Gene Summary

Gene:KLK6; kallikrein related peptidase 6
Aliases: hK6, Bssp, Klk7, SP59, PRSS9, PRSS18
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the kallikrein subfamily of the peptidase S1 family of serine proteases. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. Expression of this protease is regulated by steroid hormones and may be elevated in multiple human cancers and in serum from psoriasis patients. The encoded protease may participate in the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and alpha-synuclein, thus implicating this protease in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. This gene is located in a gene cluster on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KLK6 (cancer-related)

Reyes I, Reyes N, Suriano R, et al.
Gene expression profiling identifies potential molecular markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(1):71-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide, with the predominant form papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) representing approximately 80% of cases.
OBJECTIVE: This study was addressed to identify potential genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PTC and potential novel biomarkers for this disease.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling was carried out by DNA microarray technology. Validation of microarray data by qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was also performed in a selected set of genes and gene products, with the potential to be used as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, such as those associated with cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and immune/inflammatory response.
RESULTS: In this study we found that upregulation of extracellular activities, such as proteoglycans, ECM-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules, were the most prominent feature of PTC. Significantly over-expressed genes included SDC1 (syndecan 1), SDC4 (syndecan 4), KLK7 (kallikrein-related peptidase 7), KLK10 (kallikrein-related peptidase 10), SLPI (secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor), GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor-15), ALOX5 (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase), SFRP2 (secreted Frizzled-related protein 2), among others. Further, elevated KLK10 levels were detected in patients with PTC. Many of these genes belong to KEGG pathway "Proteoglycans in cancer".
CONCLUSIONS: Using DNA microarray analysis allowed the identification of genes and pathways with known important roles in malignant transformation, and also the discovery of novel genes that may be potential biomarkers for PTC.

Wang P, Magdolen V, Seidl C, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidases 4, 5, 6 and 7 regulate tumour-associated factors in serous ovarian cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(7):1-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tissue kallikrein-related peptidases 4, 5, 6 and 7 (KLK4-7) strongly increase the malignancy of ovarian cancer cells. Deciphering their downstream effectors, we aimed at finding new potential prognostic biomarkers and treatment targets for ovarian cancer patients. KLK4-7-transfected (OV-KLK4-7) and vector-control OV-MZ-6 (OV-VC) ovarian cancer cells were established to select differentially regulated factors.
METHODS: With three independent approaches, PCR arrays, genome-wide microarray and proteome analyses, we identified 10 candidates (MSN, KRT19, COL5A2, COL1A2, BMP5, F10, KRT7, JUNB, BMP4, MMP1). To determine differential protein expression, we performed western blot analyses, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry for four candidates (MSN, KRT19, KRT7, JUNB) in cells, tumour xenograft and patient-derived tissues.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that KLK4-7 clearly regulates expression of MSN, KRT19, KRT7 and JUNB at the mRNA and protein levels in ovarian cancer cells and tissues. Protein expression of the top-upregulated effectors, MSN and KRT19, was investigated by immunohistochemistry in patients afflicted with serous ovarian cancer and related to KLK4-7 immunoexpression. Significant positive associations were found for KRT19/KLK4, KRT19/KLK5 and MSN/KLK7.
CONCLUSION: These findings imply that KLK4-7 exert key modulatory effects on other cancer-related genes and proteins in ovarian cancer. These downstream effectors of KLK4-7, MSN and KRT19 may represent important therapeutic targets in serous ovarian cancer.

Song J, Wang L, Ma Q, et al.
Let‑7i‑5p inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells by targeting kallikrein‑related peptidase 6.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1459-1466 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies worldwide, and as it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, it is a serious threat to human health. MicroRNAs are important regulators of the growth and metastasis of colon cancer (CC). In the present study, the results demonstrated that kallikrein‑related peptidase 6 (KLK6) plays a critical role in suppressing colon carcinoma progression. To further investigate whether microRNAs affect the impact of KLK6, a bioinformatics approach was employed, which indicated that let‑7i‑5p may directly target KLK6. Furthermore, the expression level of let‑7i‑5p was significantly negatively correlated with the expression of KLK6 at the mRNA and protein levels in CC. Functionally, overexpression of let‑7i‑5p inhibited the proliferation and invasion of CC cells, and suppressed the growth of CC in vitro. The luciferase reporter assays revealed that let‑7i‑5p targeted the KLK6 3'‑untranslated region. Collectively, these results indicated that let‑7i‑5p inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of CC cells by targeting KLK6, thereby blocking the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis in colon cells. Therefore, the present study revealed that the let‑7i‑5p/KLK6 axis may be a potential target for new therapeutic strategies to treat colon tumors.

Gladitz J, Klink B, Seifert M
Network-based analysis of oligodendrogliomas predicts novel cancer gene candidates within the region of the 1p/19q co-deletion.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Oligodendrogliomas are primary human brain tumors with a characteristic 1p/19q co-deletion of important prognostic relevance, but little is known about the pathology of this chromosomal mutation. We developed a network-based approach to identify novel cancer gene candidates in the region of the 1p/19q co-deletion. Gene regulatory networks were learned from gene expression and copy number data of 178 oligodendrogliomas and further used to quantify putative impacts of differentially expressed genes of the 1p/19q region on cancer-relevant pathways. We predicted 8 genes with strong impact on signaling pathways and 14 genes with strong impact on metabolic pathways widespread across the region of the 1p/19 co-deletion. Many of these candidates (e.g. ELTD1, SDHB, SEPW1, SLC17A7, SZRD1, THAP3, ZBTB17) are likely to push, whereas others (e.g. CAP1, HBXIP, KLK6, PARK7, PTAFR) might counteract oligodendroglioma development. For example, ELTD1, a functionally validated glioblastoma oncogene located on 1p, was overexpressed. Further, the known glioblastoma tumor suppressor SLC17A7 located on 19q was underexpressed. Moreover, known epigenetic alterations triggered by mutated SDHB in paragangliomas suggest that underexpressed SDHB in oligodendrogliomas may support and possibly enhance the epigenetic reprogramming induced by the IDH-mutation. We further analyzed rarely observed deletions and duplications of chromosomal arms within oligodendroglioma subcohorts identifying putative oncogenes and tumor suppressors that possibly influence the development of oligodendroglioma subgroups. Our in-depth computational study contributes to a better understanding of the pathology of the 1p/19q co-deletion and other chromosomal arm mutations. This might open opportunities for functional validations and new therapeutic strategies.

El Sherbini MA, Mansour AA, Sallam MM, et al.
KLK10 exon 3 unmethylated PCR product concentration: a new potential early diagnostic marker in ovarian cancer? - A pilot study.
J Ovarian Res. 2018; 11(1):32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: KLK10 exon 3 hypermethylation correlated to tumor-specific lack of KLK10 expression in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. In the present study we investigate the possible role of KLK10 exon 3 methylation in ovarian tumor diagnosis and prognosis.
RESULTS: Qualitative methylation-specific PCR (MSP) results did not show statistically significant differences in patient group samples (normal and tumor) where all samples were positive only for the unmethylated-specific PCR except for two malignant samples that were either doubly positive (serous carcinoma) or doubly negative (Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor) for the two MSP tests. However, KLK10 exon 3 unmethylated PCR product concentration (ng/μl) showed statistically significant differences in benign and malignant patient group samples; mean ± SD (n): tumor: 0.077 ± 0.035 (14) and 0.047 ± 0.021 (15), respectively, p-value = 0.011; and normal: 0.094 ± 0.039 (7) and 0.046 ± 0.027 (6), respectively, p-value = 0.031. Moreover, ROC curve analysis of KLK10 exon 3 unmethylated PCR product concentration in overall patient group samples showed good diagnostic ability (AUC = 0.778; p-value = 0.002). Patient survival (living and died) showed statistically significant difference according to preoperative serum CA125 concentration (U/ml); median (n): 101.25 (10) and 1252 (5), respectively, p-value = 0.037, but not KLK10 exon 3 unmethylated PCR product concentration (ng/μl) in overall malignant patient samples; mean ± SD (n): 0.042 ± 0.015 (14) and 0.055 ± 0.032 (7), p-value = 0.228.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on KLK10 exon 3 unmethylated PCR product concentration as potential early epigenetic diagnostic marker in primary ovarian tumors. Taken into account the limitations in our study (small sample size and semi-quantitative PCR product analysis) further studies are strongly recommended.

Haritos C, Michaelidou K, Mavridis K, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) expression differentiates tumor subtypes and predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.
Clin Exp Med. 2018; 18(2):203-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel molecular markers that address the heterogeneity of breast cancer (BC) and provide meaningful prognostic information for BC patients are needed. Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is aberrantly expressed and functionally implicated in BC and, like other members of the KLK family, may prove a useful molecular tool for clinical management. Our objective was to assess, for the first time, the clinical relevance of KLK6 mRNA expression in BC. Total RNA was isolated from 165 breast tumors, as well as 100 adjacent non-cancerous tumor specimens. After cDNA synthesis, and following quality control, quantitative real-time PCR for KLK6 expression analysis took place. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed in order to assess the ability of KLK6 mRNA expression levels to differentiate between molecular BC subtypes. Survival analyses, using DFS as endpoint, were performed at the univariate and multivariate levels. Publicly available BC databases and online survival analysis tools were used to validate our findings. A significant downregulation of KLK6 mRNA expression was observed in BC tissue sections compared to the non-cancerous component (P < 0.001). The expression of KLK6 is positively associated with tumor grade (P = 0.038) and is overexpressed in TNBC and HER2-positive tumors (P < 0.001). Aberrant KLK6 expression predicts the clinical outcome of BC patients in terms of DFS, independently of currently used prognostic markers (HR = 7.11, 95% CI = 1.19-42.45). The differential expression of KLK6 and its association with unfavorable outcome in BC patients was validated via in silico analyses. Although an independent external cohort is necessary to confirm our findings, we proved for the first time that KLK6 can provide independent prognostic information for BC patients.

Jiang H, Du J, Gu J, et al.
A 65‑gene signature for prognostic prediction in colon adenocarcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 41(4):2021-2027 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular factors associated with the prognosis of colon cancer. Gene expression datasets were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus databases to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between colon cancer samples and normal samples. Survival‑related genes were selected from the DEGs using the Cox regression method. A co‑expression network of survival‑related genes was then constructed, and functional clusters were extracted from this network. The significantly enriched functions and pathways of the genes in the network were identified. Using Bayesian discriminant analysis, a prognostic prediction system was established to distinguish the positive from negative prognostic samples. The discrimination efficacy of the system was validated in the GSE17538 dataset using Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis. A total of 636 and 1,892 DEGs between the colon cancer samples and normal samples were screened from the TCGA and GSE44861 dataset, respectively. There were 155 survival‑related genes selected. The co‑expression network of survival‑related genes included 138 genes, 534 lines (connections) and five functional clusters, including the signaling pathway, cellular response to cAMP, and immune system process functional clusters. The molecular function, cellular components and biological processes were the significantly enriched functions. The peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, B cell receptor signaling pathway, and cytokine‑cytokine receptor interactions were the significant pathways. A prognostic prediction system based on a 65‑gene signature was established using this co‑expression network. Its discriminatory effect was validated in the TCGA dataset (P=3.56e‑12) and the GSE17538 dataset (P=1.67e‑6). The 65‑gene signature included kallikrein‑related peptidase 6 (KLK6), collagen type XI α1 (COL11A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, wingless‑type MMTV integration site family member 2 (WNT2) and keratin 6B. In conclusion, a 65‑gene signature was screened in the present study, which showed a prognostic prediction effect in colon adenocarcinoma. KLK6, COL11A1, and WNT2 may be suitable prognostic predictors for colon adenocarcinoma.

Adamopoulos PG, Kontos CK, Scorilas A
Molecular cloning of novel transcripts of human kallikrein-related peptidases 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 (KLK5 - KLK9), using Next-generation sequencing.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):17299 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Alternative splicing of cancer-related genes is a common cellular mechanism accounting for cancer cell transcriptome complexity and affecting cell cycle control, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. In this study, we describe the discovery and molecular cloning of thirty novel transcripts of the human KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8 and KLK9 genes, using 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RACE) and NGS technology, as well as their expression analysis in many established cell lines, originating from several distinct cancerous and normal tissues. Extensive bioinformatic analysis revealed novel splice variants of these five members of the KLK family, comprising entirely new exons, previously unknown boundaries of the already annotated exons (extensions and truncations) as well as alternative splicing events between these exons. Nested RT-PCR in a panel of human cell lines originating from seventeen cancerous and two normal tissues with the use of variant-specific pairs of primers was carried out for expression analysis of these novel splice variants, and Sanger sequencing of the respective amplicons confirmed our NGS results. Given that some splice variants of KLK family members possess clinical value, novel alternatively spliced transcripts appear as new candidate biomarkers for diagnostic and/or prognostic purposes and as targets for therapeutic strategies.

Kaneko N, Kawano S, Yasuda K, et al.
Differential roles of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 in malignant transformation and ΔNp63β-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2017; 75:148-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was mediated by ΔNp63β in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, DNA microarray analyses were performed using ΔNp63β-overexpressing OSCC cells to identify genes associated with ΔNp63β-mediated EMT. Thereby, we focused on kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) 6, most up-regulated following ΔNp63β-overexpression, that activates protease-activated receptors (PARs). In RT-PCR analyses, ΔNp63 was positively associated with KLK6 and PAR2 and negatively with PAR1 in OSCC cells. By ΔNp63 knockdown, KLK6 and PAR2 expression was decreased and PAR1 was increased. Furthermore, KLK6 knockdown led to enhancing migration and invasion, and inhibiting proliferation, suggesting EMT-phenotypes. Although, in the KLK6 or PAR2 knockdown cells, phosphorylation of ERK was reduced, it was restored in the KLK6 knockdown OSCC cells treated with recombinant KLK6 proteins. Immunohistochemistry showed ΔNp63, KLK6, and PAR2 were more strongly expressed in the epithelial dysplasia and central region of OSCC than normal oral epithelium, whereas PAR1 expression was undetectable. Interestingly, at the invasive front of OSCC, ΔNp63, KLK6, and PAR2 were reduced, but PAR1 was elevated. In addition, the OSCC patients with decreasing KLK6 expression at the invasive front had more unfavourable prognosis. These results suggested differential roles of KLK6 in malignant transformation and EMT; high ΔNp63β expression up-regulates KLK6-PAR2 and down-regulates PAR1, inducing malignant transformation in oral epithelium with stimulating proliferation through ERK signal activation. Moreover, KLK6-PAR2 expression is down-regulated and PAR1 is up-regulated when ΔNp63β expression is decreased, leading to EMT with enhancing migration and invasion through ERK signal reduction at the invasive front.

Delaunay T, Deschamps L, Haddada M, et al.
Aberrant expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 is correlated with human melanoma aggressiveness by stimulating cell migration and invasion.
Mol Oncol. 2017; 11(10):1330-1347 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Members of the tissue kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family not only regulate several important physiological functions, but aberrant expression has also been associated with various malignancies. Clinically, KLKs have been suggested as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in many types of cancer. As of yet, expression of KLKs and their role in skin cancers are, however, poorly addressed. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive disease associated with poor prognosis. Hence, diagnostic biomarkers to monitor melanoma progression are needed. Herein, we demonstrate that although mRNA of several KLKs are aberrantly expressed in melanoma cell lines, only the KLK7 protein is highly secreted in vitro. In line with these findings, ectopic expression of KLK7 in human melanomas and its absence in benign nevi were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in vivo. Interestingly, overexpression of KLK7 induced a significant reduction in melanoma cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, KLK7 overexpression triggered an increase in cell motility and invasion associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin and an upregulation of MCAM/CD146. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that aberrant KLK7 expression leads to a switch from proliferative to invasive phenotype, suggesting a potential role of KLK7 in melanoma progression. Thus, we hypothesize that KLK7 may represent a potential biomarker for melanoma progression.

Sells E, Pandey R, Chen H, et al.
Specific microRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network of Colon Cancer Invasion Mediated by Tissue Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 6.
Neoplasia. 2017; 19(5):396-411 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Metastatic colon cancer is a major cause of deaths among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Elevated expression of kallikrein 6 (KLK6), a member of a kallikrein subfamily of peptidase S1 family serine proteases, has been reported in CRC and is associated with low patient survival rates and poor disease prognosis. We knocked down KLK6 expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells to determine the significance of KLK6 expression for metastatic dissemination and to identify the KLK6-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) signaling networks in metastatic colon cancer. KLK6 suppression resulted in decreased cells invasion in vitro with a minimal effect on the cell growth and viability. In vivo, animals with orthotopic colon tumors deficient in KLK6 expression had the statistically significant increase in survival rates (P=.005) and decrease in incidence of distant metastases. We further performed the integrated miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiling to identify functional miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with KLK6-mediated invasiveness of colon cancer. Through bioinformatics analysis we identified and functionally validated the top two up-regulated miRNAs, miR-182 and miR-203, and one down-regulated miRNA, miRNA-181d, and their seven mRNA effectors. The established miRNA-mRNA interactions modulate cellular proliferation, differentiation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in KLK6-expressing colon cancer cells via the TGF-β signaling pathway and RAS-related GTP-binding proteins. We confirmed the potential tumor suppressive properties of miR-181d and miR-203 in KLK6-expressing HCT116 cells using Matrigel invasion assay. Our data provide experimental evidence that KLK6 controls metastasis formation in colon cancer via specific downstream network of miRNA-mRNA effectors.

Garimella R, Tadikonda P, Tawfik O, et al.
Vitamin D Impacts the Expression of Runx2 Target Genes and Modulates Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Membrane Vesicle Biogenesis Gene Networks in 143B Osteosarcoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed significant reduction in Runx2 target genes such as fibroblast growth factor -1, -12 (

Kim TW, Lee SJ, Kim JT, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 induces chemotherapeutic resistance by attenuating auranofin-induced cell death through activation of autophagy in gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(51):85332-85348 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a biomarker of gastric cancer associated with poor prognosis. Mechanisms by which KLK6 could be exploited for chemotherapeutic use are unclear. We evaluated auranofin (AF), a compound with cytotoxic effects, in KLK6-deficient cells, and we investigated whether KLK6 expression induces autophagy and acquisition of drug resistance in gastric cancer. Using cultured human cells and a mouse xenograft model, we investigated how KLK6 affects antitumor-reagent-induced cell death and autophagy. Expression levels of KLK6, p53, and autophagy marker LC3B were determined in gastric cancer tissues. We analyzed the effects of knockdown/overexpression of KLK6, LC3B, and p53 on AF-induced cell death in cancer cells. Increased KLK6 expression in human gastric cancer tissues and cells inhibited AF-induced cell motility due to increased autophagy and p53 levels. p53 dependent induction of KLK6 expression increased autophagy and drug resistance, whereas KLK6 silencing decreased the autophagy level and increased drug sensitivity. During AF-induced cell death, KLK6 and LC3B colocalized to autophagosomes, associated with p53, and were then trafficked to the cytosol. In the xenograft model of gastric cancer, KLK6 expression decreased AF-induced cell death and KLK6-induced autophagy increased AF resistance. Taken together, the data suggest that the induction of autophagic processes through KLK6 expression may increase acquisition of resistance to AF. Our findings may contribute to a new paradigm for tumor therapeutics.

Ahmed N, Dorn J, Napieralski R, et al.
Clinical relevance of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) and 8 (KLK8) mRNA expression in advanced serous ovarian cancer.
Biol Chem. 2016; 397(12):1265-1276 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Most members of the kallikrein-related peptidase family have been demonstrated to be dysregulated in ovarian cancer and modulate tumor growth, migration, invasion, and resistance to chemotherapy. In the present study, we assessed the mRNA expression levels of KLK6 and KLK8 by quantitative PCR in 100 patients with advanced serous ovarian cancer FIGO stage III/IV. A pronounced correlation between KLK6 and KLK8 mRNA expression (rs = 0.636, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating coordinate expression of both peptidases. No significant associations of clinical parameters with KLK6, KLK8, and a combined score KLK6+KLK8 were found. In univariate Cox regression analysis, elevated mRNA levels of KLK6 were significantly linked with shortened overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.07, p = 0.007). While KLK8 values were not associated with patients' outcome, high KLK6+KLK8 values were significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (HR = 1.82, p = 0.047) and showed a trend towards significance in the case of OS (HR = 1.82, p = 0.053). Strikingly, in multivariable analysis, elevated KLK6 mRNA values, apart from residual tumor mass, remained an independent predictive marker for poor OS (HR = 2.33, p = 0.005). As KLK6 mRNA and protein levels correlate, KLK6 may represent an attractive therapeutic target for potent and specific inhibitors of its enzymatic activity.

Teo CR, Casey PJ, Rasheed SA
The GNA13-RhoA signaling axis suppresses expression of tumor protective Kallikreins.
Cell Signal. 2016; 28(10):1479-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gα13 (encoded by GNA13 gene) is the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein that mediates signaling through specific G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Increased GNA13 expression has been observed in metastatic breast cancer cells. Recently, we have shown that enhanced GNA13 signaling in MCF-10a cells, a benign breast cancer cell line increased its invasiveness. Previous studies have reported that Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs 1-15) are down-regulated in breast tumors and may have a tumor protective function. However, the mechanisms that lead to the down-regulation of KLK genes in breast cancer are yet to be elucidated. We found that enhanced GNA13 signaling represses KLK gene expression in breast cancer, and undertook examination of the mechanisms involved. A microarray analysis revealed down-regulation of several members of the Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLK) gene family, namely KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8 and KLK10, in MCF-10a lines with enhanced GNA13 protein expression. Using real-time PCR and promoter analysis, we identified that the mRNA expression and promoter activities of these KLKs are suppressed upon enforced expression of GNA13 in MCF-10a cells. Using Rhotekin pull-down assays, we identified that GNA13 suppressed Rho-A activation and protein levels in MCF-10a cells. Blocking Rho-A activation using C3-toxin or by inhibiting its down-stream effector, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), reduced the above-mentioned KLK mRNAs in MCF-10A cells. Importantly, in a metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-157, knock down of GNA13 alone was sufficient to induce the expression KLK mRNAs. Taken together, our findings suggested that enhanced GNA13 signaling down-regulates KLK gene transcription. The ability of enhanced GNA13 signaling to suppress KLK gene expression appears at least in part due to the ability of enhanced GNA13 signaling to negatively impact Rho/ROCK-signaling.

Raju I, Kaushal GP, Haun RS
Epigenetic regulation of KLK7 gene expression in pancreatic and cervical cancer cells.
Biol Chem. 2016; 397(11):1135-1146 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is a serine protease encoded within the kallikrein gene cluster located on human chromosome region 19q13.3-13.4. KLK7 is overexpressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs), but not in normal pancreas. Examination of KLK7 mRNA levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines revealed that it is readily detected in MIA PaCa-2 and PK-1 cells, but not in Panc-1 cells. Treatment of Panc-1 cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) significantly induced KLK7 mRNA expression. Similarly, KLK7 is highly expressed in cervical cancer cells, but its expression in the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa is only detected following TSA treatment. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that the proximal -238 promoter region, containing a putative Sp1-binding site, was sufficient for TSA activation of luciferase reporter activity, which was abrogated by the disruption of the Sp1-binding sequence. Consistent with the notion that TSA induced KLK7 expression via Sp1, co-expression of Sp1 with the KLK7-promoter/luciferase construct produced a significant increase in reporter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enriched Sp1 occupancy on the KLK7 promoter following TSA treatment. Similarly, ChIP analysis showed the histone active mark, H3K4Me3, in the KLK7 promoter region was significantly increased after exposure to TSA.

Mangé A, Dimitrakopoulos L, Soosaipillai A, et al.
An integrated cell line-based discovery strategy identified follistatin and kallikrein 6 as serum biomarker candidates of breast carcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2016; 142:114-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Secreted proteins constitute a relevant source of putative cancer biomarkers. Here, we compared the secretome of a series of four genetically-related breast cancer cell lines as a model of aggressiveness using quantitative mass spectrometry. 537 proteins (59.5% of the total identified proteins) predicted to be released or shed from cells were identified. Using a scoring system based on i) iTRAQ value, ii) breast cancer tissue mRNA expression levels, and iii) immunohistochemical staining (public database), a short list of 10 candidate proteins was selected. Using specific ELISA assays, the expression level of the top five proteins was measured in a verification set of 56 patients. The four significantly differentially expressed proteins were then validated in a second independent set of 353 patients. Finally, follistatin (FST) and kallikrein 6 (KLK6) in serum were significantly higher (p-value < 0.0001) in invasive breast cancer patients compared with non-cancerous controls. Using specific cut-off values, FST distinguished breast cancer samples from healthy controls with a sensitivity of 65% and an accuracy of 68%, whereas KLK6 achieved a sensitivity of 55% and an accuracy of 61%. Therefore, we concluded that FST and KLK6 may have significance in breast cancer detection.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Discovery of new serum biomarkers that exhibit increased sensitivity and specificity compared to current biomarkers appears to be an essential field of research in cancer. Most biological markers show insufficient diagnostic sensitivity for early breast cancer detection and, for the majority of them, their concentrations are elevated only in metastatic forms of the disease. It is therefore essential to identify clinically reliable biomarkers and develop effective approaches for cancer diagnosis. One promising approach in this field is the study of secreted proteins through proteomic analysis of in vitro progression breast cancer models. Here we have shown that FST and KLK6 are elevated in breast cancer patient serum compared to healthy controls. We expect that our discovery strategy will help to identify cancer-specific and body-fluid-accessible biomarkers.

Sidiropoulos KG, Ding Q, Pampalakis G, et al.
KLK6-regulated miRNA networks activate oncogenic pathways in breast cancer subtypes.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(7):993-1007 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
KLK6 is expressed in normal mammary tissues and is aberrantly regulated in breast cancer. At physiological levels of expression, i.e. those found in normal mammary tissues, KLK6 acts as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. However, aberrant overexpression of KLK6 (i.e. 50-100-fold higher than normal), a characteristic of a subset of human breast cancers is associated with increased tumorigenicity (Pampalakis et al. Cancer Res 69:3779-3787, 2009). Here, we stably transfected KLK6-non-expressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with the full-length KLK6 cDNA to overexpress KLK6 at levels comparable to those observed in patients, and investigated potential oncogenic miRNA networks regulated by these abnormally high KLK6 expression levels and increased activity of this serine protease. A number of miRNAs that are upregulated (e.g. miR-146a) or downregulated (e.g. miR-34a) via KLK6-induced alterations in the miRNA biogenesis machinery were identified. Integrated experimental and bioinformatics analyses identified convergent miRNA networks targeting the cell cycle, MYC, MAPK, and other signaling pathways. In large clinical datasets, significant correlations between KLK6 and downstream MAPK and MYC targets at both the RNA and protein levels was confirmed, as well as negative correlation with GATA3. It was also demonstrated that KLK6 overexpression and likely its proteolytic activity is associated with alterations in downstream miRNAs and their targets, and these differ with the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The data partly explains the different characteristics of breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, we introduce a combined KLK6-CDKN1B+MYC+CDKN1C score for prediction of long-term patient survival outcomes, with higher scores indicating poor survival.

Barry GS, Cheang MC, Chang HL, Kennecke HF
Genomic markers of panitumumab resistance including ERBB2/ HER2 in a phase II study of KRAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18953-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
A prospective study was conducted to identify biomarkers associated with resistance to panitumumab monotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients with previously treated, codon 12/13 KRAS wt, mCRC were prospectively administered panitumumab 6 mg/kg IV q2weeks. Of 34 panitumumab-treated patients, 11 (32%) had progressive disease at 8 weeks and were classified as non-responders. A Nanostring nCounter-based assay identified a 5-gene expression signature (ERBB2, MLPH, IRX3, MYRF, and KLK6) associated with panitumumab resistance (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization determined that the HER2 (ERBB2) protein was overexpressed in 4/11 non-responding and 0/21 responding cases (P = 0.035). Two non-responding tumors had ERBB2 gene amplification only, and one demonstrated both ERBB2 amplification and mutation. A non-codon 12/13 KRAS mutation occurred in one panitumumab-resistant patient and was mutually exclusive with ERBB2/HER2 abnormalities. This study identifies a 5-gene signature associated with non-response to single agent panitumumab, including a subgroup of non-responders with evidence of aberrant ERBB2/HER2 signaling. KRAS wt tumors resistant to EGFRi may be identified by gene signature analysis, and the HER2 pathway plays an important role in resistance to therapy.

Sheng L, Anderson PH, Turner AG, et al.
Identification of vitamin D
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 164:90-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that high vitamin D

Hoff AM, Johannessen B, Alagaratnam S, et al.
Novel RNA variants in colorectal cancers.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36587-602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
With an annual estimated incidence of 1.4 million, and a five-year survival rate of 60%, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major clinical burden. To identify novel RNA variants in CRC, we analyzed exon-level microarray expression data from a cohort of 202 CRCs. We nominated 25 genes with increased expression of their 3' parts in at least one cancer sample each. To efficiently investigate underlying transcript structures, we developed an approach using rapid amplification of cDNA ends followed by high throughput sequencing (RACE-seq). RACE products from the targeted genes in 23 CRC samples were pooled together and sequenced. We identified VWA2-TCF7L2, DHX35-BPIFA2 and CASZ1-MASP2 as private fusion events, and novel transcript structures for 17 of the 23 other candidate genes. The high-throughput approach facilitated identification of CRC specific RNA variants. These include a recurrent read-through fusion transcript between KLK8 and KLK7, and a splice variant of S100A2. Both of these were overrepresented in CRC tissue and cell lines from external RNA-seq datasets.

Jimenez L, Sharma VP, Condeelis J, et al.
MicroRNA-375 Suppresses Extracellular Matrix Degradation and Invadopodial Activity in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(11):1349-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly invasive cancer with an association with locoregional recurrence and lymph node metastasis. We have previously reported that low microRNA-375 (miR-375) expression levels correlate with poor patient survival, increased locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis. Increasing miR-375 expression in HNSCC cell lines to levels found in normal cells results in suppressed invasive properties. HNSCC invasion is mediated in part by invadopodia-associated degradation of the extracellular matrix.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether elevated miR-375 expression in HNSCC cell lines also affects invadopodia formation and activity.
DESIGN: For evaluation of the matrix degradation properties of the HNSCC lines, an invadopodial matrix degradation assay was used. The total protein levels of invadopodia-associated proteins were measured by Western blot analyses. Immunoprecipitation experiments were conducted to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation state of cortactin. Human protease arrays were used for the detection of the secreted proteases. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction measurements were used to evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the commonly regulated proteases.
RESULTS: Increased miR-375 expression in HNSCC cells suppresses extracellular matrix degradation and reduces the number of mature invadopodia. Higher miR-375 expression does not reduce cellular levels of selected invadopodia-associated proteins, nor is tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin altered. However, HNSCC cells with higher miR-375 expression had significant reductions in the mRNA expression levels and secreted levels of specific proteases.
CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA-375 regulates invadopodia maturation and function potentially by suppressing the expression and secretion of proteases.

Leusink FK, van Diest PJ, Frank MH, et al.
The Co-Expression of Kallikrein 5 and Kallikrein 7 Associates with Poor Survival in Non-HPV Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma.
Pathobiology. 2015; 82(2):58-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) still has a poor prognosis. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a major determinant of treatment decisions and prognosis. Serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) is the inhibitor of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and KLK7. SPINK5, KLK5 and KLK7 are three of the genes of a recently validated LNM-predicting gene expression profile in OSCC. This study evaluates their clinicopathological role and value as biomarkers in OSCC.
METHODS: Eighty-three patients with primary OSCC, treated surgically between 1996 and 2000, were included. Gene expression data were acquired from a previously reported study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was determined by an algorithm for HPV-16. Protein expression for KLK5, KLK7 and SPINK5 was semi-quantitatively determined in all 83 tumours by immunohistochemistry. All expression data were correlated with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Concurrent loss of KLK5 and KLK7 correlates with worse disease-specific and overall survival (DSS and OS). Multivariate analysis proved that co-expression is an independent prognostic factor for DSS (p = 0.029) and OS (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates that concurrent loss of KLK5 and KLK7 associates with a poor clinical outcome in OSCC and could therefore serve as prognostic marker in this disease.

Schrader CH, Kolb M, Zaoui K, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and serves as prognostic biomarker for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:107 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated expression of Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a common feature for many human malignancies and numerous studies evaluated KLK6 as a promising biomarker for early diagnosis or unfavorable prognosis. However, the expression of KLK6 in carcinomas derived from mucosal epithelia, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and its mode of action has not been addressed so far.
METHODS: Stable clones of human mucosal tumor cell lines were generated with shRNA-mediated silencing or ectopic overexpression to characterize the impact of KLK6 on tumor relevant processes in vitro. Tissue microarrays with primary HNSCC samples from a retrospective patient cohort (n = 162) were stained by immunohistochemistry and the correlation between KLK6 staining and survival was addressed by univariate Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis.
RESULTS: KLK6 expression was detected in head and neck tumor cell lines (FaDu, Cal27 and SCC25), but not in HeLa cervix carcinoma cells. Silencing in FaDu cells and ectopic expression in HeLa cells unraveled an inhibitory function of KLK6 on tumor cell proliferation and mobility. FaDu clones with silenced KLK6 expression displayed molecular features resembling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, nuclear β-catenin accumulation and higher resistance against irradiation. Low KLK6 protein expression in primary tumors from oropharyngeal and laryngeal SCC patients was significantly correlated with poor progression-free (p = 0.001) and overall survival (p < 0.0005), and served as an independent risk factor for unfavorable clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, detection of low KLK6 expression in primary tumors represents a promising tool to stratify HNSCC patients with high risk for treatment failure. These patients might benefit from restoration of KLK6 expression or pharmacological targeting of signaling pathways implicated in EMT.

Xi S, Inchauste S, Guo H, et al.
Cigarette smoke mediates epigenetic repression of miR-217 during esophageal adenocarcinogenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(44):5548-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Although microRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human malignancies, limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which these noncoding RNAs contribute to initiation and progression of tobacco-induced esophageal cancers. In this study, array and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were used to examine miR expression in immortalized esophageal epithelia (IEE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells cultured in normal media with or without cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Under relevant exposure conditions, CSC significantly decreased miR-217 expression in these cells. Endogenous levels of miR-217 expression in cultured EAC cells (EACC)/primary EACs were significantly lower than those observed in IEE/ paired normal esophageal tissues. RNA crosslink immunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot experiments demonstrated direct interaction of miR-217 with kallikrein 7 (KLK7), encoding a putative oncogene not previously implicated in EAC. Repression of miR-217 correlated with increased levels of KLK7 in primary EACs, particularly those from smokers. Chromatin and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that CSC-mediated repression of miR-217 coincided with DNMT3b-dependent hypermethylation and decreased occupancy of nuclear factor 1 within the miR-217 genomic locus. Deoxyazacytidine induced miR-217 expression and downregulated KLK7 in EACC; deoxyazacytidine also attenuated CSC-mediated miR-217 repression and upregulation of KLK7 in IEE and EACC. Overexpression of miR-217 significantly decreased, whereas overexpression of KLK7 increased proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of EACC. Collectively, these data demonstrate that epigenetic repression of miR-217 contributes to the pathogenesis of EAC via upregulation of KLK7 and suggest that restoration of miR-217 expression may be a novel treatment strategy for these malignancies.

Tamir A, Jag U, Sarojini S, et al.
Kallikrein family proteases KLK6 and KLK7 are potential early detection and diagnostic biomarkers for serous and papillary serous ovarian cancer subtypes.
J Ovarian Res. 2014; 7:109 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early detection of ovarian cancer remains a challenge due to widespread metastases and a lack of biomarkers for early-stage disease. This study was conducted to identify relevant biomarkers for both laparoscopic and serum diagnostics in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis and expression screening in ovarian cancer cell lines were employed. Selected biomarkers were further validated in bio-specimens of diverse cancer types and ovarian cancer subtypes. For non-invasive detection, biomarker proteins were evaluated in serum samples from ovarian cancer patients.
RESULTS: Two kallikrein (KLK) serine protease family members (KLK6 and KLK7) were found to be significantly overexpressed relative to normal controls in most of the ovarian cancer cell lines examined. Overexpression of KLK6 and KLK7 mRNA was specific to ovarian cancer, in particular to serous and papillary serous subtypes. In situ hybridization and histopathology further confirmed significantly elevated levels of KLK6 and KLK7 mRNA and proteins in tissue epithelium and a lack of expression in neighboring stroma. Lastly, KLK6 and KLK7 protein levels were significantly elevated in serum samples from serous and papillary serous subtypes in the early stages of ovarian cancer, and therefore could potentially decrease the high "false negative" rates found in the same patients with the common ovarian cancer biomarkers human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125).
CONCLUSION: KLK6 and KLK7 mRNA and protein overexpression is directly associated with early-stage ovarian tumors and can be measured in patient tissue and serum samples. Assays based on KLK6 and KLK7 expression may provide specific and sensitive information for early detection of ovarian cancer.

Miners JS, Renfrew R, Swirski M, Love S
Accumulation of α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies is associated with decline in the α-synuclein-degrading enzymes kallikrein-6 and calpain-1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014; 2:164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 are amongst a small group of proteases that degrade α-synuclein. We have explored the possibility that reduction in the level or activity of these enzymes contributes to the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy body diseases. We measured calpain-1 activity by fluorogenic activity assay, kallikrein-6 level by sandwich ELISA, and levels of α-synuclein and α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129 (α-synuclein-P129), in post-mortem brain tissue in pure dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n=12), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19). Calpain-1 activity was significantly reduced in DLB within the cingulate and parahippocampal cortex, regions with highest α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129 load, and correlated inversely with the levels of α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129. Calpain-1 was unaltered in the thalamus and frontal cortex, regions with less α-synuclein pathology. Kallikrein-6 level was reduced in the cingulate cortex in the DLB cohort, and correlated inversely with α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129. Kallikrein-6 was also reduced in DLB in the thalamus but not in relation to α-synuclein or α-synuclein-P129 load and was unaltered in the frontal and parahippocampal cortex. In SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild-type α-synuclein there was partial co-localisation of kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 with α-synuclein, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 increased the amount of α-synuclein in cell lysates. Our results indicate that reductions in kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 may contribute to the accumulation of α-synuclein in DLB.

Zhang CY, Zhu Y, Rui WB, et al.
Expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 is decreased in prostate cancer.
Asian J Androl. 2015 Jan-Feb; 17(1):106-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/10/2019 Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that the human kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is differentially regulated in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 in our large collection of prostate samples. Between August 2000 and December 2012, 116 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer (PCa) and 92 with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were recruited into the study. Using immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot, kallikrein-related peptidase 7 expression in BPH and PCa tissues was determined at the mRNA and protein levels. The relationships between kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. A total of 64 of 92 (69.57%) benign cases showed positive staining for KLK7 and 23 of 116 (19.83%) malignant cases showed positive, the difference of KLK7 expression between PCa and BPH was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The expression level of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA was significantly decreased in PCa tissues compared with that in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA exhibited different expression patterns in terms of localization depending on pathological category of PCa. Similarly, our western immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the protein expression levels of KLK7 was lower in PCa than in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 expression are down-regulated in PCa and lower expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 closely correlates with higher Gleason score and higher prostate-specific antigen level.

Vakrakou A, Devetzi M, Papachristopoulou G, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) expression in the progression of colon adenoma to carcinoma.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(9):1105-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
KLK6 is a secreted trypsin-like serine protease. KLK6 mRNA expression and its association with colon cancer (CC) progression was studied using quantitative real-time PCR. We examined the expression of KLK6 in 232 colon tissues (cancerous, non-cancerous, and adenomatous). We proved that KLK6 expression in CC behaves as a continuous variable, as its expression correlates significantly with increasing tumor stage (p=0.004) and histological grade (p=0.007). Interestingly, the expression of KLK6 in adenomas was significantly higher than that in the cancerous or non-cancerous tissues examined (p<0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression model using univariate analysis revealed that positive KLK6 expression is a significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.017) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.002) of patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that KLK6-negative expression is significantly associated with longer DFS (p=0.009) and OS (p=0.001). ROC analysis showed that KLK6 expression has significant discriminatory power in distinguishing cancerous from non-cancerous colon tissues (p<0.001), or cancerous from adenoma tissues (p=0.001), or adenoma from non-cancerous colon tissues (p<0.001). Additionally, strong KLK6 immunostaining was seen in the cancer cells of selected CC sections, as well as in glandular cells and inflammatory cells of adenomas. In conclusion, KLK6 may represent a potential unfavorable prognostic biomarker for CC.

Walker F, Nicole P, Jallane A, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is a proliferative factor that is aberrantly expressed in human colon cancer.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(9):1075-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence indicates that serine proteases of the tissue kallikrein-related peptidases family (KLK) are implicated in tumorigenesis. We recently reported the ectopic expression of KLK4 and KLK14 in colonic cancers and their signaling to control cell proliferation. Human tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is often dysregulated in many cancers; however, its role in colon tumorigenesis has not yet been established. In the present study, we analyzed expression of KLK7 in 15 colon cancer cell lines and in 38 human colonic tumors. In many human colon cancer cells, KLK7 mRNA was observed, which leads to KLK7 protein expression and secretion. Furthermore, KLK7 was detected in human colon adenocarcinomas, but it was absent in normal epithelia. KLK7 overexpression in HT29 colon cancer cells upon stable transfection with a KLK7 expression plasmid resulted in increased cell proliferation. Moreover, subcutaneous inoculation of transfected cells into nude mice led to increased tumor growth that was associated with increased tumor cell proliferation as reflected by a positive Ki-67 staining. Our results demonstrate the aberrant expression of KLK7 in colon cancer cells and tissues and its involvement in cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, KLK7 may represent a potential therapeutic target for human colon tumorigenesis.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. KLK6, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/KLK6.htm Accessed:

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