Gene Summary

Gene:HSP90AA1; heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1
Aliases: EL52, HSPN, LAP2, HSP86, HSPC1, HSPCA, Hsp89, Hsp90, LAP-2, HSP89A, HSP90A, HSP90N, Hsp103, HSPCAL1, HSPCAL4, HEL-S-65p
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an inducible molecular chaperone that functions as a homodimer. The encoded protein aids in the proper folding of specific target proteins by use of an ATPase activity that is modulated by co-chaperones. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HSP90AA1 (cancer-related)

Wu AY, Gu LY, Cang W, et al.
Fn14 overcomes cisplatin resistance of high-grade serous ovarian cancer by promoting Mdm2-mediated p53-R248Q ubiquitination and degradation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies. Patients often suffer from chemoresistance. Several studies have reported that Fn14 could regulate migration, invasion, and angiogenesis in cancer cells. However, its functional role in chemoresistance of HGSOC is still unknown.
METHODS: The expression of Fn14 in tissue specimens was detected by IHC. CCK-8 assay was performed to determine changes in cell viability. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The potential molecular mechanism of Fn14-regulated cisplatin resistance in HGSOC was investigated using qRT-PCR, western blotting, and Co-IP assays. The role of Fn14 in HGSOC was also investigated in a xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that Fn14 was significantly downregulated in patients with cisplatin resistance. Patients with low Fn14 expression were associated with shorter progression-free survival and overall survival. Overexpression of Fn14 suppressed cisplatin resistance in OVCAR-3 cells, whereas knockdown of Fn14 did not affect cisplatin resistance in SKOV-3 cells. Interestingly, Fn14 could exert anti-chemoresistance effect only in OVCAR-3 cells harboring a p53-R248Q mutation, but not in SKOV-3 cells with a p53-null mutation. We isolated and identified primary cells from two patients with the p53-R248Q mutation from HGSOC patients and the anti-chemoresistance effect of Fn14 was observed in both primary cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that overexpression of Fn14 could reduce the formation of a Mdm2-p53-R248Q-Hsp90 complex by downregulating Hsp90 expression, indicating that degradation of p53-R248Q was accelerated via Mdm2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that Fn14 overcomes cisplatin resistance through modulation of the degradation of p53-R248Q and restoration of Fn14 expression might be a novel strategy for the treatment of HGSOC.

Muller P, Coates PJ, Nenutil R, et al.
Tomm34 is commonly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and associates with tumour type and high FIGO stage.
J Ovarian Res. 2019; 12(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increased activity of the chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 is a common feature of solid tumours. Translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane 34 (Tomm34) is a cochaperone of both Hsp70 and Hsp90 that was found to be overexpressed in colorectal, hepatocellular, lung and breast carcinomas. The expression profile of Tomm34 in ovarian cancer has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tomm34 in ovarian carcinomas and analyse its correlation with clinico-pathological parameters.
RESULTS: Epithelial ovarian cancers (140) were histologically classified based on their morphology and graded into two types comprising 5 histologic subgroups. Type I carcinomas comprise low grade serous (LGSC), clear cell (CCOC) and endometrioid (ENOC), type II comprises high grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) and solid, pseudoendometrioid, transitional carcinomas (SET). Tomm34 was more highly expressed in type II than type I carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Comparing tumours based on the mutation in the TP53 gene revealed similar results, where mutant tumours exhibited significantly higher levels of Tomm34 (p < 0.0001). The decreased levels of Tomm34 in type I carcinomas were particularly evident in clear cell and mucinous carcinomas. The expression of Tomm34 was also positively correlated with FIGO stage (r = 0.23; p = 0.007). Tomm34 levels also indicated poor prognosis for patients with mutant p53.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Tomm34 is commonly expressed at high levels in epithelial ovarian cancers, except for the clear cell and mucinous subtypes. The expression of Tomm34 corresponds with the dualistic model of ovarian cancer pathogenesis where high grade, type II tumours exhibit higher expression of Tomm34 in contrast to type I tumours. These data are also comparable to the previous findings that Tomm34 is a marker of progression and poor prognosis in human cancer.

Xiong Y, He L, Shay C, et al.
Nck-associated protein 1 associates with HSP90 to drive metastasis in human non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):122 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastatic lung cancer is a life-threatening condition that develops when cancer in another area of the body metastasizes, or spreads, to the lung. Despite advances in our understanding of primary lung oncogenesis, the biological basis driving the progression from primary to metastatic lung cancer remains poorly characterized.
METHODS: Genetic knockdown of the particular genes in cancer cells were achieved by lentiviral-mediated interference. Invasion potential was determined by Matrigel and three-dimensional invasion. The secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 were measured by ELISA. Protein levels were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Protein-protein interactions were determined by immunoprecipitation. An experimental mouse model was generated to investigate the gene regulation in tumor growth and metastasis.
RESULTS: Nck-associated protein 1 (NAP1/NCKAP1) is highly expressed in primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) when compared with adjacent normal lung tissues, and its expression levels are strongly associated with the histologic tumor grade, metastasis and poor survival rate of NSCLC patients. Overexpression of NAP1 in lowly invasive NSCLC cells enhances MMP9 secretion and invasion potential, whereas NAP1 silencing in highly invasive NSCLC cells produces opposing effects in comparison. Mechanistic studies further reveal that the binding of NAP1 to the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is required for its protein stabilization, and NAP1 plays an essential role in HSP90-mediated invasion and metastasis by provoking MMP9 activation and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NSCLC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our insights demonstrate the importance and functional regulation of the HSP90-NAP1 protein complex in cancer metastatic signaling, which spur new avenues to target this interaction as a novel approach to block NSCLC metastasis.

Zhang Y, Xiao Y, Dong Q, et al.
Neferine in the Lotus Plumule Potentiates the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib in Primary Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells In Vitro.
J Food Sci. 2019; 84(4):904-910 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib, the prototype BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is the first-line treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. However, a subgroup of patients exhibit poor response or experience relapse. This issue may be overcome by combination therapy using natural compounds. Neferine, a major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from "lotus plumule" (seed embryo of lotus) commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and tea, was used herein in the combination treatment of CML. The MTT assay showed that neferine exerted cytotoxicity in primary CML cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low concentrations of neferine (4 and 8 µM) sensitized primary CML cells to imatinib (CI < 1), and significantly decreased its IC

Lee YM, Kim GH, Park EJ, et al.
Thymoquinone Selectively Kills Hypoxic Renal Cancer Cells by Suppressing HIF-1α-Mediated Glycolysis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several reports have shown that thymoquinone (TQ) effectively attenuates angiogenesis in cancer cells, resulting in suppression of tumor growth. However, it is not yet clear whether TQ reduces hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in hypoxic cancer cells. Here, we found that TQ was a novel HIF-1α inhibitor through hypoxia response element (HRE)-luciferase assay-based large screening by using 502 natural compounds containing chemical library. TQ reduced HIF-1α protein levels in renal cancer cells; however, it did not affect the HIF-1α protein levels in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG132, indicating that the reduction effects of TQ on HIF-1α protein are mediated via the ubiquitination-proteasome dependent pathway. TQ boosted HIF-1α protein degradation, and the mechanism was revealed by inhibiting interaction between HSP90 and HIF-1α. TQ suppressed downstream genes of HIF-1α, indicating negative impact of TQ on HIF-1α transcriptional activities. In addition, TQ altered glucose, lactate, and ATP levels, leading to anaerobic metabolic disturbance. TQ induced apoptosis in hypoxic cancer cells as determined by crystal violet staining and flow cytometry for annexin V-stained cells. Taken together, we suggested that TQ is a potential anticancer agent targeting HIF-1α.

Yin H, Yu Y
Identification of the targets of hematoporphyrin derivative in lung adenocarcinoma using integrated network analysis.
Biol Res. 2019; 52(1):4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) has a sensibilization effect in lung adenocarcinoma. This study was conducted to identify the target genes of HPD in lung adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed using the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 after no treatment or treatment with X-ray or X-ray + HPD. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using Mfuzz package by noise-robust soft clustering analysis. Enrichment analysis was carried out using "BioCloud" online tool. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were performed using Cytoscape software. Using WebGestalt tool and integrated transcription factor platform (ITFP), microRNA target and transcription factor (TF) target pairs were separately predicted. An integrated regulatory network was visualized with Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: A total of 815 DEGs in the gene set G1 (continuously dysregulated genes along with changes in processing conditions [untreated-treated with X-ray-X-ray + treated with HPD]) and 464 DEGs in the gene set G2 (significantly dysregulated between X-ray + HPD-treated group and untreated/X-ray-treated group) were screened. The significant module identified from the PPI network for gene set G1 showed that ribosomal protein L3 (RPL3) gene could interact with heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class A member 1 (HSP90AA1). TFs AAA domain containing 2 (ATAD2) and protein inhibitor of activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) were separately predicted for the genes in gene set G1 and G2, respectively. In the integrated network for gene set G2, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 25 (USP25) was targeted by miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-429.
CONCLUSION: RPL3, HSP90AA1, ATAD2, and PIAS1 as well as USP25, which is targeted by miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-429, may be the potential targets of HPD in lung adenocarcinoma.

Nicolas E, Demidova EV, Iqbal W, et al.
Interaction of germline variants in a family with a history of early-onset clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(3):e556 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic factors causing predisposition to renal cell carcinoma has helped improve screening, early detection, and patient survival.
METHODS: We report the characterization of a proband with renal and thyroid cancers and a family history of renal and other cancers by whole-exome sequencing (WES), coupled with WES analysis of germline DNA from additional affected and unaffected family members.
RESULTS: This work identified multiple predicted protein-damaging variants relevant to the pattern of inherited cancer risk. Among these, the proband and an affected brother each had a heterozygous Ala45Thr variant in SDHA, a component of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. SDH defects are associated with mitochondrial disorders and risk for various cancers; immunochemical analysis indicated loss of SDHB protein expression in the patient's tumor, compatible with SDH deficiency. Integrated analysis of public databases and structural predictions indicated that the two affected individuals also had additional variants in genes including TGFB2, TRAP1, PARP1, and EGF, each potentially relevant to cancer risk alone or in conjunction with the SDHA variant. In addition, allelic imbalances of PARP1 and TGFB2 were detected in the tumor of the proband.
CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest the possibility of risk associated with interaction of two or more variants.

Mumin NH, Drobnitzky N, Patel A, et al.
Overcoming acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibition by targeting JAK-STAT signalling in triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of effective therapies and poor prognosis in TNBC (triple-negative breast cancer) patients, there is a strong need to develop effective novel targeted therapies for this subtype of breast cancer. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a conserved molecular chaperone that is involved in the regulation of oncogenic client proteins, has shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for TNBC. However, both intrinsic and acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitors (HSP90i) limits their effectiveness in cancer patients.
METHODS: We developed models of acquired resistance to HSP90i by prolonged exposure of TNBC cells to HSP90i (ganetespib) in vitro. Whole transcriptome profiling and a 328-compound bioactive small molecule screen were performed on these cells to identify the molecular basis of acquired resistance to HSP90i and potential therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance.
RESULTS: Among a panel of seven TNBC cell lines, the most sensitive cell line (Hs578T) to HSP90i was selected as an in vitro model to investigate acquired resistance to HSP90i. Two independent HSP90i-resistant clones were successfully isolated which both showed absence of client proteins degradation, apoptosis induction and G2/M cell cycle arrest after treatment with HSP90i. Gene expression profiling and pathway enrichment analysis demonstrate significant activation of the survival JAK-STAT signalling pathway in both HSP90i-resistant clones, possibly through IL6 autocrine signalling. A bioactive small molecule screen also demonstrated that the HSP90i-resistant clones showed selective sensitivity to JAK2 inhibition. Inhibition of JAK and HSP90 caused higher induction of apoptosis, despite prior acquired resistance to HSP90i.
CONCLUSIONS: Acquired resistance to HSP90i in TNBC cells is associated with an upregulated JAK-STAT signalling pathway. A combined inhibition of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway and HSP90 could overcome this resistance. The benefits of the combined therapy could be explored further for the development of effective targeted therapy in TNBC patients.

He Q, Zhao L, Liu X, et al.
MOV10 binding circ-DICER1 regulates the angiogenesis of glioma via miR-103a-3p/miR-382-5p mediated ZIC4 expression change.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been reported to interact with RNAs to regulate gene expression. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which involved in the angiogenesis of tumor. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the potential roles and molecular mechanisms of MOV10 and circ-DICER1 in regulating the angiogenesis of glioma-exposed endothelial cells (GECs).
METHODS: The expressions of circ-DICER1, miR-103a-3p and miR-382-5p were detected by real-time PCR. The expressions of MOV10, ZIC4, Hsp90 and PI3K/Akt were detected by real-time PCR or western blot. The binding ability of circ-SHKBP1 and miR-544a / miR-379, ZIC4 and miR-544a / miR-379 were analyzed with Dual-Luciferase Reporter System or RIP experiment. The direct effects of ZIC4 on the Hsp90β promoter were analyzed by the ChIP experiment. The cell viability, migration and tube formation in vitro were detected by CCK-8, Transwell assay and Matrigel tube formation assay. The angiogenesis in vivo was evaluated by Matrigel plug assay. Student's t-test (two tailed) was used for comparisons between two groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multi-group comparisons followed by Bonferroni post-hoc analysis.
RESULTS: The expressions of RNA binding proteins MOV10, circ-DICER1, ZIC4, and Hsp90β were up-regulated in GECs, while miR103a-3p/miR-382-5p were down-regulated. MOV10 binding circ-DICER1 regulated the cell viability, migration, and tube formation of GECs. And the effects of both MOV10 and circ-DICER1 silencing were better than the effects of MOV10 or circ-DICER1 alone silencing. In addition, circ-DICER1 acts as a molecular sponge to adsorb miR-103a-3p / miR-382-5p and impair the negative regulation of miR-103a-3p / miR-382-5p on ZIC4 in GECs. Furthermore, ZIC4 up-regulates the expression of its downstream target Hsp90β, and Hsp90 promotes the cell viability, migration, and tube formation of GECs by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: MOV10 / circ-DICER1 / miR-103a-3p (miR-382-5p) / ZIC4 pathway plays a vital role in regulating the angiogenesis of glioma. Our findings not only provides novel mechanisms for the angiogenesis of glioma, but also provide potential targets for anti-angiogenesis therapies of glioma.

Zheng H, Yu J, Li W, et al.
Is co-expression of USP22 and HSP90 more effective in predicting prognosis of gastric cancer?
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(4):653-659 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22) belongs to the largest subfamily of deubiquitylases and recent studies indicate that overexpression of USP22 may promote gastric cancer progression and predict prognosis. But little is known about the interaction network of USP22 in gastric cancer. In this study, we applied bioinformatics methods and found that USP22 was correlated with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) which is now considered to be a biomarker to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Then the siRNA transfection and western blotting were used to testify the correlation of USP22 and HSP90 in gastric cancer cells. The immunohistochemistry staining of the microarrays was applied to confirm the correlation of USP22 and HSP90 expression in gastric cancer tissue and further analysis showed that co-expression of USP22 and HSP90 was related to lymph node metastasis and more effective in predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer. In summary, our data demonstrate that correlation exists between USP22 and HSP90 expressions in gastric cancer and co-expression of USP22 and HSP90 may be more effective in predicting prognosis of gastric cancer.

Toraih EA, Alrefai HG, Hussein MH, et al.
Overexpression of heat shock protein HSP90AA1 and translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane TOM34 in HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: A pilot study.
Clin Biochem. 2019; 63:10-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Identification of new molecular markers to enhance early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a need. TOM34 (34 kDa-translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) protein expression deregulation has demonstrated to be involved in the growth of many cancers. Here, we aimed at evaluating serum TOM34 and some heat shock proteins (HSPA4, HSPA1B, and HSP90AA1) expressions in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and HCV-induced HCC relative to controls and correlating these expressions to the clinicopathological data.
METHODS: Serum specimens were collected from 90 patients with HCV associated complications (30 cirrhotic, 30 early HCC and 30 late HCC) and 60 controls. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for relative quantification of the four target genes using the Livak method. In silico network analysis was also executed to explore the contribution of the genes in liver cancer.
RESULTS: The serum TOM34 and HSP90AA1 transcripts were significantly upregulated in HCC patients compared to cirrhotic ones with more up-regulation in late HCC patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the optimum cutoff value of 0.625 corresponding to 71.7% sensitivity and 56.7% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.705 to discriminate HCC from cirrhotic groups (P = .002). In multivariate analysis, ordination plot showed obvious demarcation between the study groups caused by the higher levels of TOM34 among other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: TOM34 and its partner HSP90AA1 might be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring HCV-induced HCC progression in the Egyptian population. Future large-scale validation studies are warranted.

Knighton LE, Delgado LE, Truman AW
Novel insights into molecular chaperone regulation of ribonucleotide reductase.
Curr Genet. 2019; 65(2):477-482 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 bind and fold a significant proportion of the proteome. They are responsible for the activity and stability of many disease-related proteins including those in cancer. Substantial effort has been devoted to developing a range of chaperone inhibitors for clinical use. Recent studies have identified the oncogenic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex as an interactor of chaperones. While several generations of RNR inhibitor have been developed for use in cancer patients, many of these produce severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hair loss. Development of more potent, less patient-toxic anti-RNR strategies would be highly desirable. Inhibition of chaperones and associated co-chaperone molecules in both cancer and model organisms such as budding yeast result in the destabilization of RNR subunits and a corresponding sensitization to RNR inhibitors. Going forward, this may form part of a novel strategy to target cancer cells that are resistant to standard RNR inhibitors.

Augello G, Emma MR, Cusimano A, et al.
Targeting HSP90 with the small molecule inhibitor AUY922 (luminespib) as a treatment strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(10):2613-2624 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor that responds very poorly to existing therapies, most probably due to its extraordinary inter- and intra-tumor molecular heterogeneity. The modest therapeutic response to molecular targeted agents underlines the need for new therapeutic approaches for HCC. In our study, we took advantage of well-characterized human HCC cell lines, differing in transcriptomic subtypes, DNA mutation and amplification alterations, reflecting the heterogeneity of primary HCCs, to provide a preclinical evaluation of the specific heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor AUY922 (luminespib). Indeed, HSP90 is highly expressed in different tumor types, but its role in hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed HSP90 expression in primary human HCC tissues and evaluated the antitumor effects of AUY922 in vitro as well as in vivo. HSP90 expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in cirrhotic peritumoral liver tissues. AUY922 treatment reduced the cell proliferation and viability of HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner, but did not do so for normal human primary hepatocytes. AUY922 treatment led to the upregulation of HSP70 and the simultaneous depletion of HSP90 client proteins. In addition, in a cell type-dependent manner, treatment induced either both caspase-dependent β-catenin cleavage and the upregulation of p53, or Mcl-1 expression, or NUPR1 expression, which contributed to the increased efficacy of, or resistance to, treatment. Finally, in vivo AUY922 inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model. In conclusion, HSP90 is a promising therapeutic target in HCC, and AUY922 could be a drug candidate for its treatment.

Dong L, Xue L, Zhang C, et al.
HSP90 interacts with HMGCR and promotes the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(1):524-532 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has been reported to promote the growth and inhibit apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Immunostaining of the tissue array demonstrated that HSP90 was upregulated in HCC clinical samples and was associated with clinical features. HSP90 interacted with 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate‑limiting enzyme of mevalonate pathway, in the immunoprecipitation assay and regulated its protein expression level by inhibiting protein degradation. In addition, lovastatin, an inhibitor of HMGCR, impaired the oncogenic functions of HSP90 in the cell growth, migration and colony formation assays. Taken together, this study demonstrated that HSP90 promoted the progression of HCC by positively regulating the mevalonate pathway and indicated that HSP90 may be a promising therapeutic target.

Liu K, Xu SH, Chen Z, et al.
TRPM7 overexpression enhances the cancer stem cell-like and metastatic phenotypes of lung cancer through modulation of the Hsp90α/uPA/MMP2 signaling pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1167 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Waixenicin A, a bioactive extract of soft coral Sarcothelia edmondsoni, has been shown to be anti-neoplastic. However, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and associated stemness factors are implicated in lung cancer. Here, we investigated the role of Waixenicin A on CSCs-like and metastatic lung cancer cells.
METHODS: We demonstrated and compared TRPM7 expression in the non-tumor lung tissues or bronchial epithelial 16-HBE cell line. TRPM7 was aberrantly expressed in the cancer tissues and SPCA-1, NCI-H520, SK-MES-1, A549 and 95D cell lines.
RESULTS: Increased TRPM7 expression was associated with enhanced SOX2, KLF4, and CD133, Hsp90α, uPA, and MMP2 expression in lung cancer cells. TRPM7-silencing inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), suppressed stemness markers and phenotypes, concomitantly suppressed Hsp90α/uPA/MMP2 axis. Coincidently, Waixenicin A treatment downregulated TRPM7 and oncogenic markers; Waixenicin A also attenuated the ability of lung cancer cells to form tumorspheres, in vitro. In validation, our clinicopathological analyses showed that a higher TRPM7 expression was positively correlated with the larger tumor size (p = 0.007), positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.005) and disease grade (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Through its ability to inhibit Hsp90α/uPA/MMP2 signaling and suppress TRPM7 expression, we showed that Waixenicin A is a potential anticancer therapeutic agent for treating malignant lung cancer.

Yang J, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, et al.
ZIP4 Promotes Muscle Wasting and Cachexia in Mice With Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumors by Stimulating RAB27B-Regulated Release of Extracellular Vesicles From Cancer Cells.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(3):722-734.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cachexia, which includes muscle wasting, is a frequent complication of pancreatic cancer. There are no therapies that reduce cachexia and increase patient survival, so it is important to learn more about its mechanisms. The zinc transporter ZIP4 promotes growth and metastasis of pancreatic tumors. We investigated its effects on muscle catabolism via extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38 MAPK).
METHODS: We studied nude mice with orthotopic tumors grown from human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and BxPC-3); tumors were removed 8 days after cell injection and analyzed by histology. Mouse survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves. ZIP4 was knocked down in AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with small hairpin RNAs; cells with empty vectors were used as controls. Muscle tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Conditioned media from cell lines and 3-dimensional spheroid/organoid cultures of cancer cells were applied to C2C12 myotubes. The myotubes and the media were analyzed by immunoblots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence microscopy. EVs were isolated from conditioned media and analyzed by immunoblots.
RESULTS: Mice with orthotopic tumors grown from pancreatic cancer cells with knockdown of ZIP4 survived longer and lost less body weight and muscle mass than mice with control tumors. Conditioned media from cancer cells activated p38 MAPK, induced expression of F-box protein 32 and UBR2 in C2C12 myotubes, and also led to loss of myofibrillar protein myosin heavy chain and myotube thinning. Knockdown of ZIP4 in cancer cells reduced these effects. ZIP4 knockdown also reduced pancreatic cancer cell release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP90, which are associated with EVs, by decreasing CREB-regulated expression of RAB27B.
CONCLUSIONS: ZIP4 promotes growth of orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice and loss of muscle mass by activating CREB-regulated expression of RAB27B, required for release of EVs from pancreatic cancer cells. These EVs activate p38 MAPK and induce expression of F-box protein 32 and UBR2 in myotubes, leading to loss of myofibrillar myosin heavy chain and myotube thinning. Strategies to disrupt these pathways might be developed to reduce pancreatic cancer progression and accompanying cachexia.

Sbiera S, Kendl S, Weigand I, et al.
Hsp90 inhibition in adrenocortical carcinoma: Limited drug synergism with mitotane.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2019; 480:36-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
90 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90) act as protein chaperones and play a role in modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Hsp90 inhibitors are under clinical investigation as cancer treatment. Mitotane therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has been shown to act through lipid-induced ER-stress. To explore the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors in ACC as a single agent and in combination with mitotane, we analyzed two independent gene expression data sets of adrenal tumors in silico and treated the ACC cell line model NCI-H295 with Hsp90 inhibitors BIIB021 (B) and CCT18159 (C) alone and in combination with mitotane. ER-stress markers were monitored by immunoblotting. Drug synergism was quantified using the median effect model with cell viability as read-out. Cytosolic Hsp90 isoforms AA1 and AB1 were significantly overexpressed in ACC. Viability of H295 cells was impaired by B and C as single agents with an EC

Wang H, Deng G, Ai M, et al.
Hsp90ab1 stabilizes LRP5 to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition via activating of AKT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in gastric cancer progression.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1489-1507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Hsp90ab1 is upregulated in numerous solid tumors, which is thought to induce the angiogenesis and promote cancer metastasis. However, it's actions in gastric cancer (GC) has not been exhibited. In this study, Hsp90ab1 was demonstrated to be overexpressed and correlated with the poor prognosis, proliferation and invasion of GC. Ectopic expression of Hsp90ab1 promoted the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells both in vitro in cell line models of GC and in vivo using two different xenograft mouse models, while opposite effects were observed in Hsp90ab1 silenced cells. Moreover, the underlining molecular mechanism was explored by the co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and in vitro ubiquitination assay. Namely, Hsp90ab1 exerted these functions via the interaction of LRP5 and inhibited ubiquitin-mediated degradation of LRP5, an indispensable coreceptor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, the crosstalk between Hsp90ab1 and LRP5 contributed to the upregulation of multiple mesenchymal markers, which are also targets of Wnt/β-catenin. Collectively, this study uncovers the details of the Hsp90ab1-LRP5 axis, providing novel insights into the role and mechanism of invasion and metastasis in GC.

Wilson KM, Mathews-Griner LA, Williamson T, et al.
Mutation Profiles in Glioblastoma 3D Oncospheres Modulate Drug Efficacy.
SLAS Technol. 2019; 24(1):28-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain cancer with a median survival time of approximately 15 months following treatment. Common in vitro GBM models for drug screening are adherent and do not recapitulate the features of human GBM in vivo. Here we report the genomic characterization of nine patient-derived, spheroid GBM cell lines that recapitulate human GBM characteristics in orthotopic xenograft models. Genomic sequencing revealed that the spheroid lines contain alterations in GBM driver genes such as PTEN, CDKN2A, and NF1. Two spheroid cell lines, JHH-136 and JHH-520, were utilized in a high-throughput drug screen for cell viability using a 1912-member compound library. Drug mechanisms that were cytotoxic in both cell lines were Hsp90 and proteasome inhibitors. JHH-136 was uniquely sensitive to topoisomerase 1 inhibitors, while JHH-520 was uniquely sensitive to Mek inhibitors. Drug combination screening revealed that PI3 kinase inhibitors combined with Mek or proteasome inhibitors were synergistic. However, animal studies to test these drug combinations in vivo revealed that Mek inhibition alone was superior to the combination treatments. These data show that these GBM spheroid lines are amenable to high-throughput drug screening and that this dataset may deliver promising therapeutic leads for future GBM preclinical studies.

Avolio R, Järvelin AI, Mohammed S, et al.
Protein Syndesmos is a novel RNA-binding protein that regulates primary cilia formation.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(22):12067-12086 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Syndesmos (SDOS) is a functionally poorly characterized protein that directly interacts with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) and regulates its recruitment to chromatin. We show here that SDOS interacts with another important cancer-linked protein, the chaperone TRAP1, associates with actively translating polyribosomes and represses translation. Moreover, we demonstrate that SDOS directly binds RNA in living cells. Combining individual gene expression profiling, nucleotide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), and ribosome profiling, we discover several crucial pathways regulated post-transcriptionally by SDOS. Among them, we identify a small subset of mRNAs responsible for the biogenesis of primary cilium that have been linked to developmental and degenerative diseases, known as ciliopathies, and cancer. We discover that SDOS binds and regulates the translation of several of these mRNAs, controlling cilia development.

Fukuoka N, Nakamura O, Yamagami Y, et al.
SNX-2112 Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy of Nara-H Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5177-5181 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Selective heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor SNX-2112 exhibits antitumor activity in multiple cancer cell types. Here, the antitumor activity of SNX-2112 in Nara-H cells was analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antitumor activity of SNX-2112 was assessed using a cell proliferation assay. We also examined the signalling pathways involved in SNX-2112-mediated autophagy and apoptosis of Nara-H cells by western blot and morphological analyses.
RESULTS: Cell proliferation assays demonstrated that SNX-2112 inhibited Nara-H cell growth. Western blotting revealed that SNX-2112 induced apoptosis and autophagy, inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation, and suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. Morphological analysis confirmed that SNX-2112 induced autophagy and apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: SNX-2112 induced autophagy and apoptosis of Nara-H cells by inhibiting mTOR and MAPK pathways. Our results support developing SNX-2112 to treat human soft tissue sarcomas.

Xiao X, Wang W, Li Y, et al.
HSP90AA1-mediated autophagy promotes drug resistance in osteosarcoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. Unfortunately, osteosarcoma treatments often fail due to the development of chemoresistance, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that HSP90AA1 gene is responsible for drug resistance in osteosarcoma through an autophagy-related mechanism.
METHODS: shRNAs were transfected into osteosarcoma cells for knockdown of HSP90AA1 gene. Stable HSP90AA1 overexpressing osteosarcoma cell lines were obtained by lentivirus infection. mRNA and protein expressions of HSP90AA1 in osteosarcoma cells were tested by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Autophagy of osteosarcoma cells was detected by western blot of LC3, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscope. mRFP-GFP-LC3 lentiviral transfection was also performed to detect autophagic flux. NOD/SCID mices were inoculated with MG-63 tumor cells transfected with HSP90AA1 specific shRNA. TUNEL and LC3 staining were performed to detect apoptosis and autophagy of resected tumor tissues.
RESULTS: Doxorubicin, cisplatin, and methotrexate, which are commonly used in chemotherapy, each induced HSP90AA1 upregulation in human osteosarcoma cells. Suppression of HSP90AA1 restored the sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to chemotherapy both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanism study indicated that autophagy is responsible for the chemoresistance in osteosarcoma cells. HSP90AA1 increased drug resistance by inducing autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis. Suppression of HSP90AA1 diminished autophagic protection in response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, HSP90AA1 promotes autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and inhibits apoptosis through JNK/P38 pathway.
CONCLUSION: We showed that chemotherapy agents can induce HSP90AA1 expression in osteosarcoma cells. And HSP90AA1, acting as an important regulator of autophagy, is a critical factor in the development of osteosarcoma chemoresistance both in vitro and in vivo. HSP90AA1 provides a novel therapeutic target for improving osteosarcoma treatment.

Kuai Y, Gong X, Ding L, et al.
Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein plays an aggressive role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and forms a complex with BCL6 via Hsp90.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) is a nuclear protein, which is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues. Furthermore, in various types of malignancies WTAP is overexpressed and plays a role as an oncogene. The function of WTAP in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), however, remains unclear.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was applied to evaluate the levels of WTAP expression in DLBCL tissues and normal lymphoid tissues. Overexpression and knock-down of WTAP in DLBCL cell lines, verified on mRNA and protein level served to analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines by flow cytometry. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), IP, and GST-pull down assessed the interaction of WTAP with Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) as well as determined the extend of its ubiquitinylation.
RESULTS: WTAP protein levels were consistently upregulated in DLBCL tissues. WTAP promoted DLBCL cell proliferation and improved the ability to confront apoptosis, while knockdown of WTAP in DLBCL cell lines allowed a significant higher apoptosis rate after treatment with Etoposide, an anti-tumor drug. The stable expression of WTAP was depended on Hsp90. In line, we demonstrated that WTAP could form a complex with BCL6 via Hsp90 in vivo and in vitro.
CONCLUSION: WTAP is highly expressed in DLBCL, promoting growth and anti-apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines. WTAP is a client protein of Hsp90 and can appear in a complex with BCL6 and Hsp90 in DLBCL. Down-regulation of WTAP could improve the chemotherapeutic treatments in DLBCL.

Lee J, Zhang LL, Wu W, et al.
Activation of MYC, a bona fide client of HSP90, contributes to intrinsic ibrutinib resistance in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(16):2039-2051 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has demonstrated a remarkable therapeutic effect in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, approximately one-third of patients do not respond to the drug initially. To identify the mechanisms underlying primary ibrutinib resistance in MCL, we analyzed the transcriptome changes in ibrutinib-sensitive and ibrutinib-resistant cell lines on ibrutinib treatment. We found that MYC gene signature was suppressed by ibrutinib in sensitive but not resistant cell lines. We demonstrated that MYC gene was structurally abnormal and MYC protein was overexpressed in MCL cells. Further, MYC knockdown with RNA interference inhibited cell growth in ibrutinib-sensitive as well as ibrutinib-resistant cells. We explored the possibility of inhibiting MYC through HSP90 inhibition. The chaperon protein is overexpressed in both cell lines and primary MCL cells from the patients. We demonstrated that MYC is a bona fide client of HSP90 in the context of MCL by both immunoprecipitation and chemical precipitation. Furthermore, inhibition of HSP90 using PU-H71 induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest. PU-H71 also demonstrates strong and relatively specific inhibition of the MYC transcriptional program compared with other oncogenic pathways. In a MCL patient-derived xenograft model, the HSP90 inhibitor retards tumor growth and prolongs survival. Last, we showed that PU-H71 induced apoptosis and downregulated MYC protein in MCL cells derived from patients who were clinically resistant to ibrutinib. In conclusion, MYC activity underlies intrinsic resistance to ibrutinib in MCL. As a client protein of HSP90, MYC can be inhibited via PU-H71 to overcome primary ibrutinib resistance.

Kourtis N, Lazaris C, Hockemeyer K, et al.
Oncogenic hijacking of the stress response machinery in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(8):1157-1166 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Cellular transformation is accompanied by extensive rewiring of many biological processes leading to augmented levels of distinct types of cellular stress, including proteotoxic stress. Cancer cells critically depend on stress-relief pathways for their survival. However, the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional initiation and maintenance of the oncogenic stress response remain elusive. Here, we show that the expression of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and the downstream mediators of the heat shock response is transcriptionally upregulated in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Hsf1 ablation suppresses the growth of human T-ALL and eradicates leukemia in mouse models of T-ALL, while sparing normal hematopoiesis. HSF1 drives a compact transcriptional program and among the direct HSF1 targets, specific chaperones and co-chaperones mediate its critical role in T-ALL. Notably, we demonstrate that the central T-ALL oncogene NOTCH1 hijacks the cellular stress response machinery by inducing the expression of HSF1 and its downstream effectors. The NOTCH1 signaling status controls the levels of chaperone/co-chaperone complexes and predicts the response of T-ALL patient samples to HSP90 inhibition. Our data demonstrate an integral crosstalk between mediators of oncogene and non-oncogene addiction and reveal critical nodes of the heat shock response pathway that can be targeted therapeutically.

Mellatyar H, Talaei S, Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi Y, et al.
17-DMAG-loaded nanofibrous scaffold for effective growth inhibition of lung cancer cells through targeting HSP90 gene expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:1026-1032 [PubMed] Related Publications
Up-regulation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) gene takes place in lung cancer cells. Therefore, targeting HSP90 in lung cancer may be promising step in lung cancer therapy. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of implantable 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-DMAG)-loaded Poly(caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) nanofibers to increase the anti-cancer effects via inhibition of HSP90 expression and telomerase activity. For this purpose, 17-DMAG-loaded PCL/PEG nanofibers were successfully fabricated via electrospinning and characterized using FE-SEM and FTIR. Colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine the drug cytotoxicity. Also, the expression levels of HSP90 mRNA in the A549 cells treated with the nanofibers were assessed using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The effect of free 17-DMAG and 17-DMAG-loaded PCL/PEG nanofiber treatment on telomerase activity was monitored by TRAP assay. MTT assay confirmed that loading of 17-DMAG into PCL/PEG nanofiber enhanced dramatically cytotoxicity in the lung cancer cells. This finding was associated with reduction of HSP90 mRNA expression and telomerase activity in the cells seeded on 17-DMAG-loaded PCL/PEG nanofibers in relative to free 17-DMAG. In conclusion, the findings demonstrated that 17-DMAG-loaded PCL/PEG nanofibers are more effectual than free 17-DMAG against A549 lung cancer cells via modulation of Hsp90 expression and inhibition of telomerase activity. Hence, the implantable 17-DMAG-loaded nanofibrous scaffolds might be an excellent tool for efficiently killing of the lung residual cancer cells and avoid the local cancer recurrence.

Martano M, Stiuso P, Facchiano A, et al.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a tumor grade‑associated marker of oral cancer, is directly downregulated by polydatin: A pilot study.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1435-1442 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most aggressive and deadliest tumors worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a nuclear transcription factor known as a dioxin receptor and mediates the toxic effects of industrial contaminants. In addition, AHR has been implicated in multiple cellular processes and its expression has been shown to play a critical role in tumorigenesis, including human oral cancer cell lines. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of AHR/HSP-90 in 25 formalin‑fixed, paraffin-embedded human oral cancer specimens by IHC analysis. CYP1A1 expression was regarded as an AHR reporter gene. The data indicated a complete correlation between AHR expression and cancer grade enabling us to propose AHR as a prognostic marker of oral cancer. Moreover, in OSCC cell line CAL27, we observed the modulatory effect of polydatin, a widespread natural substance and direct precursor of resveratrol, on AHR expression. A computational approach was performed to predict the site of interaction of polydatin on the AHR surface. Our studies confirm the involvement of AHR signaling in the clinicopathological specimens of oral cancer and suggest the use of polydatin for oral cancer prevention.

Wang T, Zhang J, Wang S, et al.
The exon 19-deleted EGFR undergoes ubiquitylation-mediated endocytic degradation via dynamin activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is closely implicated in cancer, and sequencing analyses have revealed a high mutation rate of EGFR in lung cancer. Recent advances have provided novel insights into the endocytic regulation of wild-type EGFR, but that of mutated EGFR remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to investigate the endocytic degradation of a frequently occurred exon 19-deleted mutant in lung cancer.
METHODS: The EGF-induced endocytic degradation of EGFR was examined in a panel of lung cancer cells using immunoblotting. The subcellular distribution of internalized EGFR was investigated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The effects of dynamin were assessed using its small molecule inhibitors, while the influence of RTN3 was tested using shRNA-mediated knockdown. Finally the ubiquitylation status of EGFR mutant was studied using immunoprecipitation under steady state and tyrosine kinase inhibitor-treated conditions.
RESULTS: EGF induced various rates of EGFR endocytic degradation in lung cancer cells. Interestingly, the exon 19 deletion mutant is constantly internalized and sorted to lysosome for degradation, and this process is independent of dynamin activity. EGF stimulation and HSP90 inhibition further enhance the endocytic degradation of the exon 19 deletion mutant, in a dynamin activity-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Albeit with different modes of internalization, the uptake of the exon 19-deleted EGFR is mediated through receptor ubiquitylation.
CONCLUSIONS: The internalized EGFR mutant is constantly routed through endosome to lysosome for degradation. The endocytosis of EGFR mutant occurs through both dynamin activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our findings gain novel insights into the endocytic regulation of mutated EGFR and may have potential clinical implications.

Hao J, Jin Z, Zhu H, et al.
Antiestrogenic Activity of the Xi-Huang Formula for Breast Cancer by Targeting the Estrogen Receptor α.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 47(6):2199-2215 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Xi-Huang (XH) formula has been used for breast cancer treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) since 1740. In this study, we show that, XH extract could suppress the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and that it preferentially inhibits cell growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells. Presently, little is known about the potential mechanism of XH and our studies aim to elucidate its mechanism in breast cancer treatment.
METHODS: Network-based systems biology and molecular docking analyses were performed to predict explicit targets of XH and active ingredients in XH. The effects of XH on cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis in different breast cancer cell lines were analyzed in vitro. A model of transplanted tumors on nude mice was used to study the anticancer effect in vivo. Various techniques, including western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical were utilized to assess the expression of targets of XH in vitro and in vivo. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to study the gene targets of XH. Furthermore, we analyzed of protein-ligand binding reactions by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).
RESULTS: Using network-based systems biology and molecular docking analyses, we predicted that the major targets of XH were ERα and HSP90. Moreover, we found that, XH mediated its anti-cancer effects by promoting the disassociation of ERα and HSP90, resulting in the degradation of ERα and blockade of transport of ERα to the nucleus. XH also caused the dissociation of ERα and other oncoproteins via binding to HSP90. Some of the active ingredients in XH share a common cyclopentane hydrogen skeleton and were predicted to target ERα based on the structural similarity.
CONCLUSIONS: XH, which has been used since 1740, has antiestrogenic effects in breast cancer via the targeting of ERα.

Chaiswing L, Weiss HL, Jayswal RD, et al.
Profiles of Radioresistance Mechanisms in Prostate Cancer.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2018; 23(1-2):39-67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, cancer cells often develop resistance to radiation through unknown mechanisms and pose an intractable challenge. Radiation resistance is highly unpredictable, rendering the treatment less effective in many patients and frequently causing metastasis and cancer recurrence. Understanding the molecular events that cause radioresistance in PCa will enable us to develop adjuvant treatments for enhancing the efficacy of RT. Radioresistant PCa depends on the elevated DNA repair system and the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to proliferate, self-renew, and scavenge anti-cancer regimens, whereas the elevated heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enable radioresistant PCa cells to metastasize after exposure to radiation. The up-regulation of the DNA repairing system, ROS, HSP90, and EMT effectors has been studied extensively, but not targeted by adjuvant therapy of radioresistant PCa. Here, we emphasize the effects of ionizing radiation and the mechanisms driving the emergence of radioresistant PCa. We also address the markers of radioresistance, the gene signatures for the predictive response to radiotherapy, and novel therapeutic platforms for targeting radioresistant PCa. This review provides significant insights into enhancing the current knowledge and the understanding toward optimization of these markers for the treatment of radioresistant PCa.

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