Gene Summary

Gene:FOXG1; forkhead box G1
Summary:This locus encodes a member of the forked-head transcription factor family. The encoded protein, which functions as a repressor, may play a role in brain development. Mutations at this locus have been associated with Rett syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:forkhead box protein G1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (28)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Protein Binding
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Transcription
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Brain Tumours
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Up-Regulation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 14
  • Young Adult
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Glioblastoma
  • gamma-Glutamylcyclotransferase
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • CDKN1A
  • Epigenetics
  • Viral Proteins
  • DNA Methylation
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Trans-Activators
  • Mutation
  • Brain Tumours
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cyclins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FOXG1 (cancer-related)

Lv P, Yang S, Wu F, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs342275, rs342293, rs7694379, rs11789898, and rs17824620) showed significant association with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Gene. 2019; 713:143964 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with advanced lung cancer in China. Thirty-nine patients who received lobaplatin-based chemotherapy in the 307 Hospitals of Chinese People's Liberation Army from April 2017 to March 2018 were enrolled as study subjects. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted, and 79 candidate SNP positions were selected. A Sanger sequencing platform was employed to measure genotypes for locating the SNP positions associated with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia. Of the 79 candidate genes, SNPs rs342275 and rs7694379 were significantly associated with lobaplatin-induced decrease in platelet (PLT) count (P < 0.05). SNPs rs342275, rs342293, rs11789898, and rs17824620 showed significant association with lobaplatin-induced lowest PLT counts (P < 0.05). SNPs rs342275, rs342293, rs11789898, rs17824620, and rs7694379 can be used as predictors of thrombocytopenia induced by lobaplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced lung cancer in China.

Liu L, Ma J, Qin L, et al.
Interleukin-24 enhancing antitumor activity of chimeric oncolytic adenovirus for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia cell.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(22):e15875 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a clonal disease arising by hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which characterized by inappropriate proliferation/differentiation or survival of immature myeloid progenitors. Oncolytic adenoviruses have been under widespread investigation as anticancer agents. Recently, our data suggested that tumor cells were cured by AdCN205-IL-24, an adenovirus serotype 5-based conditionally replicating adenovirus expressing IL-24 after infection.
METHODS: In this study, we created a novel fiber chimeric oncolytic adenovirus AdCN306-IL-24 that has Ad11 tropism and approved CAR (coxsackie adenovirus receptor, CAR)-independent cell entry, which could allow development of selective cytopathic effects (CPE) in APL cells in vitro.
RESULTS: Formidable cytotoxic effect was specifically implemented in APL cells after infection with AdCN306-IL-24. The expression of IL-24 was up-regulated upon treated with accepted tumors. And the vector also induced superior cytolytic effects activity in APL cells by activation of programmed cell death.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggested that chimeric oncolytic adenovirus AdCN306-IL-24 could express IL-24 gene, representing a potential therapeutics for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Qin CJ, Bu PL, Zhang Q, et al.
ZNF281 Regulates Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion in Colorectal Cancer through Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(6):1503-1516 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zinc Finger Protein 281 (ZNF281) was recently identified as a novel oncogene in several human carcinomas. However, the clinical significance of ZNF281 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the molecular mechanisms by which ZNF281 promotes the growth and metastasis of CRC remain unknown.
METHODS: ZNF281 expression in CRC tissues was assessed, and the outcomes were analyzed to determine the clinical importance of ZNF281 expression. Cell Transwell assays and a wound healing assay were performed to assess the effects of ZNF281 on CRC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Western blotting was applied to analyze the potential mechanisms.
RESULTS: ZNF281 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in CRC tissues compared with normal colon tissues, and high ZNF281 expression was associated with advanced T stage, N stage, TNM stage and differentiation. Therefore, ZNF281 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator in CRC patients. Moreover, knockdown of ZNF281 expression suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that ZNF281 plays a critical role in the progression and metastasis of CRC and could represent a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

Shi G, Lv C, Yang Z, et al.
TRIM31 promotes proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells through Akt signaling pathway.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study is intended to investigate the role of Tripartite Motif (TRIM) 31 in glioma. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that TRIM31 was overexpressed in high-grade glioma tissues. Univariate survival analysis indicated that high expression of TRIM31 was related to short survival time of glioma patients. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that TRIM31 was an independent prognostic factor for glioma patients. In addition, through the experiments on glioma cell lines, we found that after silencing or overexpressing TRIM31 expression, the proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells could be downregulated or upregulated through Akt signaling pathway. In short, our study suggests that TRIM31 may be an effective target for glioma intervention.

Hao Y, Li D, Xu Y, et al.
Investigation of lipid metabolism dysregulation and the effects on immune microenvironments in pan-cancer using multiple omics data.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(Suppl 7):195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism reprogramming is a hallmark for tumor which contributes to tumorigenesis and progression, but the commonality and difference of lipid metabolism among pan-cancer is not fully investigated. Increasing evidences suggest that the alterations in tumor metabolism, including metabolite abundance and accumulation of metabolic products, lead to local immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. An integrated analysis of lipid metabolism in cancers from different tissues using multiple omics data may provide novel insight into the understanding of tumorigenesis and progression.
RESULTS: Through systematic analysis of the multiple omics data from TCGA, we found that the most-widely altered lipid metabolism pathways in pan-cancer are fatty acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and PPAR signaling. Gene expression profiles of fatty acid metabolism show commonalities across pan-cancer, while the alteration in cholesterol metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism differ with tissue origin, suggesting tissue specific lipid metabolism features in different tumor types. An integrated analysis of gene expression, DNA methylation and mutations revealed factors that regulate gene expression, including the differentially methylated sites and mutations of the lipid genes, as well as mutation and differential expression of the up-stream transcription factors for the lipid metabolism pathways. Correlation analysis of the proportion of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and the expression of lipid metabolism genes revealed immune-related differentially expressed lipid metabolic genes, indicating the potential crosstalk between lipid metabolism and immune response. Genes related to lipid metabolism and immune response that are associated with poor prognosis were discovered including HMGCS2, GPX2 and CD36, which may provide clues for tumor biomarkers or therapeutic targets.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an integrated analysis of lipid metabolism in pan-cancer, highlights the perturbation of key metabolism processes in tumorigenesis and clarificates the regulation mechanism of abnormal lipid metabolism and effects of lipid metabolism on tumor immune microenvironment. This study also provides new clues for biomarkers or therapeutic targets of lipid metabolism in tumors.

Bu Z, Lu C, Yang X, et al.
Partial response after treatment with Conversion chemotherapy: A case report of a patient with colon cancer and unresectable hepatic metastases.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(17):e15239 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Many studies have reported radical resection for liver metastasis and the primary tumor could represent an important prognostic factor in patients affected by colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, resection of huge liver metastases from colon cancer has been seldom reported.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old man presented with huge liver metastases from colon cancer. Laboratory tests revealed elevated tumor markers and a wild-type mutation in the K-RAS gene. A computed tomography scan demonstrated unresectable liver masses with a 16.5-cm maximum diameter and intrahepatic duct dilatation due to compression by the liver metastases.
DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with stage IV descending colon carcinoma with multiple huge hepatic metastases.
INTERVENTIONS: He was administered 3 treatment courses, including 9 cycles of combined chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 plus cetuximab (mFOLFOX6 + Cet), and the liver masses reduced. After a preoperative assessment by a multidisciplinary team when the 9 cycles of systemic chemotherapy had been completed, the patient underwent hepatectomy, followed 4 months later by a laparoscopic colectomy. We used a reverse strategy (liver-first) for the patient.
OUTCOMES: In this case, liver-first treatment (systemic chemotherapy of mFOLFOX6 + Cet) was an effective treatment for unresectable CRLM. No postoperative complications occurred. The patient continued to receive postoperative chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6 + Cet) at the latest follow-up. During the 17 months of follow-up, tumor recurrence was un-noted.
LESSONS: Treating colorectal cancer patients with huge hepatic metastases is possible, and surgeons should consider various treatment options in the management of these patients.

Qin P, Wang H, Zhang F, et al.
Targeted silencing of MYCL1 by RNA interference inhibits migration and invasion of MGC-803 gastric cancer cells.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2019; 37(4):266-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYCL1 protein expression encoded by a proto-oncogene MYCL1, a member of the MYC family, is correlated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Nevertheless, the role of MYCL1 in gastric cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, the expression levels of MYCL1 mRNA and protein were downregulated by lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in the MGC-803 gastric cancer cell line. Then, the influence of MYCL1 on the biological behaviour of gastric cancer cells was investigated. Finally, a stable animal model of the MGC-803 human gastric cancer tumour model in nude mice was made successfully. Functionally, silencing of MYCL1 inhibited migration and invasion of the MGC-803 line in vitro and was accompanied with some ultrastructural changes. These results provide some evidences that lentiviral-mediated MYCL1 silencing may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumours worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in China. Our previous study revealed that expression of MYCL1 in gastric cancer tissue was associated with poor prognosis of patients. However, the potential underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the current study, we displayed the influence of MYCL1 gene on invasion and migration phenotype of gastric cancer cells and provided a possible explanation from the aspect of structural alteration. Our results suggested that downregulation of MYCL1 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

Wu G, Niu M, Qin J, et al.
Inactivation of Rab27B-dependent signaling pathway by calycosin inhibits migration and invasion of ER-negative breast cancer cells.
Gene. 2019; 709:48-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies report the upregulation of the secretory Rab27B small GTPase in human breast cancer, which could promote invasive growth and metastasis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. However, there is limited evidence for its role in ER-negative breast cancer, along with the signaling pathways. Consistent with previous studies, we here confirmed that Rab27B is upregulated in breast tumor tissue in comparison with normal breast tissue. In addition, in ER-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, when the levels of Rab27B expression were further elevated by transduction with recombinant lentivirus vector, migration and invasion assays demonstrated that cell migration and invasion was significantly stimulated. Moreover, Rab27B overexpression increased levels of β-catenin, followed by upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings reveal a key function for the Rab27B-mediated modulation of β-catenin and VEGF in ER-negative breast cancer cell metastasis. Notably, the suppressed expression of Rab27B, β-catenin and VEGF was found in calycosin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, accompanied with decreased invasive and migratory potential of these cells. What's more, these inhibitory effects of calycosin were all attenuated by Rab27B overexpression. The results demonstrated that calycosin-induced inhibition of migration and invasion in ER-negative breast cancer cells may be associated with the inactivation of Rab27B-dependent signaling, and suggest that antagonism of this pathway by calycosin may offer alternative therapeutic strategy for the aggressive breast cancer.

Zhu X, Qin M, Li C, et al.
Downregulated Expression of Chromobox Homolog 7 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(5):348-352 [PubMed] Related Publications

Zhang JX, He WL, Feng ZH, et al.
A positive feedback loop consisting of C12orf59/NF-κB/CDH11 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis remains the main cause of cancer-related death for gastric cancer (GC) patients, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data base and bioinformatics analyses, we identified C12orf59 might act as a potential oncogenic protein in GC.
METHODS: We investigate the expression pattern and clinical significance of C12orf59 in two independent cohorts of GC samples. In the training cohort, we used the X-tile program software to generate the optimal cutoff value for C12orf59 expression in order to classify patients accurately according to clinical outcome. In the validation cohort, this derived cutoff score was applied to exam the association of C12orf59 expression with survival outcome. A series of in vivo and in vitro assays were then performed to investigate the function of C12orf59 in GC.
RESULTS: C12orf59 was significantly upregulated, and associated with poor survival outcome in two cohorts of GC samples. Gain- and loss of- function studies demonstrated C12orf59 promotes GC cell invasive and metastatic capacity both in vitro and in vivo, and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Mechanically, C12orf59 exerts oncogenic functions by up-regulating CDH11 expression via NF-κB signaling. Interesting, CDH11 could in turn promote NF-κB bind to C12orf59's promoter and form a positive feedback loop to sustain the metastatic ability of GC cells. Additionally, downregulation of miR-654-5p is another important mechanism for C12orf59 overexpression in GC.
CONCLUSION: Our finding suggested the newly identified C12orf59/NF-κB/CDH11 feedback loop may represent a new strategy for GC treatment.

Mu L, Yu W, Su H, et al.
Relationship between the expressions of PD-L1 and tumour-associated fibroblasts in gastric cancer.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1036-1042 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have focused on the changes of tumour cells in immune escape, and less is known about the effect of tumour microenvironment (TME) on immune escape. Tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAF) is an important part of the TME and has special physiological and biochemical characteristics, but the specific mechanism has not been clarified. In order to investigate the effect of TAF on the expression of PD-L1 in gastric cancer cells, gastric cancer cell lines MNK45, SGC7901 were non-contact co-culturing with TAF 1, 3 and 7 d via transwell. PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression were detected using qRT-PCR and FCM. Then, 95 cases of gastric cancer tissues were selected and evaluated PD-L1 and TAF expressions by immunohistochemical examination. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression of PD-L1 in the experiment group were significantly higher than that in the control group. PD-L1 expression was associated with massive lymphocyte infiltration, diffuse/mixed histology and intratumoral TAFs in gastric cancers. In conclusion, TAFs promoted the growth in gastric cancer cell lines by increased the PD-L1 expression.

Ai L, Mu S, Sun C, et al.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells endow stem-like qualities to multiple myeloma cells by inducing piRNA-823 expression and DNMT3B activation.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are two important cellular components in the tumor microenvironment, which may modify the cancer phenotype and affect patient survival. However, the crosstalk between MDSCs and multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) are relatively poorly understood.
METHODS: The frequencies of granulocytic-MDSCs (G-MDSCs) in MM patients were detected by flow cytometry and their association with the disease stage and patient survival were analyzed. RT-PCR, flow cytometry, western blot and sphere formation assays were performed to investigate the effects of G-MDSCs, piRNA-823 and DNA methylation on the maintenance of stemness in MM. Then a subcutaneous tumor mouse model was constructed to analyze tumor growth and angiogenesis after G-MDSCs induction and/or piRNA-823 knockdown in MM cells.
RESULTS: Our clinical dataset validated the association between high G-MDSCs levels and poor overall survival in MM patients. In addition, for the first time we showed that G-MDSCs enhanced the side population, sphere formation and expression of CSCs core genes in MM cells. Moreover, the mechanism study showed that G-MDSCs triggered piRNA-823 expression, which then promoted DNA methylation and increased the tumorigenic potential of MM cells. Furthermore, silencing of piRNA-823 in MM cells reduced the stemness of MMSCs maintained by G-MDSCs, resulting in decreased tumor burden and angiogenesis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data established a cellular, molecular, and clinical network among G-MDSCs, piRNA-823, DNA methylation and CSCs core genes, suggesting a new anti-cancer strategy targeting both G-MDSCs and CSCs in MM microenvironment.

Wang X, Qin X, Yan M, et al.
Loss of exosomal miR-3188 in cancer-associated fibroblasts contributes to HNC progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common deadly diseases worldwide. An increasing number of studies have recently focused on the malignant functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in numerous cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms by which CAF-derived exosomes promote tumor progression need to be further elucidated. This study aims to determine whether the loss of specific miRNAs in CAF-derived exosomes may be involved in the malignant transformation of HNC.
METHODS: MiRNA array and real-time PCR assays were used to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in exosomes from normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs. Cell proliferation, EdU incorporation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and xenograft assays were performed to examine the effects of miR-3188 on HNC in vitro and in vivo. Real-time PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the target genes of miR-3188. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mouse models were used to prove the potential therapeutic value of miR-3188-loaded exosomes in HNC.
RESULTS: Our results showed that miR-3188 expression is reduced in exosomes and their parental CAFs from HNC tissues. In addition, miR-3188 can be transferred from fibroblasts to HNC cells by exosomes. Further exploration demonstrated that exosomal miR-3188 can influence the proliferation and apoptosis of HNC cells by directly targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, we also found that miR-3188-loaded exosomes significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that CAF-derived exosomes contain lower miR-3188 levels than NFs, and the loss of miR-3188 in exosomes contributes to the malignant phenotypes of HNC cells through the derepression of BCL2. Furthermore, these data suggest the potential therapeutic value of exosomal miR-3188 for inhibiting HNC growth.

Mok TSK, Wu YL, Kudaba I, et al.
Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for previously untreated, PD-L1-expressing, locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-042): a randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10183):1819-1830 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: First-line pembrolizumab monotherapy improves overall and progression-free survival in patients with untreated metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumour proportion score (TPS) of 50% or greater. We investigated overall survival after treatment with pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study was done in 213 medical centres in 32 countries. Eligible patients were adults (≥18 years) with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without a sensitising EGFR mutation or ALK translocation and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 0 or 1, life expectancy 3 months or longer, and a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater. Randomisation was computer generated, accessed via an interactive voice-response and integrated web-response system, and stratified by region of enrolment (east Asia vs rest of world), ECOG performance status score (0 vs 1), histology (squamous vs non-squamous), and PD-L1 TPS (≥50% vs 1-49%). Enrolled patients were randomly assigned 1:1 in blocks of four per stratum to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 35 cycles or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy for four to six cycles. Primary endpoints were overall survival in patients with a TPS of 50% or greater, 20% or greater, and 1% or greater (one-sided significance thresholds, p=0·0122, p=0·0120, and p=0·0124, respectively) in the intention-to-treat population, assessed sequentially if the previous findings were significant. This study is registered at, number NCT02220894.
FINDINGS: From Dec 19, 2014, to March 6, 2017, 1274 patients (902 men, 372 women, median age 63 years [IQR 57-69]) with a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater were allocated to pembrolizumab (n=637) or chemotherapy (n=637) and included in the intention-to-treat population. 599 (47%) had a TPS of 50% or greater and 818 patients (64%) had a TPS of 20% or greater. As of Feb 26, 2018, median follow-up was 12·8 months. Overall survival was significantly longer in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group in all three TPS populations (≥50% hazard ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·56-0·85, p=0·0003; ≥20% 0·77, 0·64-0·92, p=0·0020, and ≥1% 0·81, 0·71-0·93, p=0·0018). The median surival values by TPS population were 20·0 months (95% CI 15·4-24·9) for pembrolizumab versus 12·2 months (10·4-14·2) for chemotherapy, 17·7 months (15·3-22·1) versus 13·0 months (11·6-15·3), and 16·7 months (13·9-19·7) versus 12·1 months (11·3-13·3), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 113 (18%) of 636 treated patients in the pembrolizumab group and in 252 (41%) of 615 in the chemotherapy group and led to death in 13 (2%) and 14 (2%) patients, respectively.
INTERPRETATION: The benefit-to-risk profile suggests that pembrolizumab monotherapy can be extended as first-line therapy to patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without sensitising EGFR or ALK alterations and with low PD-L1 TPS.
FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

Shi C, Yang Y, Zhang L, et al.
Optimal subset of signature miRNAs consisting of 7 miRNAs that can serve as a novel diagnostic and prognostic predictor for the progression of cervical cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3167-3178 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Novel prognostic biomarkers are required to predict the progression of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer expression data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) significantly differentially expressed between early‑ and advanced‑stage samples were identified by expression analysis. An optimal subset of signature miRNAs for pathologic stage prediction was delineated using the random forest algorithm and was used for the construction of a cervical cancer‑specific support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The roles of signature miRNAs in cervical cancer were analyzed by functional annotation. In total, 44 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. An optimal subset of 7 signature miRNAs was identified, including hsa‑miR‑144, hsa‑miR‑147b, hsa‑miR‑218‑2, hsa‑miR‑425, hsa‑miR‑451, hsa‑miR‑483 and hsa‑miR‑486. The signature miRNAs were used to construct an SVM classifier and exhibited a good performance in predicting pathologic stages of samples. SVM classification was found to be an independent prognostic factor. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that these signature miRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis. In conclusion, the subset of signature miRNAs could potentially serve as a novel diagnostic and prognostic predictor for cervical cancer.

Wu Y, Hu L, Qin Z, Wang X
MicroRNA‑302a upregulation mediates chemo‑resistance in prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):4433-4440 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post‑transcriptional regulators that mediate the initiation and progression of human cancer. Growing evidence suggests that deregulation of miRNA expression levels underlies chemo‑resistance. To investigate whether miRNA‑302a (miR‑302a) is involved in mediating chemo‑resistance to paclitaxel in prostate cancer, a series of in vitro analyses were performed in paclitaxel‑resistant prostate cancer PC‑3PR cells and non‑resistant prostate cancer PC‑3 cells. It was demonstrated that the expression of miR‑302a was upregulated in PC‑3PR cells. Notably, ectopic expression of miR‑302a also increased resistance to paclitaxel in wild‑type PC‑3 cells. By contrast, silencing of miR‑302a in PC‑3PR cells sensitized the cells to paclitaxel. Gene and protein expression analyses suggested that the miR‑302a target gene breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may mediate chemo‑resistance to paclitaxel in PC‑3PR cells. In conclusion, the data suggested that elevated miR‑302a levels, in part, mediate sensitivity to paclitaxel in prostate cancer through the aberrant regulation of its downstream targets, AOF2, BCRP and permeability glycoprotein 1. These data have implications for the development of novel therapeutics in prostate cancer that may improve sensitivity to chemotherapeutics.

Zhang J, Li J, Li S, et al.
miR‑802 inhibits the aggressive behaviors of non‑small cell lung cancer cells by directly targeting FGFR1.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2211-2221 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging reports have revealed that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are abnormally expressed in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miRNAs have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and regulate various biological processes including oncogenesis and development. miR‑802 is dysregulated in multiple types of human cancer, and exerts tumor‑suppressive or promoting roles. However, the expression levels and functional roles of miR‑802 in NSCLC remain largely unknown. In the present study, miR‑802 expression was demonstrated to be decreased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. A low miR‑802 expression was significantly correlated with the tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and brain metastasis in NSCLC patients. Restoring miR‑802 expression inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation and colony formation, induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and hindered in vivo tumor growth. Mechanistically, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was confirmed as the target gene of miR‑802 in NSCLC cells. In addition, FGFR1 silencing mimicked the tumor‑suppressing roles of miR‑802 upregulation in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, rescue experiments revealed that FGFR1 reintroduction rescued the miR‑802‑induced inhibition of the malignant phenotypes in NSCLC cells. Notably, miR‑802 was able to deactivate the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT serine/threonine kinase (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. Overall, these results demonstrated that miR‑802 could downregulate FGFR1 expression, thereby deactivating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and inhibiting the malignant development of NSCLC. Thus, miR‑802 may be a therapeutic candidate for patients with NSCLC.

Qin Y, Hu Q, Ji S, et al.
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 suppresses proliferation and aerobic glycolysis via ERK/cMyc axis in pancreatic cancer.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12603 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the roles of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (HIPK) family of proteins in pancreatic cancer prognosis and the possible molecular mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of HIPK family genes and their roles in pancreatic cancer prognosis were analysed by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The roles of HIPK2 in pancreatic cancer proliferation and glycolysis were tested by overexpression of HIPK2 in pancreatic cancer cells, followed by cell proliferation assay, glucose uptake analysis and Seahorse extracellular flux analysis. The mechanism of action of HIPK2 in pancreatic cancer proliferation and glycolysis was explored by examining its effect on the ERK/cMyc axis.
RESULTS: Decreased HIPK2 expression indicated worse prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Overexpression of HIPK2 in pancreatic cancer cells decreased cell proliferation and attenuated aerobic glycolysis, which sustained proliferation of cancer cells. HIPK2 decreased cMyc protein levels and expression of cMyc-targeted glycolytic genes. cMyc was a mediator that regulated HIPK2-induced decrease in aerobic glycolysis. HIPK2 regulated cMyc protein stability via ERK activation, which phosphorylated and controlled cMyc protein stability.
CONCLUSIONS: HIPK2 suppressed proliferation of pancreatic cancer in part through inhibiting the ERK/cMyc axis and related aerobic glycolysis.

Qin Y, Hu Q, Xu J, et al.
PRMT5 enhances tumorigenicity and glycolysis in pancreatic cancer via the FBW7/cMyc axis.
Cell Commun Signal. 2019; 17(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The epigenetic factor protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) has been reported to play vital roles in a wide range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, genomic organization, differentiation and cell cycle control. However, its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the roles of PRMT5 in pancreatic cancer prognosis and progression and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism.
METHODS: Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and analysis of a dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to study the expression of PRMT5 at the mRNA and protein levels in pancreatic cancer. Cell proliferation assays, including cell viability, colony formation ability and subcutaneous mouse model assays, were utilized to confirm the role of PRMT5 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. A Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer, a glucose uptake kit, a lactate level measurement kit and the measurement of
RESULTS: PRMT5 expression was significantly upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Clinically, elevated expression of PRMT5 was positively correlated with worse overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Silencing PRMT5 expression inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PRMT5 regulated aerobic glycolysis in vitro in cell lines, in vivo in pancreatic cancer patients and in a xenograft mouse model used to measure 18F-FDG uptake. We found that mechanistically, PRMT5 posttranslationally regulated cMyc stability via F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 (FBW7), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cMyc degradation. Moreover, PRMT5 epigenetically regulated the expression of FBW7 in pancreatic cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that PRMT5 epigenetically silenced the expression of the tumor suppressor FBW7, leading to increased cMyc levels and the subsequent enhancement of the proliferation of and aerobic glycolysis in pancreatic cancer cells. The PRMT5/FBW7/cMyc axis could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Qin J, Cui N, Hou R, et al.
Association between androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and testicular germ cell tumor: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019; 15(Supplement):S60-S68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: To estimate association between androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphisms and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility.
Materials and Methods: Systematic search of studies on the association between AR gene polymorphisms and TGCT susceptibility was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool effect size.
Results: For CAG repeat, no evidence was found for association between (>25 vs. ≤25), (>25 vs. 21-25), (<21 vs. 21-25), (others vs. 21-25), (>23 vs. ≤23), (<21 vs. ≥21), (<21 vs. ≥21)'s some subgroups and TGCT susceptibility, which showed stability. In (>24 vs. ≤24), (>24 vs. 21-24), (<21 vs. 21-24), and (others vs. 21-24) and almost all of their subgroups, increased TGCT risk was found without sensitivity analysis. For GGN, no statistical change of TGCT risk was found in (<23 vs. ≥23), (<23 vs. 23), which showed stability. For single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6152 G > A, rs1204038 G > A and rs2361634 A > G, no statistical change was found without sensitivity analysis.
Conclusions: GGN repeat number <23 may not be associated with TGCTs susceptibility. However, there was insufficient data to fully confirm association in GGN repeat number >23, CAG repeat number, SNP rs6152, rs1204038, and rs2361634.

Li J, Rong MH, Dang YW, et al.
Differentially expressed gene profile and relevant pathways of the traditional Chinese medicine cinobufotalin on MCF‑7 breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):4256-4270 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cinobufotalin is a chemical compound extracted from the skin of dried bufo toads that may have curative potential for certain malignancies through different mechanisms; however, these mechanisms remain unexplored in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor mechanism of cinobufotalin in breast cancer by using microarray data and in silico analysis. The microarray data set GSE85871, in which cinobufotalin exerted influences on the MCF‑7 breast cancer cells, was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed. Subsequently, protein interaction analysis was conducted, which clarified the clinical significance of core genes, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were used to analyze cinobufotalin‑related pathways. The Connectivity Map (CMAP) database was used to select existing compounds that exhibited curative properties similar to those of cinobufotalin. A total of 1,237 DEGs were identified from breast cancer cells that were treated with cinobufotalin. Two core genes, SRC proto‑oncogene non‑receptor tyrosine kinase and cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, were identified as serving a vital role in the onset and development of breast cancer, and their expression levels were markedly reduced following cinobufotalin treatment as detected by the microarray of GSE85871. It also was revealed that the 'neuroactive ligand‑receptor interaction' and 'calcium signaling' pathways may be crucial for cinobufotalin to perform its functions in breast cancer. Conducting a matching search in CMAP, miconazole and cinobufotalin were indicated to possessed similar molecular mechanisms. In conclusion, cinobufotalin may serve as an effective compound for the treatment of a subtype of breast cancer that is triple positive for the presence of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor‑2 receptors, and its mechanism may be related to different pathways. In addition, cinobufotalin is likely to exert its antitumor influences in a similar way as miconazole in MCF‑7 cells.

Wang X, Huang K, Zeng X, et al.
Diagnostic and prognostic value of mRNA expression of phospholipase C β family genes in hepatitis B virus‑associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2855-2875 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Four phospholipase C β (PLCB) isoforms, PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3 and PLCB4, have been previously investigated regarding their roles in the metabolism of inositol lipids and cancer. The present study aimed to explore the association between PLCB1‑4 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data from 212 patients with hepatitis B virus‑associated HCC were used to analyze the diagnostic and prognostic significance of PLCB genes in. A nomogram predicted the survival probability. Gene set enrichment analysis explored gene ontology terms and the metabolic pathways associated with PLCB genes. Validation of the prognostic values of PLCB genes was performed using the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis website. PLCB1 and PLCB2 were revealed to have diagnostic value for HCC (0.869 and 0.836 area under the curve, respectively; both P≤0.05). The combination analysis of these genes had an advantage over each alone (0.905 PLCB1 and PLCB2, and 0.877 PLCB1 and PLCB3 area under the curve; P≤0.05). PLCB1 was associated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence‑free survival (RFS; adjusted P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). A nomogram predicted survival probability of patients with HCC at 1, 3‑ and 5‑years. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that PLCB1 and PLCB2 are involved in the cell cycle, cell division and the PPAR signaling pathway, among other functions. Validation using GEPIA revealed that PLCB1 and PLCB2 were associated with OS and PLCB1 and PLCB4 were associated with RFS. PLCB1 and PLCB2 exhibited diagnostic value for HCC and their combination had an advantage over each individually. PLCB1 has OS and RFS prognostic value for patients with HCC.

Chen Z, Zuo X, Pu L, et al.
Hypomethylation-mediated activation of cancer/testis antigen KK-LC-1 facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma progression through activating the Notch1/Hes1 signalling.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12581 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) is a cancer/testis antigen reactivated in several human malignancies. So far, the major focus of studies on KK-LC-1 has been on its potential as diagnostic biomarker and immunotherapy target. However, its biological functions and molecular mechanisms in cancer progression remain unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of KK-LC-1 in HCC was analysed using RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The roles of KK-LC-1 on HCC progression were examined by loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches. Pathway inhibitor DAPT was employed to confirm the regulatory effect of KK-LC-1 on the downstream Notch signalling. The interaction of KK-LC-1 with presenilin-1 was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. The association of CpG island methylation status with KK-LC-1 reactivation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR, bisulphite sequencing PCR and 5-Aza-dC treatment.
RESULTS: We identified that HCC tissues exhibited increased levels of KK-LC-1. High KK-LC-1 level independently predicted poor survival outcome. KK-LC-1 promoted cell growth, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro and in vivo. KK-LC-1 modulated the Notch1/Hes1 pathway to exacerbate HCC progression through physically interacting with presenilin-1. Upregulation of KK-LC-1 in HCC was attributed to hypomethylated CpG islands.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that hypomethylation-induced KK-LC-1 overexpression played an important role in HCC progression and independently predicted poor survival. We defined the KK-LC-1/presenilin-1/Notch1/Hes1 as a novel signalling pathway that was involved in the growth and metastasis of HCC.

Tao X, Zuo Q, Ruan H, et al.
Argininosuccinate synthase 1 suppresses cancer cell invasion by inhibiting STAT3 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2019; 51(3):263-276 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the main reason for high recurrence and poor survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanism underlying HCC metastasis remains unclear. In this study, we found that argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1) expression was significantly decreased and down-regulation of ASS1 was closely correlated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. DNA methylation led to the down-regulation of ASS1 in HCC. Stable silencing of ASS1 promoted migration and invasion of HCC cells, whereas overexpression of ASS1-inhibited metastasis of HCC cells in vivo and in vitro. We also revealed that ASS1-knockdown increased the phosphorylation level of S727STAT3, which contributed to HCC metastasis by up-regulation of inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1). These findings indicate that ASS1 inhibits HCC metastasis and may serve as a target for HCC diagnosis and treatment.

Zhang Y, Xiao Y, Dong Q, et al.
Neferine in the Lotus Plumule Potentiates the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib in Primary Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells In Vitro.
J Food Sci. 2019; 84(4):904-910 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib, the prototype BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is the first-line treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. However, a subgroup of patients exhibit poor response or experience relapse. This issue may be overcome by combination therapy using natural compounds. Neferine, a major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from "lotus plumule" (seed embryo of lotus) commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and tea, was used herein in the combination treatment of CML. The MTT assay showed that neferine exerted cytotoxicity in primary CML cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low concentrations of neferine (4 and 8 µM) sensitized primary CML cells to imatinib (CI < 1), and significantly decreased its IC

Xie Q, Wang S, Zhao Y, et al.
MicroRNA-216a suppresses the proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2647-2656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anticancer effects of microRNA-216a on the growth of human breast cancer and the possible underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that serum microRNA-216a was significantly decreased in patients with breast cancer compared with healthy controls. MicroRNA-216a overexpression led to a decrease in cell proliferation and migration, as well as increases in apoptosis, caspase-3/8 activities, Bax expression and p53 protein expression in MCF-7 cells. It was also revealed that microRNA-216a suppressed Wnt and β-catenin expression in MCF-7 cells. The anticancer effects of microRNA-216a were reversed by anti-microRNA-216a by promoting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Inactivation of the Wnt pathway increased the anticancer effects of microRNA-216a in MCF-7 cells. Collectively, the results of the present study indicated that microRNA-216a suppressed the growth of human breast cancer cells by targeting the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway.

Hua M, Qin Y, Sheng M, et al.
miR‑145 suppresses ovarian cancer progression via modulation of cell growth and invasion by targeting CCND2 and E2F3.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3575-3583 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNA/miRs) have been demonstrated to be critical post‑transcriptional modulators of gene expression during tumorigenesis. Numerous miRNAs have been revealed to be downregulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In the present study, it was observed that the expression of miR‑145 was decreased in EOC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR‑145 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of EOC cells. The D‑type cyclin 2, cyclin D2 (CCND2), and E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) were confirmed to be targets of miR‑145. In addition, restoration of these 2 genes significantly reversed the tumor suppressive effects of miR‑145. Collectively, the results indicated that miR‑145 serves a critical role in suppressing the biological behavior of EOC cells by targeting CCND2 and E2F3. Therefore, miR‑145 was suggested to be a potential miRNA‑based therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.

Wang XY, Qin YY
Long non-coding RNAs in biology and female reproductive disorders.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2019; 24:750-764 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating data from large-scale transcriptome studies have identified a class of poorly understood non-protein-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and a number of studies suggest that lncRNAs modulate the expression of protein-coding genes in a variety of tissues and organs by altering chromatin modification, transcription, mRNA decay, protein subcellular localization, and other key processes. Although much work still remains to identify the roles of lncRNAs in reproduction-related systems, they are likely to exert widespread effects during these processes. In this review, we highlight our emerging understanding of how lncRNAs regulate gene expression, and we discuss the physiological role of this new class of molecular regulators in neurobiology, cardiology, endocrinology, metabolism, muscle biology, and female reproductive disorders.

Liu H, Wang J, Tao Y, et al.
Curcumol inhibits colorectal cancer proliferation by targeting miR-21 and modulated PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways.
Life Sci. 2019; 221:354-361 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how curcumol affected the expression of miR-21 and whether its effects on miR-21 was associated with the activation of PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways in CRC cells.
MAIN METHODS: MTT and xenograft assay were used to examine how curcumol inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) cells' growth. Q-PCR and western blot analysis were employed to test the role of miR-21 in the inhibition of curcumol on proliferation and PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways of CRC cells.
KEY FINDINGS: We found that curcumol effectively inhibited CRC cells from proliferating via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways and reduced expression of miR-21 both in vitro and in vivo. miR-21 mimics were found to decrease the protein level of PTEN and increase the expression of PI3K, phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and NF-κB, while miR-21 sponge (miR-21-SP) enhanced the expression of PTEN and reduced the activity of PI3K, Akt and NF-κB. Furthermore, miR-21-SP strengthened the role of curcumol in up-regulating PTEN and inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathways, but miR-21 reversed the effect of curcumol on the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways.
SIGNIFICANCE: Our research demonstrated that curcumol reduced the proliferation of CRC cells through PTEN/PI3K/Akt by targeting miR-21 and miR-21 could be a target molecule of curcumol for CRC treatment.

Shi X, Chen X, Fang B, et al.
Decitabine enhances tumor recognition by T cells through upregulating the MAGE-A3 expression in esophageal carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 112:108632 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer testis (CT) antigens are expressed in various types of tumors and represent the potential targets for T cell-based immunotherapy. Analysis of CT gene expression and DNA methylation have indicated that certain CT genes are epigenetically regulated and studies have confirmed that certain CT antigens are regulated by DNA methylation. In this study, we explored the epigenetic regulation of MAGE-A3 and improved the clinical outcome of MAGE-A3-specific T cell therapy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We used molecular profiling datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas to analyze CT gene expression in ESCC and its regulation by DNA methylation. We performed quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and bisulfite sequencing in ESCC cell lines and ESCC tissues. Functional assays, such as flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assays and ELISA, were performed to determine the demethylation agent, decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC)-treated cancer cell improved antigen specific T cells response. ESCC tumor cell-xenograft mouse model and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays were used to determine the function of DAC treatment in enhancing anti-MAGE-3 T cell responses in ESCC. Furthermore, we performed qRT-PCR and flow cytometry in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. MAGE-A3, one of the CT antigens, expressed at various levels in ESCC and was interfered by DNA methylation. We observed an efficient increase in MAGE-A3 expression in tumor cells and tissues after the treatment of decitabine and the expression of MAGE-A3 was affected by DNA methylation. Functional assays showed enhanced secretion of IFN-γ and cytolysis of MAGE-A3 antigen-specific T cells by DAC-treated target cells. In the tumor cell-xenograft mouse model and ELISPOT assays, DAC increased the expression of MAGE-A3 and T cell mediated tumor clearance in ESCC as well. Notably, the proportions of MAGE-A3-responsive T cells were elevated in DAC-treated patients with MDS, indicating DAC dismissed the epigenetic inhibition of MAGE-A3. DAC would probably improve the clinical outcome of MAGE-A3-specific T cell therapy by augmenting the expression of target gene.

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