Gene Summary

Gene:IGFBP7; insulin like growth factor binding protein 7
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP) family. IGFBPs bind IGFs with high affinity, and regulate IGF availability in body fluids and tissues and modulate IGF binding to its receptors. This protein binds IGF-I and IGF-II with relatively low affinity, and belongs to a subfamily of low-affinity IGFBPs. It also stimulates prostacyclin production and cell adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one variant has been associated with retinal arterial macroaneurysm (PMID:21835307). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IGFBP7 (cancer-related)

Mu L, Yu W, Su H, et al.
Relationship between the expressions of PD-L1 and tumour-associated fibroblasts in gastric cancer.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1036-1042 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have focused on the changes of tumour cells in immune escape, and less is known about the effect of tumour microenvironment (TME) on immune escape. Tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAF) is an important part of the TME and has special physiological and biochemical characteristics, but the specific mechanism has not been clarified. In order to investigate the effect of TAF on the expression of PD-L1 in gastric cancer cells, gastric cancer cell lines MNK45, SGC7901 were non-contact co-culturing with TAF 1, 3 and 7 d via transwell. PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression were detected using qRT-PCR and FCM. Then, 95 cases of gastric cancer tissues were selected and evaluated PD-L1 and TAF expressions by immunohistochemical examination. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression of PD-L1 in the experiment group were significantly higher than that in the control group. PD-L1 expression was associated with massive lymphocyte infiltration, diffuse/mixed histology and intratumoral TAFs in gastric cancers. In conclusion, TAFs promoted the growth in gastric cancer cell lines by increased the PD-L1 expression.

de Silva HC, Lin MZ, Phillips L, et al.
IGFBP-3 interacts with NONO and SFPQ in PARP-dependent DNA damage repair in triple-negative breast cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(10):2015-2030 [PubMed] Related Publications
Women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are generally treated by chemotherapy but their responsiveness may be blunted by DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We previously reported that IGFBP-3 forms nuclear complexes with EGFR and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) to modulate DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in TNBC cells. To discover IGFBP-3 binding partners involved in chemoresistance through stimulation of DSB repair, we analyzed the IGFBP-3 interactome by LC-MS/MS and confirmed interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay. Functional effects were demonstrated by DNA end-joining in vitro and measurement of γH2AX foci. In response to 20 µM etoposide, the DNA/RNA-binding protein, non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) and its dimerization partner splicing factor, proline/glutamine-rich (SFPQ) formed complexes with IGFBP-3, demonstrated in basal-like TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and MDA-MB-468. NONO binding to IGFBP-3 was also shown in a cell-free biochemical assay. IGFBP-3 complexes with NONO and SFPQ were blocked by inhibiting EGFR with gefitinib or DNA-PKcs with NU7026, and by the PARP inhibitors veliparib and olaparib, which also reduced DNA end-joining activity and delayed the resolution of the γH2AX signal (i.e. inhibited DNA DSB repair). Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA in NHEJ pathway 1 (LINP1) by siRNA also blocked IGFBP-3 interaction with NONO-SFPQ. These findings suggest a PARP-dependent role for NONO and SFPQ in IGFBP-3-dependent DSB repair and the involvement of LINP1 in the complex formation. We propose that targeting of the DNA repair function of IGFBP-3 may enhance chemosensitivity in basal-like TNBC, thus improving patient outcomes.

Arroyo-Crespo JJ, Armiñán A, Charbonnier D, et al.
Tumor microenvironment-targeted poly-L-glutamic acid-based combination conjugate for enhanced triple negative breast cancer treatment.
Biomaterials. 2018; 186:8-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The intrinsic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment (TME), including acidic pH and overexpression of hydrolytic enzymes, offer an exciting opportunity for the rational design of TME-drug delivery systems (DDS). We developed and characterized a pH-responsive biodegradable poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA)-based combination conjugate family with the aim of optimizing anticancer effects. We obtained combination conjugates bearing Doxorubicin (Dox) and aminoglutethimide (AGM) with two Dox loadings and two different hydrazone pH-sensitive linkers that promote the specific release of Dox from the polymeric backbone within the TME. Low Dox loading coupled with a short hydrazone linker yielded optimal effects on primary tumor growth, lung metastasis (∼90% reduction), and toxicological profile in a preclinical metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. The use of transcriptomic analysis helped us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for such results including a differential immunomodulation and cell death pathways among the conjugates. This data highlights the advantages of targeting the TME, the therapeutic value of polymer-based combination approaches, and the utility of -omics-based analysis to accelerate anticancer DDS.

Azevedo Portilho N, Kobayashi M, Yoshimoto M
What do the lineage tracing studies tell us? Consideration for hematopoietic stem cell origin, dynamics, and leukemia-initiating cells.
Int J Hematol. 2019; 109(1):35-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
The recent advance of technologies enables us to trace the cell fate in vivo by marking the cells that express the gene of interest or by barcoding them at a single cell level. Various tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase mice combined with Rosa-floxed lines are utilized. In this review, with the results revealed by lineage tracing assays, we re-visit the long-standing debate for the origin of hematopoietic stem cells in the mouse embryo, and introduce the view of native hematopoiesis, and possible leukemic-initiating cells emerged during fetal stages.

Georgakopoulos N, Diamantopoulos P, Micci F, et al.
An Adult Patient with Early Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t(12;17)(p13;q21)/ZNF384-TAF15.
In Vivo. 2018 Sep-Oct; 32(5):1241-1245 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
This is a case report of a 46-year-old man diagnosed with early pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), bearing the translocation t(12;17)(p13;q21) as the sole chromosomal abnormality. This is a rare chromosomal abnormality that has been reported in approximately 25 cases worldwide. FISH analysis revealed a rearrangement of ZNF384 (12p13) and TAF15 (17q12) genes, which is usually associated with a pre-B ALL phenotype with co-expression of the myeloid markers CD13 and/or CD33. ZNF384 encodes a zinc finger protein, which acts as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases and TAF15 belongs to the FET (FUS, EWS, and TAF15) family, consisting of RNA and DNA-binding proteins. Unlike most of the cases where CD10 expression was absent or weak, in our case CD10 was highly expressed. The prognostic significance of ZNF384/TAF15 fusion is not very clear since several reports support a generally good prognosis, while others support a poor clinical outcome. Our patient was treated with the German multicenter ALL (GMALL) protocol for B-ALL, but experienced a fulminant gram-negative sepsis and eventually died during induction therapy.

Yue C, Yang M, Tian Q, et al.
IGFBP7 is associated to prognosis and could suppress cell survival in cholangiocarcinoma.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018; 46(sup2):817-825 [PubMed] Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) is a secreted protein and its expression was restrained in varied solid tumours, but there was no report about biological role of IGFBP7 in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Here, we found that high expression of IGFBP7 correlated to a better overall survival in CCA patients. To investigate the hypothetic antineoplastic activity of IGFBP7 in CCA, we induced overexpression of IGFBP7 in QBC939 and RBE cells, as well as knockdown in HCCC9810 cells. And the biological functions triggered by level changes of IGFBP7 were assessed, including proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and invasion evaluation. Cell growth assessment showed that enhanced IGFBP7 expression significantly retarded proliferation rates of QBC939 and RBE cells while an enhancement was observed in IGFBP7-inhibited HCCC9810 cells. The inhibition of cell viability was induced via G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Both QBC939 and RBE cells possess highly invasive ability, and IGFBP7 overexpression attenuated their serious invasiveness by reversing their mesenchymal phenotype to endothelial signature. We next investigated the potential mechanism involving in IGFBP7-induced tumour suppression and found that increased expression of IGFBP7 resulted in decrease of IGF-IR, IRS-1 and phosphor-AKT protein levels, accompanied with elevation of phorsphor-p38MAPK. These results suggest that IGFBP7 might be related to CCA carcinogenesis and metastasis, which further implicates that IGFBP7 might become a prospective benchmark for CCA diagnosis and therapy.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ye SB, et al.
RNA sequencing of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers reveals novel gene fusions and distinctive clinicopathologic correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1346-1360 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms are characterized by a variety of gene fusions involving TFE3. It has been known that tumors with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features; however, further in-depth investigations of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers are needed in order to explore more meaningful clinicopathologic correlations. A total of 22 unusual cases of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers were selected for the current study; 20 cases were further analyzed by RNA sequencing to explore their TFE3 gene fusion partners. RNA sequencing identified 17 of 20 cases (85%) with TFE3-associated gene fusions, including 4 ASPSCR1/ASPL-TFE3, 3 PRCC-TFE3, 3 SFPQ/PSF-TFE3, 1 NONO-TFE3, 4 MED15-TFE3, 1 MATR3-TFE3, and 1 FUBP1-TFE3. The results have been verified by fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The remaining 2 cases with specific pathologic features highly suggestive of MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma were identified by fusion FISH assay. We provide the detailed morphologic and immunophenotypic description of the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, which frequently demonstrate extensively cystic architecture, similar to multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, and expressed cathepsin K and melanotic biomarker Melan A. This is the first time to correlate the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma with specific clinicopathologic features. We also report the first case of the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm with MED15-TFE3 gene fusion. Additional novel TFE3 gene fusion partners, MATR3 and FUBP1, were identified. Cases with ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, and NONO-TFE3 gene fusion showed a wide variability in morphologic features, including invasive tubulopapillary pattern simulating collecting duct carcinoma, extensive calcification and ossification, and overlapping and high columnar cells with nuclear grooves mimicking tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, we respectively evaluated the ability of TFE3 immunohistochemistry, TFE3 FISH, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing to subclassify Xp11 translocation-associated cancers. In summary, our study expands the list of TFE3 gene fusion partners and the clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers, and highlights the importance of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers combining morphology, immunohistochemistry, and multiple molecular techniques.

Nikulin SV, Raigorodskaya MP, Poloznikov AA, et al.
In Vitro Model for Studying of the Role of IGFBP6 Gene in Breast Cancer Metastasizing.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2018; 164(5):688-692 [PubMed] Related Publications
IGFBP6 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. In this work, we performed knockdown of IGFBP6 gene in MDA-MB-231 cells and obtained a stable cell line. Knockdown of IGFBP6 gene was confirmed by the real-time PCR. The influence of IGFBP6 gene on migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells was studied. Knockdown of IGFBP6 gene reduced migration activity of MDA-MB-231 cells and increased their proliferation rate. This in vitro cell model can be used for the further analysis of the role of IGFBP6 gene in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

Kim J, Kim WH, Byeon SJ, et al.
Epigenetic Downregulation and Growth Inhibition of IGFBP7 in Gastric Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(3):667-675 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been found to be a tumor suppressor in several human cancers, but the role of IGFBP7 in gastric cancer has not yet been fully investigated. Herein, we examined the epigenetic downregulation of IGFBP7 expression in gastric cancer. Methods: Expression and methylation of IGFBP7 in gastric cancer cells and primary gastric cancer patients were determined using qRT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and methylation specific-PCR, respectively. The effects of IGFBP7 on gastric cancer cells were investigated by various experimental conditions, such as proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration assay. Results: IGFBP7 methylation was inversely correlated with IGFBP7 expression in gastric cancer. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that IGFBP7 expression and tumor stage were independent prognostic factors. IGFBP7 knockdown increased gastric cancer cell growth, invasion, and migration, whereas IGFBP7 overexpression in gastric cancer cells induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data suggest that IGFBP7 functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer via an epigenetic pathway.

Yoshioka T, Shien K, Namba K, et al.
Antitumor activity of pan-HER inhibitors in HER2-positive gastric cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(4):1166-1176 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Molecularly targeted therapy has enabled outstanding advances in cancer treatment. Whereas various anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drugs have been developed, trastuzumab is still the only anti-HER2 drug presently available for gastric cancer. In this study, we propose novel treatment options for patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. First, we determined the molecular profiles of 12 gastric cancer cell lines, and examined the antitumor effect of the pan-HER inhibitors afatinib and neratinib in those cell lines. Additionally, we analyzed HER2 alteration in 123 primary gastric cancers resected from Japanese patients to clarify possible candidates with the potential to respond to these drugs. In the drug sensitivity analysis, both afatinib and neratinib produced an antitumor effect in most of the HER2-amplified cell lines. However, some cells were not sensitive to the drugs. When the molecular profiles of the cells were compared based on the drug sensitivities, we found that cancer cells with lower mRNA expression levels of IGFBP7, a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits the activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), were less sensitive to pan-HER inhibitors. A combination therapy consisting of pan-HER inhibitors and an IGF-1R inhibitor, picropodophyllin, showed a notable synergistic effect. Among 123 clinical samples, we found 19 cases of HER2 amplification and three cases of oncogenic mutations. In conclusion, afatinib and neratinib are promising therapeutic options for the treatment of HER2-amplified gastric cancer. In addition to HER2 amplification, IGFBP7 might be a biomarker of sensitivity to these drugs, and IGF-1R-targeting therapy can overcome drug insensitiveness in HER2-amplified gastric cancer.

Li F, Qiao CY, Gao S, et al.
Circulating cell-free DNA of methylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 predicts a poor prognosis in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy.
Free Radic Res. 2018; 52(4):455-464 [PubMed] Related Publications
The initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistage process involving a variety of changes at the gene level. Methylation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) plays a crucial role in HCC development. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) expression, and IGFBP7 methylation, and to evaluate the prognostic value of serum IGFBP7 methylation status in patients with HCC after hepatectomy. We enrolled 155 patients with HCC undergoing surgical resection. The IGFBP7 methylation status, DNMTs mRNA levels and malondialdehyde (MDA), xanthine oxidase (XOD), reduced glutathione hormone (GSH), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) levels were detected. MDA and XOD levels were significantly higher in IGFBP7 methylated group than unmethylated group, while GSH level was lower in methylated group than unmethylated group. The DNMT1 and DNMT3a mRNA levels were higher in IGFBP7 methylated group than unmethylated group. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that IGFBP7 promoter methylation was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) (p < .001). Moreover, IGFBP7 methylation was an independent prognostic predictor for OS (p = .000) and early tumour recurrence (ETR) (p = .008) in HCC after hepatectomy. Our results indicated that IGFBP7 promoter methylation was associated with oxidative stress and DNMTs expression. Meanwhile, IGFBP7 promoter methylation was associated with OS and ETR, indicating that it might serve as a potentially independent prognostic factor in patients with HCC after hepatectomy.

Tao LP, Fan XP, Fan YC, et al.
Combined detection of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 promoter methylation improves the diagnostic efficacy of AFP in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(1):144-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study quantitatively assessed serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) promoter methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and explored its clinical value. A total of 80 patients with hepatitis B virus-associated HCC, 35 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. MethyLight was used to quantitatively assess the methylation levels of serum IGFBP7 promoter. A logistic regression model was established for the combined evaluation of AFP and serum IGFBP7 promoter methylation. The results showed that mean methylation levels of serum IGFBP7 promoter were significantly higher in HCC (5.33%, interquartile range [IQR] 1.14-15.70%) patients than in individuals with CHB (1.54%, IQR 0.64-2.45%; P<0.01) and HC (0.63%, IQR 0.22-0.98%; P<0.01). In HCC subgroups, patients with vascular invasion, tumor size >3cm and advanced tumor node metastasis (TNM) showed higher methylation levels compared with the remaining groups (P<0.05). Compared with AFP alone, combined determination based on logistic regression analysis significantly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) (0.759 vs 0.623, P<0.05). In addition, the Youden index was increased from 5.71%, 11.25% and 15.18%, when considering AFP alone at cut-off values of 20, 200, and 400ng/ml, respectively, to 45.71% with IGFBP7 promoter methylation taken into consideration (all P<0.05). These results suggested that combined quantitative measurement of serum IGFBP7 promoter methylation could enhance the diagnostic ability of AFP in distinguishing hepatitis B virus-associated HCC from CHB.

Ma Y, Jiang J, Zhang Y, et al.
IGFBP-rP1 acts as a potential tumor suppressor via the suppression of ERK signaling pathway in endometrial cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(2):1445-1450 [PubMed] Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a potential tumor‑suppressor gene in various cancers. However, its biological role and underlying mechanism has not been well investigated in endometrial cancer yet. The aim of the present study aimed to investigate the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of IGFBP‑rP1 in endometrial cancer cells in vitro. The authors used transfection of IGFBP‑rP1 or small interfering (si)RNA in endometrial cancer HEC‑1A or Ishikawa cells, respectively. Biological functional alterations, such as cell growth and cell cycle were analyzed in endometrial cancer cells, combined with the use of PD98059. A panel of proteins including phospho‑retinoblastoma (p‑RB) and p‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)/ERK were detected by western blot analysis. It was observed that IGFBP‑rP1 transfection inhibited cell growth, and induced G1 phase arrest and cellular senescence in HEC‑1A cells while gene silencing presented the adverse functional changes. Moreover, p‑RB and p‑ERK were significantly downregulated or upregulated in HEC‑1A‑IGFBP‑rP1 cells or Ishikawa‑siRNA (IGFBP‑rP1) compared with control cells, respectively. These observations were reinforced in endometrial cancer cells by PD98059 treatment. The authors conclude that IGFBP‑rP1 acts as a potential tumor suppressor via the suppression of the ERK signaling pathway in endometrial cancer cells. These findings suggested that IGFBP‑rP1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for cancer intervention in the future.

Wu X, Serna VA, Thomas J, et al.
Subtype-Specific Tumor-Associated Fibroblasts Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Uterine Leiomyoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(24):6891-6901 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Recent genomic studies have identified subtypes of uterine leiomyoma (LM) with distinctive genetic alterations. Here, we report the elucidation of the biological characteristics of the two most prevalent uterine leiomyoma subtypes, MED12-mutant (MED12-LM) and HMGA2-overexpressing (HMGA2-LM) uterine leiomyomas. Because each tumor carries only one genetic alteration, both subtypes are considered to be monoclonal. Approximately 90% of cells in HMGA2-uterine leiomyoma were smooth muscle cells (SMC) with HMGA2 overexpression. In contrast, MED12-LM consisted of similar numbers of SMC and non-SMC, which were mostly tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF). Paradoxically, TAF carried no mutations in MED12, suggesting an interaction between SMC and TAF to coordinate their growth. The higher amount of extracellular matrix in MED12-LM than HMGA2-LM was partially due to the high concentration of collagen-producing TAF. SMC growth in a xenograft assay was driven by progesterone in both uterine leiomyoma subtypes. In contrast, TAF in MED12-LM proliferated in response to estradiol, whereas progesterone had no effect. The high concentration of estrogen-responsive TAF in MED12-LM explains the inconsistent discoveries between

Torres-García W, Domenech M
Hedgehog-mesenchyme gene signature identifies bi-modal prognosis in luminal and basal breast cancer sub-types.
Mol Biosyst. 2017; 13(12):2615-2624 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Hedgehog signaling (Hh) has been shown to be hyper-activated in several cancers. However, active Hh signaling can promote or inhibit tumor growth; thus identification of markers beyond main canonical Hh target genes is needed to improve patient selection and clinical outcome in response to Hh inhibitors. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been linked with tumor progression and beneficial response to Hh inhibitors. Thus, we hypothesized that genes associated with Hh-activated CAFs can be used for stratification of tumors that will benefit from Hh inhibitors. In this work, we evaluated a 15-gene fingerprint that combines Hh and mesenchymal genes associated with CAF phenotype to profile breast cancer sub-types based on gene expression patterns among clustered groups. About 3800 cancer samples were evaluated using random forest models and linear discriminant analysis to sort breast cancer by subtypes and therapeutic approach. The results showed that the Hh-mesenchyme gene fingerprint has a highly sensitive and differential expression pattern among basal and luminal A sub-groups. Basal samples with high levels of Hh target genes had better prognosis than luminal A samples. Luminal A samples with a tendency towards Hh signaling suppression had higher overall and disease-free survival rates particularly if deprived of hormone therapy. Hh transcriptional repressor GLI3 and signaling activator SMO were the top 2 genes for discriminating among samples with active Hh signaling in human breast cancer subtypes and Hh-inhibitor resistant tumors. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a gene with low expression in CAFs, shows strong correlation with active Hh signaling and discrimination among survival curves in luminal A patients with active or inactive Hh signaling. Our data suggest that CAV1 is an important gene for monitoring Hh inhibition in tumors and support further stratification by hormone therapy status prior to use of Hh inhibitors.

Takayama KI, Suzuki T, Fujimura T, et al.
Dysregulation of spliceosome gene expression in advanced prostate cancer by RNA-binding protein PSF.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(39):10461-10466 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Developing therapeutic approaches are necessary for treating hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Activation of androgen receptor (AR) and its variants' expression along with the downstream signals are mostly important for disease progression. However, the mechanism for marked increases of AR signals and its expression is still unclear. Here, we revealed that various spliceosome genes are aberrantly induced by RNA-binding protein PSF, leading to enhancement of the splicing activities for AR expression. Our high-speed sequence analyses identified global PSF-binding transcripts. PSF was shown to stabilize and activate key long noncoding RNAs and AR-regulated gene expressions in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, mRNAs of spliceosome-related genes are putative primary targets of PSF. Their gene expressions are up-regulated by PSF in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Moreover, PSF coordinated these spliceosome proteins to form a complex to promote AR splicing and expression. Thus, targeting PSF and its related pathways implicates the therapeutic possibility for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Sato T, Shibata W, Hikiba Y, et al.
c-Jun N-terminal kinase in pancreatic tumor stroma augments tumor development in mice.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(11):2156-2165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a life-threatening disease and there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutic approaches. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in PDAC stroma is not well defined even though dense desmoplastic reactions are characteristic of PDAC histology. We aimed to explore the role of JNK in PDAC stroma in mice. We crossed Ptf1a

Lee J, Park HY, Kim WW, et al.
Biological function of long noncoding RNA snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317707374 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Long noncoding RNA, snaR (small NF90-associated RNA), has been reported to be upregulated in various cancer cell lines. We evaluated the additional role of snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We explored changes of expression of snaR among the selected long noncoding RNAs which have a potential in cancer proliferation or progression. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of HER2-positive breast cancer cells (SK-BR3) were evaluated by snaR with RNA interruption in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay.
RESULTS: The expression of snaR was remarkably upregulated in SK-BR3 cell lines together with ANRIL, while the SFMBT2 was downregulated in SK-BR3 cell lines. Although Nespas, 7SK, PSF inhibiting RNA, mascRNA, Hoxa11as, NRON, AK023948, MER11C, p53 mRNA, CAR Intergenic 10, HUC 1 and 2, ZFAS1, SCA8, and SNHG5 were also upregulated and UCA1 was downregulated, the differences were not dominent. Based on the expression result, we explored the functional role of snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer. Downregulation of snaR with small interfering RNA was identified to significanlty inhibit migration as well as proliferation of SK-BR3 cells.
CONCLUSION: In this study, snaR was identified as upregulated and to play a role in cancer progression of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. These results suggest snaR as a potential biomarker for HER2-positive breast cancer.

Sugai T, Yoshida M, Eizuka M, et al.
Analysis of the DNA methylation level of cancer-related genes in colorectal cancer and the surrounding normal mucosa.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Two molecular pathways promote the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). One is termed "microsatellite stable" (MSS) whereas the other is characterized by "microsatellite instability" (MSI or MIN). In addition, the CpG island methylation phenotype is known to be an important alteration as a third molecular type. Thus, DNA methylation is thought to provide potential biomarkers for assessment of cancer risk in normal mucosa. In addition, it is also known that colonic location is an important parameter in the development of CRC.
METHODS: We examined the surrounding normal mucosa in three parts of the colon. Next, we quantified DNA methylation levels of
RESULTS: DNA methylation levels of
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that DNA methylation of

Cavalli M, De Novi LA, Della Starza I, et al.
Comparative analysis between RQ-PCR and digital droplet PCR of BCL2/IGH gene rearrangement in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of early stage follicular lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 177(4):588-596 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCL2/IGH rearrangements were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at diagnosis in paired peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from 67 patients with stage I/II follicular lymphoma (FL). Real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) were performed in cases with a major breakpoint region (MBR+) at diagnosis and after localized radiotherapy and rituximab administration in order to investigate the applicability of ddPCR. The overall ddPCR/RQ-PCR concordance was 81·9% (113/138 samples) and 97·5% in the 40/138 with quantifiable disease (RQ-PCR≥10

Lee HJ, Shin DH, Noh GY, et al.
Combination of immunohistochemistry, FISH and RT-PCR shows high incidence of Xp11 translocation RCC: comparison of three different diagnostic methods.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):30756-30765 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
We evaluated the frequency of translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and how well the TFE3 immunoreactivity is concordant with TFE3 gene translocation status proved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and RT-PCR. TFE3 and Cathepsin K expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 185 RCC cases, and 48 cases either of more than weak expression of TFE3 or of positivity for Cathepsin K were done for FISH analysis and RT-PCR. All the RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Of the 14 cases with strong nuclear TFE3 expression, 12 showed a break-apart signal by FISH. ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations were detected in 13 and one case, respectively, by RT-PCR. Of 21 cases with weak TFE3 expression, five were translocation-positive by FISH. ASPL-, PRCC-, and PSF-TFE3 translocations were detected by RT-PCR (n=3, 3, and 1, respectively). All 13 TFE3-negative/cathepsin K-positive cases were negative by FISH and two each harbored ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations that were detected by RT-PCR. A high rate of TFE3 immunoreactivity (8.6%) was confirmed by RT-PCR (13.5%) and FISH (9.7%). Higher translocation rate of RT-PCR means RT-PCR detected translocation in TFE3 weak expression group and only cathepsin K positive group more specifically than FISH. Thus, RT-PCR would complement FISH analysis for detecting translocation RCC with fusion partners.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ni H, et al.
SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study emphasizing extended morphology and reviewing the differences between SFPQ-TFE3 RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm despite an identical gene fusion.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 63:190-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion is a rare epithelial tumor. Of note, the appearance of the gene fusion does not necessarily mean that it is renal cell carcinoma. The corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation, TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer, can also harbor the identical gene fusion. However, the differences between Xp11 translocation RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm have only recently been described. Herein, we examined 5 additional cases of SFPQ-TFE3 RCCs using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. One tumor had the typical morphologic features of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, whereas other 3 cases demonstrated the unusual morphologic features associated with pseudorosettes formation or clusters of smaller cells, mimicking TFEB RCC. The remaining one showed branching tubules and papillary structure composed of clear and eosinophilic tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, all 5 cases demonstrated moderate (2+) or strong (3+) positive staining for TFE3, PAX-8 and CD10, whereas no cases demonstrated TFEB, Cathepsin K, CA-IX, CK7, Melan-A, or HMB-45 expression. Genetically, the fusion transcripts were identified in 3 cases by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On the basis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, all the cases were detected with SFPQ-TFE3 gene fusion. Clinical follow-up data were available for all the patients, and no one developed tumor recurrence, progression, or metastasis. We also review the differences between SFPQ-TFE3 RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm despite the identical gene fusion. The presence of pseudorosettes also expands the known histological features of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC.

Guden M, Ayata HB, Ceylan C, et al.
Prognostic factors effective on survival of patients with glioblastoma: Anadolu Medical Center experience.
Indian J Cancer. 2016 Jul-Sep; 53(3):382-386 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study is to offer survival following radiation therapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy or volumetric arc therapy with temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two previously treated patients with high-grade glioma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV) were studied in Anadolu Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, between January 2006 and July 2015. The diagnosis was established by pathology in all cases. The median age was 59 years (range, 19-86 years). The median tumor diameter was 45 mm, and the rate of the multicentric tumors was 16.3%. The location of the tumor was temporal in 33.7%, parietal in 14.1%, frontal in 23.9%, occipital in 9.8%, and others in 18.5%. The gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 60.9% of the patients, partial resection in 26.1%, and only stereotactic biopsy in 13.0% of the patients.
RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) was 33.01 ± 4.76 months (95% confidence interval 25.64-40.38 months). 1, 2, and 5 years OS was 74.3%, 44.3%, and 31.8%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27.36 ± 3.87 months (95% confidence interval 19.82-34.89 months). 1, 2, and 5 years PFS was 62.7%, 32.6%, and 27.2%, respectively. On univariate analysis, gender, extent of surgery, tumor size, Karnofsky performance status, and tumor suppressor gene (P53) were significant predictors of OS and PFS. On multivariate analysis, gender (PFS: P = 0.006, OS: P = 0.003), extent of surgery (PFS: P = 0.004, OS: P = 0.012), P53 (PFS: P = 0.003, OS: P = 0.021), and size of tumor (PFS: P = 0.005, OS: 0.012) remained significantly associated with PFS and OS. There is no statistically significant in OS and PFS between female and male (OS: log-rank: 0.79 P = 0.375, PFS: log-rank: 0.54 P = 0.465). PSF and OS were not significantly significant with total/near total resection compared with partial resection (PSF: P = 0.46 log-rank = 0.54, OS: P = 0.340 log-rank = 0.91). Patients with P53 <50% value and patients with P53 >50% value were compared and results were not found statistically significant (PSF: P = 0.917 log-rank = 0.01, OS: P = 0.892 log-rank = 0.02). For patients with tumor size <0 mm, small tumor size did not improve the PSF and OS (PSF: P = 0.291 log-rank = 1.11, OS: P = 0.288 log-rank = 1.13).
CONCLUSION: Ninety-two previously treated patients with high-grade glioma (WHO Grade IV) were evaluated with multivariate analysis. Gender, extent of surgery, P53, and tumor size were found as prognostic factors affecting on survival.

Lee SH, Kim HP, Kang JK, et al.
Identification of Diverse Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing Subtypes in Colorectal Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 49(4):1077-1087 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: RNA editing generates protein diversity by altering RNA sequences in coding regions without changing the overall DNA sequence. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing events have recently been reported in some types of cancer, but they are rare in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this study was conducted to identify diverse RNA editing in CRC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared transcriptome data of 39 CRC samples and paired adjacent tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify RNA editing patterns in CRC, focusing on canonical A-to-I RNA edits in coding sequence regions. We investigated nonsynonymous RNA editing patterns by comparing tumor and normal tissue transcriptome data.
RESULTS: The number of RNA edits varied from 12 to 42 per sample. We also observed that hypoand hyper-RNA editing patterns were distinguishable within the samples. We found 10 recurrent nonsynonymous RNA editing candidates in nine genes (PDLIM, NEIL1, SRP9, GLI1, APMAP, IGFBP7, ZNF358, COPA, and ZNF587B) and validated some by Sanger sequencing and the inosine chemical erasing assay. We further showed that editing at these positions was performed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 enzyme. Most of these genes are hypoedited in CRC, but editing of GLI1 was increased in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that nonsynonymous RNA editing patterns can be used to identify CRC patients and could serve as novel biomarkers for CRC.

Chen YB, Liao XY, Zhang JB, et al.
ADAR2 functions as a tumor suppressor via editing IGFBP7 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(2):622-630 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), one of the most aggressive cancers, is characterized by heterogeneous genetic and epigenetic changes. Recently, A-to-I RNA editing, catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), was found to be aberrantly regulated during tumorigenesis. We previously reported that ADAR2 was downregulated in ESCC but its role was unclear. Thus, we report here that overexpression of ADAR2 can induce apoptosis in ESCC cell lines and inhibit tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. ADAR2 knockdown inhibited apoptosis in ADAR2 highly expressing tumor cells. RNA-seq assay showed that ADAR2, not ADAR1 or active-site-mutated ADAR2, could edit insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) mRNA in ESCC. IGFBP7 knockdown or ADAR2 catalytic activity destruction abolished the pro-apoptotic function of ADAR2. Mechanistically, RNA editing may stabilize IGFBP7 protein by changing the protease recognition site of matriptase and this is essential for IGFBP7 to induce apoptosis. Western blotting revealed that ADAR2 overexpression could induce IGFBP7-dependent inhibition of Akt signaling. Thus, our data indicate that ADAR2 suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis by editing and stabilizing IGFBP7 in ESCC, and this may represent a novel therapeutic target for treating ESCC.

Guo H, Zhang D, Fu Q
Inhibition of Cervical Cancer by Promoting IGFBP7 Expression Using Ellagic Acid from Pomegranate Peel.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:4881-4886 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism by which cervical cancer is inhibited by promoting IGFBP7 expression using ellagic acid from pomegranate peel extract. MATERIAL AND METHODS HeLa cells were divided into 6 groups: control group (NC), blank control group (BL), and IGFBP7 overexpression group (IGFBP7), and 2.5 uM, 5. 0 uM, and 10.0 uM ellagic acid-treated groups. The cell proliferation ability was detected and the degree of invasion in the 6 groups was measured by Transwell assay. The expression levels of IGFBP7 and AKT/mTOR in the 6 groups of cells were detected by RT-PCR technique. RESULTS Compared with NC and BL groups, The IGFBP7 gene expressions of the IGFPB7 and ellagic acid-treated groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). There was a dose-effect dependence in the ellagic acid-treated groups. The invasion ability of the IGFBP7 group and ellagic acid-treated groups was significantly lower than that of NC and BL groups in HeLa cells (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of the IGFBP7 group and ellagic acid-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the NC and BL groups in HeLa cells (P<0.05). AKT and mTOR mRNA and protein expressions of the IGFBP7 group and ellagic acid-treated groups were significantly lower than that of the NC and BL groups (P<0.05). There was a dose-effect dependence in the ellagic acid-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS The ellagic acid in pomegranate peel extract can inhibit the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by enhancing the expression level of IGFBP7, which can inhibit the HeLa cells in cervical cancer.

Sambuudash O, Kim HM, Jo H, et al.
Molecular characteristics of colorectal serrated polyps and hyperplastic polyps: A STROBE compliant article.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(49):e5592 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
The serrated neoplasia pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis is characterized by BRAF mutation and aberrant DNA methylation, which have not been reported on Korean patients. The aim of this study was to investigate BRAF mutation and DNA methylation in colorectal serrated polyps and the right colon.Between 2005 and 2013, 146 colon polyps (47 tubular adenomas [TAs], 53 traditional serrated adenomas [TSAs], 17 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps [SSAs], and 29 hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon [PHPs]) were collected from patients. Paraffin-embedded colon polyp tissue was used for DNA extraction. BRAF V600E mutation was identified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. The methylation status of the long interspersed nucleotide element-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1), and CD133 genes were evaluated through disulfite conversion, PCR, and pyrosequencing assay.BRAF V600E mutation was found in 2.1% of TAs, 47.2% of TSAs, 41.2% of SSAs, and 20.7% of PHPs. TSA and SSA had higher BRAF mutation rates than did TA (P < 0.0001). TSA had higher BRAF mutation rates than did PHP (P = 0.018). IGFBP7 hypermethylation was found in 17% of TAs, 37.7% of TSAs, 88.2% of SSAs, and 37.5% of PHPs. TSA and SSA had higher hypermethylation of IGFBP7 than did TA (P = 0.021 and P < 0.0001, respectively). SSA had higher hypermethylation of IGFBP7 than did PHP (P = 0.002). hMLH1 hypermethylation was found in 2.1% of TAs, 5.7% of TSAs, 0% of SSAs, and 0% of PHPs. CD133 hypermethylation was found in 21.3% of TAs, 9.4% of TSAs, 35.3% of SSAs, and 17.4% of PHPs.BRAF mutation and methylation in TSA and SSA are different from those in PHP in Koreans. These findings suggested that PHP may have different molecular characteristics compared with other serrated polyps.

Deng Y, Cheng J, Fu B, et al.
Hepatic carcinoma-associated fibroblasts enhance immune suppression by facilitating the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(8):1090-1101 [PubMed] Related Publications
A major barrier to effective cancer immunotherapy is immune suppression in favor of tumor progression. Additionally, the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) has recently been recognized as a major mechanism of the promotion of immune suppression. However, how MDSCs are induced and the cells from which they arise remains unknown. Although studies have demonstrated that tumor-derived cytokines promote MDSC accumulation and activation, little is known regarding the role of the tumor stroma in MDSC accumulation and activation. In this study, we identified a novel mechanism of MDSC differentiation. Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) attracted monocytes by the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1a/CXCR4 pathway and induced their differentiation into MDSCs through interleukin (IL)-6-mediated STAT3 activation. TAF-treated monocytes (T-MDSCs) then impaired T-cell proliferation and altered the phenotype and/or function of T-cells in an STAT3-dependent manner. CD11b

Roque DR, Makowski L, Chen TH, et al.
Association between differential gene expression and body mass index among endometrial cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 142(2):317-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified four integrated clusters for endometrial cancer (EC): POLE, MSI, CNL and CNH. We evaluated differences in gene expression profiles of obese and non-obese women with EC and examined the association of body mass index (BMI) within the clusters identified in TCGA.
METHODS: TCGA RNAseq data was used to identify genes related to increasing BMI among ECs. The POLE, MSI and CNL clusters were composed mostly of endometrioid EC. Patient BMI was compared between these three clusters with one-way ANOVA. Association between gene expression and BMI was also assessed while adjusting for confounding effects of potential confounding factors. p-Values testing the association between gene expression and BMI were adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing over the 20,531 genes considered.
RESULTS: Mean BMI was statistically different between the ECs in the CNL (35.8) versus POLE (29.8) cluster (p=0.006) and approached significance for the MSI (33.0) versus CNL (35.8) cluster (p=0.05). 181 genes were significantly up- or down-regulated with increasing BMI in endometrioid EC (q-value<0.01), including LPL, IRS-1, IGFBP4, IGFBP7 and the progesterone receptor. DAVID functional annotation analysis revealed significant enrichment in "cell cycle" (adjusted p-value=1.5E-5) and "DNA metabolic processes" (adjusted p-value=1E-3) for the identified genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity related genes were found to be upregulated with increasing BMI among endometrioid ECs. Patients with POLE tumors have the lowest median BMI when compared to MSI and CNL. Given the heterogeneity among endometrioid EC, consideration should be given to abandoning the Type I and II classification of EC tumors.

Yang P, Chen T, Xu Z, et al.
Long noncoding RNA GAPLINC promotes invasion in colorectal cancer by targeting SNAI2 through binding with PSF and NONO.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):42183-42194 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Metastasis is an important prognostic factor of CRC, and lncRNAs have been implicated in tumor proliferation and metastasis. The human CRC cell lines HCT116, HT29, SW480, DLD-1, and SW620 were used in the study. Genome-wide lncRNA expression patterns in metastatic lymph nodes compared with paired normal lymph nodes of CRC were assessed by microarray analysis. Gastric adenocarcinoma predictive long intergenic noncoding (GAPLINC) RNA was detected via functional prediction. The increased expression of GAPLINC was found to be positively correlated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor stage (T stage), advanced node stage (N stage), increased death, and shorter survival of patients with CRC by in situ hybridization analysis. Besides, the decreased expression of GAPLINC could significantly repress CRC cell invasion in vitro and also inhibit proliferation in vitro and in vivo. RNA pull-down with mass spectrum experiments revealed that PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) and non-POU-domain-containing octamer-binding (NONO) protein bound to GAPLINC and reversed the effect of GAPLINC on cell invasion. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses identified that snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) was involved in the biological processes of GAPLINC/PSF/NONO. This study indicated the importance of GAPLINC in promoting CRC invasion via binding to PSF/NONO and partly by stimulating the expression of SNAI2. Hence, GAPLINC may serve as a promising target for CRC diagnosis and therapy. The findings may help in developing a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with CRC.

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