Gene Summary

Gene:FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7
Aliases: KGF, HBGF-7
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein is a potent epithelial cell-specific growth factor, whose mitogenic activity is predominantly exhibited in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Studies of mouse and rat homologs of this gene implicated roles in morphogenesis of epithelium, reepithelialization of wounds, hair development and early lung organogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (32)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 7
  • Breast Cancer
  • FGF2
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
  • Cancer RNA
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Western Blotting
  • Transfection
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 10
  • Turbinates
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome 15
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Cell Division
  • Gene Expression
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Growth Substances
  • Disease Progression
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Alternative Splicing
  • FGFR2
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF7 (cancer-related)

Kinney AY, Butler KM, Schwartz MD, et al.
Expanding access to BRCA1/2 genetic counseling with telephone delivery: a cluster randomized trial.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(12) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The growing demand for cancer genetic services underscores the need to consider approaches that enhance access and efficiency of genetic counseling. Telephone delivery of cancer genetic services may improve access to these services for individuals experiencing geographic (rural areas) and structural (travel time, transportation, childcare) barriers to access.
METHODS: This cluster-randomized clinical trial used population-based sampling of women at risk for BRCA1/2 mutations to compare telephone and in-person counseling for: 1) equivalency of testing uptake and 2) noninferiority of changes in psychosocial measures. Women 25 to 74 years of age with personal or family histories of breast or ovarian cancer and who were able to travel to one of 14 outreach clinics were invited to participate. Randomization was by family. Assessments were conducted at baseline one week after pretest and post-test counseling and at six months. Of the 988 women randomly assigned, 901 completed a follow-up assessment. Cluster bootstrap methods were used to estimate the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between test uptake proportions, using a 10% equivalency margin. Differences in psychosocial outcomes for determining noninferiority were estimated using linear models together with one-sided 97.5% bootstrap CIs.
RESULTS: Uptake of BRCA1/2 testing was lower following telephone (21.8%) than in-person counseling (31.8%, difference = 10.2%, 95% CI = 3.9% to 16.3%; after imputation of missing data: difference = 9.2%, 95% CI = -0.1% to 24.6%). Telephone counseling fulfilled the criteria for noninferiority to in-person counseling for all measures.
CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1/2 telephone counseling, although leading to lower testing uptake, appears to be safe and as effective as in-person counseling with regard to minimizing adverse psychological reactions, promoting informed decision making, and delivering patient-centered communication for both rural and urban women.

Amer M, Elhefnawi M, El-Ahwany E, et al.
Hsa-miR-195 targets PCMT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma that increases tumor life span.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(11):11301-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are small 19-25 nucleotides which have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Downregulation or accumulation of miRNAs implies either tumor suppression or oncogenic activation. In this study, differentially expressed hsa-miR-195 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was identified and analyzed. The prediction was done using a consensus approach of tools. The validation steps were done at two different levels in silico and in vitro. FGF7, GHR, PCMT1, CITED2, PEX5, PEX13, NOVA1, AXIN2, and TSPYL2 were detected with high significant (P < 0.005). These genes are involved in important pathways in cancer like MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathways, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, angiogenesis, Wnt signaling pathway, and TGF-beta signaling pathway. In vitro target validation was done for protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1). The co-transfection of pmirGLO-PCMT1 and pEGP-miR-195 showed highly significant results. Firefly luciferase was detected using Lumiscensor and t test analysis was done. Firefly luciferase expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison to the control. The low expression of firefly luciferase validates the method of target prediction that we used in this work by working on PCMT1 as a target for miR-195. Furthermore, the rest of the predicted genes are suspected to be real targets for hsa-miR-195. These target genes control almost all the hallmarks of liver cancer which can be used as therapeutic targets in cancer treatment.

Meng QH, Xu E, Hildebrandt MA, et al.
Genetic variants in the fibroblast growth factor pathway as potential markers of ovarian cancer risk, therapeutic response, and clinical outcome.
Clin Chem. 2014; 60(1):222-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor (FGFR) axis plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, but little is known of its influence in ovarian cancer. We sought to determine the association of genetic variants in the FGF pathway with risk, therapeutic response, and survival of patients with ovarian cancer.
METHODS: We matched 339 non-Hispanic white ovarian cancer cases with 349 healthy controls and genotyped them for 183 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 24 FGF (fibroblast growth factor) and FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) genes. Genetic associations for the main effect, gene-gene interactions, and the cumulative effect were determined.
RESULTS: Multiple SNPs in the FGF-FGFR axis were associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. In particular, FGF1 [fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)] SNP rs7727832 showed the most significant association with ovarian cancer (odds ratio, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.31-3.95). Ten SNPs were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. FGF18 (fibroblast growth factor 18) SNP rs3806929, FGF7 (fibroblast growth factor 7) SNP rs9920722, FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) SNP rs12812339, and FGF5 (fibroblast growth factor 5) SNP rs3733336 were significantly associated with a favorable treatment response, with a reduction of risk of nonresponse of 40% to 60%. Eleven SNPs were significantly associated with overall survival. Of these SNPs, FGF23 rs7961824 was the most significantly associated with improved prognosis (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.78) and was associated with significantly longer survival durations, compared with individuals with the common genotype at this locus (58.1 months vs. 38.0 months, P = 0.005). Survival tree analysis revealed FGF2 rs167428 as the primary factor contributing to overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations of genetic variants in the FGF pathway were associated with ovarian cancer risk, therapeutic response, and survival. The discovery of multiple SNPs in the FGF-FGFR pathway provides a molecular approach for risk assessment, monitoring therapeutic response, and prognosis.

Ishino R, Minami K, Tanaka S, et al.
FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 440(1):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1(+/+) MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1(-/-) MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1(+/+) and Med1(-/-) MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

Ramsey MR, Wilson C, Ory B, et al.
FGFR2 signaling underlies p63 oncogenic function in squamous cell carcinoma.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(8):3525-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Oncogenic transcription factors drive many human cancers, yet identifying and therapeutically targeting the resulting deregulated pathways has proven difficult. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common and lethal human cancer, and relatively little progress has been made in improving outcomes for SCC due to a poor understanding of its underlying molecular pathogenesis. While SCCs typically lack somatic oncogene-activating mutations, they exhibit frequent overexpression of the p53-related transcription factor p63. We developed an in vivo murine tumor model to investigate the function and key transcriptional programs of p63 in SCC. Here, we show that established SCCs are exquisitely dependent on p63, as acute genetic ablation of p63 in advanced, invasive SCC induced rapid and dramatic apoptosis and tumor regression. In vivo genome-wide gene expression analysis identified a tumor-survival program involving p63-regulated FGFR2 signaling that was activated by ligand emanating from abundant tumor-associated stroma. Correspondingly, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of extinguishing this signaling axis in endogenous SCCs using the clinical FGFR2 inhibitor AZD4547. Collectively, these results reveal an unanticipated role for p63-driven paracrine FGFR2 signaling as an addicting pathway in human cancer and suggest a new approach for the treatment of SCC.

Chen G, Qiu H, Ke SD, et al.
Emodin regulating excision repair cross-complementation group 1 through fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signaling.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(16):2481-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the reversal effect of emodin on platinum resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
METHODS: After the addition of 10 μmol/L emodin to HepG2/oxaliplatin (OXA) cells, the inhibition rate (IR), 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) and reversal index (IC₅₀ in experimental group/IC₅₀ in control group) were calculated. For HepG2, HepG2/OXA, HepG2/OXA/T, each cell line was divided into a control group, OXA group, OXA + fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) group and OXA + emodin group, and the final concentrations of FGF7, emodin and OXA in each group were 5 ng/mL, 10 μg/mL and 10 μmol/L, respectively. Single-cell gel electrophoresis was conducted to detect DNA damage, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1) protein expression levels in each group were examined by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Compared with the IC₅₀ of 120.78 μmol/L in HepG2/OXA cells, the IC₅₀ decreased to 39.65 μmol/L after treatment with 10 μmol/L emodin; thus, the reversal index was 3.05. Compared with the control group, the tail length and Olive tail length in the OXA group, OXA + FGF7 group and OXA + emodin group were significantly increased, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The tail length and Olive tail length were lower in the OXA + FGF7 group than in the OXA group, and this difference was also statistically significant. Compared with the OXA + FGF7 group, the tail extent, the Olive tail moment and the percentage of tail DNA were significantly increased in the OXA + emodin group, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In comparison with its parental cell line HepG2, the HepG2/OXA cells demonstrated significantly increased FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 expression levels, whereas the expression of all three molecules was significantly inhibited in HepG2/OXA/T cells, in which FGFR2 was silenced by FGFR2 shRNA. In the examined HepG2 cells, the FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 expression levels demonstrated increasing trends in the OXA group and OXA + FGF7 group. Compared with the OXA group and OXA + FGF7 group, the FGFR2, p-ERK1/2, and ERCC1 expression levels were significantly lower in the OXA + emodin group, and these differences were statistically significant. In the HepG2/OXA/T cell line that was transfected with FGFR2 shRNA, the FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 expression levels were significantly inhibited, but there were no significant differences in these expression levels among the OXA, OXA + FGF7 and OXA + emodin groups.
CONCLUSION: Emodin markedly reversed OXA resistance by enhancing OXA DNA damage in HepG2/OXA cells, and the molecular mechanism was related to the inhibitory effect on ERCC1 expression being mediated by the FGFR2/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

Haapa-Paananen S, Chen P, Hellström K, et al.
Functional profiling of precursor MicroRNAs identifies MicroRNAs essential for glioma proliferation.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60930 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Cancer initiation and progression involve microRNAs that can function like tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The functional significance of most miRNAs is currently unknown. To determine systematically which microRNAs are essential for glioma growth, we screened a precursor microRNA library in three human glioblastoma and one astroglial cell line model systems. The most prominent and consistent cell proliferation-reducing hits were validated in secondary screening with an additional apoptosis endpoint. The functional screening data were integrated in the miRNA expression data to find underexpressed true functional tumor suppressor miRNAs. In addition, we used miRNA-target gene predictions and combined siRNA functional screening data to find the most probable miRNA-target gene pairs with a similar functional effect on proliferation. Nine novel functional miRNAs (hsa-miR-129, -136, -145, -155, -181b, -342-5p, -342-3p, -376a/b) in GBM cell lines were validated for their importance in glioma cell growth, and similar effects for six target genes (ROCK1, RHOA, MET, CSF1R, EIF2AK1, FGF7) of these miRNAs were shown functionally. The clinical significance of the functional hits was validated in miRNA expression data from the TCGA glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor cohort. Five tumor suppressor miRNAs (hsa-miR-136, -145, -342, -129, -376a) showed significant underexpression in clinical GBM tumor samples from the TCGA GBM cohort further supporting the role of these miRNAs in vivo. Most importantly, higher hsa-miR-145 expression in GBM tumors yielded significantly better survival (p<0.005) in a subset of patients thus validating it as a genuine tumor suppressor miRNA. This systematic functional profiling provides important new knowledge about functionally relevant miRNAs in GBM biology and may offer new targets for treating glioma.

Tani H, Saito N, Kobayashi M, Kameoka S
Clinical significance of keratinocyte growth factor and K-sam gene expression in gastric cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(5):1381-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Although gastric cancer is increasingly being detected at an early stage of development, diffuse growth‑type malignant tumors, such as scirrhous gastric cancer, are usually at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis, resulting in poor treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the K-sam gene and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) expression may be used to identify malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. K-sam and KGF expression was retrospectively evaluated in samples from 86 patients with early and advanced gastric cancer according to type, by examining serum levels and using immunohistochemical staining. The associations with clinicopathological characteristics and survival were also examined. The mean serum KGF levels were 11.191±3.808 pg/ml in early stage and 10.715±3.4991 pg/ml in advanced gastric cancer patients. KGF levels were significantly higher in types 4 and 5 (14.498±3.812 pg/ml, n=6) compared with types 1, 2 and 3 (10.747±3.571 pg/ml, n=80; P=0.028). Stage classification was identified as the only significant factor which determined overall survival. Patients with KGF-positive tumors had significantly higher serum KGF levels compared with those who had KGF-negative tumors. Patients with K-sam‑positive tumors had significantly higher KGF levels compared with those who had K-sam-negative tumors. Pathological KGF expression was not significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation; however, there was a positive correlation between high K-sam expression in scirrhous gastric tumors and serum KGF levels. The present study revealed that high serum KGF levels are a risk factor for diffuse infiltrative gastric cancer and may provide a simple method of identifying patients with a poor prognosis among previously diagnosed preoperative gastric cancer patients.

Sun JZ, Ha XQ, Zhang LM, et al.
Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium carrying the hepatocyte growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor genes repairs gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy.
Med Oncol. 2013; 30(1):453 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the main therapeutic approaches for patients with malignant tumours, especially advanced tumours. However, they can cause adverse effects, one of which is gastrointestinal mucosal damage, which can greatly affect patients' quality of life. Until now, there have been no effective therapies to avoid or treat these adverse effects. In this study, we used attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to deliver the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) to murine gastrointestinal mucosa. We found that attenuated S. typhimurium carrying the HGF or KGF genes can effectively reduce the ratio of tumour to non-tumour carcass weight, repair damage to the gastrointestinal mucosal from chemotherapy, improve the immune response, and reduce the mortality rate of mice. Oral administration of attenuated S. typhimurium with HGF and KGF may be promising as a way of improving the quality of life of patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Masunaga A, Nagashio R, Iwamoto S, et al.
A case of pulmonary papillary adenoma: possible relationship between tumor histogenesis/tumorigenesis and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 IIIb.
Pathol Int. 2012; 62(9):640-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pulmonary papillary adenoma is a rare tumor. We analyzed a tumor which appeared in a 16-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor histologically showed papillary proliferation of one-layered tumor cells coating inflammatory fibrovascular cores. At the periphery of the tumor, the tumor cells grew in a lepidic fashion. The tumor cells were confirmed as type-II pneumocytes with electron-microscope. In this study, using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we examined the expressions and quantities of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) IIIb, based on the extent of their abilities of proliferation and differentiation of type II pneumocytes. The tumor cells expressed FGFR 2 and produced 350 times more FGFR2IIIb messenger RNA (mRNA) than did the nontumorous lung. The quantity of KGF mRNA in the tumor tissue was twice that of the nontumorous lung. Moreover, there was dysregulation of FGFR2IIIb transcription in the tumor. According to these findings, we expect overexpression of FGFR2IIIb to play an important role in causing tumor. Because FGFR is suspected to be connected with lung carcinoma, we also treat similar tumorigenesis via FGFR as carcinoma; complete resection of adenoma might be indicated.

Toriseva M, Ala-aho R, Peltonen S, et al.
Keratinocyte growth factor induces gene expression signature associated with suppression of malignant phenotype of cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33041 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor-7) is a fibroblast-derived mitogen, which stimulates proliferation of epithelial cells. The expression of KGF by dermal fibroblasts is induced following injury and it promotes wound repair. However, the role of KGF in cutaneous carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not known. We have examined the role of KGF in progression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. The expression of KGF receptor (KGFR) mRNA was lower in cutaneous SCCs (n = 6) than in normal skin samples (n = 6). Expression of KGFR mRNA was detected in 6 out of 8 cutaneous SCC cell lines and the levels were downregulated by 24-h treatment with KGF. KGF did not stimulate SCC cell proliferation, but it reduced invasion of SCC cells through collagen. Gene expression profiling of three cutaneous SCC cell lines treated with KGF for 24 h revealed a specific gene expression signature characterized by upregulation of a set of genes specifically downregulated in SCC cells compared to normal epidermal keratinocytes, including genes with tumor suppressing properties (SPRY4, DUSP4, DUSP6, LRIG1, PHLDA1). KGF also induced downregulation of a set of genes specifically upregulated in SCC cells compared to normal keratinocytes, including genes associated with tumor progression (MMP13, MATN2, CXCL10, and IGFBP3). Downregulation of MMP-13 and KGFR expression in SCC cells and HaCaT cells was mediated via ERK1/2. Activation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells and tumorigenic Ha-ras-transformed HaCaT cells resulted in downregulation of MMP-13 and KGFR expression. These results provide evidence, that KGF does not promote progression of cutaneous SCC, but rather suppresses the malignant phenotype of cutaneous SCC cells by regulating the expression of several genes differentially expressed in SCC cells, as compared to normal keratinocytes.

Zhang J, Sarkar S, Cua R, et al.
A dialog between glioma and microglia that promotes tumor invasiveness through the CCL2/CCR2/interleukin-6 axis.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(2):312-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma cells in situ are surrounded by microglia, suggesting the potential of glioma-microglia interactions to produce various outcomes. As chemokines are important mediators of cell-cell communication, we sought first to identify commonly expressed chemokines in 16 human glioma lines. We found CCL2 (macrophage chemoattractant protein-1) messenger RNA to be expressed by the majority of glioma lines. However, these lines did not express the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, which was found on microglia. Next, we overexpressed CCL2 in the U87 glioma line, which has low basal level of CCL2, to investigate the hypothesis that glioma-secreted CCL2 interacts with microglia to affect glioma growth. Stable clones with 10- to 12-fold elevation of CCL2 have similar growth rate and invasive capacity as vector controls when cultured in isolation. However, in coculture with microglia in a three-dimensional collagen gel matrix, the invasiveness of CCL2-overexpressing clones was increased. Gene array analyses were then undertaken and they revealed that interleukin (IL)-6 was consistently increased in the coculture. Recombinant IL-6 enhanced the invasiveness of glioma cells when these were cultured alone, whereas a neutralizing antibody to IL-6 attenuated the microglia-stimulated glioma invasiveness. Finally, we found that human glioma specimens in situ contained IL-6 immunoreactivity that was expressed on CD68+ cells. This study has uncovered a mechanism by which glioma cells exploit microglia for increased invasiveness. Specifically, glioma-derived CCL2 acts upon CCR2-bearing microglia, which then produces IL-6 to stimulate gliomas. The CCL2/CCR2/IL-6 loop is a potential therapeutic target for the currently incurable malignant gliomas.

Ishii K, Mizokami A, Tsunoda T, et al.
Heterogenous induction of carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like differentiation in normal human prostatic fibroblasts by co-culturing with prostate cancer cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2011; 112(12):3604-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the tumor microenvironment, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are considered to play a critical role in the promotion of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms that generate CAFs are not well elucidated. To understand how CAFs are generated during primary cancer progression, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of normal human prostate stromal cells (PrSC) co-cultured with human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro. In primary cultures of human PCa-derived stromal cells (PCaSC-8 and PCaSC-9), expression of TNC, ACTA2, EGF, FGF7, and IGF1 mRNA was generally higher than PrSC but gene expression patterns were not uniform between PCaSC-8 and PCaSC-9 cells. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in both PCaSC-8 and PCaSC-9 cells were generally higher than PrSC but levels of both secreted proteins were not same. When PrSCs were co-cultured with androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells or its sublines, androgen-low-sensitive E9 cells and androgen-insensitive AIDL cells, mRNA expression of IGF1 was significantly increased in all combinations. In contrast, expression of COL1A1, TNC, and ACTA2 mRNA was significantly increased only in LNCaP + PrSC and E9 + PrSC co-cultures. Protein production of VEGF was significantly increased only in LNCaP + PrSC and E9 + PrSC co-cultures. Increase of TGFβ protein was observed only in E9 + PrSC co-cultures. These biochemical characteristics of PrSC were partially recapitulated in TGFβ-treated PrSC. We have demonstrated that normal fibroblasts co-cultured with cancer cells become activated and exhibit biochemical characteristics of CAFs in a heterogenous manner. Our results suggest that heterogenous induction of CAF-like differentiation might be strongly dependent on biochemical characteristics of adjacent cancer cells.

Zheng C, Cotrim AP, Rowzee A, et al.
Prevention of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction following hKGF gene delivery to murine submandibular glands.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(9):2842-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Salivary glands are significantly affected when head and neck cancer patients are treated by radiation. We evaluated the effect of human keratinocyte growth factor (hKGF) gene transfer to murine salivary glands on the prevention of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A hybrid serotype 5 adenoviral vector encoding hKGF (AdLTR(2)EF1α-hKGF) was constructed. Female C3H mice, 8 weeks old, were irradiated by single (15 Gy) or fractionated (6 Gy for 5 days) doses to induce salivary hypofunction. AdLTR(2)EF1α-hKGF or AdControl was administered (10(8) - 10(10) particles per gland) to both submandibular glands (SG) by retrograde ductal instillation before irradiation (IR). Salivary flow was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Human KGF levels were measured by ELISA. SG cell proliferation was measured with bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Endothelial and progenitor or stem cells in SGs were measured by flow cytometry. The effect of SG hKGF production on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC VII) tumor growth was assessed.
RESULTS: In 3 separate single-dose IR experiments, salivary flow rates of mice administered the AdLTR(2)EF1α-hKGF vector were not significantly different from nonirradiated control mice (P > 0.05). Similarly, in 3 separate fractionated IR experiments, the hKGF-expressing vector prevented salivary hypofunction dramatically. Transgenic hKGF protein was found at high levels in serum and SG extracts. AdLTR(2)EF1α-hKGF-treated mice showed increased cell proliferation and numbers of endothelial cells, compared with mice treated with AdControl. hKGF gene transfer had no effect on SCC VII tumor growth ± radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: hKGF gene transfer prevents salivary hypofunction caused by either single or fractionated radiation dosing in mice. The findings suggest a potential clinical application.

Ware KE, Marshall ME, Heasley LR, et al.
Rapidly acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cell lines through de-repression of FGFR2 and FGFR3 expression.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(11):e14117 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Despite initial and sometimes dramatic responses of specific NSCLC tumors to EGFR TKIs, nearly all will develop resistance and relapse. Gene expression analysis of NSCLC cell lines treated with the EGFR TKI, gefitinib, revealed increased levels of FGFR2 and FGFR3 mRNA. Analysis of gefitinib action on a larger panel of NSCLC cell lines verified that FGFR2 and FGFR3 expression is increased at the mRNA and protein level in NSCLC cell lines in which the EGFR is dominant for growth signaling, but not in cell lines where EGFR signaling is absent. A luciferase reporter containing 2.5 kilobases of fgfr2 5' flanking sequence was activated after gefitinib treatment, indicating transcriptional regulation as a contributing mechanism controlling increased FGFR2 expression. Induction of FGFR2 and FGFR3 protein as well as fgfr2-luc activity was also observed with Erbitux, an EGFR-specific monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibitors of c-Src and MEK stimulated fgfr2-luc activity to a similar degree as gefitinib, suggesting that these pathways may mediate EGFR-dependent repression of FGFR2 and FGFR3. Importantly, our studies demonstrate that EGFR TKI-induced FGFR2 and FGFR3 are capable of mediating FGF2 and FGF7 stimulated ERK activation as well as FGF-stimulated transformed growth in the setting of EGFR TKIs. In conclusion, this study highlights EGFR TKI-induced FGFR2 and FGFR3 signaling as a novel and rapid mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs and suggests that treatment of NSCLC patients with combinations of EGFR and FGFR specific TKIs may be a strategy to enhance efficacy of single EGFR inhibitors.

Zhang XJ, Ye H, Zeng CW, et al.
Dysregulation of miR-15a and miR-214 in human pancreatic cancer.
J Hematol Oncol. 2010; 3:46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies. However, the role that miRNAs play in pancreatic cancer remains to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pancreatic cancer tissues and demonstrate their roles in disease progression.
RESULTS: We detected the expression patterns of miRNAs in 10 pancreatic cancer tissues and their adjacent benign tissues by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and found that miR-15a and miR-214 were dysregulated in the tumor samples. This is the first time that miR-214 has been identified as aberrantly expressed in pancreatic cancer. In vitro experiments showed that overexpression of miR-15a inhibited the viability of pancreatic cancer cells, whereas overexpression of miR-214 decreased the sensitivity of the cells to gemcitabine (GEM). Furthermore, we identified WNT3A and FGF7 as potential targets of miR-15a and ING4 as a target of miR-214.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant expression of miRNAs such as miR-15a and miR-214 results in different cellular effects in pancreatic cancer. Downregulation of miR-15a might contribute to proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, whereas upregulation of miR-214 in pancreatic cancer specimens might be related to the poor response of pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. MiR-15a directly targets multiple genes relevant in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of the disease.

Wenghoefer M, Pantelis A, Najafi T, et al.
Gene expression of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines in the development of oral leukoplakia.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010; 110(3):351-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of oncogenes, antimicrobial peptides, and genes involved in inflammation in leukoplakia of the oral cavity compared with healthy gingiva.
STUDY DESIGN: Biopsies of healthy gingiva (n=20) and leukoplakia (n=20), were obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of alpha-defensin (DEFA) 1/3, DEFA-4, S100-A7, deleted-in-oral-cancer (Doc) 1, interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, cyclooxygenase (Cox) 2, epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1, TGF-alpha, collagen-IA1 (Col-1), and tenascin-c were analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The proteins encoded by the different genes were visualized by immunostaining.
RESULTS: Compared with healthy gingiva (set as 1), there was an increased gene expression of DEFA-4 (179.2-fold), S100-A7 (25.4-fold), EGF (24.8-fold), TGF-beta1 (25.2-fold), and tenascin-c (34.3-fold) in oral leukoplakia. The expression of IL-1beta and Doc-1 was decreased (0.01-fold and 0.2-fold, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of an increased expression of the antimicrobial peptide DEFA-4, the oncogene S100-A7, EGF, and tenascin-c, and a decreased Doc-1 expression in oral leukoplakia might characterize its potency of malignant transformation. Chronic inflammation seems not to be involved in the development of this lesion.

Guo X, Liu W, Pan Y, et al.
Homeobox gene IRX1 is a tumor suppressor gene in gastric carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(27):3908-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The IRX1 tumor suppressor gene is located on 5p15.33, a cancer susceptibility locus. Loss of heterozygosity of 5p15.33 in gastric cancer was identified in our previous work. In this study, we analyzed the molecular features and function of IRX1. We found that IRX1 expression was lost or reduced in gastric cancer. However, no mutations were identified in IRX1-encoding regions. IRX1 transcription was suppressed by hypermethylation, and the expression of IRX1 mRNA was partially restored in gastric cancer cells after 5-Aza-dC treatment. Restoring IRX1 expression in SGC-7901 and NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells inhibited growth, invasion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. We identified a number of target genes by global microarray analysis after IRX1 transfection combined with real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. BDKRB2, an angiogenesis-related gene, HIST2H2BE and FGF7, cell proliferation and invasion-related genes, were identified as direct IRX1 target genes. The hypermethylation of IRX1 was not only detected in primary gastric cancer tissues but also in the peripheral blood of gastric cancer patients, suggesting IRX1 could potentially serve as a biomarker for gastric cancer.

Maruyama S, Cheng J, Yamazaki M, et al.
Metastasis-associated genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma and salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma: a differential DNA chip analysis between metastatic and nonmetastatic cell systems.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 196(1):14-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overall modes of differential gene expressions were analyzed between human oral/salivary carcinoma cell systems with (MK-1 and ACCM) and without (ZK-1/ZK-2 and ACC2/ACC3) metastatic potential by using micro-array analysis with cancer-associated DNA chips to determine the kinds of genes associated with metastatic behaviors. MK-1 and/or ACCM showed lower levels of gene expression in extracellular matrix-related molecules, such as collagen type IV, laminin, and adhesion molecules such as cadherin 2, but higher levels of genes which control extracellular matrix degradation, such as MMP 9, as well as cell growth and cycle, such as FGF7 and cyclin D1. Among the differentially expressed genes, similar protein expression tendencies for FGF7, laminin, cyclin D1, and collagen type IV were confirmed by immunofluorescence. Metastatic potentials of oral/salivary carcinoma cells seem to have resulted from certain combinations of over-/underexpression of the genes, which were responsible for extracellular matrix metabolism and cell growth in particular.

Räsänen K, Virtanen I, Salmenperä P, et al.
Differences in the nemosis response of normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2009; 4(9):e6879 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-stroma reaction is associated with activation of fibroblasts. Nemosis is a novel type of fibroblast activation. It leads to an increased production of growth factors and proinflammatory and proteolytic proteins, while at the same time cytoskeletal proteins are degraded. Here we used paired normal skin fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and primary and recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells to study the nemosis response.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fibroblast nemosis was analyzed by protein and gene expression and the paracrine regulation with colony formation assay. One of the normal fibroblast strains, FB-43, upregulated COX-2 in nemosis, but FB-74 cells did not. In contrast, CAF-74 spheroids expressed COX-2 but CAF-43 cells did not. Alpha-SMA protein was expressed in both CAF strains and in FB-74 cells, but not in FB-43 fibroblasts. Its mRNA levels were downregulated in nemosis, but the CAFs started to regain the expression. FSP1 mRNA was downregulated in normal fibroblasts and CAF-74 cells, but not in CAF-43 fibroblasts. Serine protease FAP was upregulated in all fibroblasts, more so in nemotic CAFs. VEGF, HGF/SF and FGF7 mRNA levels were upregulated to variable degree in nemosis. CAFs increased the colony formation of primary tumor cell lines UT-SCC-43A and UT-SCC-74A, but normal fibroblasts inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of recurrent UT-SCC-43B and UT-SCC-74B cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Nemosis response, as observed by COX-2 and growth factor induction, and expression of CAF markers alpha-SMA, FSP1 and FAP, varies between fibroblast populations. The expression of CAF markers differs between normal fibroblasts and CAFs in nemosis. These results emphasize the heterogeneity of fibroblasts and the evolving tumor-promoting properties of CAFs.

Gibcus JH, Tan LP, Harms G, et al.
Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines are characterized by a specific miRNA expression profile.
Neoplasia. 2009; 11(2):167-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is derived from preapoptotic germinal center B cells, although a general loss of B cell phenotype is noted. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and miRNA microarray, we determined the microRNA (miRNA) profile of HL and compared this with the profile of a panel of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The two methods showed a strong correlation for the detection of miRNA expression levels. The HL-specific miRNA included miR-17-92 cluster members, miR-16, miR-21, miR-24, and miR-155. Using a large panel of cell lines, we found differential expression between HL and other B-cell lymphoma-derived cell lines for 27 miRNA. A significant down-regulation in HL compared to non-Hodgkin lymphoma was observed only for miR-150. Next, we performed target gene validation of predicted target genes for miR-155, which is highly expressed in HL and is differentially expressed between HL and Burkitt lymphoma. Using luciferase reporter assays, we validated 11 predicted miR-155 target genes in three different HL cell lines. We demonstrated that AGTR1, FGF7, ZNF537, ZIC3, and IKBKE are true miR-155 target genes in HL.

Habra MA, Jimenez C, Huang SC, et al.
Expression analysis of fibroblast growth factor-23, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, secreted frizzled-related protein-4, and fibroblast growth factor-7: identification of fibroblast growth factor-23 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein as major factors involved in tumor-induced osteomalacia.
Endocr Pract. 2008; 14(9):1108-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of various phosphaturic factors in the tumor of a patient with tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) and to analyze serum levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 in TIO and healthy subjects.
METHODS: We measured serum FGF-23 levels in 2 patients with TIO and 6 healthy volunteers. Expression of FGF-23, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), FGF-7, and secreted frizzled-related protein-4 (sFRP-4) was analyzed in a hemangiopericytoma from a patient with TIO, in a hemangiopericytoma from a patient without TIO, and in various control cell lines.
RESULTS: Serum FGF-23 levels were substantially higher in patients with TIO in comparison with those in healthy control subjects and normalized with successful resection of the tumor. Tissue expression analysis showed preferential expression of FGF-23 and MEPE in TIO-related hemangiopericytoma, whereas FGF-7 and sFRP-4 were widely expressed in all studied cell lines and tissues.
CONCLUSION: These results support the use of FGF-23 measurements for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with TIO. In addition, the specific expression of FGF-23 and MEPE in the TIO-associated tumor suggests an important role of these two phosphatonins in the pathogenesis of TIO. Because of the limited number of patients in our report, further studies are needed to clarify the role of different phosphatonins in the development of the clinical features of TIO.

Narita K, Fujii T, Ishiwata T, et al.
Keratinocyte growth factor induces vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2009; 34(2):355-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), which is also called fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7, belongs to the FGF family. KGF is not commonly produced by human cancer cells, but the KGF receptor (KGFR) is expressed in most cancer cells and particularly highly expressed in well-differentiated types of cancer. Recently, it has been reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression is induced by KGF in pancreatic cancer cells. VEGF-A is produced by some cancer cells and plays important roles in the angiogenesis and metastasis of cancer cells including those in the colorectum. In this study, we examined whether recombinant human KGF (rhKGF) induces major angiogenic growth factors including VEGF-A, FGF-2 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in human colorectal cancer cells (HCT-15), which express a high level of KGFR, but a low or negligible level of KGF. rhKGF significantly increased the VEGF-A expression level in a serum-free medium of HCT-15 cells, but FGF-2 and HGF expression levels were too low to detect. Furthermore, the expression levels of the angiogenic growth factors were evaluated in KGF-transfected HCT-15 cells, which were induced to stably overexpress KGF by KGF gene transfection and mock-transfected cells (Mock). KGF and VEGF-A expression levels in the cells and the protein concentrations in serum-free medium were significantly higher in KGF-transfected HCT-15 cells than in Mock cells. In contrast, the FGF-2 and HGF mRNA expression levels were not significantly different between KGF-transfected HCT-15 cells and Mock cells and the protein concentrations in serum-free medium of the cells were below the detection level. These findings suggest that administration of rhKGF and over-expression of endogenous KGF genes in colorectal cancer cells increase VEGF-A production and may relate to angiogenesis in cancer.

Brake R, Starnes C, Lu J, et al.
Effects of palifermin on antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic and biological agents in human head and neck and colorectal carcinoma xenograft models.
Mol Cancer Res. 2008; 6(8):1337-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa is a common dose-limiting toxicity of several anticancer therapies. Until recently, adequate control of oral mucositis was considered a significant unmet medical need, with most available treatments providing only palliative benefits without protecting the gastrointestinal epithelium from the damaging effects of cancer therapy. In 2005, palifermin [recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)] was approved to decrease the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving myelotoxic therapy requiring hematopoietic stem cell support. Current trials are investigating the use of palifermin in solid tumor settings. The objective of this study was to determine whether combining palifermin with different chemotherapeutic or biological agents affected the antitumor activity of these agents in human head and neck (FaDu) and colorectal (HT29) carcinoma xenograft models. Nude CD1 mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) of either FaDu or HT29 cells, which express both KGF and epithelial growth factor receptors. Animals were treated with palifermin in various combinations with chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) and/or biological (bevacizumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab) agents. Palifermin alone had no effect on either FaDu or HT29 tumor growth. Palifermin did not affect the therapeutic efficacy of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, cetuximab, bevacizumab, or panitumumab in any of the two- or three-way drug combinations tested in either model. The results of this study showed that palifermin did not promote the growth of two carcinoma cell lines that express functional KGF receptors and did not protect these tumor cells from the antitumor effects of several chemotherapeutic and biological agents.

Katoh M
Cancer genomics and genetics of FGFR2 (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(2):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
FGFR2 gene encodes FGFR2b in epithelial cells, and FGFR2c in mesenchymal cells. FGFR2b is a high affinity receptor for FGF1, FGF3, FGF7, FGF10 and FGF22, while FGFR2c for FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF6, FGF9, FGF16 and FGF20. Here genomics and genetics of FGFR2, and therapeutics targeted to FGFR2 will be reviewed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FGFR2 are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Gene amplification or missense mutation of FGFR2 occurs in gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer. Genetic alterations of FGFR2 induce aberrant FGFR2 signaling activation due to release of FGFR2 from autoinhibition, or creation of FGF signaling autocrine loop. Class switch of FGFR2b to FGFR2c is associated with more malignant phenotype. FGF and canonical WNT signals synergize during mammary carcinogenesis, but counteract during osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Among PD173074, SU5402, and AZD2171 functioning as FGFR inhibitors, AZD2171 is the most promising anti-cancer drug. Cancer genomics and genetics are utilized to predict cancer-driving pathway for therapeutic optimization. FGFR2ome is defined as a complete data set of SNP, copy number variation (CNV), missense mutation, gene amplification, and predominant isoform of FGFR2. FGFR2ome analyses in patients with several tumor types among various populations should be carried out to establish integrative database of FGFR2 for the rational clinical application of FGFR2-targeted cancer therapy.

Rotolo S, Ceccarelli S, Romano F, et al.
Silencing of keratinocyte growth factor receptor restores 5-fluorouracil and tamoxifen efficacy on responsive cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2008; 3(6):e2528 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) is a splice variant of the FGFR2 gene expressed in epithelial cells. Activation of KGFR is a key factor in the regulation of physiological processes in epithelial cells such as proliferation, differentiation and wound healing. Alterations of KGFR signaling have been linked to the pathogenesis of different epithelial tumors. It has been also hypothesized that its specific ligand, KGF, might contribute to the development of resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in epithelial cancers and tamoxifen in estrogen-positive breast cancers.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Small interfering RNA was transfected into a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), a breast cancer derived cell line (MCF-7) and a keratinocyte primary culture (KCs) to induce selective downregulation of KGFR expression. A strong and highly specific reduction of KGFR expression was observed at both RNA (reduction = 75.7%, P = 0.009) and protein level. KGFR silenced cells showed a reduced responsiveness to KGF treatment as assessed by measuring proliferation rate (14.2% versus 39.0% of the control cells, P<0.001) and cell migration (24.6% versus 96.4% of the control cells, P = 0.009). In mock-transfected MCF-7 cells, KGF counteracts the capacity of 5-FU to inhibit cell proliferation, whereas in KGFR silenced cells KGF weakly interferes with 5-FU antiproliferative effect (11.2% versus 28.4% of the control cells, P = 0.002). The capacity of 5-FU to induce cell death is abrogated by co-treatment with KGF, whereas in KGFR silenced cells 5-FU efficiently induces cell death even combined to KGF, as determined by evaluating cell viability. Similarly, the capacity of tamoxifen to inhibit MCF-7 and KCs proliferation is highly reduced by KGF treatment and is completely restored in KGFR silenced cells (12.3% versus 45.5% of the control cells, P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that selective inhibition of the KGF/KGFR pathway may provide a useful tool to ameliorate the efficacy of the therapeutic strategies for certain epithelial tumors.

Litovkin KV, Ivanova OV, Bauer A, et al.
Microarray study of gene expression in uterine leiomyoma.
Exp Oncol. 2008; 30(2):106-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Uterine leiomyoma is a most common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. It arises from the myometrial compartment of the uterus and may transform in some cases to a malignant phenotype.
AIM: To identify the genes involved in pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma.
METHODS: We have studied differential gene expression in matched tissue samples of leiomyoma and normal myometrium from the very same people utilizing a cDNA microarray screening method. We also compared our results with previously published microarray data to identify the overlapping gene alterations.
RESULTS: Based on this comparison we can divide genes deregulated in our study into two groups. The first group comprises genes that to our knowledge have not been previously reported as deregulated in fibroids: CLDN1, FGF7 (KGF), HNRPM, ISOC1, MAGEC1 (CT7), MAPK12, RFC, TIE1, TNFRSF21 (DR6). The second group consists of genes identified also in previous studies: CCND1 (BCL1), CDKN1A (P21), CRABP2, FN1 and SOX4 (EVI16). In our study FN1 was the most up-regulated gene, occupying the place between the myometrium and fibroids ranging from 2.07 to 3.64, depending of the probe molecule used for detection.
CONCLUSIONS: Newly identified genes may be regarded as potential diagnostic or prognostic markers of uterine leiomyoma and thus may be very useful as new therapeutic candidates.

Zhu X, Asa SL, Ezzat S
Fibroblast growth factor 2 and estrogen control the balance of histone 3 modifications targeting MAGE-A3 in pituitary neoplasia.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(7):1984-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Four members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family transduce signals of a diverse group of FGF ligands. The FGFR2-IIIb isoform is abundantly present in the normal pituitary gland with contrasting down-regulation in neoplastic pituitary cells. cDNA profiling identified the cancer-testis antigen melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) as a putative target negatively regulated by FGFR2.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Comparisons were made between normal and neoplastic human and mouse pituitary cells. Gene expression was examined by reverse transcription-PCR, DNA methylation was determined by methylation-specific PCR and combined bisulfite restriction analysis, and histone modification marks were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Normal human pituitary tissue that expresses FGFR2-IIIb does not express MAGE-A3; in contrast, pituitary tumors that are FGFR2 negative show abundant MAGE-A3 mRNA expression. MAGE-A3 expression correlates with the presence and extent of DNA promoter methylation; more frequent and higher-degree methylation is present in the normal gland compared with pituitary tumors. Conversely, pituitary tumors are hypomethylated, particularly in females where MAGE-A3 expression is nearly thrice higher than in males. Estradiol treatment induces MAGE-A3 through enhanced histone 3 acetylation and diminished methylation. The effects of estradiol are directly opposed by FGF7/FGFR2-IIIb. Down-regulation of MAGE-A3 results in p53 transcriptional induction, also through reciprocal histone acetylation and methylation modifications.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight MAGE-A3 as a target of FGFR2-IIIb and estrogen action and provide evidence for a common histone-modifying network in the control of the balance between opposing signals.

Ishikawa A, Kudo M, Nakazawa N, et al.
Expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in human endometrial cancer in cooperation with steroid hormones.
Int J Oncol. 2008; 32(3):565-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The keratinocyte factor (KGF) and its receptor (KGFR) are implicated in tissue development and repair. We studied the expression and functions of KGF and KGFR in association with estrogen and progesterone in human endometrial tissues and cells. In non-cancerous human endometrial tissues in the secretory phase, a strong immunoreactivity of KGF in glands, stromal cells, and smooth muscle cells of spiral arteries was detected; however, in proliferative-phase tissues, the immunoreactivity of KGF or KGFR was weak or absent. Most of the 32 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases showed positive KGF and KGFR stainings (90.6 and 71.9%, respectively). We then studied, using Ishikawa well-differentiated human endometrial cancer cell line that expresses estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), the expression of KGF and KGFR in conjunction with estrogen and progesterone, and observed that the KGFR expression of Ishikawa cells was upregulated by estrogen and that this upregulation was markedly enhanced by the coadministration of progesterone. We also observed that KGF administration to cells, with KGFR upregulated expression, stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell adhesion to fibronectin. The implications of the hormone-stimulated KGF-KGFR expressions in the regulation of cell behavior associated with human endometrial cancer are discussed.

Mas VR, Maluf DG, Archer KJ, et al.
Angiogenesis soluble factors as hepatocellular carcinoma noninvasive markers for monitoring hepatitis C virus cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation.
Transplantation. 2007; 84(10):1262-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Physiological angiogenesis occurs during liver regeneration, leading to the formation of new functional sinusoids. Pathological angiogenesis occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenic factors in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-HCC tissues and the utility of angiogenesis soluble factors as noninvasive markers of HCC and tumor growth.
METHODS: Thirty-eight HCV-HCC tumors with 10 corresponding nontumor cirrhotic tissues, as well as 42 independent HCV cirrhotic and 6 normal liver tissues were studied using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Human angiogenesis microarray was used for the protein detection of EGF, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, HGF, angiopn-1, angiopn-2, VEGF-A, IP-10, PDGF, KGF, angiogenin, VEGF-D, ICAM-1, and FGF in plasma samples from 40 patients (30 HCCs and 10 HCV cirrhosis).
RESULTS: From the gene expression analysis of the HCV-HCC tumors compared to normal livers, we found an important number of genes related to angiogenesis differentially expressed (alpha=0.01), including VEGF, PDGF, AGPTL2, ANG, EGFL6, EGFR, angiopn-1, angiopn-2, ICAM2, TIMP-2, among others. Moreover, angiogenic genes were also differentially expressed when HCV-HCC samples were compared to HCV cirrhotic tissues (alpha=0.01; VEGF, EGFL3, EGFR, VEGFB, among others). Ten out of 14 angiogenic proteins analyzed were statistically differentially expressed between HCV cirrhosis and HCV-HCC groups (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, HGF, angiopn-1, angiopn-2, VEGF-A, IP-10, PDGF, KGF, and FGF; P<0.05). In addition, we observed that angiopn-2 was the most significant predictor (area under the curve: 0.83).
CONCLUSION: Differentially expressed angiogenesis genes were observed between HCV patients with and without HCC. Soluble angiogenic factors might be useful for monitoring high-risk HCV patients.

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