.6%) had the highest density. Higher CD4
CONCLUSION: Macrophages are more frequent than TILs. Some subsets are associated with clinical features.

Sjöberg E, Frödin M, Lövrot J, et al.
A minority-group of renal cell cancer patients with high infiltration of CD20+B-cells is associated with poor prognosis.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(7):840-846 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of B-lymphocytes in solid tumours is unclear. Tumour biology studies have implied both anti- and pro-tumoural effects and prognostic studies have mainly linked B-cells to increased survival. This study aimed to analyse the clinical relevance of B-lymphocytes in renal cell cancer (RCC), where information on the prognostic impact is lacking.
METHODS: Following immunohistochemistry (IHC) stainings with a CD20 antibody, density of CD20+ B-cells was quantified in an RCC discovery- and validation cohort. Associations of B-cell infiltration, determined by CD20 expression or a B-cell gene-signature, and survival was also analysed in 14 publicly available gene expression datasets of cancer, including the kidney clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) dataset.
RESULTS: IHC analyses of the discovery cohort identified a previously unrecognised subgroup of RCC patients with high infiltration of CD20+ B-cells. The B-cell-high subgroup displayed significantly shorter survival according to uni- and multi-variable analyses. The association between poor prognosis and high density of CD20+ B-cells was confirmed in the validation cohort. Analyses of the KIRC gene expression dataset using the B-cell signature confirmed findings from IHC analyses. Analyses of other gene expression datasets, representing 13 different tumour types, indicated that the poor survival-association of B-cells occurred selectively in RCC.
CONCLUSION: This exploratory study identifies a previously unrecognised poor-prognosis subset of RCC with high density of CD20-defined B-cells.

Parikh SA
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment algorithm 2018.
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(10):93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
The treatment landscape for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has changed considerably with the introduction of very effective oral targeted therapies (such as ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax), and next-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (such as obinutuzumab). These agents lead to improved outcomes in CLL, even among patients with high-risk features, such as del17p13 or TP53 mutation and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGHV) genes. Each of these treatments is associated with a unique toxicity profile; in the absence of randomized data, the choice of one type of treatment over another depends on the co-morbidities of the patient. Chemoimmunotherapy still plays an important role in the management of previously untreated CLL patients, particularly among young fit patients who have standard risk FISH profile and mutated IGHV genes. Richter's transformation of CLL remains a difficult complication to treat, although therapy with programmed death 1 inhibitors such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab has shown impressive responses in a subset of patients. Our ability to risk stratify CLL patients continues to evolve; the CLL-International Prognostic Index (CLL-IPI) is the best validated tool in predicting time to first therapy among previously untreated patients. This review summarizes the current approach to risk stratification and management of CLL patients.

Mitobe M, Kawamoto K, Suzuki T, et al.
Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone, and Cisplatin Regimen as an Effective Salvage Therapy for High-grade B-cell Lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 Rearrangements.
Intern Med. 2019; 58(4):575-580 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
A 61-year-old woman exhibited right inguinal lymphadenopathy and right lower limb edema approximately 1 month prior to hospitalization. She was diagnosed with high grade B-cell lymphoma, and a lymph node biopsy and fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements (triple-hit lymphoma). She had progressive disease that was CD20-negative after two courses of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (R-CODOX-M/IVAC) therapy. Subsequent etoposide, prednisolone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (EPOCH) therapy was not effective. However, after two cycles of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) therapy, she achieved a complete response and was able to undergo autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. GDP therapy may be effective as salvage therapy for chemotherapy-resistant triple-hit lymphoma.

Wei XQ, Ma Y, Chen Y, et al.
Laparoscopic surgery for early cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its effect on the micrometastasis of cancer cells.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(34):e11921 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy on expressions of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) mRNA.We collect 78 patients with stage IA2-IIA1 cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy by laparotomy or laparoscopy in our study, and 34 uterine fibroids patients and 32 healthy subjects were recruited as the positive control group and negative control group, respectively. Blood samples were taken from early-stage primary cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify peripheral blood CK19, CK20 and SCC-Ag from total RNA. We measured the expression of CK19, CK20, and SCC-Ag before laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, 24 hours and 30 days after surgery. Meanwhile, the expression of these markers was compared between laparoscopic and laparotomy groups.The expressions of CK19, CK20, and SCC-Ag in the experimental group before surgery were (0.0035 ± 0.0018), (1.06 ± 0.49), and (1.48 ± 0.46), respectively, and the positive rates were 32.1%, 33.3%, and 35.9%, respectively. The expression levels of CK19, CK20, and SCC-Ag in the experimental group before surgery was significantly higher than the positive and negative control groups, and there were no significant differences between the positive and negative control groups. The expressions and positive rates of CK19, CK20, and SCC-Ag before laparoscopic radical hysterectomy were significantly lower than the stage at 24 hours after surgery (P < .05), but higher than the stage at 30 days after surgery (P > .05). There were no significant differences in CK19, CK20, and SCC-Ag expressions before surgery, 24 hours and 30 days after surgery between laparoscopic group and laparotomy group (P > .05).Both laparotomy and laparoscopic radical mastectomy tend to increase the expression of CTCs in peripheral blood, and the expressions have no differences between these 2 groups. So, the use of CK19, CK20, and SCC-Ag expression levels from peripheral blood from early stage cervical cancer radical patients before hysterectomy can aid to overcome the lack of radiographic examination and tumor markers measurement, and provide clues for postoperative treatment and prognosis determination.

Neumann F, Acker F, Schormann C, et al.
Determination of optimum vitamin D3 levels for NK cell-mediated rituximab- and obinutuzumab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018; 67(11):1709-1718 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) deficiency impairs rituximab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas (DLBCL). Since the optimum 25-OH-D3 serum levels for NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) are unknown, we determined the 25-OH-D3 serum levels associated with maximum NK cell-mediated ADCC. CD20 antibody-loaded CD20

Nagant C, Casula D, Janssens A, et al.
Easy discrimination of hematogones from lymphoblasts in B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients using CD81/CD58 expression ratio.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2018; 40(6):734-739 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The discrimination of leukemia lymphoblasts (LB) in diagnosis and follow-up of B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) may be difficult due to the presence of hematogones (HG). The aim of this study was to compare lymphoblasts of BCP-ALL and HG for the expression of the most discriminating antigens.
METHODS: A total of 82 bone marrow samples (39 BCP-ALL and 43 patients with HG) were analyzed using MFC. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was measured for ten markers commonly used in hematology laboratories: CD45, CD19, CD10, CD34, CD38, CD20, CD22, CD58, CD81, and CD123. Statistical comparison of the MFI between LB and HG was performed. The presence on LB of aberrant expression of myeloid and/or T-cell markers was also investigated.
RESULTS: Qualitative pattern expression of antigens showed overexpression on LB of CD58, CD22, CD34, CD10 and underexpression of CD81, CD45, CD38 when compared to HG. Expression of CD123 was positive in 34% of BCP-ALL LB and always absent on HG. Aberrant antigen expression (myeloid and/or T-cell marker) including CD123 was observed in 58% of BCP-ALL patients. The use of a MFI antigen ratio of the most discriminating markers (CD81/CD58) (analysis of variance, P < 0.005) increased the distinction of LB versus HG with a high specificity and sensitivity as demonstrated by the use of ROC curve analysis (AUC of CD81/CD58: 0.995).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate in this study that routine use of the MFI antigen ratio (CD81/CD58) in addition to the MFC evaluation using WHO classical criteria appears to be an efficient approach to discriminate LB from HG.

Michalova K, Steiner P, Alaghehbandan R, et al.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma with cytologic and molecular genetic features overlapping with renal oncocytoma: Analysis of 10 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 35:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We present a series of papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCC) reminiscent of so-called "oncocytic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma" (OPRCC), included in the 2016 WHO classification as a potential type 3 PRCC. OPRCC is a poorly understood entity, cytologically characterized by oncocytic cells with non-overlapping low grade nuclei. OPRCC is not genotypically distinct and the studies concerning this variant have shown an inconsistent genetic profile. The tumors presented herein demonstrated predominantly papillary/tubulopapillary architecture and differed from OPRCC by pseudostratification and grade 2-3 nuclei (Fuhrman/ISUP). Because there is a morphologic overlap between renal oncocytoma (RO) and PRCC in the cases included in this study, the most frequently affected chromosomes in RO and PRCC were analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 147 PRCC composed of oncocytic cells were retrieved from our registry in order to select a group of morphologically uniform tumors. 10 cases with predominantly papillary, tubulopapillary or solid architectural patterns were identified. For immunohistochemical analysis, the following antibodies were used: vimentin, antimitochondrial antigene (MIA), AMACR, PAX8, CK7, CK20, AE1-3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, Cathepsin K, HMB45, SDHB, CD10, and CD117. Enumeration changes of locus 1p36, chromosomes 7, 14, 17, X, Y and rearrangement of CCND1 were examined by FISH. For further study, only tumors showing karyotype similar to that of RO were selected. The tumors exhibiting either trisomy of chromosomes 7, 17 or gain of Y, thus abnormalities characteristic for PRCC, were excluded.
RESULTS: There were 5 males and 5 females, with patient age ranging from 56 to 79 years (mean 66.8 years). The tumor size ranged from 2 to 10 cm (mean 5.1 cm). Follow-up was available for 8/10 patients (mean 5.2 years); one patient died of the disease, while 7 of 8 are alive and well. Immunohistochemically, all cases were reactive for AMACR, vimentin, PAX8, OSCAR, CAM5.2, and MIA. SDHB was retained in all cases. 9/10 cases were positive for CD10, 7/10 cases reacted with CK7, 4/10 with Cathepsin K, and 2/10 with AE1-3. None of the cases were positive for CD117, HMB45 and CK20. All 10 cases were analyzable by FISH and showed chromosomal abnormalities similar to that usually seen in RO (i.e. loss of 1p36 gene loci, loss of chromosome Y, rearrangement of CCND1 and numerical changes of chromosome 14).
CONCLUSIONS: We analyzed a series of renal tumors combining the features of PRCC/OPRCC and RO, that included pseudostratification and mostly high grade oncocytic cells lining papillary/tubulopapillary structures, karyotype characterized by loss of 1p36, loss of chromosome Y, rearrangement of CCND1 gene and numerical changes of chromosome 14. Despite the chromosomal numerical abnormalities typical of RO, we classified these tumors as part of the spectrum of PRCC because of their predominant papillary/tubulopapillary architecture, immunoprofile that included reactivity for AMACR, vimentin and lack of reactivity for CD117, all of which is incompatible with the diagnosis of RO. This study expands the morphological spectrum of PRCC by adding a cohort of diagnostically challenging cases, which may be potentially aggressive.

Repetto-Llamazares AHV, Malenge MM, O'Shea A, et al.
Combination of
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(4):522-531 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the therapeutic potential of the next-generation anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate
METHODS: Nude mice with subcutaneous (s.c.) Burkitt's lymphoma Daudi xenografts and SCID mice intravenously (i.v.) injected with Mantle cell lymphoma Rec-1 cells were treated with either
RESULTS: The combination of
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of mice with NHL xenografts with

Leblebici C, Bambul Sığırcı B, Kelten Talu C, et al.
CD10, TDAG51, CK20, AR, INSM1, and Nestin Expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Trichoblastoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2019; 27(1):19-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trichoblastoma (TB) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are 2 different neoplasms composed of basaloid cells and have overlapping histopathological features. We compared the immunoexpression of CD10, T-cell death-associated gene 51 (TDAG51), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), androgen receptor (AR), insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1), and nestin for the differential diagnosis of these tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed a total of 27 BCC and 27 TB cases, including 4 TB lesions in nevus sebaceous and 3 malignant TB lesions for CD10, TDAG51, CK20, AR, INSM1, and nestin expression.
RESULTS: Staining for CK20, TDAG51, INSM1, and stromal CD10 was significantly more common in TB cases than in BCC cases ( P < .001). Epithelial CD10 and AR staining was significantly more common in BCC cases than in TB cases ( P < .001). The difference between the groups for nestin staining was not significant ( P > .05). Stromal CD10 staining was the most sensitive marker (96.3%) and INSM1 the least sensitive (55.6%) marker for TB. TDAG51 showed 100% specificity for TB. A larger number of CK20 positive cells was found in the cases associated with nevus sebaceous than in the other TBs.
CONCLUSION: All the selected markers except nestin were useful for the differential diagnosis between TB and BCC. CD10 and TDAG51 were more useful than the other markers. The use of CK20 could be preferred in nevus sebaceous lesions. INSM1 was less effective in highlighting Merkel cells within the lesion than CK20.

Skerget M, Skopec B, Zadnik V, et al.
CD56 Expression Is an Important Prognostic Factor in Multiple Myeloma Even with Bortezomib Induction.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 139(4):228-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the impact of CD56, CD117, and CD28 expression on clinical characteristics and survival in newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated with bortezomib-based induction therapy.
METHODS: We analyzed 110 myeloma patients. Immunophenotype was determined using panels consisting of CD19/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD138 and CD20, CD28, and CD117 were used additionally. All samples were tested for recurrent chromosomal aberrations.
RESULTS: CD56, CD117, and CD28 expression rates were 71, 6, and 68%, respectively. The lack of CD56 expression was associated with light chain myeloma. The lack of CD117 expression was associated with elevated creatinine levels (p = 0.037). We discovered the correlation between CD 28 expression and female gender. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with revised International Staging System stage 2 disease with CD56 expression or the lack of CD56 expression was 20.5 vs. 13.8 months (p = 0.03). In patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), we found no difference in PFS and overall survival regarding the CD56 expression. We found no impact of CD117 and CD28 expression on PFS in patients regarding aHSCT.
CONCLUSIONS: Induction treatment incorporating bortezomib diminishes the negative impact of the lack of CD117 expression and aberrancy of CD28 but does not overcome the negative impact of the lack of CD56 expression.

Zinnall U, Weyerer V, Compérat E, et al.
Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: evaluation of HER2 status and immunohistochemical characterization of the molecular subtype.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 80:55-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comprehensive molecular analyses of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) have defined distinct subtypes with potential therapeutic implications. In this study, we focused on micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MPUC), an aggressive, histomorphologically defined rare variant. Apart from genetic alterations shared with conventional UBC, alterations of the HER2 gene have been reported in higher frequencies. However, only small cohorts of MPUCs have been analyzed, and the real impact is still unclear. We collected a cohort of 94 MPUCs and immunohistochemically tested HER2, basal (CD44, CK5, EGFR, p63) and luminal (CD24, FOXA1, GATA3, CK20) markers to allocate MPUC to a molecular subtype. Additionally, HER2 amplification status was assigned by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Sanger sequencing of exon 4 and 8 was used to test for HER2 mutations. Kruskal-Wallis test was calculated to compare marker distribution between proportions of the MPUC component. HER2 2+/3+ staining scores were identified in 39.6% of 91 analyzed MPUCs and were not differentially distributed among the proportion of the MPUC component (P = .89). Additionally, CISH analysis revealed 30% of HER2-amplified tumors independently of the MPUC fraction. In 6/90 evaluable MPUCs, a p.S310F HER2 mutation was detected. Overexpression of luminal markers was observed in the majority of MPUC. Our investigations of the largest cohort of analyzed MPUC demonstrate that HER2 overexpression and amplifications are common genetic alterations and identification of overexpressed luminal markers allows subclassification to the luminal subtype. These findings highlight the need of histomorphological recognition of MPUC and analysis of HER2 status and the luminal molecular subtype for potential targeted therapeutic strategies.

Arias-Pulido H, Cimino-Mathews A, Chaher N, et al.
The combined presence of CD20 + B cells and PD-L1 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in inflammatory breast cancer is prognostic of improved patient outcome.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 171(2):273-282 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate protein expression of PD-L1 and CD20 as prognostic biomarkers of patient outcome in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) samples.
METHODS: PD-L1 and CD20 protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry in 221 pretreatment IBC biopsies. PD-L1 was assessed in tumor cells (PD-L1

Hashimoto T, Tanaka Y, Ogawa R, et al.
Superficially serrated adenoma: a proposal for a novel subtype of colorectal serrated lesion.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(10):1588-1598 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a series of colorectal polyps characterized by mixed adenomatous and serrated features, herein referred to as superficially serrated adenomas. Twenty superficially serrated adenomas were obtained from 11 female and 9 male patients aged 62-87 years. Most lesions endoscopically appeared as small sessile polyps, but larger lesions were plaque-like (2-20 mm; median, 5 mm). Eighteen lesions (90%) were located in the sigmoid colon or rectum. They consisted primarily of straight, adenomatous glands but showed serration confined to the superficial layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed CK20 expression in the upper layer. Proliferating cells, determined by their expression of Ki-67, were localized to the middle to bottom layers. Genetic analyses identified KRAS mutations in 19 lesions and a BRAF mutation in one lesion. Furthermore, RSPO fusions and/or overexpression were observed in 18 lesions and truncating APC mutations were observed in the two remaining lesions. Consistent with the presence of WNT pathway gene alterations, all superficially serrated adenomas showed focal or diffuse nuclear β-catenin accumulation. Since concurrent KRAS mutations and RSPO fusions are reportedly common in traditional serrated adenomas, we reviewed 129 traditional serrated adenomas and found 15 lesions (12%) that were associated with superficially serrated adenoma components. Remarkably, all but one superficially serrated adenoma-associated traditional serrated adenoma exhibited concurrent KRAS mutations and RSPO fusions/overexpression. The present study suggests that superficially serrated adenoma is a morphologically and molecularly distinct type of colorectal serrated polyp that is histogenetically related to traditional serrated adenoma.

Aris M, Bravo AI, Pampena MB, et al.
Changes in the TCRβ Repertoire and Tumor Immune Signature From a Cutaneous Melanoma Patient Immunized With the CSF-470 Vaccine: A Case Report.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:955 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
The allogeneic therapeutic vaccine CSF-470 has demonstrated a significant benefit over medium-dose IFNα2b in the distant metastasis-free survival for stages IIB-IIC-III cutaneous melanoma patients in a randomized phase II/III clinical trial (CASVAC-0401, NCT01729663). At the end of the 2-year CSF-470 immunization protocol, patient #006 developed several lung and one subcutaneous melanoma metastases; this later was excised. In this report, we analyzed the changes throughout vaccination of immune populations in blood and in the tumor tissue, with special focus on the T-cell repertoire. Immunohistochemistry revealed a marked increase in CD8

Blatt K, Menzl I, Eisenwort G, et al.
Phenotyping and Target Expression Profiling of CD34
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(6):632-642 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are an emerging target of curative anti-leukemia therapy. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), LSCs frequently express CD34 and often lack CD38. However, little is known about markers and targets expressed in ALL LSCs. We have examined marker- and target expression profiles in CD34

Wang G, Xiao L, Zhang M, et al.
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 81 cases.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:57-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the bladder is a rare disease. We retrospectively studied a large series of bladder SmCC from a single institution. The patients included 69 men and 12 women with a mean age of 68 years. Most bladder SmCCs were presented at advanced stage, with tumors invading the muscularis propria and beyond (n = 77). SmCC was pure in 27 cases and mixed with other histologic types in 54 cases, including urothelial carcinoma (UC) (n = 32), UC in situ (n = 26), glandular (n = 14), micropapillary (n = 4), sarcomatoid (n = 4), squamous (n = 3), and plasmacytoid (n = 1) features. Most SmCCs expressed neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin (41/56), chromogranin (26/55), and CD56 (39/41); however, they did not express UC luminal markers CK20 (0/17), GATA3 (1/30), and uroplakin II (1/22). Some SmCCs showed focal expression of CK5/6 (9/25), a marker for the basal molecular subtype. Furthermore, expression of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene protein was lost in most of the bladder SmCCs (2/23). The patients' survival was significantly associated with cancer stage but did not show a significant difference between mixed and pure SmCCs. Compared with conventional UC at similar stages, SmCC had a worse prognosis only when patients developed metastatic diseases. In conclusion, bladder SmCC is an aggressive disease that is frequently present at an advanced stage. A fraction of SmCCs show a basal molecular subtype, which may underlie its good response to chemotherapy. Inactivation of the RB1 gene may be implicated in the oncogenesis of bladder SmCC.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. KRT20, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 30 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999