Gene Summary

Gene:HOXC10; homeobox C10
Aliases: HOX3I
Summary:This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, which are located on different chromosomes and consist of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXC genes located in a cluster on chromosome 12. The protein level is controlled during cell differentiation and proliferation, which may indicate this protein has a role in origin activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein Hox-C10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerHOXC10 Silencing in ER positive Breast Cancer Epigenetics

Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are use in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, but tumors often develop resistance to these. Pathiraja et al (2014) identified ways in which cancer cells develop this resistance by 'epigenic reprogramming' - using the mechanisms for ‘switching off ‘ genes seen in normal cells as they differentiate and take on specialist functions. The NIH-funded study found methylation of DNA (in a 'CpG shore' which overlapped with a ER binding site) resulting in reduced expression of the HOXC10 gene in breast cancer cell lines. Even when ER signaling was blocked in cell lines and tumors this only resulted in short-term HOXC10 expression and the cells went on to increas DNA methylation and silencing of HOXC10. The study linked reduced HOXC10 with decreased apoptosis and caused antiestrogen resistance. An analysis of paired primary and metastatic breast cancer specimens showed HOXC10 was reduced in tumors that recurred during AI treatment.

Drawing on this study and previous work the authors propose a model in which estrogen represses apoptotic and growth-inhibitory genes such as HOXC10, contributing to tumor survival. AI treatments induce these genes to cause short-term apoptosis and clinical benefit, but long-term AI treatment results in permanent repression of these genes via methylation resulting in resistance. Therefore the authors propose future investigation of therapies aimed at inhibiting AI-induced histone and DNA methylation in order to block or slow down AI resistance.

Pathiraja TN, Nayak SR, Xi Y, et al. Epigenetic Reprogramming of HOXC10 in Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer Sci. Transl. Med. 6, 229ra41 (2014).

View Publications0

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HOXC10 (cancer-related)

Miwa T, Kanda M, Umeda S, et al.
Homeobox C10 Influences on the Malignant Phenotype of Gastric Cancer Cell Lines and its Elevated Expression Positively Correlates with Recurrence and Poor Survival.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2019; 26(5):1535-1543 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The detection of molecules and mechanisms affecting the malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells may contribute to the identification of biomarkers for metastasis and recurrence, and such molecules may serve as targets of therapy. For this purpose, in this study transcriptome analysis was performed using surgically resected specimens from patients with gastric cancer with synchronous metastasis. We identified homeobox C10 (HOXC10) as the most highly expressed gene in gastric cancer tissues compared with the adjacent noncancerous gastric mucosa.
METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis was performed to identify genes coordinately expressed with HOXC10. The effects of inhibiting HOXC10 on malignant phenotype was evaluated using HOXC10 knockout gastric cancer cell lines, and antibody array analysis was performed to assess the effect of HOXC10 knockout on intracellular signaling. We used a mouse subcutaneous xenograft model to evaluate the tumorigenicity. HOXC10 expression was determined in gastric cancer tissues acquired from 300 patients with gastric cancer.
RESULTS: PCR array analysis revealed that the levels of HOXC10 messenger RNA positively correlated with those of FGFBP1 and SOX10. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was decreased in HOXC10 knockout cells. HOXC10 knockout significantly suppressed proliferation by increasing apoptosis and reducing the migration and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Mouse xenograft models revealed that the tumorigenicity of HOXC10 knockout cells was attenuated compared with the parental cells. The relatively high expression levels of HOXC10 in gastric cancer tissues were significantly associated with hepatic and peritoneal recurrence, as well as worse prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that HOXC10 enhances the malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells. The expression levels of HOXC10 may therefore serve as a prognostic biomarker and the products of HOXC10 may provide targets of therapy.

Zhang X, Zhao B, Yan T, et al.
G-quadruplex structures at the promoter of HOXC10 regulate its expression.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018; 1861(11):1018-1028 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a member of the homeobox gene family, HOXC10 plays an important role in cell differentiation and embryonic development of mammals. Increasing evidence also suggests a regulatory role of HOXC10 in oncogenesis, but the regulation of HOXC10 gene expression is relatively understudied. In this report, we revealed that the HOXC10 promoter contains multiple G-tracts in its negative strand and has high potential of forming G-quadruplex structures. In circular dichroism studies, synthesized oligonucleotides based on the G-rich region of 241-297 base pairs upstream of the HOXC10 transcription start site showed molar ellipticity at specific wavelengths characteristic of G-quadruplex structures. Analyses of these oligonucleotides by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel-shift assay, immunostaining and replication stop assay revealed formation of multiple types of G-quadruplex structures in presence of potassium and lithium ions. In reporter assays, mutations or deletion of the G-tracts could differentially impact the expression of Gaussia luciferase downstream of the HOXC10 promoter. Additionally, CHD7, a chromatin remodeling protein with DNA helicase activity, could associate with the HOXC10 promoter and likely unwind the G-quadruplex structures to enhance its gene expression.

Yao S, He L, Zhang Y, et al.
HOXC10 promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration via regulation of the NF-κB pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(3):628-635 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox gene C10 (HOXC10), known to regulate cell differentiation and proliferation, is upregulated in gastric cancer (GC). The mechanism underlying HOXC10 involvement in GC metastasis is unclear. Herein, we found that HOXC10 is overexpressed in GC relative to normal controls. In the 73 GC patients tissue microarrays (TMA) tested, HOXC10 expression was closely related with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. HOXC10 overexpression tended to associate with low 5-year cumulative survival. Cox regression analysis identified HOXC10 as an independent prognostic factor for poor patient survival. HOXC10 promoted GC cell invasion and migration, regulated the expression of activated ATM and markers of NF-κB signaling. HOXC10 may promote invasion and migration of GC by regulating ATM/NF-κB signaling pathway. HOXC10 should be explored as a clinical marker of GC prognosis.

Li S, Zhang W, Wu C, et al.
HOXC10 promotes proliferation and invasion and induces immunosuppressive gene expression in glioma.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(12):2278-2291 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis for patients with malignant glioma is very poor and thus the identification of new potential therapeutic targets is critically important. In this work, we report a previously unknown role for the homeobox transcription factor HOXC10 in regulating immunosuppressive gene expression in glioma cell lines and their proliferative and invasive capacities. Although HOXC10 expression is dysregulated in several types of tumors, its potential function in glioma was not known. We found that HOXC10 expression was upregulated in glioma compared with normal tissue, and that HOXC10 expression positively associated with high grading of glioma. In three independent datasets (REMBRANDT glioma, The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma multiforme and GSE4412), HOXC10 upregulation was associated with short overall survival. In two glioma cell lines, HOXC10 knock-down inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and promoted apoptosis. In addition, HOXC10 knock-down suppressed the expression of genes that are involved in tumor immunosuppression, including those for transforming growth factor-β 2, PD-L2, CCL2 and TDO2. A ChIP assay showed that HOXC10 directly bound to the PD-L2 and TDO2 promoter regions. In summary, our results suggest that HOXC10 upregulation in glioma promotes an aggressive phenotype and induces immunosuppressive gene expression, supporting further investigation of the potential of HOXC10 as a therapeutic target in glioma.

Zheng J, Ge P, Liu X, et al.
MiR-136 inhibits gastric cancer-specific peritoneal metastasis by targeting HOXC10.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317706207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functions of microRNAs have been characterized in the embryologic, physiologic, and oncogenic processes, but the role of microRNAs in mediating tumor-specific organ metastasis was addressed only recently and still absent in gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis. Here, we used the microarray analysis to define the gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis-related microRNAs from highly peritoneal metastatic derivatives (GC-9811P cells) and the parental GC-9811 human gastric cancer cells. MiR-136 was found to be decreased in all peritoneal metastatic sublines when compared with that in the parental line. We further confirmed that miR-136 expression is frequently downregulated in gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis cells and tissues and its low expression is significantly associated with more peritoneal metastasis and worse prognosis. Moreover, restoring the expression of miR-136 could inhibit gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Subsequent investigation characterized HOXC10 as a direct target of miR-136. In addition, knockdown of HOXC10 reduced GC-9811P cell migration and invasion, similar to the phenotype observed with miR-136 restoration in these cells, indicating that HOXC10 functions as a metastasis promoter in gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis. Upregulation of HOXC10 in parental GC-9811 cells resulted in a dramatic reduction of in vitro migration, invasion, and in vivo peritoneal metastasis. Furthermore, our results showed that ectopic expression of HOXC10 could reverse inhibition of metastasis by overexpressed miR-136 in GC-9811P cells. Our findings provide new insights into the role of miR-136 in the gastric cancer-specific peritoneal metastasis and implicate the potential application of miR-136 in gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis therapy.

Xiong W, Zhou Q, Liu G, et al.
Homeodomain-containing gene 10 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes cell invasion and migration in osteosarcoma cell lines.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317697566 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeodomain-containing gene 10 (HOXC10) belongs to the homeobox family, which encodes a highly conserved family of transcription factors that plays an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Altered expressions of HOXC10 have been reported in several malignancies. This study was aimed to reveal the expression profile of HOXC10 in osteosarcoma and evaluated whether HOXC10 is a molecular target for cancer therapy. We found that HOXC10 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with bone cyst specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Osteosarcoma MG63 cells were infected with HOXC10 shRNA expressing vector, and 143B cells were infected with HOXC10 expressing vector. We found that reduced expression of HOXC10 markedly impaired the ability of proliferation, invasion, and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulated expression of HOXC10 promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration, and inhibited apoptosis of 143B cells. Additionally, HOXC10 regulated apoptosis and migration via modulating expression of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3, MMP-2/MMP-9, and E-cadherin in both MG63 and 143B cells and in vivo. These results indicated that HOXC10 might be a diagnostic marker for osteosarcoma and could be a potential molecular target for the therapy of osteosarcoma.

Feng X, Li T, Liu Z, et al.
HOXC10 up-regulation contributes to human thyroid cancer and indicates poor survival outcome.
Mol Biosyst. 2015; 11(11):2946-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
HOX genes have been well described as important players in development and morphogenesis, and more recently, in carcinogenesis. The role and clinical implication of homeodomain-containing gene 10 (HOXC10) in human thyroid cancer is poorly understood. Real-time PCR and bioinformatics analysis were used to detect the expression of HOXC10 in normal and human thyroid cancer samples from Shanghai General Hospital (also known as Shanghai First People's Hospital) and the TCGA dataset. The survival time of patients with human thyroid cancer was also detected. Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK8) analysis was used to detect cell proliferation, and the cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Migration and invasion were detected by transwell analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to explore the correlation of HOXC10 with signaling pathways. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of signaling pathway related genes in human thyroid cancer cells. HOXC10 expression in Shanghai General Hospital and the TCGA dataset revealed a significant increase in human thyroid cancer tissues and its expression was positively correlated with the advanced age, poor pathologic stage, and poor prognosis. HOXC10 knockdown by shRNA conferred cell cycle blocking and inhibition of migration and invasion. GSEA in the TCGA datasets revealed that HOXC10 expression was positively correlated with cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathways. Our data suggest that inhibition of HOXC10 may be a therapeutic strategy for human thyroid cancer treatment. This study investigates the role and clinical implication of HOXC10 in human thyroid cancer.

Pathiraja TN, Nayak SR, Xi Y, et al.
Epigenetic reprogramming of HOXC10 in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(229):229ra41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is a major clinical problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. In two breast cancer cell line models of AI resistance, we identified widespread DNA hyper- and hypomethylation, with enrichment for promoter hypermethylation of developmental genes. For the homeobox gene HOXC10, methylation occurred in a CpG shore, which overlapped with a functional ER binding site, causing repression of HOXC10 expression. Although short-term blockade of ER signaling caused relief of HOXC10 repression in both cell lines and breast tumors, it also resulted in concurrent recruitment of EZH2 and increased H3K27me3, ultimately transitioning to increased DNA methylation and silencing of HOXC10. Reduced HOXC10 in vitro and in xenografts resulted in decreased apoptosis and caused antiestrogen resistance. Supporting this, we used paired primary and metastatic breast cancer specimens to show that HOXC10 was reduced in tumors that recurred during AI treatment. We propose a model in which estrogen represses apoptotic and growth-inhibitory genes such as HOXC10, contributing to tumor survival, whereas AIs induce these genes to cause apoptosis and therapeutic benefit, but long-term AI treatment results in permanent repression of these genes via methylation and confers resistance. Therapies aimed at inhibiting AI-induced histone and DNA methylation may be beneficial in blocking or delaying AI resistance.

Marcinkiewicz KM, Gudas LJ
Altered histone mark deposition and DNA methylation at homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(10):1405-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently reported a role of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and PRC2 trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the regulation of homeobox (HOX) (Marcinkiewicz and Gudas, 2013, Exp Cell Res) gene transcript levels in human oral keratinocytes (OKF6-TERT1R) and tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Here, we assessed both the levels of various histone modifications at a subset of homeobox genes and genome wide DNA methylation patterns in OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells by using ERRBS (enhanced reduced representation bisulfite sequencing). We detected the H3K9me3 mark at HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 at levels higher in OKF6-TERT1R than in SCC-9 cells; at IRX1 and SIX2 the H3K9me3 levels were conversely higher in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R. The H3K79me3 mark was detectable only at IRX1 in OKF6-TERT1R and at IRX4 in SCC-9 cells. The levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks correlate with the transcript levels of the assessed homeobox genes in both OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9. We detected generally lower CpG methylation levels on DNA in SCC-9 cells at annotated genomic regions which were differentially methylated between OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells; however, some genomic regions, including the HOX gene clusters, showed DNA methylation at higher levels in SCC-9 than OKF6-TERT1R. Thus, both altered histone modification patterns and changes in DNA methylation are associated with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression in human oral cavity SCC cells, and this dysregulation potentially plays a role in the neoplastic phenotype of oral keratinocytes.

Marcinkiewicz KM, Gudas LJ
Altered epigenetic regulation of homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 320(1):128-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To gain insight into oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, we performed deep sequencing (RNAseq) of non-tumorigenic human OKF6-TERT1R and tumorigenic SCC-9 cells. Numerous homeobox genes are differentially expressed between OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells. Data from Oncomine, a cancer microarray database, also show that homeobox (HOX) genes are dysregulated in oral SCC patients. The activity of Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC), which causes epigenetic modifications, and retinoic acid (RA) signaling can control HOX gene transcription. HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcripts are higher in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells; using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) we detected PRC2 protein SUZ12 and the epigenetic H3K27me3 mark on histone H3 at these genes in OKF6-TERT1R, but not in SCC-9 cells. In contrast, IRX1, IRX4, SIX2 and TSHZ3 transcripts are lower in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells. We detected SUZ12 and the H3K27me3 mark at these genes in SCC-9, but not in OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 depletion increased HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcript levels and decreased the proliferation of OKF6-TERT1R cells. Transcriptional responses to RA are attenuated in SCC-9 versus OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 and H3K27me3 levels were not altered by RA at these HOX genes in SCC-9 and OKF6-TERT1R cells. We conclude that altered activity of PRC2 is associated with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression in human SCC cells, and that this dysregulation potentially plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of oral keratinocytes.

Ansari KI, Hussain I, Kasiri S, Mandal SS
HOXC10 is overexpressed in breast cancer and transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via involvement of histone methylases MLL3 and MLL4.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2012; 48(1):61-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
HOXC10 is a critical player in the development of spinal cord, formation of neurons, and associated with human leukemia. We found that HOXC10 is overexpressed in breast cancer and transcriptionally regulated by estrogen (17β-estradiol, E(2)). The HOXC10 promoter contains several estrogen response elements (ERE1-7, half-sites). A luciferase-based reporter assay showed that ERE1 and ERE6 of HOXC10 promoter are E(2) responsive. ERα and ERβ play critical roles in E(2)-mediated activation of HOXC10. Knockdown of ERα and ERβ downregulated E(2)-induced HOXC10 expression. ERα and ERβ bind to ERE1 and ERE6 regions in an E(2)-dependent manner. Additionally, knockdown of histone methylases MLL3 and MLL4 (but not MLL1 and MLL2) diminished E(2)-induced expression of HOXC10. MLL3 and MLL4 were bound to the ERE1 and ERE6 regions of HOXC10 promoter in an E(2)-dependent manner. Overall, we demonstrated that HOXC10 is overexpressed in breast cancer, and it is an E(2)-responsive gene. Histone methylases MLL3 and MLL4, along with ERs, regulate HOXC10 gene expression in the presence of E(2).

Falaschi A, Abdurashidova G, Biamonti G
DNA replication, development and cancer: a homeotic connection?
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2010; 45(1):14-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The homeotic proteins are transcription factors, highly conserved in metazoan organisms, exerting a pivotal role in development and differentiation. They individually display a loose specificity for the DNA sequence they can bind, but operate mainly in multi-molecular associations that assure their target and function specificity. Homeotic proteins are known to play a role in the positive or negative regulation of cell proliferation. Furthermore, many homeotic proteins are actually proto-oncogenes, since different translocations involving their genes cause tumors, particularly in the hematopoietic system. A one-hybrid screen to detect proteins with affinity for the lamin B2 replication origin identified three homeotic proteins, namely HoxA13, HoxC10 and HoxC13. Recent data demonstrate that the HoxC13 oncoprotein specifically associates with replication foci and binds in vitro and in vivo to several human DNA replication origins. Moreover, Hox proteins interact with geminin, a regulator of cell cycle progression, and control the interaction of this protein with the DNA replication licensing factor Ctd1. Thus, the homeotic proteins, by participating directly in the function of DNA replication origins, may provide a direct link between the accurate regulation of DNA replication required by the morphogenetic program and the deregulation of this process typical of cancer.

Zhai Y, Kuick R, Nan B, et al.
Gene expression analysis of preinvasive and invasive cervical squamous cell carcinomas identifies HOXC10 as a key mediator of invasion.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(21):10163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
If left untreated, a subset of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of the cervix will progress to invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). To identify genes whose differential expression is linked to cervical cancer progression, we compared gene expression in microdissected squamous epithelial samples from 10 normal cervices, 7 HSILs, and 21 SCCs using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. We identified 171 distinct genes at least 1.5-fold up-regulated (and P < 0.001) in the SCCs relative to HSILs and normal cervix samples. Differential expression of a subset of these genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemical staining of cervical tissue samples. One of the genes up-regulated during progression, HOXC10, was selected for functional studies aimed at assessing its role in mediating invasive behavior of neoplastic squamous epithelial cells. Elevated HOXC10 expression was associated with increased invasiveness of human papillomavirus-immortalized keratinocytes and cervical cancer-derived cell lines in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Cervical cancer cells with high endogenous levels of HOXC10 were less invasive after short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of HOXC10 expression. Our findings support a key role for the HOXC10 homeobox protein in cervical cancer progression. Other genes with differential expression in invasive SCC versus HSIL may contribute to tumor progression or may be useful as markers for cancer diagnosis or progression risk.

Abba MC, Sun H, Hawkins KA, et al.
Breast cancer molecular signatures as determined by SAGE: correlation with lymph node status.
Mol Cancer Res. 2007; 5(9):881-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Global gene expression measured by DNA microarray platforms have been extensively used to classify breast carcinomas correlating with clinical characteristics, including outcome. We generated a breast cancer Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) high-resolution database of approximately 2.7 million tags to perform unsupervised statistical analyses to obtain the molecular classification of breast-invasive ductal carcinomas in correlation with clinicopathologic features. Unsupervised statistical analysis by means of a random forest approach identified two main clusters of breast carcinomas, which differed in their lymph node status (P=0.01); this suggested that lymph node status leads to globally distinct expression profiles. A total of 245 (55 up-modulated and 190 down-modulated) transcripts were differentially expressed between lymph node (+) and lymph node (-) primary breast tumors (fold change, >or=2; P<0.05). Various lymph node (+) up-modulated transcripts were validated in independent sets of human breast tumors by means of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We validated significant overexpression of transcripts for HOXC10 (P=0.001), TPD52L1 (P=0.007), ZFP36L1 (P=0.011), PLINP1 (P=0.013), DCTN3 (P=0.025), DEK (P=0.031), and CSNK1D (P=0.04) in lymph node (+) breast carcinomas. Moreover, the DCTN3 (P=0.022) and RHBDD2 (P=0.002) transcripts were confirmed to be overexpressed in tumors that recurred within 6 years of follow-up by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, meta-analysis was used to compare SAGE data associated with lymph node (+) status with publicly available breast cancer DNA microarray data sets. We have generated evidence indicating that the pattern of gene expression in primary breast cancers at the time of surgical removal could discriminate those tumors with lymph node metastatic involvement using SAGE to identify specific transcripts that behave as predictors of recurrence as well.

Rahmatpanah FB, Carstens S, Guo J, et al.
Differential DNA methylation patterns of small B-cell lymphoma subclasses with different clinical behavior.
Leukemia. 2006; 20(10):1855-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a group of malignancies of the immune system with variable clinical behaviors and diverse molecular features. Despite the progress made in classification of NHLs based on classical methods, molecular classifications are a work in progress. Toward this goal, we used an array-based technique called differential methylation hybridization (DMH) to study small B-cell lymphoma (SBCL) subtypes. A total of 43 genomic DMH experiments were performed. From these results, several statistical methods were used to generate a set of differentially methylated genes for further validation. Methylation of LHX2, POU3F3, HOXC10, NRP2, PRKCE, RAMP, MLLT2, NKX6.1, LRP1B and ARF4 was validated in cell lines and patient samples and demonstrated subtype-related preferential methylation patterns. For LHX2 and LRP1B, bisulfite sequencing, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and induction of gene expression following treatment with the demethylating agent, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, were confirmed. This new epigenetic information is helping to define molecular portraits of distinct subtypes of SBCL that are not recognized by current classification systems and provides valuable potential insights into the biology of these tumors.

López R, Garrido E, Vázquez G, et al.
A subgroup of HOX Abd-B gene is differentially expressed in cervical cancer.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 May-Jun; 16(3):1289-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The HOX genes are a family of transcription factors that bind to specific sequences of DNA in target genes regulating their expression. The role of HOX genes in adult cell differentiation is still obscure, but growing evidence suggests that they may play an important role in the development of cancer. In order to study the role of the HOX Abd-B genes in cervical cancer, we analyzed their expression in cervical tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RNA in situ hybridization were used to detect HOX Abd-B messenger RNA expression in nine normal cervical tissues and ten cervical carcinomas. The normal tissues were human papillomavirus (HPV) negative, whereas all invasive carcinomas included were HPV16 positive. In this study, we show that HOXA9, A10, A11, A13, B9, D11, and D13 genes are expressed in both the epithelium of normal tissues and neoplastic cells from squamous cervical carcinomas. Interestingly, the HOXC10 and D12 genes were not expressed in any cervical tissues; however, HOXB13, C9, C11, C12, C13, D9, and D10 genes were expressed only in the tumoral tissues but not in the normal cervix. Our findings suggest that the expression of HOXB13, D9, D10, and HOXC cluster (HOXC9, C11-C13) genes might be an important step involved in cervical cancer.

Rozovskaia T, Feinstein E, Mor O, et al.
Upregulation of Meis1 and HoxA9 in acute lymphocytic leukemias with the t(4 : 11) abnormality.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(7):874-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rearrangements of the human ALL-1 gene are frequently encountered in acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML). These rearrangements are mostly due to chromosome translocations and result in production of chimeric proteins composed of the N-terminal fragment of ALL-1 and the C-terminal segments of the partner proteins. The most common chromosome translocation involving ALL-1 is the t(4 : 11) associated with ALL. ALL-1 is the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax and directly activates transcription of multiple Hox genes. A preliminary DNA microarray screen indicated that the Meis1, HoxA9 and AC133 genes were overexpressed in ALLs with t(4 : 11), compared to ALLs with very similar phenotype but without the chromosomal abnormality. These genes, as well as additional five Hox genes, were subjected to comprehensive semi-quantitative or quantitative RT-PCR analysis in 57 primary ALL and AML tumors. Meis1 and HoxA9 were found expressed in 13/14 of ALLs with the t(4 : 11) and in 8/8 of AMLs with ALL-1 rearrangements. The two genes were not consistently transcribed in other types of ALL. AC133 was transcribed in 13/14 of ALLs with t(4 : 11), but in only 4/8 of AMLs with ALL-1 rearrangements. HoxA10 was expressed in most leukemias with ALL-1 alterations, but was also transcribed in PrePreB CD10(-) ALLs lacking the t(4 : 11). Expression of HoxA5, HoxA7, HoxC8 and HoxC10 did not correlate with ALL-1 rearrangements. Coexpression of Meis1 and HoxA9, overexpression of HoxA10, and overexpression or fusion of HoxA9 were previously implicated in certain acute myeloid leukemias in mice and humans. The present work suggests that upregulation of Meis1, HoxA9, and possibly HoxA10 might also play a role in pathogenesis of acute lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemias associated with ALL-1 fusions.

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