Gene Summary

Gene:HIP1; huntingtin interacting protein 1
Aliases: HIP-I, ILWEQ
Summary:The product of this gene is a membrane-associated protein that functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and protein trafficking within the cell. The encoded protein binds to the huntingtin protein in the brain; this interaction is lost in Huntington's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:huntingtin-interacting protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HIP1 (cancer-related)

Choi YL, Lira ME, Hong M, et al.
A novel fusion of TPR and ALK in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(4):563-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion is the most common mechanism for overexpression and activation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Several fusion partners of ALK have been reported, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4, TRK-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), protein tyrosine phosphatase and nonreceptor type 3, and huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1).
METHODS AND RESULTS: A 60-year-old Korean man had a lung mass which was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ALK overexpression. By using an Anchored Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay and sequencing, we found that tumor had a novel translocated promoter region (TPR)-ALK fusion. The fusion transcript was generated from an intact, in-frame fusion of TPR exon 15 and ALK exon 20 (t(1;2)(q31.1;p23)). The TPR-ALK fusion encodes a predicted protein of 1192 amino acids with a coiled-coil domain encoded by the 5'-2 of the TPR and juxtamembrane and kinase domains encoded by the 3'-end of the ALK.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel fusion gene and its protein TRP-ALK, harboring coiled-coil and kinase domains, could possess transforming potential and responses to treatment with ALK inhibitors. This case is the first report of TPR-ALK fusion transcript in clinical tumor samples and could provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidate target for patients with cancer, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

Hong M, Kim RN, Song JY, et al.
HIP1-ALK, a novel fusion protein identified in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(3):419-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The most common mechanism underlying overexpression and activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma could be attributed to the formation of a fusion protein. To date, five fusion partners of ALK have been reported, namely, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4, tropomyosin-related kinase-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1, and protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 3.
METHODS: In this article, we report a novel fusion gene huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1)-ALK, which is conjoined between the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 gene HIP1 and ALK. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect this fusion gene's transcript and protein expression, respectively. We had amplified the full-length cDNA sequence of this novel fusion gene by using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The causative genomic translocation t(2;7)(p23;q11.23) for generating this novel fusion gene was verified by using genomic sequencing.
RESULTS: The examined adenocarcinoma showed predominant acinar pattern, and ALK immunostaining was localized to the cytoplasm, with intense staining in the submembrane region. In break-apart, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for ALK, split of the 5' and 3' probe signals, and isolated 3' signals were observed. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that the tumor harbored a novel fusion transcript in which exon 21 of HIP1 was fused to exon 20 of ALK in-frame.
CONCLUSION: The novel fusion gene and its protein HIP1-ALK harboring epsin N-terminal homology, coiled-coil, juxtamembrane, and kinase domains, which could play a role in carcinogenesis, could become diagnostic and therapeutic target of the lung adenocarcinoma and deserve a further study in the future.

Fang DD, Zhang B, Gu Q, et al.
HIP1-ALK, a novel ALK fusion variant that responds to crizotinib.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(3):285-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in lung cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and to explore their responses to crizotinib.
METHODS: Screening of 99 lung cancer PDX models by the NanoString ALK fusion assay identified two ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors, including one harboring a previously known echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion and another containing an unknown ALK fusion variant. Expression array, RNA-Seq, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and direct sequencing were then conducted to confirm the rearrangements and to identify the novel fusion partner in the xenograft and/or the primary patient tumor. Finally, pharmacological studies were performed in PDX models to evaluate their responses to ALK inhibitor crizotinib.
RESULTS: Two ALK-rearranged NSCLC PDX models were identified: one carried a well-known EML4-ALK variant 3a/b and the other harbored a novel huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1)-ALK fusion gene. Exon 28 of the HIP1 gene located on chromosome 7 was fused to exon 20 of the ALK gene located on chromosome 2. Both cases were clinically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Compared with the other lung cancer PDX models, both ALK-rearranged models displayed elevated ALK mRNA expression. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy studies demonstrated that, similar to the EML4-ALK-positive model, the HIP1-ALK-containing PDX model was sensitive to treatment with crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: Discovery of HIP1 as a fusion partner of ALK in NSCLC is a novel finding. In addition, the HIP1-ALK-rearranged tumor is sensitive to treatment with crizotinib in vivo, implicating HIP1-ALKas an oncogenic driver of lung tumorigenesis. Collectively, our results indicate that HIP1-ALK-positive NSCLC may benefit from clinical applications of crizotinib.

Philips ST, Hildenbrand ZL, Oravecz-Wilson KI, et al.
Toward a therapeutic reduction of imatinib refractory myeloproliferative neoplasm-initiating cells.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(46):5379-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) such as chronic myelogenous (CML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML) are frequently induced by tyrosine kinase oncogenes. Although these MPNs are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib, patients often relapse upon withdrawal of therapy. We used a model of MPN, which is induced by co-expression of the oncoproteins HIP1/PDGFβR (H/P) and AML1/ETO from their endogenous loci, to examine the mechanisms of disease development and recurrence following imatinib withdrawal. Although the MPN displayed a full hematologic response to imatinib, 100% of the diseased mice relapsed upon drug withdrawal. MPN persistence was not due to imatinib resistance mutations in the H/P oncogene or massive gene expression changes. Within 1 week of imatinib treatment, more than 98% of gene expression changes induced by the oncogenes in isolated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) immunophenotype) normalized. Supplementation of imatinib with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or arsenic trioxide reduced MPN-initiating cell frequencies and the combination of imatinib with arsenic trioxide cured a large fraction of mice with MPNs. In contrast, no mice in the imatinib-treated control cohorts were cured. These data suggest that treatment with a combination of arsenic trioxide and imatinib can eliminate refractory MPN-initiating cells and reduce disease relapse.

Mazumdar T, Devecchio J, Agyeman A, et al.
Blocking Hedgehog survival signaling at the level of the GLI genes induces DNA damage and extensive cell death in human colon carcinoma cells.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(17):5904-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Canonical Hedgehog (HH) signaling is characterized by Smoothened (Smo)-dependent activation of the transcription factors Gli1 and Gli2, which regulate HH target genes. In human colon carcinoma cells, treatment with the Gli small-molecule inhibitor GANT61 induces extensive cell death in contrast to the Smo inhibitor cyclopamine. Here we elucidate cellular events upstream of cell death elicited by GANT61, which reveal the basis for its unique cytotoxic activity in colon carcinoma cells. Unlike cyclopamine, GANT61 induced transient cellular accumulation at G(1)-S (24 hours) and in early S-phase (32 hours), with elevated p21(Cip1), cyclin E, and cyclin A in HT29 cells. GANT61 induced DNA damage within 24 hours, with the appearance of p-ATM and p-Chk2. Pharmacologic inhibition of Gli1 and Gli2 by GANT61 or genetic inhibition by transient transfection of the Gli3 repressor (Gli3R) downregulated Gli1 and Gli2 expression and induced γH2AX, PARP cleavage, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. GANT61 induced γH2AX nuclear foci, while transient transfection of Gli3R showed expression of Gli3R and γH2AX foci within the same nuclei in HT29, SW480, and HCT116. GANT61 specifically targeted Gli1 and Gli2 substantiated by specific inhibition of (i) direct binding of Gli1 and Gli2 to the promoters of target genes HIP1 and BCL-2, (ii) Gli-luciferase activity, and (iii) transcriptional activation of BCL-2. Taken together, these findings establish that inhibition of HH signaling at the level of the GLI genes downstream of Smo is critical in the induction of DNA damage in early S-phase, leading to cell death in human colon carcinoma cells.

Jeansonne DP, Koh GY, Zhang F, et al.
Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is blocked by camptothecin in human breast and pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(5):1473-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The combination of paclitaxel (PTX) and topoisomerase I inhibitors such as camptothecin (CPT) constitutes a therapeutic strategy based on anticipated synergism. However, previous in vitro studies have generated contradictory findings for this strategy. The interaction between these drugs can be synergistic or antagonistic, depending on the cell type examined. To gain additional insight into this promising yet controversial strategy, we investigated the interaction between PTX and CPT in three different cell lines (PANC-1, MDA-MB-231 and HL-60) and explored possible underlying mechanisms of synergy or antagonism. Using a novel solubilizing natural compound, rubusoside, water-insoluble PTX and CPT were solubilized to enable the comparison of the effects of single drugs and their combination on cell viability. Intracellular drug concentrations were quantified to examine the effect of CPT on cellular uptake and accumulation of PTX. Flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR gene array analyses were used to explore the mechanisms behind the interaction between PTX and CPT. Our studies confirmed that rubusoside-solubilized PTX or CPT maintained cytotoxicity, causing significant reductions in cell viability. However, the efficacy of the combination of PTX and CPT produced varied results based on the cell line tested. CPT antagonistically reduced the cytotoxic activity of PTX in PANC-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The effect of CPT on the cytotoxicity of PTX was less pronounced in HL-60 cells, showing neither synergy nor antagonism. Analysis of apoptosis by flow cytometry revealed that upon co-treatment with CPT, apoptosis induced by PTX was attenuated in PANC-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In agreement with our cytotoxicity findings, no synergistic or antagonistic effects on apoptosis were observed in HL-60 cells. The antagonism in PANC-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells was not a result of reduced PTX uptake and accumulation because the amount of intracellular PTX was not altered upon co-treatment with CPT. Moreover, higher expression of anti-apoptosis-related transcripts (BCL2L10, CFLAR, HIP1 and TRADD) in PANC-1 cells was observed upon combination treatment over PTX treatment alone. Although exact underlying mechanisms are unknown, the suspected CPT-dependent reduction of intracellular PTX accumulation was ruled out. The findings of antagonism and increased anti-apoptotic gene transcription serve as a precaution to the design of combination drug strategies where a synergistic interaction may not exist.

Yan GR, Xu SH, Tan ZL, et al.
Global identification of miR-373-regulated genes in breast cancer by quantitative proteomics.
Proteomics. 2011; 11(5):912-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in carcinogenesis, their molecular mechanism remains largely unknown because of our limited understanding of miRNA target genes. miR-373 was found to be capable of promoting breast cancer invasion and metastasis, but only a target gene was experimentally identified on the basis of mRNA expression analysis. In this study, we used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to globally identify the genes regulated by miR-373. Totally, 3666 proteins were identified, and 335 proteins were found to be regulated by miR-373. Among the 192 proteins that were downregulated by miR-373, 27 (14.1%) were predicted to have at least one potential match site at their 3'-UTR for miR-373 seed sequence. However, miR-373 did not affect the mRNA level of the five selected candidate targets, TXNIP, TRPS1, RABEP1, GRHL2 and HIP1, suggesting that the protein expressions were regulated by miR-373 via translational inhibition instead of mRNA degradation. Luciferase and mutation assays validated that TXNIP and RABEP1 were the direct target genes of miR-373. More than 30 proteins reported to be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis were found to be regulated by miR-373 in breast cancer for the first time.

Oravecz-Wilson KI, Philips ST, Yilmaz OH, et al.
Persistence of leukemia-initiating cells in a conditional knockin model of an imatinib-responsive myeloproliferative disorder.
Cancer Cell. 2009; 16(2):137-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Despite remarkable responses to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, CML patients are rarely cured by this therapy perhaps due to imatinib refractoriness of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs). Evidence for this is limited because of poor engraftment of human CML-LICs in NOD-SCID mice and nonphysiologic expression of oncogenes in retroviral transduction mouse models. To address these challenges, we generated mice bearing conditional knockin alleles of two human oncogenes: HIP1/PDGFbetaR (H/P) and AML1-ETO (A/E). Unlike retroviral transduction, physiologic expression of H/P or A/E individually failed to induce disease, but coexpression of both H/P and A/E led to rapid onset of a fully penetrant, myeloproliferative disorder, indicating cooperativity between these two alleles. Although imatinib dramatically decreased disease burden, LICs persisted, demonstrating imatinib refractoriness of LICs.

Wang J, Yu W, Cai Y, et al.
Altered fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 stability promotes prostate cancer progression.
Neoplasia. 2008; 10(8):847-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR-4) is expressed at significant levels in almost all human prostate cancers, and expression of its ligands is ubiquitous. A common polymorphism of FGFR-4 in which arginine (Arg(388)) replaces glycine (Gly(388)) at amino acid 388 is associated with progression in human prostate cancer. We show that the FGFR-4 Arg(388) polymorphism, which is present in most prostate cancer patients, results in increased receptor stability and sustained receptor activation. In patients bearing the FGFR-4 Gly(388) variant, expression of Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1), which occurs in more than half of human prostate cancers, also results in FGFR-4 stabilization. This is associated with enhanced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Our findings indicate that increased receptor stability and sustained FGFR-4 signaling occur in most human prostate cancers due to either the presence of a common genetic polymorphism or the expression of a protein that stabilizes FGFR-4. Both of these alterations are associated with clinical progression in patients with prostate cancer. Thus, FGFR-4 signaling and receptor turnover are important potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

Graves CW, Philips ST, Bradley SV, et al.
Use of a cryptic splice site for the expression of huntingtin interacting protein 1 in select normal and neoplastic tissues.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(4):1064-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a 116-kDa endocytic protein, which is necessary for the maintenance of several tissues in vivo as its deficiency leads to degenerative adult phenotypes. HIP1 deficiency also inhibits prostate tumor progression in mice. To better understand how deficiency of HIP1 leads to such phenotypes, we analyzed tumorigenic potential in mice homozygous for a Hip1 mutant allele, designated Hip1(Delta 3-5), which is predicted to result in a frame-shifted, nonsense mutation in the NH(2) terminus of HIP1. In contrast to our previous studies using the Hip1 null allele, an inhibition of tumorigenesis was not observed as a result of the homozygosity of the nonsense Delta 3-5 allele. To further examine the contrasting results from the prior Hip1 mutant mice, we cultured tumor cells from homozygous Delta 3-5 allele-bearing mice and discovered the presence of a 110-kDa form of HIP1 in tumor cells. Upon sequencing of Hip1 DNA and message from these tumors, we determined that this 110-kDa form of HIP1 is the product of splicing of a cryptic U12-type AT-AC intron. This event results in the insertion of an AG dinucleotide between exons 2 and 6 and restoration of the reading frame. Remarkably, this mutant protein retains its capacity to bind lipids, clathrin, AP2, and epidermal growth factor receptor providing a possible explanation for why tumorigenesis was not altered after this knockout mutation. Our data show how knowledge of the transcript that is produced by a knockout allele can lead to discovery of novel types of molecular compensation at the level of splicing.

Hyun TS, Ross TS
HIP1: trafficking roles and regulation of tumorigenesis.
Trends Mol Med. 2004; 10(4):194-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
During recent years, alterations in proteins of the endocytic pathway have been associated with tumors. Disrupted regulation of the endocytic pathway is a relatively unstudied mechanism of tumorigenesis, which can concomitantly disrupt several different signaling pathways to affect growth, differentiation and survival. Several endocytic proteins have been identified, either as part of tumor-associated translocations or to have the ability to transform cells. Here, we summarize the information known about huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1), an endocytic protein with transforming properties that is involved in a cancer-causing translocation and which is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. We describe the known normal functions of HIP1 in endocytosis and receptor trafficking, the evidence for its role as an oncoprotein and how HIP1 might be altered to promote tumorigenesis.

Rao DS, Bradley SV, Kumar PD, et al.
Altered receptor trafficking in Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1-transformed cells.
Cancer Cell. 2003; 3(5):471-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The clathrin-associated protein, Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 (HIP1), is overexpressed in multiple human epithelial tumors. Here, we report that HIP1 is a novel oncoprotein that transforms cells. HIP1-transformed cells, in contrast to RasV12-transformed cells, have dysregulation of multiple receptors involved in clathrin trafficking. Examples include upregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, accumulation of transferrin and EGF in the HIP1-transformed cells was increased, and breast tumors that had EGFR expressed also had HIP1 upregulated. Thus, HIP1 overexpression promotes tumor formation and is associated with a general alteration in receptor trafficking. HIP1 is the first endocytic protein to be directly implicated in tumor formation.

Gunby RH, Cazzaniga G, Tassi E, et al.
Sensitivity to imatinib but low frequency of the TEL/PDGFRbeta fusion protein in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2003; 88(4):408-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome that has been associated with the expression of platelet-derived growth factor b receptor (PDGFRbeta) fusion proteins, namely TEL/PDGFRbeta. These fusion proteins possess a constitutive PDGFRbeta tyrosine kinase activity, leading to aberrant PDGFRbeta signaling and cellular transformation. The expression of PDGFRbeta fusions in CMML could have therapeutic relevance, as PDGFRb is inhibited by the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib. Here, we investigated the possibility of employing imatinib to treat CMML.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the effect of imatinib on TEL/PDGFRbeta transformed cells in terms of proliferation, by trypan blue exclusion and 3H-thymidine uptake, and TEL/PDGFRbeta autophosphorylation by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting. TEL/PDGFRbeta expression in mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood of 27 clinically diagnosed CMML patients was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Imatinib potently inhibited the proliferation of TEL/PDGFRbeta transformed cells (IC50=7.5 nM), and TEL/PDGFRbeta kinase activity. However, TEL/PDGFRbeta expression was detected in only 1 of 27 CMML patients (4%, confidence intervals: 0-13%). Additionally, another PDGFRbeta fusion protein, Hip1/PDGFRbeta, had a similarly low incidence in the same samples: 1 of 25 (4%, confidence intervals: 0-14%).
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although imatinib represents an attractive therapeutic agent for neoplasias associated with abnormal PDGFRbeta signaling, the low frequency of the TEL/PDGFRbeta and Hip1/PDGFRbeta fusion proteins in CMML suggests that its application to this disease maybe limited. Detection of PDGFRbeta fusion genes in individual patients is necessary in order to employ this drug rationally in CMML.

Rao DS, Hyun TS, Kumar PD, et al.
Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 is overexpressed in prostate and colon cancer and is critical for cellular survival.
J Clin Invest. 2002; 110(3):351-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a cofactor in clathrin-mediated vesicle trafficking. It was first implicated in cancer biology as part of a chromosomal translocation in leukemia. Here we report that HIP1 is expressed in prostate and colon tumor cells, but not in corresponding benign epithelia. The relationship between HIP1 expression in primary prostate cancer and clinical outcomes was evaluated with tissue microarrays. HIP1 expression was significantly associated with prostate cancer progression and metastasis. Conversely, primary prostate cancers lacking HIP1 expression consistently showed no progression after radical prostatectomy. In addition, the expression of HIP1 was elevated in prostate tumors from the transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer (TRAMP). At the molecular level, expression of a dominant negative mutant of HIP1 led to caspase-9-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that HIP1 is a cellular survival factor. Thus, HIP1 may play a role in tumorigenesis by allowing the survival of precancerous or cancerous cells. HIP1 might accomplish this via regulation of clathrin-mediated trafficking, a fundamental cellular pathway that has not previously been associated with tumorigenesis. HIP1 represents a putative prognostic factor for prostate cancer and a potential therapy target in prostate as well as colon cancers.

Kulkarni S, Heath C, Parker S, et al.
Fusion of H4/D10S170 to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta in BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative disorders with a t(5;10)(q33;q21).
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(13):3592-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have studied a patient who presented with clinical features suggestive of chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated phase. BCR-ABL transcripts were undetectable by reverse transcription-PCR, but a novel reciprocal translocation, t(5;10)(q33;q21.2), was seen by standard cytogenetic analysis. Chromosome band 5q33 contains the gene encoding the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFbetaR), the receptor tyrosine kinase that is disrupted by the t(5;7), t(5;12), and t(5;14) in myeloid disorders, resulting in the fusion of PDGFbetaR to HIP1, TEL/ETV6, and CEV14, respectively. Southern analysis with PDGFbetaR cDNA revealed novel bands in patient but not control DNA after digestion with several restriction enzymes, indicating that this gene is also targeted by the t(5;10). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of chromosome 5 indicated that a small inversion at 5q33 had taken place in addition to the interchromosomal translocation. The site of the chromosome 10 breakpoint fell within YAC 940e4. Because all PDGFbetaR fusions described thus far result in splicing to a common exon of this gene, we performed 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR on patient RNA. Several clones were isolated in which PDGFbetaR fused in frame to H4/D10S170, a previously described ubiquitously expressed gene that is fused to the ret protein tyrosine kinase to form the PTC-1 oncogene in approximately 20% of papillary thyroid carcinomas. The presence of H4-PDGFbetaR chimeric mRNA in the patient was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR; reciprocal PDGFbeta1R-H4 transcripts were not detected. We conclude that t(5;10)(q33;q21.2) is a novel translocation in BCR-ABL-negative chronic myeloid leukemia and that this abnormality results in an H4-PDGFbetaR fusion gene. This finding further strengthens the association between myeloproliferative disorders and deregulated tyrosine kinases.

Ross TS, Gilliland DG
Transforming properties of the Huntingtin interacting protein 1/ platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor fusion protein.
J Biol Chem. 1999; 274(32):22328-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously reported that the Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) gene is fused to the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFbetaR) gene in a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. We now show that HIP1/PDGFbetaR oligomerizes, is constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated, and transforms the murine hematopoietic cell line, Ba/F3, to interleukin-3-independent growth. A kinase-inactive mutant is neither tyrosine-phosphorylated nor able to transform Ba/F3 cells. Oligomerization and kinase activation required the 55-amino acid carboxyl-terminal TALIN homology region but not the leucine zipper domain. Tyrosine phosphorylation of a 130-kDa protein and STAT5 correlates with transformation in cells expressing HIP1/PDGFbetaR and related mutants. A deletion mutant fusion protein that contains only the TALIN homology region of HIP1 fused to PDGFbetaR is incapable of transforming Ba/F3 cells and does not tyrosine-phosphorylate p130 or STAT5, although it is itself constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated. We have also analyzed cells expressing Tyr --> Phe mutants of HIP1/PDGFbetaR in the known PDGFbetaR SH2 docking sites and report that none of these sites are necessary for STAT5 activation, p130 phosphorylation, or Ba/F3 transformation. The correlation of factor-independent growth of hematopoietic cells with p130 and STAT5 phosphorylation/activation in both the HIP1/PDGFbetaR Tyr --> Phe and deletion mutational variants suggests that both STAT5 and p130 are important for transformation mediated by HIP1/PDGFbetaR.

Seki N, Muramatsu M, Sugano S, et al.
Cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of HIP1R, an isolog of huntingtin interacting protein (HIP1).
J Hum Genet. 1998; 43(4):268-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder which is associated with CAG expansion in the coding region of the gene for huntingtin protein. Recently, a huntingtin interacting protein, HIP1, was isolated by the yeast two-hybrid system. Here we report the isolation of a cDNA clone for HIP1R (huntingtin interacting protein-1 related), which encodes a predicted protein product sharing a striking homology with HIP1. RT-PCR analysis showed that the messenger RNA was ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues. Based on PCR-assisted analysis of a radiation hybrid panel and fluorescence in situ hybridization, HIP1R was localized to the q24 region of chromosome 12.

Ross TS, Bernard OA, Berger R, Gilliland DG
Fusion of Huntingtin interacting protein 1 to platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFbetaR) in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with t(5;7)(q33;q11.2).
Blood. 1998; 91(12):4419-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the fusion of the Huntingtin interactin protein 1 (HIP1) gene to the platelet-derived growth factor betareceptor (PDGFbetaR) gene in a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) with a t(5;7)(q33;q11.2) translocation. Southern blot analysis of patient bone marrow cells with a PDGFbetaR gene probe demonstrated rearrangement of the PDGFbetaR gene. Anchored polymerase chain reaction using PDGFbetaR primers identified a chimeric transcript containing the HIP1 gene located at 7q11.2 fused to the PDGFbetaR gene on 5q33. HIP1 is a 116-kD protein recently cloned by yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with Huntingtin, the mutated protein in Huntington's disease. The consequence of t(5;7)(q33;q11.2) is an HIP1/PDGFbetaR fusion gene that encodes amino acids 1 to 950 of HIP1 joined in-frame to the transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains of the PDGFbetaR. The reciprocal PDGFbetaR/HIP1 transcript is not expressed. HIP1/PDGFbetaR is a 180-kD protein when expressed in the murine hematopoietic cell line, Ba/F3, and is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, HIP1/PDGFbetaR transforms the Ba/F3 cells to interleukin-3-independent growth. These data are consistent with an alternative mechanism for activation of PDGFbetaR tyrosine kinase activity by fusion with HIP1, leading to transformation of hematopoietic cells, and may implicate Huntingtin or HIP1 in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies.

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