Gene Summary

Gene:IL32; interleukin 32
Aliases: NK4, TAIF, TAIFa, TAIFb, TAIFc, TAIFd, IL-32beta, IL-32alpha, IL-32delta, IL-32gamma
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytokine family. The protein contains a tyrosine sulfation site, 3 potential N-myristoylation sites, multiple putative phosphorylation sites, and an RGD cell-attachment sequence. Expression of this protein is increased after the activation of T-cells by mitogens or the activation of NK cells by IL-2. This protein induces the production of TNFalpha from macrophage cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Risk Factors
  • Cell Movement
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Staging
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Transfection
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cultured Cells
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Skin Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Signal Transduction
  • Survival Rate
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Interleukin-8
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Interleukins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Mycosis Fungoides
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome 16
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • NF-kappa B
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL32 (cancer-related)

Lee YS, Lee CH, Bae JT, et al.
Inhibition of skin carcinogenesis by suppression of NF-κB dependent ITGAV and TIMP-1 expression in IL-32γ overexpressed condition.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):293 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-32 (IL-32) has been associated with various diseases. Previous studies have shown that IL-32 inhibited the development of several tumors. However, the role of IL-32γ, an isotype of IL-32, in skin carcinogenesis remains unknown.
METHODS: We compared 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA)-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild type (WT) and IL-32γ-overexpressing mice to evaluate the role of IL-32γ. We also analyzed cancer stemness and NF-κB signaling in skin cancer cell lines with or without IL-32γ expression by western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis.
RESULTS: Carcinogen-induced tumor incidence in IL-32γ mice was significantly reduced in comparison to that in WT mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators were decreased in the skin tumor tissues of IL-32γ mice compared with WT mice. Using a genome-wide association study analysis, we found that IL-32 was associated with integrin αV (ITGAV) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), which are critical factor for skin carcinogenesis. Reduced expression of ITGAV and TIMP-1 were identified in DMBA/TPA-induced skin tissues of IL-32γ mice compared to that in WT mice. NF-κB activity was also reduced in DMBA/TPA-induced skin tissues of IL-32γ mice. IL-32γ decreased cancer cell sphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, and increased chemotherapy-induced cancer cell death. IL-32γ also downregulated expression of ITGAV and TIMP-1, accompanied with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. In addition, IL-32γ expression with NF-κB inhibitor treatment further reduced skin inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia, and cancer cell sphere formation and downregulated expression levels of ITGAV and TIMP-1.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that IL-32γ suppressed skin carcinogenesis through the inhibition of both stemness and the inflammatory tumor microenvironment by the downregulation of TIMP-1 and ITGAV via inactivation of NF-κB signaling.

Toraih EA, Alghamdi SA, El-Wazir A, et al.
Dual biomarkers long non-coding RNA GAS5 and microRNA-34a co-expression signature in common solid tumors.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0198231 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence indicates that non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in cancer, providing promising biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and/or therapeutic targets. We aimed in the current work to quantify the expression profile of miR-34a and one of its bioinformatically selected partner lncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) in a sample of Egyptian cancer patients, including three prevalent types of cancer in our region; renal cell carcinoma (RCC), glioblastoma (GB), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as to correlate these expression profiles with the available clinicopathological data in an attempt to clarify their roles in cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was applied. Different bioinformatics databases were searched to confirm the potential miRNAs-lncRNA interactions of the selected ncRNAs in cancer pathogenesis. The tumor suppressor lncRNA GAS5 was significantly under-expressed in the three types of cancer [0.08 (0.006-0.38) in RCC, p <0.001; 0.10 (0.003-0.89) in GB, p < 0.001; and 0.12 (0.015-0.74) in HCC, p < 0.001]. However, levels of miR-34a greatly varied according to the tumor type; it displayed an increased expression in RCC [4.05 (1.003-22.69), p <0.001] and a decreased expression in GB [0.35 (0.04-0.95), p <0.001]. Consistent to the computationally predicted miRNA-lncRNA interaction, negative correlations were observed between levels of GAS5 and miR-34a in RCC samples (r = -0.949, p < 0.001), GB (r = -0.518, p < 0.001) and HCC (r = -0.455, p = 0.013). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that RCC patients with down-regulated miR-34a levels had significantly poor overall survival than their corresponding (p < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering analysis showed RCC patients could be clustered by GAS5 and miR-34a co-expression profile. Our results suggest potential applicability of GAS5 and miR-34a with other conventional markers for various types of cancer. Further functional validation studies are warranted to confirm miR-34a/GAS5 interplay in cancer.

Gonzalez-Hormazabal P, Romero S, Musleh M, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5703-5708 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inflammation is a key process in gastric carcinogenesis. Cytokines are mediators of inflammation and are involved in metastasis and tumorigenicity. We previously assessed the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer risk in Chile. In the present study, we aimed to analyze whether these polymorphisms are associated with overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer (GC) patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 153 individuals with GC diagnosis were followed-up for at least 2 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated from Cox regression models using SNPs as predictor variables. The following SNPs were genotyped for study using a TaqMan assay: rs16944 (IL1B -511C>T); rs4073 (IL8 -251 T>A); rs2275913 (IL-17 -197G>A); rs1800872 (IL10 -592 C>A); rs1800896 (IL10 -1082A>G); rs28372698 (IL32).
RESULTS: Interleukin-8 rs4073 (IL-8 -251T>A) showed association with OS under the dominant model (TA + AA) only when adjusted by clinicopathological variables (HR=1.64, 95%CI=1.05-2.55, p=0.030, q-value=0.18), but not with the univariate model (HR=1.51, 95%CI=0.98-2.31, p=0.062, q-value=0.37). No significant differences were observed after adjusting for population stratification (PC1 and PC2 from Principal Component Analysis using genotypes from Infinium Global Screening Array). After stratification by clinicopathological variables, the association with shorter overall survival was higher among patients with diffuse-type tumors (HR=2.24, 95%CI=1.16-4.45) and patients with tumor size >5 cm (HR=1.79, 95%CI=1.08-2.97).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a role of IL-8 rs4073 in cancer prognosis. Its use as a prognostic marker of GC survival warrants further investigation.

Nassan MA, Soliman MM, Ismail SA, El-Shazly S
Effect of
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer and a leading cause of death in women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental model of breast cancer was induced in female albino rats using single intragastric dose of 7, 12 dimethylbenz (α) anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil (50 mg/kg b.wt). Four months after DMBA administration, incidence of breast cancer was confirmed by measuring cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) serum levels.
RESULTS: Level of CA15-3 was normalized in DMBA group administered TOE for 4 weeks. Administration of DMBA increased expression of

Fawzy MS, Badran DI, Al Ageeli E, et al.
Longevity-Related Gene Transcriptomic Signature in Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018; 2018:8753063 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (grade IV astrocytoma) has been assumed to be the most fatal type of glioma with low survival and high recurrence rates, even after prompt surgical removal and aggressive courses of treatment. Transcriptional reprogramming to stem cell-like state could explain some of the deregulated molecular signatures in GBM disease. The present study aimed to quantify the expression profiling of longevity-related transcriptional factors

Zhao WB, Wang QL, Xu YT, et al.
Overexpression of interleukin-32α promotes invasion by modulating VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(3):1155-1162 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-32α (IL-32α) was reported to exhibit pluripotent pro-inflammatory properties. Recent studies indicate that it promotes the migration and invasion of cancers. We detected the expression of IL-32 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and investigated its role in tumor angiogenesis and invasion. IL-32α expression in HCC was evaluated by real-time PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Secreted serum IL-32α and VEGF concentrations were detected using a custom-made sandwich ELISA. Furthermore, IL-32α was knocked down in HCC cell lines using siRNA and the cell migration and invasion abilities were assessed. IHC staining showed that IL32α-positive particles were mainly located in the cytoplasm of cancer cells, and it was significantly upregulated in the tumor tissues compared with that in peritumoral tissues. Notably, IL-32α was strongly expressed in perivascular areas. The mean serum concentration of IL-32α in HCC patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (571.45±102.28 vs. 144.60±51.172 pg/ml; P<0.01). Real-time RT-PCR showed that IL-32α mRNA was significantly overexpressed in HCC tumor tissues (IL-32/β-actin, 15.59±7.8 vs. 3.37±0.47; P<0.01). The in vitro results indicated that IL-32α knockdown inhibited the activation of VEGF-STAT3 signaling in HCC tumor cell lines. IL-32α expression was correlated with clinical relevance in HCC tumor tissues. It is strongly suggested that IL-32α may be a potential predictor of anti-angiogenesis therapy and prognosis of HCC.

Shamoun L, Kolodziej B, Andersson RE, Dimberg J
Protein Expression and Genetic Variation of
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(1):321-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 32 (IL32) is an intracellular pluripotent cytokine produced by epithelial cells, monocytes, T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells and seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Our purpose was to assess the role of protein expression and genetic polymorphisms of IL32 in colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To gain insight into clinical significance of IL32 in Swedish patients with CRC, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined whether IL32 protein level is altered in CRC tissue (n=75) compared with paired normal tissue and in plasma from patients with CRC (n=94) compared with controls (n=81). The expression of IL32 protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (n=73). We used Luminex technology to investigate protein levels of the cytokines IL6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to relate these to IL32 levels in CRC tissue. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs28372698, rs12934561, rs4786370) of the IL32 gene have been proposed as modifiers for different diseases. The present study evaluated the susceptibility of patients possessing these SNPs to CRC. Using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays, these SNPs were screened in Swedish patients with CRC (n=465) and healthy controls (n=331).
RESULTS: We found no significant differences in the genotypic frequencies between the patients and healthy controls and no relation to survival for any of the SNPs. However, the SNP rs12934561 was statisticalLY significant associated with older patients. IL32 protein was up-regulated in CRC tissue and related to IL6, TNFα, and VEGF, and seems to be modulated by SNP rs28372698. The IL32 protein level in CRC tissue also reflects both disseminated disease and location.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that altered IL32 protein concentrations in CRC tissue and genotypic variants of IL32 are related to disseminated CRC.

Semango G, Heinhuis B, Plantinga TS, et al.
Exploring the Role of IL-32 in HIV-Related Kaposi Sarcoma.
Am J Pathol. 2018; 188(1):196-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
The intracellular proinflammatory mediator IL-32 is associated with tumor progression; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We studied IL-32 mRNA expression as well as expression of other proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the proangiogenic and antiapoptotic enzyme cyclooxygenase-2, the IL-8 receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 1, and the intracellular kinase focal adhesion kinase-1. The interaction of IL-32 expression with expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was also investigated. Biopsy specimens of 11 HIV-related, 7 non-HIV-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS), and 7 normal skin tissues (NSTs) of Dutch origin were analyzed. RNA was isolated from the paraffin material, and gene expression levels of IL-32 α, β, and γ isoforms, IL1a, IL1b, IL6, IL8, TNFA, PTGS2, CXCR1, and PTK2 were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. Significantly higher expression of IL-32β and IL-32γ isoforms was observed in HIV-related KS biopsy specimens compared with non-HIV-related KS and NST. The splicing ratio of the IL-32 isoforms showed IL-32γ as the highest expressed isoform, followed by IL-32β, in HIV-related KS cases compared with non-HIV-related KS and NST. Our data suggest a possible survival mechanism by the splicing of IL-32γ to IL-32β and also IL-6, IL-8, and CXCR1 signaling pathways to reverse the proapoptotic effect of the IL-32γ isoform, leading to tumor cell survival and thus favoring tumor progression.

Bawazeer NA, Choudary H, Zamzami MA, et al.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017; 14(1):278-287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) plays a significant role in the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases (CHD).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which citrus flavonoids, naringenin regulate the LDL receptor (LDLr) gene in human liver using the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 as a model.
RESULTS: Time-course transient transfection of HepG2 cells with luciferase reporter-gene constructs incorporating the promoters of SREBP-1a,-1c, -2 and LDLr, revealed that in lipoprotein-deficient medium (LPDM), only SREBP-1a promoter activity was increased significantly after 4h exposure to 200μM naringenin respectively. However, after 24h incubation with 200μM naringenin the gene expression activities of all the SREBP-1a, -1c, -2 and LDLr promoter-constructs were increased significantly. The effects of both 200μM naringenin on elevating LDLr mRNA are possibly due to regulation of gene transcription by SREBP-la and SREBP-2. However, the suppression effect of 200μM naringenin on hepatic SREBP-1c mRNA expression is likely associated with the reduction in mRNA expression of both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. It was found that, 200μM naringenin was likely to stimulate LDLr gene expression via increase phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK1/2 which enhance the transcription factors SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 mRNA levels and increased their protein maturation in human hepatoma HepG2 cell.
CONCLUSION: Diets supplemented with naringenin could effectively reduce mortality and morbidity from coronary heart diseases and as cardio-protective effects in humans.

Bhat S, Gardi N, Hake S, et al.
Impact of intra-tumoral IL17A and IL32 gene expression on T-cell responses and lymph node status in breast cancer patients.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(9):1745-1756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-17A (IL17A) and Interleukin-32 (IL32), known to enhance natural killer and T cell responses, are also elevated in human malignancies and linked to poor clinical outcomes. To address this paradox, we evaluated relation between IL17A and IL32 expression and other inflammation- and T cell response-associated genes in breast tumors.
METHODS: TaqMan-based gene expression analysis was carried out in seventy-eight breast tumors. The association between IL17A and IL32 transcript levels and T cell response genes, ER status as well as lymph node status was also examined in breast tumors from TCGA dataset.
RESULTS: IL17A expression was detected in 32.7% ER-positive and 84.6% ER-negative tumors, with higher expression in the latter group (26.2 vs 7.1-fold, p < 0.01). ER-negative tumors also showed higher expression of IL32 as opposed to ER-positive tumors (8.7 vs 2.5-fold, p < 0.01). Expression of both IL17A and IL32 genes positively correlated with CCL5, GNLY, TBX21, IL21 and IL23 transcript levels (p < 0.01). Amongst ER-positive tumors, higher IL32 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastases (p < 0.05). Conversely, in ER-negative subtype, high IL17A and IL32 expression was seen in patients with negative lymph node status (p < 0.05). Tumors with high IL32 and IL17A expression showed higher expression of TH1 response genes studied, an observation validated by similar analysis in the TCGA breast tumors (n=1041). Of note, these tumors were characterized by low expression of a potentially immunosuppressive isoform of IL32 (IL32γ).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high expression of both IL17A and IL32 leads to enhancement of T cell responses. Our study, thus, provides basis for the emergence of strong T cell responses in an inflammatory milieu that have been shown to be associated with better prognosis in ER-negative breast cancer.

Hong JT, Son DJ, Lee CK, et al.
Interleukin 32, inflammation and cancer.
Pharmacol Ther. 2017; 174:127-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues. The IL-32 transcript is expressed in various human tissues and organs such as the spleen, thymus, leukocyte, lung, small intestine, colon, prostate, heart, placenta, liver, muscle, kidney, pancreas, and brain. Cytokines are critical components of cell signaling pathways that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, metabolism, hormone signaling, immune regulation and a variety of other physiological functions. Earlier studies have demonstrated that IL-32 regulates cell growth, metabolism and immune regulation and is therefore involved in the pathologic regulator or protectant of inflammatory diseases. Previous studies defined that IL-32 is upregulated in the patients with several inflammatory diseases, and is induced by inflammatory responses. However, several reports suggested that IL-32 is downregulated in several inflammatory diseases including asthma, HIV infection disease, neuronal diseases, metabolic disorders, experimental colitis and metabolic disorders. IL-32 is also involved in various cancer malignancies including renal cancer, esophageal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, lymphoma, osteosarcoma, breast cancer, colon cancer and thyroid carcinoma. Other studies suggested that IL-32 decreases tumor development including cervical cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia. Nevertheless, review articles that discuss the roles and its mechanism of IL-32 isoforms focusing on the therapeutic approaches have not yet been reported. In this review article, we will discuss recent findings regarding IL-32 in the development of diseases and further discuss therapeutic approaches targeting IL-32. Moreover, we will suggest that IL-32 could be the target of several diseases and the therapeutic agents for targeting IL-32 may have potential beneficial effects for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers. Future research should open new avenues for the design of novel therapeutic approaches targeting IL-32.

Lopes MR, Pereira JK, de Melo Campos P, et al.
De novo AML exhibits greater microenvironment dysregulation compared to AML with myelodysplasia-related changes.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:40707 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The interaction between the bone marrow microenvironment and malignant hematopoietic cells can result in the protection of leukemia cells from chemotherapy in both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We, herein, characterized the changes in cytokine expression and the function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in patients with MDS, AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (MRC), a well-recognized clinical subtype of secondary AML, and de novo AML. We observed a significant inhibitory effect of MDS-MSC on T lymphocyte proliferation and no significant differences in any of the cytokines tested. AML-MSC inhibited T-cell proliferation only at a very low MSC/T cell ratio. When compared to the control, AML-MRCderived MSC presented a significant increase in IL6 expression, whereas de novo AML MSC presented a significant increase in the expression levels of VEGFA, CXCL12, RPGE2, IDO, IL1β, IL6 and IL32, followed by a decrease in IL10 expression. Furthermore, data indicate that IL-32 regulates stromal cell proliferation, has a chemotactic potential and participates in stromal cell crosstalk with leukemia cells, which could result in chemoresistance. Our results suggest that the differences between AML-MRC and de novo AML also extend into the leukemic stem cell niche and that IL-32 can participate in the regulation of the bone marrow cytokine milieu.

Sutariya RV, Manjunatha BS
Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Exp Ther Oncol. 2016; 11(4):285-292 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia).
OBJECTIVES: The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
METHODS: Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression.
RESULTS: p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC.
CONCLUSION: The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhu Y, et al.
Polymorphisms and expression of IL-32: impact on genetic susceptibility and clinical outcome of lung cancer.
Biomarkers. 2017; 22(2):165-170 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Polymorphisms of IL-32 related closely to tumoregenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two IL-32 polymorphisms (rs12934561 and rs28372698) and mRNA expression were conducted by SNP genotype assay and real-time PCR in 423 lung cancer patients and 437 controls.
RESULTS: T allele of rs28372698 associated significantly with poor prognosis in moderate and well-differentiated lung cancer patients. TT genotype of rs12934561 related closely to poor survival status in squamous carcinoma. IL-32 mRNA expression decreased in lung cancer.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study indicates the importance of IL-32 polymorphism and mRNA expression in susceptibility and influence of survival status in lung cancer.

Karam RA, Al Jiffry BO, Al Saeed M, et al.
DNA repair genes polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer in Saudi patients.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2016; 17(3):117-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes may influence individual capacity to repair DNA damage, which may be associated with increased genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate the relation of genetic polymorphisms in 2 DNA repair genes, XPD Lys751Gln and XRCC1 (A399G), with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. We further investigated the potential effect of these DNA repair variants on clinicopathological parameters of CRC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Both XPD and XRCC1 polymorphisms were characterised in one hundred CRC patients and one hundred healthy controls who had no history of any malignancy by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and PCR with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP), using DNA from peripheral blood in a case control study.
RESULTS: Our results revealed that the frequencies of GG genotype of XRCC1 399 polymorphism were significantly higher in the CRC patients than in the normal individuals (p⩽0.03), and did not observe any association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and CRC risk. We found association between both XRCC1 A399G polymorphisms and histological grading of disease.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that, XRCC1 gene is an important candidate gene for susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma.

Lee J, Kim KE, Cheon S, et al.
Interleukin-32α induces migration of human melanoma cells through downregulation of E-cadherin.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(40):65825-65836 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-32α, the shortest isoform of proinflammatory cytokine IL-32, is associated with various inflammatory diseases and cancers. However, its involvement in human melanoma is not understood. To determine the effect of IL-32α in melanoma, IL-32α levels were examined in human melanoma cell lines that exhibit different migratory abilities. IL-32α levels were higher in human melanoma cell lines with more migratory ability. An IL-32α-overexpressing G361 human melanoma cell line was generated to investigate the effect of IL-32α on melanoma migration. IL-32α-overexpressing G361 cells (G361-IL-32α) exhibit an increased migratory ability compared to vector control cells (G361-vector). To identify factors involved in IL-32α-induced migration, we compared expression of E-cadherin in G361-vector and G361-IL-32α cells. We observed decreased levels of E-cadherin in G361-IL-32α cells, resulting in F-actin polymerization. To further investigate signaling pathways related to IL-32α-induced migration, we treated G361-vector and G361-IL-32α cells with PD98059, a selective MEK inhibitor. Inhibition of Erk1/2 by PD98059 restored E-cadherin expression and decreased IL-32α-induced migration. In addition, cell invasiveness of G361-IL-32α cells was tested using an in vivo lung metastasis model. As results, lung metastasis was significantly increased by IL-32α overexpression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-32α induced human melanoma migration via Erk1/2 activation, which repressed E-cadherin expression. Our findings suggest that IL-32α is a novel regulator of migration in melanoma.

Bawazeer NA, Choudhry H, Zamzami MA, et al.
Role of hesperetin in LDL-receptor expression in hepatoma HepG2 cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16:182 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) plays a significant role in the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which the citrus flavonoid, hesperetin, regulates the LDL receptor (LDLr) gene in the human liver using the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.
METHODS: Luciferase reporter gene assays were performed (in the absence of lipoprotein) to measure the activity of the LDLr promoter and the promoters of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors that control the LDLr promoter.
RESULTS: Only SREBP-1 promoter activity was significantly increased 4 h after exposure to 200 μM hesperetin. However, after 24 h incubation with 200 μM hesperetin, the activities of all the promoter-constructs, SREBP-1a, -1c, -2 and LDLr, were significantly increased. The effects of 200 μM hesperetin on elevating LDLr mRNA levels were possibly due to regulation of LDLr gene transcription by SREBP-la and SREBP-2.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 200 μM hesperetin was likely to have stimulated LDLr gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells via increased phosphorylation of PI3K andERK1/2, which increased SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 mRNA levels and enhanced the maturation of the encoded proteins. This may lead to lower plasma LDL cholesterol; therefore, diets supplemented with hesperidin might provide cardio-protective effects and reduce mortality and morbidity from coronary heart diseases.

Abdel-Moneim AS, El-Fol HA, Kamel MM, et al.
Screening of human bocavirus in surgically excised cancer specimens.
Arch Virol. 2016; 161(8):2095-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a prevalent virus worldwide and is mainly associated with respiratory disorders. Recently, it was detected in several disease conditions, including cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third main cause of cancers worldwide. Risk factors that initiate cell transformation include nutritional, hereditary and infectious causes. The aim of the current study was to screen for the presence of HBoV in solid tumors of colorectal cancer and to determine the genotypes of the detected strains. Surgically excised and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue specimens from 101 male and female patients with and without metastasis were collected over the last four years. Pathological analysis and tumor stages were determined. The presence of HBoV was screened by polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype of the detected HBoV was determined by direct gene sequencing. Most of the examined specimens were adenocarcinoma with mucinous activity in many of them. Twenty-four out of 101 (23.8 %) CRC tissue specimens were found to contain HBoV-1. Low sequence diversity was recorded in the detected strains. The virus was detected in both male and female patients with an age range of 30-75 years. It is proposed that HBoV-1 could play a potential role in the induction of CRC.

Khawar MB, Abbasi MH, Sheikh N
IL-32: A Novel Pluripotent Inflammatory Interleukin, towards Gastric Inflammation, Gastric Cancer, and Chronic Rhino Sinusitis.
Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016:8413768 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A vast variety of nonstructural proteins have been studied for their key roles and involvement in a number of biological phenomenona. Interleukin-32 is a novel cytokine whose presence has been confirmed in most of the mammals except rodents. The IL-32 gene was identified on human chromosome 16 p13.3. The gene has eight exons and nine splice variants, namely, IL-32α, IL-32β, IL-32γ, IL-32δ, IL-32ε, IL-32ζ, IL-32η, IL-32θ, and IL-32s. It was found to induce the expression of various inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β as well as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and has been reported previously to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of a number of inflammatory disorders, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gastric inflammation and cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the current review, we have highlighted the involvement of IL-32 in gastric cancer, gastric inflammation, and chronic rhinosinusitis. We have also tried to explore various mechanisms suspected to induce the expression of this extraordinary cytokine as well as various mechanisms of action employed by IL-32 during the mediation and progression of the above said problems.

Bak Y, Kwon T, Bak IS, et al.
IL-32θ inhibits stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer stem cells via the STAT3 pathway in colon cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7307-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-32 is a well-known cytokine associated with inflammation, virus infections and cancer. IL-32θ is a newly identified isoform of IL-32, whose function has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated IL-32θ function in colon cancer stem cells. Using samples from colon cancer patients, we found that the expression of IL-32θ mRNAs was significantly suppressed in tumor regions. We investigated the effects of IL-32θ on colon cancer. Ectopic expression of IL-32θ attenuated invasion, migration in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. IL-32θ inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in the suppression of their migratory and invasive capabilities of HT29 colon cancer cells. In addition, IL-32θ altered various properties of CSCs, including sphere formation and expression of stemness related genes. IL-32θ directly bound to STAT3 and inhibited its nuclear translocation, leading to inhibited transcription of downstream factors, including Bmi1 and ZEB1. We showed that IL-32θ inhibited the STAT3-ZEB1 pathway and consequently inhibited key factors of stemness and EMT. Taken together, our findings reveal that IL-32θ can be a tumor suppressor, indicating that IL-32θ could possibly be used in therapies for colon cancer.

Wang L, Ni X, Covington KR, et al.
Genomic profiling of Sézary syndrome identifies alterations of key T cell signaling and differentiation genes.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(12):1426-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sézary syndrome is a rare leukemic form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma characterized by generalized redness, scaling, itching and increased numbers of circulating atypical T lymphocytes. It is rarely curable, with poor prognosis. Here we present a multiplatform genomic analysis of 37 patients with Sézary syndrome that implicates dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoint and T cell signaling. Frequent somatic alterations were identified in TP53, CARD11, CCR4, PLCG1, CDKN2A, ARID1A, RPS6KA1 and ZEB1. Activating CCR4 and CARD11 mutations were detected in nearly one-third of patients. ZEB1, encoding a transcription repressor essential for T cell differentiation, was deleted in over one-half of patients. IL32 and IL2RG were overexpressed in nearly all cases. Our results demonstrate profound disruption of key signaling pathways in Sézary syndrome and suggest potential targets for new therapies.

Kim MS, Kang JW, Jeon JS, et al.
IL-32θ gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia suppresses TNF-α production.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40747-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α is highly expressed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has been demonstrated to induce rapid proliferation of leukemic blasts. Thus suppressing the production of TNF-α is important because TNF-α can auto-regulate own expression through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this study, we focused on the inhibitory effect of IL-32θ on TNF-α production in acute myeloid leukemia. Approximately 38% of patients with AML express endogenous IL-32θ, which is not expressed in healthy individuals. Furthermore, plasma samples were classified into groups with or without IL-32θ; then, we measured proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels. TNF-α production was not increased in patients with IL-32θ expression than that in the no-IL-32θ group. Using an IL-32θ stable expression system in leukemia cell lines, we found that IL-32θ attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNF-α production. IL-32θ inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, inhibitor of κB (IκB), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which are key positive regulators of TNF-α expression, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Moreover, the presence of IL-32θ attenuated TNF-α promoter activity and the binding of NF-κB with the TNF-α promoter. In addition, IL-32γ-induced TNF-α production has no correlation with inhibition of TNF-α via IL-32θ expression. Thus, IL-32θ may serve as a potent inhibitor of TNF-α in patients with AML.

Wang J, Li Y, Liu Y, et al.
Overexpression of truncated AIF regulated by Egr1 promoter radiation-induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cells.
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2015; 54(4):413-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been demonstrated that gene-radiotherapy can improve the radiotherapy by selectively increasing cells' response to ionizing radiation. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein, and its C-terminal domain is responsible for the proapoptotic activity. In the present study, we overexpressed truncated AIF on MCF-7 cells by transfection of pcDNA3.1-tAIF (pc-tAIF) and pcDNA3.1-Egr1-tAIF (pc-Egr1-tAIF) plasmids. After MCF-7-tAIF cells were exposed to X-rays, the AIF and tAIF expressions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle invasion, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release and activation of caspase-9 were measured by using Western blot, MTT assay, flow cytometry and Matrigel transwell assay, respectively. Our results showed that tAIF expression increased on time- and dose-dependent manners. Both tAIF and radiation can synergistically enhance the apoptosis, cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and cell-invasive inhibition. In addition, tAIF overexpression and irradiation increased Cyt c release. However, only irradiation increased caspase-9 activation. Our studies indicated that tAIF overexpression might enhance apoptosis induced by radiation in MCF-7 cells.

Aguilo F, Di Cecilia S, Walsh MJ
Long Non-coding RNA ANRIL and Polycomb in Human Cancers and Cardiovascular Disease.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2016; 394:29-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The long non-coding RNA CDKN2B-AS1, commonly referred to as the A ntisense N on-coding R NA in the I NK4 L ocus (ANRIL), is a 3.8-kb-long RNA transcribed from the short arm of human chromosome 9 on p21.3 that overlaps a critical region encompassing three major tumor suppressor loci juxtaposed to the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster and the methyl-thioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene. Genome-wide association studies have identified this region with a remarkable and growing number of disease-associated DNA alterations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, which corresponds to increased susceptibility to human disease. Recent attention has been devoted on whether these alterations in the ANRIL sequence affect its expression levels and/or its splicing transcript variation, and in consequence, global cellular homeostasis. Moreover, recent evidence postulates that ANRIL not only can regulate their immediate genomic neighbors in cis, but also has the capacity to regulate additional loci in trans. This action would further increase the complexity for mechanisms imposed through ANRIL and furthering the scope of this lncRNA in disease pathogenesis. In this chapter, we summarize the most recent findings on the investigation of ANRIL and provide a perspective on the biological and clinical significance of ANRIL as a putative biomarker, specifically, its potential role in directing cellular fates leading to cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Erturk K, Tastekin D, Serilmez M, et al.
Clinical significance of serum interleukin-29, interleukin-32, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in patients with gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):405-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many studies suggested that cytokines interleukin (IL)-29, IL-32, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are implicated in the pathogenesis of malignancies. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localization of the majority of the patients was antrum (n = 42, 72.4 %), and tumor histopathology of the majority of the patients was diffuse (n = 43, 74.1 %). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n = 41, 70.7 %). Thirty-six (62.1 %) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1 to 97.2 months). The baseline serum IL-29 concentrations were not different between patients and controls (p = 0.627). The baseline serum IL-32 and TNF-α concentrations of the GC patients were significantly higher (for IL-32, p = 0.014; for TNF-α, p = 0.001). Gender, localization, histopathology, tumor, and lymph node involvement were not found to be correlated with serum IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α concentrations (p > 0.05). Patients without metastasis (p = 0.01) and patients who responded to chemotherapy (p = 0.04) had higher serum IL-29 concentrations. Patients older than 60 years had higher serum IL-32 (p = 0.002). Serum IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α levels were not associated with outcome (p = 0.30, p = 0.51, and p = 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, serum levels of IL-32 and TNF-α may be diagnostic markers, and serum IL-29 levels may be associated with good prognosis in patients with GC.

Nabeki B, Ishigami S, Uchikado Y, et al.
Interleukin-32 expression and Treg infiltration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2941-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Interleukin-32 (IL32) has been newly-identified as a proinflammatory cytokine. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the clinical role of IL32-positive cells in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) infiltration in the stroma. A total of 179 patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection from 1990 to 2004 were eligible for this study. The expression of IL32 and the degree of stromal infiltration by Tregs were examined simultaneously. The association between each factor and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. Sixty and 74 out of 179 patients with ESCC were regarded as having IL32-positive tumors and many Tregs (high-Treg group), respectively. The IL32-positive and high-Treg groups had significantly deeper tumor invasion than did the IL32-negative and low-Treg groups (p<0.05, for both groups). The multivariate analysis indicated that a combination of IL32 expression and presence of Tregs was one of the poor independent factors (p<0.05). IL32 expression and Treg infiltration in ESCC play an important synergistic role in tumor growth and invasion. The combination of IL32 positivity and degree of infiltration of Treg is a useful prognostic marker in ESCC.

Taube JM, Young GD, McMiller TL, et al.
Differential Expression of Immune-Regulatory Genes Associated with PD-L1 Display in Melanoma: Implications for PD-1 Pathway Blockade.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(17):3969-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Blocking the immunosuppressive PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has antitumor activity in multiple cancer types, and PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and infiltrating myeloid cells correlates with the likelihood of response. We previously found that IFNG (interferon-gamma) was overexpressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in PD-L1(+) versus PD-L1(-) melanomas, creating adaptive immune resistance by promoting PD-L1 display. This study was undertaken to identify additional factors in the PD-L1(+) melanoma microenvironment coordinately contributing to immunosuppression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma specimens were assessed for PD-L1 protein expression at the tumor cell surface with IHC. Whole-genome expression analysis, quantitative (q)RT-PCR, IHC, and functional in vitro validation studies were used to assess factors differentially expressed in PD-L1(+) versus PD-L1(-) melanomas.
RESULTS: Functional annotation clustering based on whole-genome expression profiling revealed pathways upregulated in PD-L1(+) melanomas, involving immune cell activation, inflammation, and antigen processing and presentation. Analysis by qRT-PCR demonstrated overexpression of functionally related genes in PD-L1(+) melanomas, involved in CD8(+) T-cell activation (CD8A, IFNG, PRF1, and CCL5), antigen presentation (CD163, TLR3, CXCL1, and LYZ), and immunosuppression [PDCD1 (PD-1), CD274 (PD-L1), and LAG3, IL10]. Functional studies demonstrated that some factors, including IL10 and IL32-gamma, induced PD-L1 expression on monocytes but not tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies elucidate the complexity of immune checkpoint regulation in the tumor microenvironment, identifying multiple factors likely contributing to coordinated immunosuppression. These factors may provide tumor escape mechanisms from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and should be considered for cotargeting in combinatorial immunomodulation treatment strategies.

Zhou Y, Hu Z, Li N, Jiang R
Interleukin-32 stimulates osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility via AKT pathway-mediated MMP-13 expression.
Int J Mol Med. 2015; 35(6):1729-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-32 (IL-32) is reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, its effects on the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of IL-32 in osteosarcoma cells using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results showed that IL-32 stimulation dose-dependently promoted the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown of endogenous IL-32 by siRNA inhibited osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility. Moreover, IL-32 induced the activation of AKT in a time-dependent manner. IL-32 stimulation was also capable of increasing the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, which is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition, blockade of AKT activation suppressed IL-32-mediated invasion, motility and MMP-13 upregulation in osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-32 stimulation promotes the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells, possibly via the activation of AKT and the upregulation of MMP-13 expression. Thus, IL-32 may serve as a marker for diagnosis, as well as for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Saber T, Ghonaim MM, Yousef AR, et al.
Association of Helicobacter pylori cagA Gene with Gastric Cancer and Peptic Ulcer in Saudi Patients.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015; 25(7):1146-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was conducted to assess the relationship between occurrence of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer, and the presence of H. pylori cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG, and to estimate the value of these antibodies in detecting infection by cagA gene-positive H. pylori strains in Saudi patients. The study included 180 patients who were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Taif province and Western region of Saudi Arabia (60 gastric cancer, 60 peptic ulcer, and 60 with non-ulcer dyspepsia). Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained and tested for H. pylori infection by rapid urease test and culture. PCR was performed on the isolated strains and biopsy specimens for detection of the cagA gene. Blood samples were collected and tested for CagA IgG by ELISA. H. pylori infection was detected among 72.8% of patients. The cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG were found in 63.4% and 61.8% of H. pylori-infected patients, respectively. They were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer compared with those with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Detection of the CagA IgG was 91.6% sensitive, 89.6% specific, and 90.8% accurate compared with detection of the cagA gene. Its positive and negative predictive values were 93.8% and 86%, respectively. The study showed a significant association between the presence of the cagA gene and gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, and between anti-CagA IgG and the cagA gene in Saudi patients. However, a further larger study is required to confirm this finding.

Kim MS, Kang JW, Park YS, et al.
IL-32θ inhibits monocytic differentiation of leukemia cells by attenuating expression of transcription factor PU.1.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(6):4394-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PU.1 is a key transcription factor regulating the myeloid differentiation. PU.1-induced monocytic differentiation into macrophage is also important for blood cancer development. Therefore, we chose THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells to investigate the function of a recently discovered IL-32θ. Genetic analyses identified differences in the sequences of IL-32θ and IL-32β. Using previously established cell lines that stably express IL-32θ and IL-32β and cell lines transiently expressing IL-32θ, we observed that expression of IL-32θ inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocytic differentiation in both THP-1 and HL-60 cells. IL-32θ also suppressed expression of the macrophage cell surface markers, CD11b, CD18, and CD36. Interestingly, expression of IL-32β or IL-32θ had no effect on the expression levels of cell cycle related factors. As a result, we concluded that these isoforms did not contribute to PMA-induced cell cycle arrest. IL-32θ was found to modulate expression of PU.1, a transcription factor necessary for myeloid lineage commitment. Transient expression of PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells rescued the observed differentiation defect. Additionally, transient expression of both CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells exhibited synergistic effects in rescuing the differentiation defect. These observations indicate that intracellular IL-32θ inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages by attenuating PU.1 expression.

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