Gene Summary

Gene:IFITM1; interferon induced transmembrane protein 1
Aliases: 9-27, CD225, IFI17, LEU13, DSPA2a
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IFITM1 (cancer-related)

Ali RH, Al-Safi R, Al-Waheeb S, et al.
Molecular characterization of a population-based series of endometrial stromal sarcomas in Kuwait.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(12):2453-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) frequently harbor genetic fusions, including JAZF1-SUZ12 and equivalent fusions in low-grade ESS (LGESS) and YWHAE-NUTM2 in high-grade ESS (HGESS). This study aims to classify a population-based series of ESSs in Kuwait based on the 2014 World Health Organization classification system and to assess the diagnostic use of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) immunomarker for ESSs. Twenty ESSs including 19 LGESSs and 1 HGESS treated during the period between 2002 and 2013 were identified, and the cases were reviewed and characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies. Thirteen (81.3%) of 16 LGESSs with interpretable results showed JAZF1 and/or PHF1 genetic rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the only HGESS in the series showed YWHAE genetic rearrangement. All LGESSs with interpretable results showed positive immunostaining for CD10 compared with 11 (61%) of 18 that showed positive immunostaining for IFITM1; 4 of 7 IFITM1-negative LGESSs showed JAZF1 and/or PHF1 rearrangements. A series of uterine leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, adenosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas were included for comparison, and positive IFITM1 staining was found in 1 of 10 leiomyomas, 3 of 13 leiomyosarcomas, 3 of 4 adenosarcomas, and 3 of 8 carcinosarcomas, compared to 0 of 10 leiomyomas, 9 of 13 leiomyosarcomas, 3 of 4 adenosarcomas, and 5 of 8 carcinosarcomas that were positive for CD10. Our results demonstrated characteristic genetic rearrangements in a high percentage of LGESSs in this Middle Eastern population, and IFITM1 antibody appears to be less sensitive than CD10 for LGESS.

Boeckx C, Weyn C, Vanden Bempt I, et al.
Mutation analysis of genes in the EGFR pathway in Head and Neck cancer patients: implications for anti-EGFR treatment response.
BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7:337 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapy against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is among the most promising molecular therapeutics for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). However, drug resistance limits the clinical efficacy of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and no predictive biomarker has entered the clinic yet.
METHODS: A retrospective clinical study was performed utilizing pathological specimens from 52 newly diagnosed HNSCC patients. These patients were screened for mutations in EGFR and KRAS. Tyrosine kinase mutations in EGFR and KRAS mutations were evaluated by high resolution melting analysis (HRMA), whereas EGFRvIII was determined using one-step real-time PCR. Finally, patient samples were screened for HPV-DNA by GP5+/6+ PCR. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and significance was calculated using log-rank statistic.
RESULTS: In our study population no EGFRvIII mutations were present. However, two silent mutations were found; T785T in exon 20 and R836R in exon 21 of the EGFR gene. Additionally, HRMA revealed an abnormal KRAS melting pattern in 7.0% of the samples. However, the KRAS StripAssay could confirm only one sample with a G12S mutation and none of these samples could be confirmed by direct sequencing. HPV DNA was present in 3/25 larynx and 9/27 oropharynx tumors.
CONCLUSION: The low rate of EGFR and KRAS mutations in this Belgian HNSCC population suggests that these genes will probably not play a major role in predicting response to anti-EGFR therapy in HNSCC. Hence, other predictive markers need to be discovered in order to optimize EGFR targeting therapy.

Tymoszuk P, Charoentong P, Hackl H, et al.
High STAT1 mRNA levels but not its tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with macrophage infiltration and bad prognosis in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:257 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: STAT1 has been attributed a function as tumor suppressor. However, in breast cancer data from microarray analysis indicated a predictive value of high mRNA expression levels of STAT1 and STAT1 target genes belonging to the interferon-related signature for a poor response to therapy. To clarify this issue we have determined STAT1 expression levels and activation by different methods, and investigated their association with tumor infiltration by immune cells. Additionally, we evaluated the interrelationship of these parameters and their significance for predicting disease outcome.
METHODS: Expression of STAT1, its target genes SOCS1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFIT1, IFITM1, MX1 and genes characteristic for immune cell infiltration (CD68, CD163, PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, CD45, IFN-γ, FOXP3) was determined by RT-PCR in two independent cohorts comprising 132 breast cancer patients. For a subset of patients, protein levels of total as well as serine and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 were ascertained by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting and protein levels of CXCL10 by ELISA.
RESULTS: mRNA expression levels of STAT1 and STAT1 target genes, as well as protein levels of total and serine-phosphorylated STAT1 correlated with each other in neoplastic tissue. However, there was no association between tumor levels of STAT1 mRNA and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and between CXCL10 serum levels and CXCL10 expression in the tumor. Tumors with increased STAT1 mRNA amounts exhibited elevated expression of genes characteristic for tumor-associated macrophages and immunosuppressive T lymphocytes. Survival analysis revealed an association of high STAT1 mRNA levels and bad prognosis in both cohorts. A similar prognostically relevant correlation with unfavorable outcome was evident for CXCL10, MX1, CD68, CD163, IFN-γ, and PD-L2 expression in at least one collective. By contrast, activation of STAT1 as assessed by the level of STAT1-Y701 phosphorylation was linked to positive outcome. In multivariate Cox regression, the predictive power of STAT1 mRNA expression was lost when including expression of CXCL10, MX1 and CD68 as confounders.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms distinct prognostic relevance of STAT1 expression levels and STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation in breast cancer patients and identifies an association of high STAT1 levels with elevated expression of STAT1 target genes and markers for infiltrating immune cells.

Riehmer V, Gietzelt J, Beyer U, et al.
Genomic profiling reveals distinctive molecular relapse patterns in IDH1/2 wild-type glioblastoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):589-605 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular changes associated with the progression of glioblastoma after standard radiochemotherapy remain poorly understood. We compared genomic profiles of 27 paired primary and recurrent IDH1/2 wild-type glioblastomas by genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization. By bioinformatic analysis, primary and recurrent tumor profiles were normalized and segmented, chromosomal gains and losses identified taking the tumor cell content into account, and difference profiles deduced. Seven of 27 (26%) pairs lacked DNA copy number differences between primary and recurrent tumors (equal pairs). The recurrent tumors in 9/27 (33%) pairs contained all chromosomal imbalances of the primary tumors plus additional ones, suggesting a sequential acquisition of and/or selection for aberrations during progression (sequential pairs). In 11/27 (41%) pairs, the profiles of primary and recurrent tumors were divergent, i.e., the recurrent tumors contained additional aberrations but had lost others, suggesting a polyclonal composition of the primary tumors and considerable clonal evolution (discrepant pairs). Losses on 9p21.3 harboring the CDKN2A/B locus were significantly more common in primary tumors from sequential and discrepant (nonequal) pairs. Nonequal pairs showed ten regions of recurrent genomic differences between primary and recurrent tumors harboring 46 candidate genes associated with tumor recurrence. In particular, copy numbers of genes encoding apoptosis regulators were frequently changed at progression. In summary, approximately 25% of IDH1/2 wild-type glioblastoma pairs have stable genomic imbalances. In contrast, approximately 75% of IDH1/2 wild-type glioblastomas undergo further genomic aberrations and alter their clonal composition upon recurrence impacting their genomic profile, a process possibly facilitated by 9p21.3 loss in the primary tumor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kim NH, Sung HY, Choi EN, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation in the IFITM1 promoter enhances the metastatic phenotype in an intraperitoneal xenograft model of human ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2139-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lack of reliable biomarkers for the early detection and risk of metastatic recurrences makes ovarian cancer the most lethal gynecological cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer metastasis in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptional expression pattern in metastatic implants of human ovarian carcinoma xenografts in mice. The expression of 937 genes was significantly different, by at least 2-fold, in the xenografts compared with that in SK-OV-3 cells. We investigated the mechanisms that regulate the expression of one of the profoundly upregulated genes, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), in the metastatic implants. Specific CpG sites within the IFITM1 promoter were hypomethylated in the metastatic implants relative to those in the wild-type SK-OV-3 cells. Treating wild-type SK-OV-3 cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhanced IFITM1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, implying transcriptional regulation by promoter methylation. We also found that IFITM1 overexpression caused increased migration and invasiveness in SK-OV-3 cells. Our results demonstrate that IFITM1 could be a novel metastasis-promoting gene that enhances the metastatic phenotype in ovarian cancer via epigenetic transcriptional regulation. Our findings also suggest that the status of DNA methylation within the IFITM1 promoter region could be a biomarker indicating metastatic progression in ovarian cancer.

Xu CZ, Shi RJ, Chen D, et al.
Potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity in hypopharynx cancer cell.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(12):2745-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paclitaxel has been proved to be active in treatment and larynx preservation of HNSCC, however, the fact that about 20-40% patients do not respond to paclitaxel makes it urgent to figure out the biomarkers for paclitaxel-based treatment in Hypopharynx cancer (HPC) patients to improve the therapy effect. In this work, Fadu cells, treated or untreated with low dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, were applied to DNA microarray chips. The differential expression in mRNAs and miRs was analyzed and the network between expression-altered mRNAs and miRs was constructed. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (ACAT2, MSMO1, LSS, FDFT1 and FDPS etc.), complement system (C3, C1R, C1S, CFR and CFB etc.), interferon signaling (IFIT1, IFIT3, IFITM1 and MX1 etc.), mTOR signaling (MRAS, PRKAA2, PLD1, RND3 and EIF4A1 etc.) and IGF1 signaling (MRAS, IGFBP7, JUN and FOS etc.), most of these pathways are implicated in tumorigenesis or chemotherapy resistance. The first three pathways were predicted to be suppressed, while the last two pathways were predicted to be induced by paclitaxel, suggesting the combination therapy with mTOR inhibition and paclitaxel might be better than single one. The dramatically expression-altered miRs were miR-112, miR-7, miR-1304, miR-222*, miR-29b-1* (these five miRs were upregulated) and miR-210 (downregulated). The 26 putative target genes mediated by the 6 miRs were figured out and the miR-gene network was constructed. Furthermore, immunoblotting assay showed that ERK signaling in Fadu cells was active by low dose of paclitaxel but repressed by high dose of paclitaxel. Collectively, our data would provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for paclitaxel-based therapy in HPC patients.

Lee HR, No HK, Ryu CJ, Park HJ
Brahma‑related gene 1-associated expression of 9-27 and IFI-27 is involved in acquired cisplatin resistance of gastric cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 8(3):747-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to investigate the mechanism of cisplatin resistance, a cisplatin-resistant human gastric cancer cell line was established. Subsequent to the exposure of the YCC-3 gastric cancer cell line to equal concentrations of cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin, CDDP) for 6 months, a cisplatin-resistant cell line was established (YCC-3/R). To determine the molecular mechanism of cisplatin resistance in YCC-3/R cells, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between YCC-3 and YCC-3/R by annealing control primer-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (ACP RT-PCR) technology. Eleven DEGs were successfully identified and sequenced. Among them, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (9-27) and interferon α-inducible protein 27 (IFI-27) were markedly increased in YCC-3/R cells. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that the Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), which was observed to selectively activate 9-27 and IFI-27 genes, was overexpressed in YCC-3/R cells. The results suggested that the BRG1‑associated expression of 9-27 and IFI-27 is involved in cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells.

Davidson JA, Cromwell I, Ellard SL, et al.
A prospective clinical utility and pharmacoeconomic study of the impact of the 21-gene Recurrence Score® assay in oestrogen receptor positive node negative breast cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(11):2469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the 21-gene Recurrence Score® result on systemic treatment recommendations and to perform a prospective health economic analysis in stage I-II, node-negative, oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer.
METHODS: Consenting patients with ER+ node negative invasive breast cancer and their treating medial oncologists were asked to complete questionnaires about treatment preferences, level of confidence in those preferences and a decisional conflict scale (patients only) after a discussion of their diagnosis and risk without knowledge of the Recurrence Score. At a subsequent visit, the assay result and final treatment recommendations were discussed prior to both parties completing a second set of questionnaires. A Markov health state transition model was constructed, simulating the costs and outcomes experienced by a hypothetical 'assay naïve' population and an 'assay informed' population.
RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-six patients across two cancer centres were enrolled. Of the 150 for whom successful assay results were obtained, physicians changed their chemotherapy recommendations in 45 cases (30%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 22.8-38.0%); either to add (10%; 95% CI 5.7-16.0%) or omit (20%; 95% CI 13.9-27.3%) adjuvant chemotherapy. There was an overall significant improvement in physician confidence post-assay (p<0.001). Patient decisional conflict also significantly decreased following the assay (p<0.001). The simulation model found an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of Canadian Dollars (CAD) $6630/quality-adjusted life years (QALY).
CONCLUSION: Within the context of a publicly funded health care system, the Recurrence Score assay significantly affects adjuvant treatment recommendations and is cost effective in ER+ node negative breast cancer.

Shibata MA, Ambati J, Shibata E, et al.
Mammary cancer gene therapy targeting lymphangiogenesis: VEGF-C siRNA and soluble VEGF receptor-2, a splicing variant.
Med Mol Morphol. 2012; 45(4):179-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis contributes significantly to cancer mortality, and the most common pathway of initial dissemination is via the afferent ducts of the lymphatics. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C has been associated with lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in a multitude of human neoplasms, including breast cancers. We recently reported that both VEGF-C siRNA and endogenous soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (esVEGFR-2, a new splicing variant) inhibit VEGF-C function and metastasis in a mouse model of metastatic mammary cancer. Here we briefly review our previous experimental work, specifically targeting tumor lymphangiogenesis, in which metastatic mouse mammary cancers received direct intratumoral injections of either expression vectors VEGF-C siRNA or esVEGFR-2, or the empty plasmid vector, once a week for 6 or 8 weeks, followed by in vivo gene electrotransfer of the injected tumors. Throughout our study, both tumor lymphangiogenesis and the multiplicity of lymph node metastasis were significantly inhibited, with an overall reduction in tumor growth, by both VEGF-C siRNA and esVEGFR-2; further, a significant reduction in the number of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal cancer cells was observed with both treatments. Thus, therapeutic strategies targeting lymphangiogenesis may have great clinical significance for the treatment of metastatic human breast cancer.

Pinheiro H, Carvalho J, Oliveira P, et al.
Transcription initiation arising from E-cadherin/CDH1 intron2: a novel protein isoform that increases gastric cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis.
Hum Mol Genet. 2012; 21(19):4253-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disruption of E-cadherin (CDH1 gene) expression, subcellular localization or function arises during initiation and progression of almost 90% of all epithelial carcinomas. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. Previous studies showed the importance of CDH1 intron 2 sequences for proper gene and protein expression, supporting these as E-cadherin cis-modulators. Through RACE and RT-PCR, we searched for transcription events arising from CDH1 intron 2 and discovered several new transcripts. One, named CDH1a, with high expression in spleen and absent from normal stomach, was demonstrated to be translated into a novel isoform, differing from canonical E-cadherin in its N-terminal, as determined by mass spectrometry. Quantitative and functional assays showed that when overexpressed in an E-cadherin negative context, CDH1a replaced canonical protein interactions and functions. However, when co-expressed with canonical E-cadherin, CDH1a increased cell invasion and angiogenesis. Further, interferon-induced gene IFITM1 and IFI27 levels were increased upon CDH1a overexpression. Effects on invasion and IFITM1 and IFI27 expression were reverted upon CDH1a-specific knockdown. Importantly, CDH1a was de novo expressed in gastric cancer cell lines. This study presents a new mechanism by which E-cadherin functions are impaired by cis-regulatory mechanisms possibly with the involvement of inflammatory machinery. If confirmed in other cancer models, our data enclose potential for designing targeted therapies to rescue E-cadherin function.

Imajoh M, Hashida Y, Taniguchi A, et al.
Novel human polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus and human polyomavirus 9, in Japanese chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases.
J Hematol Oncol. 2012; 5:25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the rarest adult leukemia in Japan, whereas it is the most common leukemia in the Western world. Recent studies from the United States and Germany suggest a possible etiological association between Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and CLL, although no data have been reported from Eastern countries. To increase the volume of relevant data, this study investigated the prevalence and DNA loads of MCPyV and human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9), another lymphotropic polyomavirus, in Japanese CLL cases.
FINDINGS: We found that 9/27 CLL cases (33.3 %) were positive for MCPyV using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The viral DNA loads ranged from 0.000017 to 0.0012 copies per cell. All cases were negative for HPyV9. One MCPyV-positive CLL case was evaluated by mutational analysis of the large T (LT) gene, which indicated the presence of wild-type MCPyV without a nucleotide deletion. DNA sequence analysis of the entire small T (ST) gene and the partial LT gene revealed that a Japanese MCPyV isolate, designated CLL-JK, had two nucleotide gaps when compared with the reference sequence of the North American isolate MCC350.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that MCPyV is present in a subset of Japanese CLL cases with low viral DNA loads. MCPyV and HPyV9 are unlikely to contribute directly to the development of CLL in the majority of Japanese cases. MCPyV isolated from the Japanese CLL cases may constitute an Asian group and its pathogenicity needs to be clarified in future studies.

Ma Z, Guo W, Niu HJ, et al.
Transcriptome network analysis reveals potential candidate genes for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(3):767-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Understanding molecular changes in ESCC should improve identification of risk factors with different molecular subtypes and provide potential targets for early detection and therapy. Our study aimed to obtain a molecular signature of ESCC through the regulation network based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We used the GSE23400 series to identify potential genes related to ESCC. Based on bioinformatics we constructed a regulation network. From the results, we could establish that many transcription factors and pathways closely related with ESCC were linked by our method. STAT1 also arose as a hub node in our transcriptome network, along with some transcription factors like CCNB1, TAP1, RARG and IFITM1 proven to be related with ESCC by previous studies. In conclusion, our regulation network provided information on important genes which might be useful in investigating the complex interacting mechanisms underlying the disease.

Lee J, Goh SH, Song N, et al.
Overexpression of IFITM1 has clinicopathologic effects on gastric cancer and is regulated by an epigenetic mechanism.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 181(1):43-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
In an effort to identify novel genes related to the prognosis of gastric cancer, we performed gene expression profiling and found overexpressed levels of human interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1). We validated the gastric cancer-specific up-regulation of IFITM1 and its association with cancer progression. We also studied its epigenetic regulation and tumorigenesis-related functions. Expression of IFITM1 was evaluated in various human gastric cancer cells and in 35 patient tumor tissues by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The results showed highly up-regulated IFITM1 in cancer cell lines and tissues. Furthermore, IHC studies were performed on 151 patient tissues, and a significant correlation was revealed between higher IFITM1 expression and Lauren's intestinal type (P = 0.007) and differentiated adenocarcinoma (P = 0.025). Quantitative studies of DNA methylation for 27 CpG sites in the regulatory region showed hypermethylation in cells expressing low levels of IFITM1. Methylation-dependent IFITM1 expression was confirmed further by in vitro demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and luciferase assays. The functional analysis of IFITM1 by silencing of its expression with small-interfering RNA showed decreased migration and invasiveness of cancer cells, whereas its overexpression exhibited the opposite results. In this study, we demonstrated gastric cancer-specific overexpression of IFITM1 regulated by promoter methylation and the role of IFITM1 in cancer prognosis.

Yang G, Rao L, Tian L, Cai X
An association between EGF and EGFR gene polymorphisms with gastric cancer in a Chinese Han population.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2012 Nov-Dec; 59(120):2668-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The epidermal growth factor and its receptor play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. We investigate the potential association between epidermal growth factor and its receptor gene polymorphisms with gastric cancer in a Chinese Han population.
METHODOLOGY: Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism strategies were used to genotype EGF +61 G/A and EGFR+2073 A/T in 207 gastric cancer cases and 318 healthy controls.
RESULTS: The A allele of EGF +61 G/A was less frequently in gastric cancer patients than in controls(OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.55-0.95, p=0.02). The A allele frequency was also associated with deeper tumor invasion(OR=1.74, 95%CI=1.05-2.89, p=0.03), increased lymph node metastasis (OR=1.74, 95%CI=1.08-2.82, p=0.02)and shorter survival time (95%CI=9.27-16.72, p=0.038).A T allele frequency in the EGFR +2073 A/T polymorphism was associated with increased lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer (OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.06-2.47,p=0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the A allele of EGF +61 G/A polymorphism decreases the risk of gastric cancer. However, the presence of either the A allele of EGF +61 G/A or the EGFR +2073 T allele indicated a poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients.

He JD, Luo HL, Li J, et al.
Influences of the interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(3):517-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has been identified as a molecular marker of the colorectal tumors; however its influences on the biological behaviors of the colorectal cancer cells are currently unknown. We aimed to study the influences of IFITM1 on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines.
METHODS: We constructed IFITM1/pEGFP-C3 recombinant plasmids and transfected them into the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines. IFITM1/pEGFP-C3 recombinant plasmids were identified by means of immunofluorescence, laser confocal scanning microscopy, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. IFITM1/SW480 cells with stable over-expression of IFITM1 were confirmed by G418 screening. The influences of IFITM1 on the proliferation of the SW480 cell lines were investigated by MTT assay and tumor transplantation experiments in nude mice. Cell invasion experiments were performed to determine the invasion capacity of the IFITM1/SW480 cells. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activities were detected by the gelatin zymographic analysis, and MMP-9 expression by the Western blotting analysis.
RESULTS: IFITM1/pEGFP-C3 recombinant plasmids were successfully constructed in this study, and the IFITM1/SW480 cells with stable IFITM1 gene over-expression were confirmed by G418 screening. MTT results showed that the proliferation of the IFITM1/SW480 cells was significantly enhanced (P < 0.01). Tumors were harvested from four weeks old mice. Tumor volumes were (1347.00 ± 60.94) mm(3), (1032.40 ± 111.38) mm(3) and (1018.78 ± 28.83) mm(3); and tumor weights were (1522.34 ± 62.76) mg, (1137.78 ± 97.22) mg and (1155.76 ± 133.31) mg for mice inoculated with the IFITM1/SW480 cells, pEGFP-C3/SW480 cells and SW480 cells, respectively. Tumor volumes and weights from mice inoculated with the IFITM1/SW480 cells were significantly increased (P < 0.01). In addition, the numbers of the SW480 cells and IFITM1/SW480 cells that migrated through Matrigel were 448.64 ± 38.09 and 540.45 ± 44.61, respectively; so the invasive ability of the SW480 cells transfected with IFITM1 gene was significantly greater than that of the SW480 cells (P < 0.01). Gelatin zymographic analysis showed that MMP-9 and MMP-2 protein activities in the IFITM1/SW480 cells were significantly enhanced, and Western blotting analysis showed that MMP-9 expression in the IFITM1/SW480 cells was also increased.
CONCLUSION: IFITM1 can enhance the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines.

Melaiu O, Cristaudo A, Melissari E, et al.
A review of transcriptome studies combined with data mining reveals novel potential markers of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Mutat Res. 2012 Apr-Jun; 750(2):132-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a cancer of the serosal pleural cavities, is one of the most aggressive human tumors. In order to identify genes crucial for the onset and progression of MPM, we performed an extensive literature review focused on transcriptome studies (RTS). In this kind of studies a great number of transcripts are analyzed without formulating any a priori hypothesis, thus preventing any bias coming from previously established knowledge that could lead to an over-representation of specific genes. Each study was thoroughly analyzed paying particular attention to: (i) the employed microarray platform, (ii) the number and type of samples, (iii) the fold-change, and (iv) the statistical significance of deregulated genes. We also performed data mining (DM) on MPM using three different tools (Coremine, SNPs3D, and GeneProspector). Results from RTS and DM were compared in order to restrict the number of genes potentially deregulated in MPM. Our main requirement for a gene to be a "mesothelioma gene" (MG) is to be reproducibly deregulated among independent studies and confirmed by DM. A list of MGs was thus produced, including PTGS2, BIRC5, ASS1, JUNB, MCM2, AURKA, FGF2, MKI67, CAV1, SFRP1, CCNB1, CDK4, and MSLN that might represent potential novel biomarkers or therapeutic targets for MPM. Moreover, it was found a sub-group of MGs including ASS1, JUNB, PTGS2, EEF2, SULF1, TOP2A, AURKA, BIRC5, CAV1, IFITM1, PCNA, and PKM2 that could explain, at least in part, the mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, one first-line chemotherapeutic drug used for the disease. Finally, the pathway analysis showed that co-regulation networks related to the cross-talk between MPM and its micro-environment, in particular involving the adhesion molecules, integrins, and cytokines, might have an important role in MPM. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the role played by these genes in MPM.

Zhang H, Zheng X, Ji T, et al.
Comparative screening of K-ras mutations in colorectal cancer and lung cancer patients using a novel real-time PCR with ADx-K-ras kit and Sanger DNA sequencing.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2012; 62(3):415-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
We determined frequency/types of K-ras mutations in colorectal/lung cancer. ADx-K-ras kit (real-time/double-loop probe PCR) was used to detect somatic tumor gene mutations compared with Sanger DNA sequencing using 583 colorectal and 244 lung cancer paraffin-embedded clinical samples. Genomic DNA was used in both methods; mutation rates at codons 12/13 and frequency of each mutation were detected and compared. The data show that 91.4% colorectal and 59.0% lung carcinoma samples were detected conclusively by DNA sequencing, whereas 100% colorectal and lung samples were detected by ADx-K-ras kit. K-ras gene mutations were detected in 32.9-27.4% colorectal samples using kit and sequencing methods, respectively. Whereas 10.6-8.3% lung cancer samples were positively detected by kit and sequencing methods, respectively. Notably, 172/677 showed mutations and 467/677 showed wild type by both methods; 38 samples showed mutations with kit but wild type with sequencing. Mutations in colorectal samples were as follows: GGT → GAT/codon-12 (35.1%); GGC → GAC/codon-13 (26.6%); GGT → GTT/codon-12 (18.2%); and GGT → GCT/codon-12 (1.6%). Mutations in lung samples were as follows: GGT > GTT/codon-12 (40.9%) and GGT > GCT/codon-12 (4.5%). In conclusion, K-ras mutations involved 32.2% colorectal and 10.6% lung samples among this cohort. ADx-K-ras real-time PCR showed higher detection rates (P < 0.05). The kit method has good clinical applicability as it is simple, fast, less prone to contamination and hence can be used effectively and reliably for clinical screening of somatic tumor gene mutations.

Deraz EM, Kudo Y, Yoshida M, et al.
MMP-10/stromelysin-2 promotes invasion of head and neck cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25438 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Periostin, IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) and Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (Wnt-5b) were previously identified as the invasion promoted genes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by comparing the gene expression profiles between parent and a highly invasive clone. We have previously reported that Periostin and IFITM1 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Here we demonstrated that Wnt-5b overexpression promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, stromelysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-10; MMP-10) was identified as a common up-regulated gene among Periostin, IFITM1 and Wnt-5b overexpressing HNSCC cells by using microarray data sets. In this study, we investigated the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the expression of MMP-10 in HNSCC cases by immunohistochemistry. High expression of MMP-10 was frequently observed and was significantly correlated with the invasiveness and metastasis in HNSCC cases. Next, we examined the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC cells in vitro. Ectopic overexpression of MMP-10 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells, and knockdown of MMP-10 suppressed the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, MMP-10 knockdown suppressed Periostin and Wnt-5b-promoted invasion. Interestingly, MMP-10 overexpression induced the decreased p38 activity and MMP-10 knockdown induced the increased p38 activity. In addition, treatment with a p38 inhibitor SB203580 in HNSCC cells inhibited the invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MMP-10 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of HNSCC, and that invasion driven by MMP-10 is partially associated with p38 MAPK inhibition. We suggest that MMP-10 can be used as a marker for prediction of metastasis in HNSCC.

Bahnassy AA, Zekri AR, Loutfy SA, et al.
The role of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases in development and progression of hepatitis C virus-genotype 4-associated hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2011; 91(2):643-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Altered cell cycle regulatory genes expression contributes to HCV-associated liver disease. We sought to assess the role of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) in HCV-associated CH and HCC. Aberrant expression of cyclins A, E, D1, CDK2 and CDK4 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and differential PCR in HCV-associated CH and HCC with pericarcinomatous foci (PCF). S phase fraction (SPF) was determined by flow cytometry. Results were correlated with overall survival (OS) in HCC patients. In HCC, cyclins A, E, D1, CDK2 and CDK4 protein overexpression was detected in 52.8%, 52.8%, 69%, 47% and 58% compared to 36.1%, 33%, 56%, 27.8%, 55.6% for CH and 36.1%, 27%, 30.6%, 27%, 50% for PCF. Gene amplification was detected in 38.9%, 33% 66%, 33%, 44% of HCC compared to 27.8%, 25%, 44%, 27.8%, 36% in CH and 25%, 22.2%, 38.9%, 27%, 33% in PCF. A significant difference was reported between HCC, CH, NHT regarding cyclins A, E, D1, CDK2 (p=0.007, p=0.002, p=0.047, p=0.002) protein expression (ADD) and cyclin D1 amplification (p=0.009). Cyclins A, E, CDK2 expression was associated with fibrosis in CH (p=0.004, p=0.02, p=0.012). Reduced OS was (ADD) associated with cyclin D1 and cyclin A, grade, stage and metastasis (p=0.001, p=0.02, p=0.018, p=0.01, p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased cyclins A, E, D1, CDK2 and CDK4 expression is important for HCV-associated CH and HCC. Cyclin D1 and cyclin A are prognostic biomarkers associated with reduced OS in HCC. Cyclin D1 aberration could identify high risk groups of CH patients prone to develop HCC.

Payne K, Wright P, Grant JW, et al.
BIOMED-2 PCR assays for IGK gene rearrangements are essential for B-cell clonality analysis in follicular lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 155(1):84-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell clonality analysis is commonly performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the IGH genes although a high false-negative rate is recognized for germinal centre/post-germinal centre B-cell malignancies, especially follicular lymphoma. We assessed the diagnostic value of BIOMED-2 IGK assays and investigated the cause of IGH PCR failure in 77 patients with follicular lymphoma. Using the full set of BIOMED-2 reactions, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were detected in 74 (96%) cases. The clonality detection rate was 86% by two IGK reactions but only 68% by five IGH reactions (P < 0·001). Sequencing of the clonal PCR products showed significantly fewer somatic mutations in the rearranged IGKV (9/27 cases, 33%, mean mutation rate 0·5%) than IGHV (17/17 cases, 100%, rate 11·0%) (P < 0·01). All IGHV-IGHJ PCR failures occurred in cases with at least one mutation at the corresponding IGHV primer binding sites. t(14:18)(q32:q21)/IGH-BCL2 was detected in 50 of 71 (70%) cases and the presence of the translocation was not associated with the poor performance of IGH assays. Our results showed that BIOMED-2 IGK assays are significantly more sensitive than IGH assays in follicular lymphoma due to the fact that the rearranged IGKV is less frequently targeted by somatic hypermutation than IGHV, and therefore, are essential in routine clonality analysis of these lymphomas.

Park IH, Lee YS, Lee KS, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP19A1 predict clinical outcomes and adverse events associated with letrozole in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011; 68(5):1263-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The CYP19A1 gene encodes the aromatase enzyme involved in the peripheral conversion of androgen to estrogen. We evaluated the efficacy of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) as related to DNA polymorphisms of CYP19A1.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and nine patients with hormone receptor-positive MBC were treated with letrozole alone or in combination with a GnRH agonist. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and genotyped for 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP19A1.
RESULTS: Among 46 SNPs examined, rs700518, rs10459592, and rs4775936 were significantly associated with higher clinical benefit rate (CBR, CR + PR + SD ≥ 6 months) (OR = 2.61 [95% CI; 1.13-6.03], P = 0.025; OR = 2.45 [95% CI; 1.06-5.65], P = 0.036; OR = 2.60 [95% CI; 1.12-6.02], P = 0.026, respectively). Median time to progression (TTP) was improved without statistical significance in patients having an over-dominant form of rs700518. In haplotype analysis, the specific haplotypes M_1_3 and M_2_1 showed a strong association with CBR (OR = 3.37 [95% CI 1.43-7.90], P = 0.005; OR = 5.33 [95% CI 1.63-17.45], P = 0.006, respectively). There was a statistically significant difference in TTP in patients with haplotype M_1_3 (5.61 months [95% CI 0.00-11.45] vs. 11.08 months [95% CI 6.75-15.42], P = 0.040) and M_2_1 (7.31 months [95% CI 4.63-9.99] vs. 12.95 months [95% CI 9.27-16.63], P = 0.038). Haplotypes M_3_5 (OR = 11.25 [95% CI 1.17-108.28], P = 0.01) and M_5_3 (OR = 4.12, [95% CI 1.09-15.61], P = 0.03) were associated with side effects of arthralgia and hot flash, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The genetic variations of CYP19A1 were significantly associated with clinical efficacy, suggesting potential predictive markers for letrozole treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Yu F, Ng SS, Chow BK, et al.
Knockdown of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells.
J Neurooncol. 2011; 103(2):187-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has recently been identified as a new molecular marker in human colorectal cancer. However, its role in glioma carcinogenesis is not known. In this study, we demonstrated that suppression of IFITM1 expression significantly inhibited proliferation of glioma cells in a time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect was mediated by cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, IFITM1 knockdown significantly inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells, which could be attributed to decreased expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Taken together, these results suggest that IFITM1 is a potential therapeutic target for gliomas.

Kang KJ, Sinn DH, Park SH, et al.
Adenoma incidence after resection of sporadic colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability.
J Surg Oncol. 2010; 101(7):577-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Microsatellite instability (MSI) tumors that develop via the mismatch repair (MMR) gene pathway show rapid growth. It is unknown if patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) with MSI would benefit from a shorter interval between colonoscopies. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in adenoma incidence based on the presence of MSI in patients with sporadic CRC.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the incidence of a recurring adenoma at the 1- and 3-year surveillance colonoscopies in 426 patients who had sporadic CRC after surgery
RESULTS: The number of high MSI (MSI-H), low MSI (MSI-L), and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors were 38 (9%), 27 (6%), and 361 (85%), respectively. After 1 year, the incidence of adenoma (13% vs. 16% for MSI-L + MSS vs. MSI-H, P = 0.61) or advanced adenoma (3% vs. 8% for MSI-L + MSS vs. MSI-H, P = 0.14) did not differ based on MSI status. The incidence of adenoma or advanced adenoma also did not differ based on MSI status at the 3-year surveillance colonoscopy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not show recommendations for a shorter interval for subsequent colonoscopies in patients with sporadic CRC with MSI-H. Further studies on a large scale are needed.

Ma Y, Zhang G, Fu X, et al.
Wnt signaling may be activated in a subset of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome polyps closely correlating to LKB1 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 23(6):1569-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The premalignant potential of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) hamartomas has not been established. The major gene responsible for PJS is LKB1. LKB1 has a complex cellular role, therefore, the exact role of LKB1 in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome hamartomas (PJSs) is particularly difficult to understand. It has recently been found that LKB1 functions in the Wnt pathway in Xenopus during early development. Aberrant beta-catenin expression, the key regulator of the activated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, appears to stimulate interferon-induced gene 1 (IFITM1) products in intestinal tumorigenesis. Both contribute to intestinal tumor formation and tumor progression. This study was designed to investigate expression of LKB1, beta-catenin and IFITM1 in PJSs, colorectal adenomas (CRAs), colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and normal colorectal mucosas (NCs) using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the co-expression characteristics of beta-catenin and IFITM1. Results showed that the expression profiles of LKB1, beta-catenin and IFITM1 in PJSs were similar to those in CRAs both at the mRNA and protein levels. The cytoplasmic level of beta-catenin expression correlated strongly with LKB1 and IFITM1 expression in the tumor cells. The dyregulation of beta-catenin was found in a majority (16/20) of the PJS polyps. Immunofluorescence also revealed co-expression of beta-catenin and IFITM1 in the cytoplasm of the PJSs. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling may be activated in a subset of PJSs, and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in PJS polyps may be caused by LKB1 expression. The activated beta-catenin signaling pathway including IFITM1 might play an important role in a subset of PJS polyps.

Gomes AQ, Correia DV, Grosso AR, et al.
Identification of a panel of ten cell surface protein antigens associated with immunotargeting of leukemias and lymphomas by peripheral blood gammadelta T cells.
Haematologica. 2010; 95(8):1397-404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are regarded as promising mediators of cancer immunotherapy due to their capacity to eliminate multiple experimental tumors, particularly within those of hematopoietic origin. However, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell based lymphoma clinical trials have suffered from the lack of biomarkers that can be used as prognostic of therapeutic success.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We have conducted a comprehensive study of gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, aimed at identifying markers of susceptibility versus resistance to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We employed cDNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR to screen 20 leukemia and lymphoma cell lines, and 23 primary hematopoietic tumor samples. These data were analyzed using state-of-the-art bioinformatics, and gene expression patterns were correlated with susceptibility to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell mediated cytolysis in vitro.
RESULTS: We identified a panel of 10 genes encoding cell surface proteins that were statistically differentially expressed between "gammadelta-susceptible" and "gammadelta-resistant" hematopoietic tumors. Within this panel, 3 genes (ULBP1, TFR2 and IFITM1) were associated with increased susceptibility to Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas the other 7 (CLEC2D, NRP2, SELL, PKD2, KCNK12, ITGA6 and SLAMF1) were enriched in resistant tumors. Furthermore, some of these candidates displayed a striking variance of expression among primary follicular lymphomas and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that hematopoietic tumors display a highly variable repertoire of surface proteins that can impact on Vgamma9Vdelta2 cell-mediated immunotargeting. The prognostic value of the proposed markers can now be evaluated in upcoming Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-based lymphoma/leukemia clinical trials.

Naghibalhossaini F, Mokarram P, Khalili I, et al.
MTHFR C677T and A1298C variant genotypes and the risk of microsatellite instability among Iranian colorectal cancer patients.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 197(2):142-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. We aimed to test the hypothesis that C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR predispose to microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancer. We determined MTHFR genotypes in 175 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and a total of 231 normal controls in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Among the genotypes found in our samples, MTHFR CT and CT+TT were associated with increased risk for CRC incidence [odds ratio (OR)=2.4, 95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.8-4.4; OR=2.4, 95%CI=1.6-3.6, respectively]. Double heterozygotes 677CT/1298AC and double homozygote 677TT/1298AA and 677CC/1298CC genotypes also showed a significantly increased risk of developing CRC compared with the wild-type 677CC/1298AA genotypes of the controls. Among the 151 tumors tested, 36 (23.8%) were MSI+. MSI was more common in proximal tumors (OR=10.4; 95%CI=3.9-27.8) and in smokers (OR=2.9; 95%CI=1.3-6.7). In a case-control comparison, the MTHFR 677CT+TT genotype was strongly associated with MSI (OR=2.6; 95%CI=1.3-5.3). Hypermethylation of mismatch repair genes was positively related with MSI incidence in these tumor series (P=0.00). Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677CT+TT variant genotype may be a risk factor for MSI+ cancer.

Stella Tsai CS, Chen HC, Tung JN, et al.
Serum cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein is a potential prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2010; 176(4):1619-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer has high rates of recurrence and metastasis. Many patients with similar histopathological features show significantly different clinical outcomes, and these differences are primarily related to metastases undetected by current diagnostic methods. There is no useful serological marker for metastatic disease. We investigated the cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a marker for metastatic colorectal cancer. Using serum from 103 patients with stage I, II, III, and IV disease, CSE1L was detected in 36.0% (9 of 25), 57.7% (15 of 26), 71.4% (30 of 42), and 88.9% (8 of 9) of patients, respectively; a pathological CEA level was found in 16.0% (4 of 25), 42.3% (11 of 26), 47.6% (20 of 42), and 77.8% (7 of 9) of patients, respectively; a combined CSE1L/CEA assay was detected in 48.0% (12 of 25), 65.4% (17 of 26), 88.1% (37 of 42), and 100% (9 of 9) of patients, respectively. Lymphatic metastasis is an important predictor of poor prognosis and crucial for determination of therapeutic strategy. Serum CSE1L was detected in 74.5% (38 of 51) of patients with lymph node metastasis, whereas a pathological CEA level was found in only 52.9% (27 of 51) of the same patients (P < 0.001); the combined CSE1L/CEA assay increased sensitivity to 90.2% (46 of 51). Animal experiments showed CSE1L reduction in B16-F10 melanoma cells correlated with decreased metastasis to the colorectal tract in C57BL/6 mice. These results indicate that assay of serum CSE1L may facilitate diagnosis of colorectal cancer lymphatic metastases; furthermore, CSE1L is a possible therapeutic target.

Pan Z, Chen S, Pan X, et al.
Differential gene expression identified in Uigur women cervical squamous cell carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization.
Neoplasma. 2010; 57(2):123-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers worldwide. Over the past decade, much progress has been made in understanding the genetic changes associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer. However, the precise mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis in Uigur women remain unclear. To screen differential gene expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix in Uigur women, suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed on the cervical squamous cell carcinoma and corresponding normal cervical tissues of a Uigur patient. Thus we were be able to find the genes that are related with cervical tumors of Uigur women. A total of 300 samples were subject to DNA sequencing analysis and 46 genes were found to express differentially in tumors compared with normal tissues. Of the 46 genes, 24 genes were up-regulated whereas 22 genes were down-regulated in cervical tumors. The expression profiles of 5 of the 46 genes were further confirmed in 15 other Uigur patients by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that ACADVL, CEBPB, IFITM1 and DNAJC9 are involved in cervical carcinogenesis.

Troxell ML, Levine J, Beadling C, et al.
High prevalence of PIK3CA/AKT pathway mutations in papillary neoplasms of the breast.
Mod Pathol. 2010; 23(1):27-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary lesions of the breast have an uncertain relationship to the histogenesis of breast carcinoma, and are thus diagnostically and managerially challenging. Molecular genetic studies have provided evidence that ductal carcinoma in situ and even atypical ductal hyperplasia are precursors of invasive carcinoma. However, papillary lesions have been seldom studied. We screened papillary breast neoplasms for activating point mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, and RAS protein-family members, which are common in invasive ductal carcinomas. DNA extracts were prepared from sections of 89 papillary lesions, including 61 benign papillomas (28 without significant hyperplasia; 33 with moderate to florid hyperplasia), 11 papillomas with atypical ductal hyperplasia, 7 papillomas with carcinoma in situ, and 10 papillary carcinomas. Extracts were screened for PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations using mass spectrometry; cases that were negative were further screened for mutations in AKT2, BRAF, CDK, EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS. Mutations were confirmed by sequencing or HPLC assay. A total of 55 of 89 papillary neoplasms harbored mutations (62%), predominantly in AKT1 (E17K, 27 cases) and PIK3CA (exon 20 >exon 9, 27 cases). Papillomas had more mutations in AKT1 (54%) than in PIK3CA (21%), whereas papillomas with hyperplasia had more PIK3CA (42%) than AKT1 (15%) mutations, as did papillomas with atypical ductal hyperplasia (PIK3CA 45%, AKT1 27%, and NRAS 9%). Among seven papillomas with carcinoma in situ, three had AKT1 mutations. The 10 papillary carcinomas showed an overall lower frequency of mutations, including 1 with an AKT1 mutation (in a tumor arising from a papilloma), 1 with an NRAS gene mutation (Q61H), and 2 with PIK3CA mutations (1 overlapping with the NRAS Q61H). These findings indicate that approximately two-thirds of papillomas are driven by mutations in the PI3CA/AKT pathway. Some papillary carcinomas may arise from these lesions, but others may have different molecular origins.

Daniel-Carmi V, Makovitzki-Avraham E, Reuven EM, et al.
The human 1-8D gene (IFITM2) is a novel p53 independent pro-apoptotic gene.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 125(12):2810-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human 1-8 interferon inducible gene family consists of at least 3 functional genes; 9-27, 1-8D and 1-8U, which are all linked on an 18-kb fragment of chromosome 11 and are highly homologous. It has recently been shown by us and others that the 1-8D gene is overexpressed in colon carcinoma. Here, we show, by sequence comparison of the 1-8D in pairs of tumor/normal colon tissues, the existence of 6 different alleles, containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms with no mutations. Transformation assays revealed a possible role for the 1-8D gene as a transformation inhibitor. Further, transient expression of the human 1-8D gene in multiple mammalian cell lines showed accumulation of cells in the G1 phase followed by elevation in the subG1 phase. SubG1 elevation was confirmed as apoptosis by Annexin-V binding assays and transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays. Moreover, knock-down of 1-8D provided partial protection from Etoposide and UV-induced apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis by 1-8D is dependent on caspase activities but not on p53 expression. Although 1-8D induces apoptosis independently of p53, p53 expression downregulates 1-8D protein expression. Our data suggest a role for the 1-8D gene as a novel pro-apoptotic gene that will provide new insights into the regulated cellular pathways to death.

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