Gene Summary

Gene:GRB2; growth factor receptor-bound protein 2
Aliases: ASH, Grb3-3, MST084, NCKAP2, MSTP084, EGFRBP-GRB2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene binds the epidermal growth factor receptor and contains one SH2 domain and two SH3 domains. Its two SH3 domains direct complex formation with proline-rich regions of other proteins, and its SH2 domain binds tyrosine phosphorylated sequences. This gene is similar to the Sem5 gene of C.elegans, which is involved in the signal transduction pathway. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:growth factor receptor-bound protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Down-Regulation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • AKT1
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Chromosome 17
  • Cell Line
  • Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Phosphorylation
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • ras GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Proliferation
  • GRB2 Adaptor Protein
  • 3T3 Cells
  • Mutation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
  • Transfection
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Protein Binding
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GRB2 (cancer-related)

Zhao YG, Shi BY, Qian YY, et al.
Dynamic expression changes between non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Tumori. 2014 Nov-Dec; 100(6):e273-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Despite elaborate characterization of the risk factors, bladder cancer is still a major epidemiological problem whose incidence continues to rise each year. We aim to investigate the dynamic expression changes between non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE13507 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and the R package was used to identify gene expression signatures (GESs) between NMIBC and MIBC. Gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed for GES function analysis. We used miRTarBase and TargetScan to identify the differentially regulated microRNAs, and TfactS to identify transcription factors between NMIBC and MIBC. Bionet was used to identify the differentially expressed subnetwork.
RESULTS: A total of 802 upregulated NMIBC GESs and 668 downregulated MIBC GESs were identified. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the MIBC GESs were majorly involved in cell cycle and inflammatory response. miR-29c and miR-9 were regarded as key microRNAs in MIBC. SMAD3 in MIBC and SMAD5 and SMAD7 in NMIBC were potential activated transcription factors. In addition, a subnetwork that was considered to capture the differences between MIBC and NMIBC was identified, of which GRB2 and UBC were the hub nodes.
CONCLUSIONS: Some key microRNAs, activated transcription factors and hub nodes have been identified in this study, which may be used as potential biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis, treatment and detection of bladder cancer at different stages.

Mukhopadhyay B, Schuebel K, Mukhopadhyay P, et al.
Cannabinoid receptor 1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma initiation and progression through multiple mechanisms.
Hepatology. 2015; 61(5):1615-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high mortality and no adequate treatment. Endocannabinoids interact with hepatic cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) to promote hepatocyte proliferation in liver regeneration by inducing cell cycle proteins involved in mitotic progression, including Forkhead Box M1. Because this protein is highly expressed in HCC and contributes to its genesis and progression, we analyzed the involvement of the endocannabinoid/CB1R system in murine and human HCC. Postnatal diethylnitrosamine treatment induced HCC within 8 months in wild-type mice but fewer and smaller tumors in CB1R(-/-) mice or in wild-type mice treated with the peripheral CB1R antagonist JD5037, as monitored in vivo by serial magnetic resonance imaging. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed CB1R-dependent, tumor-induced up-regulation of the hepatic expression of CB1R, its endogenous ligand anandamide, and a number of tumor-promoting genes, including the GRB2 interactome as well as Forkhead Box M1 and its downstream target, the tryptophan-catalyzing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and consequent induction of immunosuppressive T-regulatory cells in tumor tissue promote immune tolerance.
CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid/CB1R system is up-regulated in chemically induced HCC, resulting in the induction of various tumor-promoting genes, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; and attenuation of these changes by blockade or genetic ablation of CB1R suppresses the growth of HCC and highlights the therapeutic potential of peripheral CB1R blockade.

Huang C, Sheng Y, Jia J, Chen L
Identification of melanoma biomarkers based on network modules by integrating the human signaling network with microarrays.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014; 10 Suppl:C114-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death. Thus, accurate prognostic biomarkers that will assist rational treatment planning need to be identified.
METHODS: Microarray analysis of melanoma and normal tissue samples was performed to identify differentially expressed modules (DEMs) from the signaling network and ultimately detect molecular markers to support histological examination. Network motifs were extracted from the human signaling network. Then, significant expression-correlation differential modules were identified by comparing the network module expression-correlation differential scores under normal and disease conditions using the gene expression datasets. Finally, we obtained DEMs by the Wilcoxon rank test and considered the average gene expression level in these modules as the classification features for diagnosing melanoma.
RESULTS: In total, 99 functional DEMs were identified from the signaling network and gene expression profiles. The area under the curve scores for cancer module genes, melanoma module genes, and whole network modules are 92.4%, 90.44%, and 88.45%, respectively. The classification efficiency rates for nonmodule features are 71.04% and 79.38%, which correspond to the features of cancer genes and melanoma cancer genes, respectively. Finally, we acquired six significant molecular biomarkers, namely, module 10 (CALM3, Ca 2+ , PKC, PDGFRA, phospholipase-g, PIB5PA, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase), module 14 (SRC, Src homology 2 domain-containing [SHC], SAM68, GIT1, transcription factor-4, CBLB, GRB2, VAV2, LCK, YES, PTCH2, downstream of tyrosine kinase [DOK], and KIT), module 16 (ELK3, p85beta, SHC, ZFYVE9, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, CITED1, SH3KBP1, HCK, DOK, and KIT), module 45 (RB, CCND3, CCNA2, CDK4, and CDK6), module 75 (PCNA, CDK4, and CCND1), and module 114 (PSD93, NMDAR, and FYN).
CONCLUSION: We explored the gene expression profile and signaling network in a global view and identified DEMs that can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers for melanoma.

Zhong S, Ma T, Zhang X, et al.
MicroRNA expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of dysregulated microRNAs in vinorelbine-resistant breast cancer cells.
Gene. 2015; 556(2):113-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vinorelbine (NVB) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in breast cancer, especially metastatic breast cancer. However, breast cancer patients who are treated with the drug often develop resistance to it and some other drugs. Recently studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug resistance. In present study, miRNA expression profiles of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231/S and its NVB-resistant variant MDA-MB-231/NVB cells were analyzed using microarray and the results were confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to predict gene targets of the dysregulated miRNAs and to analyze their potential roles in the development of drug resistance. Here, 123 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the resistant subline compared to MDA-MB-231/S. Networks of KEGG pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) of 17 specific selected dysregulated miRNAs were constructed. The results showed that MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways and several target genes such as CCND1, GRB2 and NT5E may associate with drug resistance of breast cancer cells to NVB. In summary, this study demonstrates that altered miRNA expression pattern is involved in acquiring resistance to NVB in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. All these analysis results provided us a comprehensive view of the function of differential expression miRNAs related to drug resistance of breast cancer and may be helpful for the further study.

Meng LQ
Essential role of polymorphism of Gab1, EGFR, and EGF for the susceptibility of biliary tract cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12497-508 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelial cells lining the biliary ducts and its occurrence can be anatomically classified as within the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (extrahepatic). Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which can be called as biliary tract cancer (BTC), is the most common form of this malignancy, and its etiology is still unclear. In this study, we tried to elucidate the complicated association between receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of BTC by analyzing frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles of GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 (Gab1), endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), and endothelial growth factor (EGF) and identified potential risk of BTC for people carrying specific genotype of Gab1 and EGFR. Two hundred twenty-five and 300 patients with BTC and cholelithiasis (gallstone (GS)), respectively, and 300 controls matched by age, sex, and ethnicity with patients were recruited from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 2008 to July 2011 with informed consents. Genomic DNA of BTC group was extracted and purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using QiAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. For GS group and controls, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using genomic DNA extraction kit from Aid Lab. Target genes of RTK family were identified from National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) SNP database and Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP) database. Frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles was analyzed using HapMap Project database. All of the statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS 13.0 software. Eight loci were identified for Gab1 (4), EGFR (3), and EGF (1) as the target single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the association of gene polymorphisms and BTC. A/A genotype and A allele of rs3805246 in Gab1 and G/G genotype and G allele of rs2017000 in EGFR were significantly higher in BTC group than in GS group or controls. After controlling for BMI, age, gender, and smoking habit, patients with "A/A + G/A" had 2.154 times odds to have BTC; as for patients with "A/A" only, they still had 1.976 times odds to have BTC. In the rs2017000 of EGFR, patients with "G/G + G/A" had 1.772 times odds to have BTC, and patients with "G/G" only had 1.530 times odds to have BTC. Furthermore, patients with A/A in rs3805246 and G/G in rs2017000 simultaneously had 1.620 times chance to have BTC than people with other genotypes. This study explored the independent potential effect of EGFR signaling transduction pathway and its downstream element Gab1 and the gene-gene interaction on the disease mechanism of BTC in the perspective of genetics and molecular epidemiology.

Gao S, Bajrami I, Verrill C, et al.
Dsh homolog DVL3 mediates resistance to IGFIR inhibition by regulating IGF-RAS signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(20):5866-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drugs that inhibit insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGFI) receptor IGFIR were encouraging in early trials, but predictive biomarkers were lacking and the drugs provided insufficient benefit in unselected patients. In this study, we used genetic screening and downstream validation to identify the WNT pathway element DVL3 as a mediator of resistance to IGFIR inhibition. Sensitivity to IGFIR inhibition was enhanced specifically in vitro and in vivo by genetic or pharmacologic blockade of DVL3. In breast and prostate cancer cells, sensitization tracked with enhanced MEK-ERK activation and relied upon MEK activity and DVL3 expression. Mechanistic investigations showed that DVL3 is present in an adaptor complex that links IGFIR to RAS, which includes Shc, growth factor receptor-bound-2 (Grb2), son-of-sevenless (SOS), and the tumor suppressor DAB2. Dual DVL and DAB2 blockade synergized in activating ERKs and sensitizing cells to IGFIR inhibition, suggesting a nonredundant role for DVL3 in the Shc-Grb2-SOS complex. Clinically, tumors that responded to IGFIR inhibition contained relatively lower levels of DVL3 protein than resistant tumors, and DVL3 levels in tumors correlated inversely with progression-free survival in patients treated with IGFIR antibodies. Because IGFIR does not contain activating mutations analogous to EGFR variants associated with response to EGFR inhibitors, we suggest that IGF signaling achieves an equivalent integration at the postreceptor level through adaptor protein complexes, influencing cellular dependence on the IGF axis and identifying a patient population with potential to benefit from IGFIR inhibition.

Samaan S, Lichner Z, Ding Q, et al.
Kallikreins are involved in an miRNA network that contributes to prostate cancer progression.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(9):991-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA nucleotides that negatively regulate their target genes. They are differentially expressed in prostate cancer. Kallikreins are genes that encode serine proteases and are dysregulated in cancer. We elucidated a miRNA-kallikrein network that can be involved in prostate cancer progression. Target prediction identified 23 miRNAs that are dysregulated between high and low risk biochemical failure and are predicted to target five kallikreins linked to prostate cancer; KLK2, KLK3, KLK4, KLK14 and KLK15. We also identified 14 miRNAs that are differentially expressed between Gleason grades and are predicted to target these kallikreins. This demonstrates that kallikreins are downstream effectors through which miRNAs influence tumor progression. We show, through in-silico and experimental analysis, that miR-378/422a and its gene targets PIK3CG, GRB2, AKT3, KLK4 and KLK14 form an integrated circuit in prostate cancer. Our analysis shows that a minisatellite sequence in the kallikrein locus consists of a number of microsatellite repeats that represent predicted miRNA response elements. A number of kallikrein and non-kallikrein prostate cancer-related genes share these microsatellite repeats. We validated some of these interactions in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, we provide preliminary evidence on the presence of a miRNA-mediated cross-talk between kallikreins, including a kallikrein pseudogene.

Cao K, Shilatifard A
Inhibit globally, act locally: CDK7 inhibitors in cancer therapy.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(2):158-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are involved in temporal control of the cell cycle and transcription and play central roles in cancer development and metastasis. Recently, Kwiatkowski and colleagues identified a novel CDK7-specific inhibitor, THZ1, that hinders proliferation in cancer cell lines and dampens global transcription in T cell leukemia.

Xu Y, Zhang H, Lit LC, et al.
The kinase LMTK3 promotes invasion in breast cancer through GRB2-mediated induction of integrin β₁.
Sci Signal. 2014; 7(330):ra58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis.

Chen Y, McGee J, Chen X, et al.
Identification of druggable cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e98293 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have advanced our understanding of the driver mutations, genetic backgrounds, and key pathways activated across cancer types. Analysis of TCGA datasets have mostly focused on somatic mutations and translocations, with less emphasis placed on gene amplifications. Here we describe a bioinformatics screening strategy to identify putative cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets. We carried out GISTIC2 analysis of TCGA datasets spanning 16 cancer subtypes and identified 486 genes that were amplified in two or more datasets. The list was narrowed to 75 cancer-associated genes with potential "druggable" properties. The majority of the genes were localized to 14 amplicons spread across the genome. To identify potential cancer driver genes, we analyzed gene copy number and mRNA expression data from individual patient samples and identified 42 putative cancer driver genes linked to diverse oncogenic processes. Oncogenic activity was further validated by siRNA/shRNA knockdown and by referencing the Project Achilles datasets. The amplified genes represented a number of gene families, including epigenetic regulators, cell cycle-associated genes, DNA damage response/repair genes, metabolic regulators, and genes linked to the Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, JAK/STAT, NF-KB and MAPK signaling pathways. Among the 42 putative driver genes were known driver genes, such as EGFR, ERBB2 and PIK3CA. Wild-type KRAS was amplified in several cancer types, and KRAS-amplified cancer cell lines were most sensitive to KRAS shRNA, suggesting that KRAS amplification was an independent oncogenic event. A number of MAP kinase adapters were co-amplified with their receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the FGFR adapter FRS2 and the EGFR family adapters GRB2 and GRB7. The ubiquitin-like ligase DCUN1D1 and the histone methyltransferase NSD3 were also identified as novel putative cancer driver genes. We discuss the patient tailoring implications for existing cancer drug targets and we further discuss potential novel opportunities for drug discovery efforts.

Mraz M, Chen L, Rassenti LZ, et al.
miR-150 influences B-cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by regulating expression of GAB1 and FOXP1.
Blood. 2014; 124(1):84-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
We examined the microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and identified miR-150 as the most abundant, but with leukemia cell expression levels that varied among patients. CLL cells that expressed ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) or that used unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes, each had a median expression level of miR-150 that was significantly lower than that of ZAP-70-negative CLL cells or those that used mutated IGHV genes. In samples stratified for expression of miR-150, CLL cells with low-level miR-150 expressed relatively higher levels of forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) and GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), genes with 3' untranslated regions having evolutionary-conserved binding sites for miR-150. High-level expression of miR-150 could repress expression of these genes, which encode proteins that enhance B-cell receptor signaling, a putative CLL-growth/survival signal. Also, high-level expression of miR-150 was a significant independent predictor of longer treatment-free survival or overall survival, whereas an inverse association was observed for high-level expression of GAB1 or FOXP1 for overall survival. This study demonstrates that expression of miR-150 can influence the relative expression of GAB1 and FOXP1 and the signaling potential of the B-cell receptor, thereby possibly accounting for the noted association of expression of miR-150 and disease outcome.

Pomerleau V, Landry M, Bernier J, et al.
Met receptor-induced Grb2 or Shc signals both promote transformation of intestinal epithelial cells, albeit they are required for distinct oncogenic functions.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:240 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) contributes to the initiation and progression of intestinal-derived epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the roles of the proximal signaling molecules engaged by RTKs in different oncogenic functions of CRC remain unclear.
METHODS: Herein, the functional impact of expressing variant forms of the oncogenic Met receptor (Tpr-Met) that selectively recruit the adaptor proteins Grb2 or Shc was investigated in a model derived from normal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). An RNA interference (RNAi) approach was used to define the requirement of Grb2 or Shc in Tpr-Met-transformed IEC-6 cells. Since Grb2 and Shc couple RTKs to the activation of the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, Erk and Akt phosphorylation/activation states were monitored in transformed IEC-6 cells, and a pharmacological approach was employed to provide insights into the roles of these pathways in oncogenic processes evoked by activated Met, and downstream of Grb2 and Shc.
RESULTS: We show, for the first time, that constitutive activation of either Grb2 or Shc signals in IEC-6 cells, promotes morphological transformation associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin, as well as increased cell growth, loss of growth contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to serum deprivation and anoikis. Oncogenic activation of Met was revealed to induce morphological transformation, E-cadherin down-regulation, and protection against anoikis by mechanisms dependent on Grb2, while Shc was shown to be partly required for enhanced cell growth. The coupling of activated Met to the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, and the sustained engagement of Grb2 or Shc in IECs, was shown to trigger negative feedback, limiting the extent of activation of these pathways. Nonetheless, morphological alterations and E-cadherin down-regulation induced by the oncogenic Tpr-Met, and by Grb2 or Shc signals, were blocked by MEK, but not PI3K, inhibitors while the enhanced growth and resistance to anoikis induced by Tpr-Met were nearly abolished by co-treatment with both inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these results identify Grb2 and Shc as central signaling effectors of Met-driven progression of intestinal epithelial-derived cancers. Notably, they suggest that Grb2 may represent a promising target for the design of novel CRC therapies.

Herz HM, Hu D, Shilatifard A
Enhancer malfunction in cancer.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(6):859-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Why certain point mutations in a general transcription factor are associated with specific forms of cancer has been a major question in cancer biology. Enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that are key regulators of tissue-specific gene expression. Recent studies suggest that enhancer malfunction through point mutations in either regulatory elements or factors modulating enhancer-promoter communication could be the cause of tissue-specific cancer development. In this Perspective, we will discuss recent findings in the identification of cancer-related enhancer mutations and the role of Drosophila Trr and its human homologs, the MLL3 and MLL4/COMPASS-like complexes, as enhancer histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) monomethyltransferases functioning in enhancer-promoter communication. Recent genome-wide studies in the cataloging of somatic mutations in cancer have identified mutations in intergenic sequences encoding regulatory elements-and in MLL3 and MLL4 in both hematological malignancies and solid tumors. We propose that cancer-associated mutations in MLL3 and MLL4 exert their properties through the malfunction of Trr/MLL3/MLL4-dependent enhancers.

Ichim CV
Kinase-independent mechanisms of resistance of leukemia stem cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014; 3(4):405-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate have changed the clinical course of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the observation that these inhibitors do not target the leukemia stem cell implies that patients need to maintain lifelong therapy. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear: the question of whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors are inactive inside leukemia stem cells or whether leukemia stem cells do not require breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl signaling is currently under debate. Herein, I propose an alternative model: perhaps the leukemia stem cell requires Bcr-Abl, but is dependent on its kinase-independent functions. Kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor and Janus kinase 2 possess kinase-independent roles in regulation of gene expression; it is worth investigating whether Bcr-Abl has similar functions. Mechanistically, Bcr-Abl is able to activate the Ras, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and/or the Src-kinase Hck/Stat5 pathways in a scaffolding-dependent manner. Whereas the scaffolding activity of Bcr-Abl with Grb2 is dependent on autophosphorylation, kinases such as Hck can use Bcr-Abl as substrate, inducing phosphorylation of Y177 to enable scaffolding ability in the absence of Bcr-Abl catalytic activity. It is worth investigating whether leukemia stem cells exclusively express kinases that are able to use Bcr-Abl as substrate. A kinase-independent role for Bcr-Abl in leukemia stem cells would imply that drugs that target Bcr-Abl's scaffolding ability or its DNA-binding ability should be used in conjunction with current therapeutic regimens to increase their efficacy and eradicate the stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia.

Bhat HF, Baba RA, Adams ME, Khanday FA
Role of SNTA1 in Rac1 activation, modulation of ROS generation, and migratory potential of human breast cancer cells.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(3):706-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) has been implicated in the activation of Rac1. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been explored. Here, we show that a novel complex, involving SNTA1, P66shc, and Grb2 proteins, is involved in Rac1 activation.
METHODS: Co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to show the complex formation, while siRNAs and shRNAs were used to downregulate expression of these proteins. Various Rac1 activation assays and functional assays, such as migration assays, in vitro wound healing assays, cell proliferation assays, and ROS generation assays, were also performed.
RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in activation of Rac1 when SNTA1 and P66shc were overexpressed, whereas depletion of SNTA1 and P66shc expression effectively reduced the levels of active Rac1. The results indicated a significant displacement of Sos1 protein from Grb2 when SNTA1 and P66shc are overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines, resulting in Sos1 predominantly forming a complex with Eps8 and E3b1. In addition, the SNTA1/P66shc-mediated Rac1 activation resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and migratory potential in human breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Together, our results present a possible mechanism of Rac1 activation involving SNTA1 and emphasise its role in ROS generation, cell migration, and acquisition of malignancy.

Wills MK, Tong J, Tremblay SL, et al.
The ShcD signaling adaptor facilitates ligand-independent phosphorylation of the EGF receptor.
Mol Biol Cell. 2014; 25(6):739-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Proto-oncogenic Src homology and collagen (Shc) proteins have been considered archetypal adaptors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling. We report that in addition to its role as an EGFR-binding partner and Grb2 platform, ShcD acts noncanonically to promote phosphorylation of select EGFR residues. Unexpectedly, Y1068, Y1148, and Y1173 are subject to ShcD-induced, cell-autonomous hyperphosphorylation in the absence of external stimuli. This response is not elicited by other Shc proteins and requires the intrinsic EGFR kinase, as well as the ShcD phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. Assessments of Erk, Akt, phospholipase C 1γ, and FAK pathways reveal no apparent distal signaling targets of ShcD. Nevertheless, the capacity of cultured cells to repopulate a wounded monolayer is markedly accelerated by ShcD in an EGFR kinase-dependent manner. Furthermore, detection of overexpressed ShcD coincident with EGFR phosphorylation in human gliomas suggests a clinical application for these findings. We thus demonstrate unique and relevant synergy between ShcD and EGFR that is unprecedented among signaling adaptors.

Zhang Y, Li Z, Yang M, et al.
Identification of GRB2 and GAB1 coexpression as an unfavorable prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma by a combination of expression profile and network analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e85170 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
AIM: To screen novel markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by a combination of expression profile, interaction network analysis and clinical validation.
METHODS: HCC significant molecules which are differentially expressed or had genetic variations in HCC tissues were obtained from five existing HCC related databases (OncoDB.HCC,, dbHCCvar, EHCO and Liverome). Then, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of these molecules was constructed. Three topological features of the network ('Degree', 'Betweenness', and 'Closeness') and the k-core algorithm were used to screen candidate HCC markers which play crucial roles in tumorigenesis of HCC. Furthermore, the clinical significance of two candidate HCC markers growth factor receptor-bound 2 (GRB2) and GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 (GAB1) was validated.
RESULTS: In total, 6179 HCC significant genes and 977 HCC significant proteins were collected from existing HCC related databases. After network analysis, 331 candidate HCC markers were identified. Especially, GAB1 has the highest k-coreness suggesting its central localization in HCC related network, and the interaction between GRB2 and GAB1 has the largest edge-betweenness implying it may be biologically important to the function of HCC related network. As the results of clinical validation, the expression levels of both GRB2 and GAB1 proteins were significantly higher in HCC tissues than those in their adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. More importantly, the combined GRB2 and GAB1 protein expression was significantly associated with aggressive tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with HCC.
CONCLUSION: This study provided an integrative analysis by combining expression profile and interaction network analysis to identify a list of biologically significant HCC related markers and pathways. Further experimental validation indicated that the aberrant expression of GRB2 and GAB1 proteins may be strongly related to tumor progression and prognosis in patients with HCC. The overexpression of GRB2 in combination with upregulation of GAB1 may be an unfavorable prognostic factor for HCC.

Dunn GP, Cheung HW, Agarwalla PK, et al.
In vivo multiplexed interrogation of amplified genes identifies GAB2 as an ovarian cancer oncogene.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):1102-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
High-grade serous ovarian cancers are characterized by widespread recurrent copy number alterations. Although some regions of copy number change harbor known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, the genes targeted by the majority of amplified or deleted regions in ovarian cancer remain undefined. Here we systematically tested amplified genes for their ability to promote tumor formation using an in vivo multiplexed transformation assay. We identified the GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) as a recurrently amplified gene that potently transforms immortalized ovarian and fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells. Cancer cell lines overexpressing GAB2 require GAB2 for survival and show evidence of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation, which was required for GAB2-induced transformation. Cell lines overexpressing GAB2 were as sensitive to PI3K inhibition as cell lines harboring mutant PIK3CA. Together, these observations nominate GAB2 as an ovarian cancer oncogene, identify an alternative mechanism to activate PI3K signaling, and underscore the importance of PI3K signaling in this cancer.

Feinberg-Gorenshtein G, Guedj A, Shichrur K, et al.
MiR-192 directly binds and regulates Dicer1 expression in neuroblastoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78713 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma (NB) arises from the embryonic neural crest and is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children under 5 years of age. Reduced expression of Dicer1 has recently been shown to be in correlation with poor prognosis in NB patients. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms that could lead to the down-regulation of Dicer1 in neuroblastoma. We used computational prediction to identify potential miRs down-regulating Dicer1 in neuroblastoma. One of the miRs that were predicted to target Dicer1 was miR-192. We measured the levels of miR-192 in 43 primary tumors using real time PCR. Following the silencing of miR-192, the levels of dicer1 cell viability, cell proliferation and migration capability were analyzed. Multivariate analysis identified miR-192 as an independent prognostic marker for relapse in neuroblastoma patients (p=0.04). We were able to show through a dual luciferase assay and side-directed mutational analysis that miR-192 directly binds the 3' UTR of Dicer1 on positions 1232-1238 and 2282-2288. An increase in cell viability, proliferation and migration rates were evident in NB cells transfected with miR-192-mimic. Yet, there was a significant decrease in proliferation when NB cells were transfected with an miR-192-inhibitor We suggest that miR-192 might be a key player in NB by regulating Dicer1 expression.

Chang W, Gao X, Han Y, et al.
Gene expression profiling-derived immunohistochemistry signature with high prognostic value in colorectal carcinoma.
Gut. 2014; 63(9):1457-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gene expression profiling provides an opportunity to develop robust prognostic markers of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the markers have not been applied for clinical decision making. We aimed to develop an immunohistochemistry signature using microarray data for predicting CRC prognosis.
DESIGN: We evaluated 25 CRC gene signatures in independent microarray datasets with prognosis information and constructed a subnetwork using signatures with high concordance and repeatable prognostic values. Tumours were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of network-centric and the top overlapping molecules. Prognostic values were assessed in 682 patients from Shanghai, China (training cohort) and validated in 343 patients from Guangzhou, China (validation cohort). Median follow-up duration was 58 months. All p values are two-sided.
RESULTS: Five signatures were selected to construct a subnetwork. The expression of GRB2, PTPN11, ITGB1 and POSTN in cancer cells, each significantly associated with disease-free survival, were selected to construct an immunohistochemistry signature. Patients were dichotomised into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with an optimal risk score (1.55). Compared with low-risk patients, high-risk patients had shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) in the training (HR=6.62; 95% CI 3.70 to 11.85) and validation cohorts (HR=3.53; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.84) in multivariate Cox analyses. The signature better predicted DSS than did tumour-node-metastasis staging in both cohorts. In those who received postoperative chemotherapy, high-risk score predicted shorter DSS in the training (HR=6.35; 95% CI 3.55 to 11.36) and validation cohorts (HR=5.56; 95% CI 2.25 to 13.71).
CONCLUSIONS: Our immunohistochemistry signature may be clinically practical for personalised prediction of CRC prognosis.

Peltekova VD, Lemire M, Qazi AM, et al.
Identification of genes expressed by immune cells of the colon that are regulated by colorectal cancer-associated variants.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(10):2330-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
A locus on human chromosome 11q23 tagged by marker rs3802842 was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a genome-wide association study; this finding has been replicated in case-control studies worldwide. In order to identify biologic factors at this locus that are related to the etiopathology of CRC, we used microarray-based target selection methods, coupled to next-generation sequencing, to study 103 kb at the 11q23 locus. We genotyped 369 putative variants from 1,030 patients with CRC (cases) and 1,061 individuals without CRC (controls) from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. Two previously uncharacterized genes, COLCA1 and COLCA2, were found to be co-regulated genes that are transcribed from opposite strands. Expression levels of COLCA1 and COLCA2 transcripts correlate with rs3802842 genotypes. In colon tissues, COLCA1 co-localizes with crystalloid granules of eosinophils and granular organelles of mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells and differentiated myeloid-derived cell lines. COLCA2 is present in the cytoplasm of normal epithelial, immune and other cell lineages, as well as tumor cells. Tissue microarray analysis demonstrates the association of rs3802842 with lymphocyte density in the lamina propria (p = 0.014) and levels of COLCA1 in the lamina propria (p = 0.00016) and COLCA2 (tumor cells, p = 0.0041 and lamina propria, p = 6 × 10(-5)). In conclusion, genetic, expression and immunohistochemical data implicate COLCA1 and COLCA2 in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Histologic analyses indicate the involvement of immune pathways.

Yan ZX, Wu LL, Xue K, et al.
MicroRNA187 overexpression is related to tumor progression and determines sensitivity to bortezomib in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):880-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in tumorigenesis by regulating tumor suppressor genes and/or oncogenes. MiR187 was overexpressed in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) and associated with high Ki67 expression, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, advanced International Prognostic Index and poor prognosis of patients. In vitro, ectopic expression of miR187 in T-lymphoma cell lines accelerated tumor cell proliferation, whereas treatment with miR187 inhibitor reduced cell growth. MiR187 downregulated tumor suppressor gene disabled homolog-2 (Dab2), decreased the interaction of Dab2 with adapter protein Grb2, resulting in Ras activation, phosphorylation/activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT, and subsequent stabilization of MYC oncoprotein. MiR187-overexpressing cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents like doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and gemcitabine, but sensitive to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Bortezomib inhibited T-lymphoma cell proliferation by downregulating miR187, dephosphorylating ERK and AKT and degrading MYC. In a murine xenograft model established with subcutaneous injection of Jurkat cells, bortezomib particularly retarded the growth of miR187-overexpressing tumors, consistent with the downregulation of miR187, Ki67 and MYC expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that miR187 was related to tumor progression in PTCL-NOS through modulating Ras-mediated ERK/AKT/MYC axis. Although potentially oncogenic, miR187 indicated the sensitivity of T-lymphoma cells to bortezomib. Cooperatively targeting ERK and AKT could be a promising clinical strategy in treating MYC-driven lymphoid malignancies.

Iwaki J, Kikuchi K, Mizuguchi Y, et al.
MiR-376c down-regulation accelerates EGF-dependent migration by targeting GRB2 in the HuCCT1 human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69496 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
MicroRNA miR-376c was expressed in normal intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBEpiC), but was significantly suppressed in the HuCCT1 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) cell line. The biological significance of the down-regulation of miR-376c in HuCCT1 cells is unknown. We hypothesized that miR-376c could function as a tumor suppressor in these cells. To test this hypothesis, we sought the targets of miR-376c, and characterized the effect of its down-regulation on HuCCT1 cells. We performed proteomic analysis of miR-376c-overexpressing HuCCT1 cells to identify candidate targets of miR-376c, and validated these targets by 3'-UTR reporter assay. Transwell migration assays were performed to study the migratory response of HuCCT1 cells to miR-376c overexpression. Furthermore, microarrays were used to identify the signaling that were potentially involved in the miR-376c-modulated migration of HuCCT1. Finally, we assessed epigenetic changes within the potential promoter region of the miR-376c gene in these cells. Proteomic analysis and subsequent validation assays showed that growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) was a direct target of miR-376c. The transwell migration assay revealed that miR-376c significantly reduced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent cell migration in HuCCT1 cells. DNA microarray and subsequent pathway analysis showed that interleukin 1 beta and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were possible participants in EGF-dependent migration of HuCCT1 cells. Bisulfite sequencing showed higher methylation levels of CpG sites upstream of the miR-376c gene in HuCCT1 relative to HIBEpiC cells. Combined treatment with the DNA-demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A significantly upregulated the expression of miR-376c in HuCCT1 cells. We revealed that epigenetic repression of miR-376c accelerated EGF-dependent cell migration through its target GRB2 in HuCCT1 cells. These findings suggest that miR-376c functions as a tumor suppressor. Since metastasis is the major cause of death in ICC, microRNA manipulation could lead to the development of novel anti-cancer therapy strategies for ICC.

Frau M, Feo F, Pascale RM
Pleiotropic effects of methionine adenosyltransferases deregulation as determinants of liver cancer progression and prognosis.
J Hepatol. 2013; 59(4):830-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Downregulation of liver-specific MAT1A gene, encoding S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesizing isozymes MATI/III, and upregulation of widely expressed MAT2A, encoding MATII isozyme, known as MAT1A:MAT2A switch, occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Being inhibited by its reaction product, MATII isoform upregulation cannot compensate for MATI/III decrease. Therefore, MAT1A:MAT2A switch contributes to decrease in SAM level in rodent and human hepatocarcinogenesis. SAM administration to carcinogen-treated rats prevents hepatocarcinogenesis, whereas MAT1A-KO mice, characterized by chronic SAM deficiency, exhibit macrovesicular steatosis, mononuclear cell infiltration in periportal areas, and HCC development. This review focuses upon the pleiotropic changes, induced by MAT1A/MAT2A switch, associated with HCC development. Epigenetic control of MATs expression occurs at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In HCC cells, MAT1A/MAT2A switch is associated with global DNA hypomethylation, decrease in DNA repair, genomic instability, and signaling deregulation including c-MYC overexpression, rise in polyamine synthesis, upregulation of RAS/ERK, IKK/NF-kB, PI3K/AKT, and LKB1/AMPK axis. Furthermore, decrease in MAT1A expression and SAM levels results in increased HCC cell proliferation, cell survival, and microvascularization. All of these changes are reversed by SAM treatment in vivo or forced MAT1A overexpression or MAT2A inhibition in cultured HCC cells. In human HCC, MAT1A:MAT2A and MATI/III:MATII ratios correlate negatively with cell proliferation and genomic instability, and positively with apoptosis and global DNA methylation. This suggests that SAM decrease and MATs deregulation represent potential therapeutic targets for HCC. Finally, MATI/III:MATII ratio strongly predicts patients' survival length suggesting that MAT1A:MAT2A expression ratio is a putative prognostic marker for human HCC.

Zhang EY, Cristofanilli M, Robertson F, et al.
Genome wide proteomics of ERBB2 and EGFR and other oncogenic pathways in inflammatory breast cancer.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(6):2805-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
In this study we selected three breast cancer cell lines (SKBR3, SUM149 and SUM190) with different oncogene expression levels involved in ERBB2 and EGFR signaling pathways as a model system for the evaluation of selective integration of subsets of transcriptomic and proteomic data. We assessed the oncogene status with reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) values for ERBB2 (14.4, 400, and 300 for SUM149, SUM190, and SKBR3, respectively) and for EGFR (60.1, not detected, and 1.4 for the same 3 cell lines). We then used RNA-Seq data to identify those oncogenes with significant transcript levels in these cell lines (total 31) and interrogated the corresponding proteomics data sets for proteins with significant interaction values with these oncogenes. The number of observed interactors for each oncogene showed a significant range, e.g., 4.2% (JAK1) to 27.3% (MYC). The percentage is measured as a fraction of the total protein interactions in a given data set vs total interactors for that oncogene in STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins, version 9.0) and I2D (Interologous Interaction Database, version 1.95). This approach allowed us to focus on 4 main oncogenes, ERBB2, EGFR, MYC, and GRB2, for pathway analysis. We used bioinformatics sites GeneGo, PathwayCommons and NCI receptor signaling networks to identify pathways that contained the four main oncogenes and had good coverage in the transcriptomic and proteomic data sets as well as a significant number of oncogene interactors. The four pathways identified were ERBB signaling, EGFR1 signaling, integrin outside-in signaling, and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation. The greater dynamic range of the RNA-Seq values allowed the use of transcript ratios to correlate observed protein values with the relative levels of the ERBB2 and EGFR transcripts in each of the four pathways. This provided us with potential proteomic signatures for the SUM149 and 190 cell lines, growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (GRB7), Crk-like protein (CRKL) and Catenin delta-1 (CTNND1) for ERBB signaling; caveolin 1 (CAV1), plectin (PLEC) for EGFR signaling; filamin A (FLNA) and actinin alpha1 (ACTN1) (associated with high levels of EGFR transcript) for integrin signalings; branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1), carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CAD), nucleolin (NCL) (high levels of EGFR transcript); transferrin receptor (TFRC), metadherin (MTDH) (high levels of ERBB2 transcript) for MYC signaling; S100-A2 protein (S100A2), caveolin 1 (CAV1), Serpin B5 (SERPINB5), stratifin (SFN), PYD and CARD domain containing (PYCARD), and EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2) for PI3K signaling, p53 subpathway. Future studies of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), from which the cell lines were derived, will be used to explore the significance of these observations.

Lai WW, Hsu SC, Chueh FS, et al.
Quercetin inhibits migration and invasion of SAS human oral cancer cells through inhibition of NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 signaling pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(5):1941-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quercetin, a principal flavanoid compound in onions, has been shown to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including anticancer activities. Our earlier study showed that quercetin induced cytotoxic effects on SAS human oral cancer cells. In this study, we found that quercetin significantly reduced wound closure of SAS cells in culture plates after 12- and 24-h treatments. Results indicated that quercetin inhibited the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography. The results from western blotting also showed that quercetin reduced the protein levels of MMP-2, -7, -9 and -10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65, inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinases (PI3K), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IKBα), IKB-α/β, phosphorylated nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor kinase, alpha/beta (p-IKKα/β), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), son of sevenless homolog-1 (SOS1), growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (GRB2), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-3 (MEKK3), MEKK7, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p-ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38, p-p38, Jun proto-oncogene (c-JUN) and p-c-JUN but it did not affect Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), Protein kinase C (PKC) and rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS) in SAS cells. Confocal laser microscopy also showed that quercetin promoted the expressions of RhoA and Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase-1 (ROCK1), but inhibited the expression of NF-κB p65 in SAS cells. It is concluded from these data that inhibition of migration and invasion of SAS cells by quercetin is associated with the down-regulation of PKC and RhoA by blocking MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and NF-κB and uPA, resulting in inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 signaling.

Cilloni D, Carturan S, Bracco E, et al.
Aberrant activation of ROS1 represents a new molecular defect in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(5):520-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal disorder sharing features of myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Although rare chromosomal aberrations and point mutations are reported in CMML, the molecular defects underlying CMML are largely unknown. ROS1 encodes a tyrosine kinase that is abnormally expressed and translocated in brain and lung cancers. In this study we show that ROS1 is abnormally activated in the CD34+ compartment of approximately 70% of CMML patients resulting in the activation of the Erk/Akt pathways through the Grb2/SOS complex thus revealing a central oncogenic role for ROS1 in CMML which might represent a molecular target.

Gillis LC, Berry DM, Minden MD, et al.
Gads (Grb2-related adaptor downstream of Shc) is required for BCR-ABL-mediated lymphoid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(8):1666-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), are driven by the oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion protein. Animal modeling experiments utilizing retroviral transduction and subsequent bone marrow transplantation have demonstrated that BCR-ABL generates both myeloid and lymphoid disease in mice receiving whole bone marrow transduced with BCR-ABL. Y177 of BCR-ABL is critical to the development of myeloid disease, and phosphorylation of Y177 has been shown to induce GRB2 binding to BCR-ABL, followed by activation of the Ras and phosphoinositide 3 kinase signaling pathways. We show that the GRB2-related adapter protein, GADS, also associates with BCR-ABL, specifically through Y177 and demonstrate that BCR-ABL-driven lymphoid disease requires Gads. BCR-ABL transduction of Gads(-/-) bone marrow results in short latency myeloid disease within 3-4 weeks of transplant, while wild-type mice succumb to both a longer latency lymphoid and myeloid diseases. We report that GADS mediates a unique BCR-ABL complex with SLP-76 in BCR-ABL-positive cell lines and B-ALL patient samples. These data suggest that GADS mediates lymphoid disease downstream of BCR-ABL through the recruitment of specific signaling intermediates.

Huang JS, Egger ME, Grizzle WE, McNally LR
MicroRNA-100 regulates IGF1-receptor expression in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.
Biotech Histochem. 2013; 88(7):397-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma have the lowest 5 year survival rate and yearly rates of incidence are nearly equal to the mortality rates. Long term cure rates by standard therapies are disappointing owing to disseminated disease at diagnosis and chemotherapeutic resistance. New therapeutic targets are necessary to decrease the progression of pancreatic cancer and the ability to identify targets specific to metastasis would improve patient care. We evaluated the levels of microRNA of metastatic and non-metastatic cell lines. The expression levels of microRNAs and mRNAs were determined using microarray analysis to examine and compare five pancreatic cancer cell lines, two that can metastasize in vivo (S2VP10 and S2CP9) and three that do not metastasize (MiaPaCa2, Panc-1 and ASPC-1). MicroRNA analysis indicated an increase in miR-100 and a decrease in miR-138 expression in metastatic cancer cells. Microarray analysis of different expressions of mRNAs in metastatic and non-metastatic pancreatic cell lines also indicated significantly increased insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R) expression in metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines compared to non-metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines. To confirm microarray analysis results, western blot and immunocytochemistry were performed. Western blot revealed that IGF1-R expression exhibited in metastatic cancer cell lines a seven-fold increase compared to non-metastatic cell lines. In addition, downstream expressions of the proteins, GRB2 and phosphorylated PI3K, also were increased in aggressive cancer cell lines. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the linkage of IGF1-R to miR-100, because cells transfected with miR-100 inhibitor showed a decrease in IGF1-R. Cells transfected with a miR-138 mimic, however, did not affect IGF1-R expression.

Yin J, Cai Z, Zhang L, et al.
A recombined fusion protein PTD-Grb2-SH2 inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(3):1061-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2) is one of the affirmative targets for cancer therapy, especially for breast cancer. In this study, we hypothesized the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain in Grb2 may serve as a competitive protein-binding agent to interfere with the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro. We designed, constructed, expressed and purified a novel fusion protein containing the protein transduction domain (PTD) and Grb2-SH2 domain (we named it after PTD-Grb2-SH2). An immunofluorescence assay was used to investigate the location of PTD-Grb2-SH2 in cells. MTT assay and EdU experiments were applied to detect the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The ultra-structure was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the cytotoxicity of PTD-Grb2-SH2 on cell proliferation. We successfully obtained the PTD-Grb2-SH2 fusion protein in soluble form using a prokaryotic expression system. The new fusion protein successfully passed through both the cellular and nuclear membranes of breast cancer cells. The MTT assay showed that PTD-Grb2-SH2 exhibited significant toxicity to breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. EdU identified the decreased proliferation rates in treated MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Observation by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry further confirmed the cytotoxicity as apoptosis. Our results show that the HIV1-TAT domain is a useful tool for transporting a low molecular weight protein across the cell membrane in vitro. The PTD-Grb2-SH2 may be a novel agent for breast cancer therapy.

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