Gene Summary

Gene:ENDOU; endonuclease, poly(U) specific
Aliases: P11, PP11, PRSS26
Summary:This gene encodes a protein with protease activity and is expressed in the placenta. The protein may be useful as a tumor marker. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:poly(U)-specific endoribonuclease
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: ENDOU (cancer-related)

Capela de Matos RR, Ney Garcia DR, Othman MAK, et al.
A New Complex Karyotype Involving a KMT2A-r Variant Three-Way Translocation in a Rare Clinical Presentation of a Pediatric Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2019; 157(4):213-219 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with complex karyotypes (CKs) have a dismal outcome. However, for patients with a KMT2A rearrangement (KMT2A-r), the prognosis appears to depend on the fusion partner gene rather than the karyotype structure. Thus, a precise characterization of KMT2A-r and the fusion partner genes, especially in CKs, is of interest for managing AML. We describe the clinical and molecular features of a child who presented with a large abdominal mass, AML, and a new CK, involving chromosomes 11, 16, and 19 leading to a KMT2A-MLLT1 fusion and 2 extra copies of the ELL gene, thus resulting in the concurrent overexpression of MLLT1 and ELL. Molecular cytogenetic studies defined the karyotype as 47,XY,der(11)t(11;16)(q23.3;p11.2),der(16)t(16;19)(p11.2;p13.3),der(19)t(11;19)(q23.3;p13.3),+der(19)t(16;19)(16pter→p11.2::19p13.3→19q11::19p11→19p13.3::16p11.2→16pter). Array CGH revealed a gain of 30.5 Mb in the 16p13.3p11.2 region and a gain of 18.1 Mb in the 19p13.3p12 region. LDI-PCR demonstrated the KMT2A-MLLT1 fusion. Reverse sequence analysis showed that the MLLT1 gene was fused to the 16p11.2 region. RT-qPCR quantification revealed that ELL and MLLT1 were overexpressed (4- and 10-fold, respectively). In summary, this is a pediatric case of AML presenting a novel complex t(11;16;19) variant with overexpression of ELL and MLLT1.

Daniele G, L'Abbate A, Turchiano A, et al.
1q23.1 homozygous deletion and downregulation of Fc receptor-like family genes confer poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Clin Exp Med. 2019; 19(2):261-267 [PubMed] Related Publications
The identification of chromosome 1 translocations and deletions is a rare and poorly investigated event in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Nevertheless, the identification of novel additional molecular alterations is of great interest, opening to new prognostic and therapeutic strategies for such heterogeneous hematological disease. We here describe a patient affected by CLL with a mutated IGHV status, showing a balanced t(1;3)(q23.1;q21.3) translocation and a der(18)t(1;18)(q24.2;p11.32), accompanying the recurrent 13q14 heterozygous deletion in all analyzed cells at onset. By combining whole-genome sequencing, SNP array, RNA sequencing, and FISH analyses, we defined a 1q23.1 biallelic minimally deleted region flanking translocations breakpoints at both derivative chromosome 1 homologues. The deletion resulted in the downregulation of the Fc receptor-like family genes FCRL1, FCRL2, and FCRL3 and in the lack of expression of FCRL5, observed by RT-qPCR. The mutational status of TP53, NOTCH1, SF3B1, MYD88, FBXW7, and XPO1 was investigated by targeted next-generation sequencing, detecting a frameshift deletion within NOTCH1 (c.7544_7545delCT). We hypothesize a loss of tumor suppressor function for FCRL genes, cooperating with NOTCH1 mutation and 13q14 genomic loss in our patient, both conferring a negative prognosis, independently from the known biological prognostic factors of CLL.

Zerkalenkova E, Lebedeva S, Kazakova A, et al.
Acute myeloid leukemia with t(10;11)(p11-12;q23.3): Results of Russian Pediatric AML registration study.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2019; 41(2):287-292 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Translocations involving the KMT2A gene (also known as MLL) are frequently diagnosed in pediatric acute leukemia cases with either lymphoblastic or myeloid origin. KMT2A is translocated to multiple partner genes, including MLLT10/AF10 localizing at chromosomal band 10p12. KMT2A-MLLT10 is one of the common chimeric genes diagnosed in acute leukemia with KMT2A rearrangement (8%), especially in acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 18%). MLLT10 is localized in very close proximity to two other KMT2A partner genes at 10p11-12-NEBL and ABI1, so they could not be distinguished by conventional cytogenetics.
METHODS: In this work, we present a cohort of 28 patients enrolled into Russian Pediatric AML registration study carrying rearrangements between chromosomal regions 11q23.3 and 10p11-12. G-banding, FISH, reverse transcription PCR, and long-distance inverse PCR were used to characterize the KMT2A gene rearrangements in these patients.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that 25 patients harbor the KMT2A-MLLT10 rearrangement, while three patients show the rare KMT2A rearrangements (2× KMT2A-NEBL; 1× KMT2A-ABI1).
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the combination of cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods is of high importance in diagnosing cases with t(10;11)(p11-12;q23.3).

Fry EA, Inoue K
c-MYB and DMTF1 in Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(1):46-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
The c-Myb gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through protein-protein interaction and transcriptional regulation of signaling pathways. The protein is frequently overexpressed in human leukemias, breast cancers, and other solid tumors suggesting that it is a bona fide oncogene. c-MYB is often overexpressed by translocation in human tumors with t(6;7)(q23;q34) resulting in c-MYB-TCRβ in T cell ALL, t(X;6)(p11;q23) with c-MYB-GATA1 in acute basophilic leukemia, and t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24) with c-MYB-NF1B in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Antisense oligonucleotides to c-MYB were developed to purge bone marrow cells to eliminate tumor cells in leukemias. Recently, small molecules that inhibit c-MYB activity have been developed to disrupt its interaction with p300. The Dmp1 (cyclin D binding myb-like protein 1; Dmtf1) gene was isolated through its virtue for binding to cyclin D2. It is a transcription factor that has a Myb-like repeat for DNA binding. The Dmtf1 protein directly binds to the Arf promoter for transactivation and physically interacts with p53 to activate the p53 pathway. The gene is hemizygously deleted in 35-42% of human cancers and is associated with longer survival. The significances of aberrant expression of c-MYB and DMTF1 proteins in human cancers and their clinical significances are discussed.

Brassesco MS, Valera ET, Meyer C, et al.
A new complex rearrangement in infant ALL: t(X;11;17)(p11.2;q23;q12).
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:110-114 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a case of an infant who developed pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a rare and complex MLL-translocation. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells at diagnosis showed a 46,XY,t(X;11)(p11.2;q23)[13]/46,XY[7] karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a break apart specific probes showed a split in the MLL gene. Long distance inverse-PCR and next generation sequencing analysis depicted a complex rearrangement t(X;11;17)(p11.2;q23;q12) involving MLL, MLLT6 and the genomic region Xp11.23, 41 bases upstream of the WDR45 gene. WDR45 encodes a beta-propeller protein essential for autophagocytosis. MLL rearrangements with involvement of Xp have not been previously described.

Nicola M, Onorati M, Bertola G, et al.
Primary thyroid biphasic synovial sarcoma and synchronous papillary carcinoma: report of a remarkable case.
Pathologica. 2018; 110(2):106-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial Sarcoma (SS) is the fourth most common soft tissue sarcoma, characterized by translocation t(X;18) (p11.2;q11.2). Although its histological features have been extensively described, this entity is characterized by a wide morphological spectrum so that the recognition can be very challenging at atypical anatomical localization, like the thyroid. We describe a case of a 42-ys-old female patient complaining a cervical swelling due to left intrathyroid nodule, measuring 35 mm in its greatest dimension. A Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed and diagnosis of indeterminate neoplastic lesion, indefinite whether primary or metastatic, was formulated. After complete thyroidectomy, the histological picture of the nodule was characterized by a dual cellular population: several glandular structures composed by columnar cells with clear cytoplasm were embedded in a highly cellular stroma composed of spindle-shaped elements. Immunohistochemistry and molecular biology confirmed the morphological suspicion of SS identifying the fusion transcript SYT-SSX1 and thus ruling out several differential diagnoses which include more common thyroid malignancies. Moreover a synchronous papillary microcarcinoma was detected in the controlateral lobe.
This case is noteworthy since it describes the synchronous presence in the thyroid of two completely different malignancies, the first one belonging to the soft tissue neoplasm category and the other one originating from the thyroid follicular epithelium.

Pazzaglia L, Pollino S, Vitale M, et al.
miR‑494.3p expression in synovial sarcoma: Role of CXCR4 as a potential target gene.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):361-369 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare tumour, with dismal survival when metastasis occurs. SS contains a characteristic translocation (X;18)(p11;q11) and the fusion genes appear to be mutually exclusive and concordant in primary and metastatic tumours. Novel prognostic and predictive factors are required. The C‑X‑C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/C‑X‑C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis is involved in tumour development and metastatic spread in many types of cancer and previous data have demonstrated a pivotal role of CXCR4 in SS cell migration and invasion. Bioinformatics and biological data indicated CXCR4 is a possible candidate target of miR‑494.3p, known to be involved in tumour progression. In this study, we analysed the expression of miR‑494.3p and its potential target, CXCR4, in a series of SS specimens. A significantly lower miR‑494.3p expression was found in the tumour compared to normal tissue associated with higher levels of CXCR4 both at the gene and protein level. The role of CXCR4 as a potential target of miR‑494.3p was assessed in two SS cell lines (SW982 and SYO‑I). Transfection with miR‑494.3p expression plasmid led to a marked decrease in CXCR4 gene and protein expression, concomitant with a transitory decrease in cell proliferation and migration. The SYO‑I cells also responded with an increased apoptotic fraction. The data of this study also demonstrate that the downregulation of miR‑494.3p in SS surgical specimens, concomitant with an increased expression of its potential target, CXCR4, was more evident in the metastatic subset. In vitro experiments confirmed that miR‑494.3p functioned as a tumour suppressor through the involvement of CXCR4 and ongoing studies are directed to better clarify its role in SS therapeutic strategies.

Lupicki K, Elifio-Esposito S, Fonseca AS, et al.
Patterns of copy number alterations in primary breast tumors of South African patients and their impact on functional cellular pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2745-2757 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common and the leading cause of female mortality among South African (SA) women. Several non‑biological and biological risk factors may be attributed to their observed high mortality rate; however, the molecular profiles associated with their breast tumors are poorly characterized. The present study examined the patterns of genome-wide copy number alterations (CNAs) and their potential impact on functional cellular pathways targeted by cancer driver genes in patients with breast cancer from the Western Cape region of SA. Array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis, performed in 28 cases of invasive breast cancer, revealed a mean number of 8.68±6.18 CNAs per case, affecting primarily the Xp22.3 and 6p21-p25 cytobands (57.14% of the cases), followed by 19p13.3-p13.11 (35.7%), 2p25.3-p24.3, 4p16.3-p15.3, 8q11.1-q24.3 and 16 p13.3-p11.2 (32.14%). Functional enrichment analysis of genes and microRNA targets mapped in these affected cytobands revealed critical cancer-associated pathways, including fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, hippo and tumor protein p53 signaling pathways, which are regulated by known cancer genes, including CCND1, CDKN1A, MAPK1, MDM2, TP53 and SMAD2. An inverse correlation was observed among the number of CNAs and tumor size and grade; CNAs on the 4p and 6p cytobands were also inversely correlated with tumor grade. No association was observed in the number of CNAs and/or the affected cytobands and the different ethnic groups of the SA patients, indicating that their tumor genome is affected by CNAs, irrespectively of their genetic descent. Additional genomic tumor profiling in SA and other Sub-Saharan African patients with breast cancer is required to determine the associations of the CNAs observed with prognosis and clinical outcome.

Natarajan V, Ramanathan P, Gopisetty G, et al.
In silico and in vitro screening of small molecule Inhibitors against SYT-SSX1 fusion protein in synovial sarcoma.
Comput Biol Chem. 2018; 77:36-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is characterized by a tumour specific chromosomal translocation t(X;18) (p11;q11) which results in the formation of SYT-SSX1 fusion protein. This fusion protein represents a clear therapeutic target and molecules specifically targeting SYT-SSX1 fusion protein are currently not available. In this study, SYT-SSX1 fusion protein sequence was retrieved from Uniprot and 3D structure was generated using I-TASSER modeling program. A structure based computational screening approach has been employed using Glide docking software to identify potential SYT-SSX1 small molecule inhibitors that bind to the junction region of the fusion protein. The obtained inhibitors were further filtered based on the docking score and ADME/T properties. Ten best fit compounds were chosen for in vitro studies. The anti-proliferative activities of these 10 compounds were screened in Yamato, ASKA (carries SYT-SSX1 fusion protein) and other sarcoma cell lines such as A673, 143B to understand the specificity of inhibition of the chosen compounds. The in vitro activity was compared against HEK293 cell lines. The compound 5-fluoro-3-(1-phenyl-1H-tetraazol-5-yl)-1H-indole (FPTI) was found to be selectively cytotoxic in synovial sarcoma cell lines (Yamato and ASKA) and this compound also showed insignificant anti proliferative activity on other cell lines. Further, target gene expression study confirmed that FPTI treatment down-regulated SYT-SSX1 and modulated its downstream target genes. Cell cycle analysis revealed the involvement of an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Further experimental validations may elucidate the therapeutic potentials of FPTI against SYT-SSX1 fusion protein.

Bibi F, Ali I, Naseer MI, et al.
Detection of genetic alterations in gastric cancer patients from Saudi Arabia using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0202576 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to discover genetic imbalances such as DNA copy number variations (CNVs) associated with gastric cancer (GC) and to examine their association with different genes involved in the process of gastric carcinogenesis in Saudi population.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues samples from 33 gastric cancer patients and 15 normal gastric samples were collected. Early and late stages GC samples were genotyped and CNVs were assessed by using Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad v.1.0 BeadChip.
RESULTS: Copy number gains were more frequent than losses throughout all GC samples compared to normal tissue samples. The mean number of the altered chromosome per case was 64 for gains and 40 for losses, and the median aberration length was 679115bp for gains and 375889bp for losses. We identified 7 high copy gain, 52 gains, 14 losses, 32 homozygous losses, and 10 copy neutral LOHs (loss of heterozygosities). Copy number gains were frequently detected at 1p36.32, 1q12, 1q22, 2p11.1, 4q23-q25, 5p12-p11, 6p21.33, 9q12-q21.11, 12q11-q12, 14q32.33, 16p13.3, 17p13.1, 17q25.3, 19q13.32, and losses at 1p36.23, 1p36.32, 1p32.1, 1q44, 3q25.2, 6p22.1, 6p21.33, 8p11.22, 10q22.1, 12p11.22, 14q32.12 and 16q24.2. We also identified 2 monosomy at chromosome 14 and 22, 52 partially trisomy and 22 whole chromosome 4 neutral loss of heterozygosities at 13q14.2-q21.33, 5p15.2-p15.1, 5q11.2-q13.2, 5q33.1-q34 and 3p14.2-q13.12. Furthermore, 11 gains and 2 losses at 1p36.32 were detected for 11 different GC samples and this region has not been reported before in other populations. Statistical analysis confirms significant association of H. pylori infection with T4 stage of GC as compare to control and other stages.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that high frequency of copy number gains and losses at 1p36.23, 1p32.1, 1p36.32, 3q25.2, 6p21.33 and 16q24.2 may be common events in gastric cancer. While novel CNVs at 1p36.32 harbouring PRDM16, TP73 and TP73-AS1 genes showed 11 gains and 2 losses for 11 different GC cases and this region is not reported yet in Database of Genomic Variants may be specific to Saudi population.

Noort S, Zimmermann M, Reinhardt D, et al.
Prognostic impact of t(16;21)(p11;q22) and t(16;21)(q24;q22) in pediatric AML: a retrospective study by the I-BFM Study Group.
Blood. 2018; 132(15):1584-1592 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
To study the prognostic relevance of rare genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), such as t(16;21), international collaboration is required. Two different types of t(16;21) translocations can be distinguished: t(16;21)(p11;q22), resulting in the

Roberts I, Fordham NJ, Rao A, Bain BJ
Neonatal leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 182(2):170-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neonatal leukaemia is defined as occurring within the first 28 days of life and most, if not all, cases are congenital. With the exception of Down syndrome-associated transient abnormal myelopoiesis, which is not considered here, neonatal leukaemias are rare. In two-thirds of patients the disease manifests as an acute myeloid leukaemia, frequently with monocytic/monoblastic characteristics. Most other cases are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, particularly B lineage, but some are mixed phenotype or blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms. The most frequently observed cytogenetic/molecular abnormality is t(4;11)(q21.3;q23.3)/KMT2A-AFF1 followed by t(1;22)(p13.3;q13.1)/RBM15-MKL1 and t(8;16)(p11.2;p13.3)/KAT6A-CREBBP. Common clinical features include prominent hepatosplenomegaly and a high incidence of skin involvement, sometimes in the absence of bone marrow disease. A distinctive feature is the occurrence of spontaneous remission in some cases, particularly in association with t(8;16). In this review, we summarise current knowledge of the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular features of neonatal leukaemia and discuss clinical management of these cases.

Liu G, Lu X, Kim YM, et al.
Simultaneous involvement of 11q23 translocation resulting in chimeric MLL-AFF1 and a second translocation [t (9;21) (p13; p11.2)] in an infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient at relapse: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(21):e10874 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Three-way translocations occasionally occur in MLL-AFF1 fusion and other fusion gene. However, the complex chromosomal rearrangements in the study were the first report.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We present novel cryptic and complex chromosomal rearrangements [der (21) t (9; 21) (p13; p11.2)] in an infant patient with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis was based on morphologic, cytochemical, and immunophenotypic criteria proposed by the French-American-British Committee, and karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, array comparative genomic hybridization.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient was given chemotherapy with standard protocol for ALL.
OUTCOMES: The patient had unfavorable prognostic outcome based on the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic markers. After short remission, the patient relapsed.
LESSONS: MLL-AFF1, resulting from t(4;11)(q21;q23), is regarded as the hallmark of infant t(4;11) pre-B/mixed B-ALL. It is associated with a dismal prognosis and the multiple-way translocation involving chromosomes 4, 11 and 11 may function as an enhancer.

Alegría-Landa V, Nájera L, Massa DS, et al.
Primary Subcutaneous Synovial Sarcoma: First Reported Subcutaneous Case Showing TLE1 Immunoreactivity.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2018; 40(10):772-777 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for 5%-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. It is a well-defined soft tissue neoplasm with biphasic and monophasic histologic subtypes and unknown histogenesis. It usually occurs in the extremities, especially the thigh-knee region of young adults. Recurrences are frequent and distant metastasis developed in approximately half of the patients. SSs are characterized by a recurrent nonrandom chromosomal translocation, t(X; 18) (p11; q11), which is considered the primary genetic event in more than 90% of cases. Only 4 cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous SSs have been published in the literature so far. We report a case of primary subcutaneous SS in the forearm of a young woman and discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis with other similar neoplasms. This is the first reported case of primary cutaneous SS showing immunoreactivity for TLE1 in the nuclei of neoplastic cells, supporting the use of this marker for diagnosis of this rare cutaneous neoplasm.

Han Q, Lu J, Wang J, et al.
H2AFY is a novel fusion partner of MECOM in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 222-223:9-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MECOM gene encoding a zinc finger protein that functions as a transcription factor, was located on chromosome 3q26, and rearrangements of MECOM often cause its overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We identified H2AFY as a novel fusion gene partner of MECOM in an elderly male AML patient with cryptic 3q26 rearrangement using the whole transcriptome sequencing, who carried out abnormal karyotype of 46,XY,t(3;5)(q27;q31),add(14)(p11). We validated the existence of the unreported H2AFY-MECOM fusion gene by RT-PCR and Sanger DNA sequencing, and detected mutations of NRAS and BCOR in this patient. In addition, we found abnormally elevated expression of MECOM in this patient by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). Further research is needed to investigate functional characterizations of this novel fusion in the development of AML.

Renault AL, Mebirouk N, Fuhrmann L, et al.
Morphology and genomic hallmarks of breast tumours developed by ATM deleterious variant carriers.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management.
METHODS: To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material.
RESULTS: We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological characteristics and genomic alterations, and they are also distinguishable from sporadic breast tumours, thus opening up the possibility to identify ATM variant carriers outside the ataxia-telangiectasia disorder and direct them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies.

Lv H, Hu S, Lu J, et al.
Precursor T-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Associated with t(8;9)(p11.2;q33): A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 139(3):176-182 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with chromosomal translocations involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome 8p11-12. A new case of a 9-year-old boy with leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and general lymphadenopathy is reported in this study. Bone marrow examination showed eosinophilic hyperplasia, with blast cells amounting to 6-7%. Karyotyping revealed cytogenetic abnormalities, including t(8;9)(p11.2;q3?3). Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the FGFR1 gene rearrangement yielded positive results. Lymph node biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. The patient responded to chemotherapy, and unmatched related bone marrow transplantation was performed. A successful outcome was obtained with complete cytogenetic remission maintained for 14 months to date. In the future, FGFR1 inhibitors might be specific and effective therapeutic targets for EMS. Similar cases from the literature are reviewed.

Achkar T, Ali SM, Welsh A, et al.
A prolonged response to platinum-based therapy in a patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma harboring a single rearranged and truncated NF2 gene.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(8):430-433 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor genome sequencing has become an invaluable resource in determining targets for new therapies. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. Sarcomatoid differentiation is a rare histologic subtype that confers a more aggressive course. The first-line treatment for patients with urothelial carcinoma is platinum-based chemotherapy. Next generation tumor sequencing performed using the FoundationOne assay revealed loss of one NF2 allele and an unbalanced der(22)t(10;22)(p11.22;q12.2) chromosomal rearrangement involving the other NF2 allele, resulting in truncation and predicted loss of function. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the presence of one NF2 signal. NF2 mutations have been found in a variety of cancers and result in activation of the mTOR pathway. As such, the use of mTOR inhibitors, such as everolimus are thought to be particularly effective in the case of NF2 loss. Our patient had a dramatic response to first-line chemotherapy, but unfortunately experienced subsequent progression of his cancer and could not tolerate everolimus. Although our patient's tumor demonstrated unique acquired genetic features including both loss of heterozygosity and truncation of the NF2 locus, he still achieved a meaningful response to platinum-based chemotherapy.

Zerkalenkova E, Panfyorova A, Kazakova A, et al.
Molecular characteristic of acute leukemias with t(16;21)/FUS-ERG.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(6):977-988 [PubMed] Related Publications
T(16;21)(p11;q22)/FUS-ERG is a rare but recurrent translocation in acute leukemias and in some types of solid tumors. Due to multiple types of FUS-ERG transcripts, PCR-based minimal residual disease detection is impeded. In this study, we evaluated a cohort of pediatric patients with t(16;21)(p11;q22)/FUS-ERG and revealed fusion gene breakpoints. We implemented next-generation sequencing (NGS) on long PCR amplicons for the detection of fusion genes with unknown partners or DNA breakpoints. That allowed us to describe different fusion variants of FUS/ERG in different patients and to detect MRD on both RNA and DNA levels. We also found several accompanying mutations in epigenetic regulators (DNMT3A, ASXL1, BCOR) by targeted NGS approach in AML cases. These mutations preceded full transformation by t(16;21)(p11;q22)/FUS-ERG and allowed us to trace clonal evolution on all steps of therapy. As a casual observation, the ASXL1 mutation was found in the unrelated donor hematopoietic cells.

Yamamoto K, Kawamoto S, Kurata K, et al.
MYC Amplification in the Form of Ring Chromosomes 8 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(11;16)(q13;p11.2).
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2017; 153(3):131-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogene amplification is uncommon in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cytogenetically, it is primarily found as double minute chromosomes (dmin) or homogeneously staining regions (hsr). A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Her bone marrow was hypercellular with 78.6% myeloperoxidase- positive blasts. Some had micronuclei. The patient was diagnosed with AML M2 and remains in complete remission (CR) after induction therapy. G-banding at diagnosis showed 51,XX,t(11;16)(q13;p11.2),+r1,+mar1×4. Spectral karyotyping confirmed t(11;16) and revealed that the ring and the marker chromosomes were derived from multiple copies of ring chromosome 8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a MYC probe at 8q24 detected amplified MYC signals on 1 large and 4 small ring chromosomes 8. One MYC signal was deleted from one of the 2 chromosomes 8. FISH with a FUS probe at 16p11.2 showed monoallelic deletion of FUS. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated MYC protein overexpression at diagnosis and almost negative expression in CR. These results indicate that MYC amplification could occur in ring chromosomes without dmin. A cryptic MYC deletion suggests that an episome model could be applicable to MYC amplification in ring chromosomes as observed for dmin and hsr. Furthermore, considering 2 further reported cases, t(11;16)(q13;p11) may be a very rare but recurrent translocation in AML.

Herrera-Goepfert R
Postradiation Synovial Sarcoma of the Common Bile Duct: A Previously Unreported Anatomic Site.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2018; 26(5):469-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma is a ubiquitous neoplasm predominantly affecting soft tissues of young adults of any gender; few cases have been described in the digestive system, mostly in the stomach. The (X;18)(p11.2; q11.2) translocation yields unique SS18-SSX fusion genes. Synovial sarcoma has been related to radiotherapy, but no synovial sarcoma has been associated with the digestive system. This article describes the case of a synovial sarcoma arising along the extrahepatic biliary tree, 10 years after the application of an abdominal radiotherapy schedule due to a retroperitoneal metastatic seminoma in a male who developed progressive obstructive jaundice. Ninety percent of the analyzed cells carried the SS18 gene with separation of sequences, thus denoting a translocation. There are only 8 post-radiotherapy synovial sarcomas that have been reported previously, and this is the first report of a radiotherapy-related synovial sarcoma arising from the extrahepatic biliary tree, and the second case described in this anatomic region.

Cormerais Y, Massard PA, Vucetic M, et al.
The glutamine transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) promotes tumor growth independently of the amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5).
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(8):2877-2887 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
The transporters for glutamine and essential amino acids, ASCT2 (solute carrier family 1 member 5, SLC1A5) and LAT1 (solute carrier family 7 member 5, SLC7A5), respectively, are overexpressed in aggressive cancers and have been identified as cancer-promoting targets. Moreover, previous work has suggested that glutamine influx via ASCT2 triggers essential amino acids entry

Hoang L, Chiang S, Lee CH
Endometrial stromal sarcomas and related neoplasms: new developments and diagnostic considerations.
Pathology. 2018; 50(2):162-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our understanding of endometrial stromal sarcomas has evolved dramatically since their earliest descriptions from over a century ago. Initial studies focused on establishing the relationship between histological appearances of endometrial stromal sarcomas and their clinical outcomes. Studies performed in the last decade have uncovered several recurrent cytogenetic aberrations occurring in low- and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas bear close histopathological resemblance to proliferative-type endometrial stroma, and approximately half harbour t(7;17)(p15;q21) resulting in JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Less common JAZF1-PHF1, EPC1-PHF1, MEAF6-PHF1, and MBTD1-CXorf67 fusions have also been reported. The term 'high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma' was recently re-introduced in the classification of endometrial stromal tumours after the discovery of t(10;17)(q22;p13) resulting in YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusion and is associated with distinct morphological characteristics. This review highlights the evolution of endometrial stromal sarcoma classification schemes over time and describes the salient clinicopathological and molecular features of endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. It also describes the recent characterisation of endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(X;22)(p11;q13) resulting in ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, a noteworthy entity due to its close histological resemblance to myxoid leiomyosarcoma. We also provide insights into common challenging scenarios encountered when assessing endometrial stromal lesions in daily surgical pathology practice.

Abe A, Yamamoto Y, Katsumi A, et al.
Rearrangement of VPS13B, a causative gene of Cohen syndrome, in a case of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 leukemia with t(8;12;21).
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(2):208-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Variant chromosomal translocations associated with t(8;21) are observed in 3-4% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases with a RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene. However, the molecular events that occur in variants of t(8;21) are not well characterized. In the present study, we report genetic features of a variant three-way translocation of t(8;12;21)(q22;p11;q22) in a patient with AML. In this patient, leukemia cells lacked azurophilic granules, which does not correspond with the classic features of t(8;21). RNA-seq analysis revealed that TM7SF3 at 12p11 was fused to VPS13B at 8q22 and VPS13B to RUNX1, in addition to RUNX1-RUNX1T1. VPS13B was located near RUNX1T1 and both were localized at the same chromosomal bands. The reading frames of TM7SF3 and VPS13B did not match to those of VPS13B and RUNX1, respectively. Disruption of VPS13B causes Cohen syndrome, which presents intermittent neutropenia with a left-shifted granulopoiesis in the bone marrow. Disruption of VPS13B may thus cause the unusual features of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 leukemia. Our case indicates that rearrangement of VPS13B may be additional genetic events in variant t(8;21).

Mukerji B, Balshan E, Haderer R, et al.
Adolescent Female With Turner's Syndrome and 46,X,der(Y) del(Y)(p11.2)del(q11.2) Karyotype With Gonadoblastoma and Dysgerminoma.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2017 Nov-Dec; 20(6):506-510 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gonadal dysgenesis patients with Y chromosomal material are subject to increased risk for germ cell tumors. We report a case of an adolescent female presenting with Turner-like syndrome with primary amenorrhea and Tanner stage 1 breast development. Karyotype showed one X chromosome and a minute pericentromeric fragment of Y chromosome without any functional Y genes in all the cells, unlike a mosaic pattern, represented as 46,X,der(Y)del(Y)(p11.2)del(q11.2). Laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy was performed due to presence of Y chromosome material and histopathology confirmed gonadoblastoma with a focus of dysgerminoma of the right ovary. A robotic-assisted surgical staging for dysgerminoma was performed which was confirmed to be negative for malignancy. This points at the putative genes for gonadoblastoma to be present around the centromere of the Y chromosome.

Strati P, Tang G, Duose DY, et al.
Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(7):1672-1676 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement are a rare entity. We present a multicenter experience of 17 patients with FISH-confirmed FGFR1 rearrangement. The clinical presentation at diagnosis included myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in 4 (24%) patients, acute leukemia (AL) in 7 (41%), and concomitant MPN with AL in 6 (35%). The two most frequently observed cytogenetic abnormalities were t(8;13)(p11.2;q12)(partner gene ZMYM2) and t(8;22)(p11.2; q11.2)(BCR). Seventy-eight percent of tested patients had a RUNX1 mutation, of whom all had AL. Overall response rate to frontline therapy was 69%, and 76% of patients subsequently received allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT). After a median follow-up of 11 months, median progression-free survival was 15 months and median overall survival was not reached. In conclusion, FGFR1-rearranged hematologic malignancies present with features of MPN and/or AL. FGFR1 and RUNX1 are therapeutic targets for ongoing and future clinical trials.

Rausch V, Krieg A, Camps J, et al.
Array comparative genomic hybridization of 18 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and their autologous metastases.
BMC Res Notes. 2017; 10(1):560 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates of pancreatic cancer remain high, which is mainly due to advanced disease and metastasis. We hypothesized that genomic copy number alterations are enriched in metastatic cells compared to autologous primary tumors, which may inform on cancer-related pathways possibly serving as potential targets for specific therapies. We investigated 18 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, including 39 lymph node and 5 distant metastases after surgical resection. Analysis was performed with array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
RESULTS: Metastases acquire a higher frequency of copy number alterations with the highest in distant metastasis (median = 42, lymph node metastases: median = 23, primary tumors: median = 17). In lymph node metastases, gains were prevalent on chromosome bands 8q11.23-q24.3, 12q14.1, 17p12.1, 21q22.12, and losses on 3p21.31, 4p14, 8p23.3-p11.21,17p12-11.2. Genes on amplified regions are involved in cancer-related pathways such as WNT-signaling, also involved in metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic cancers show a high degree of intratumor heterogeneity, which could lead to resistance of chemotherapy and worse outcome. ACGH analysis reveals regions preferentially gained or lost in synchronous metastases encoding for genes involved in cancer-related pathways, which could lead to novel therapeutic opportunities.

Miyaoka M, Kikuti YY, Carreras J, et al.
Clinicopathological and genomic analysis of double-hit follicular lymphoma: comparison with high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(2):313-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements are aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Occasional double-hit follicular lymphomas have been described but the clinicopathological features of these tumors are not well known. To clarify the characteristics of double-hit follicular lymphomas, we analyzed 10 cases of double-hit follicular lymphomas and 15 cases of high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements for clinicopathological and genome-wide copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity profiles. For double-hit follicular lymphomas, the median age was 67.5 years (range: 48-82 years). The female/male ratio was 2.3. Eight patients presented with advanced clinical stage. The median follow-up time was 20 months (range: 1-132 months). At the end of the follow-up, 8 patients were alive, 2 patients were dead including 1 patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformation. Rearrangements of MYC/BCL2, MYC/BCL6, and MYC/BCL2/BCL6 were seen in 8, 1, and 1 cases, respectively. The partner of MYC was IGH in 6 cases. There were no cases of histological grade 1, 4 cases of grade 2, 5 cases of grade 3a, and 1 case of grade 3b. Two cases of grade 3a exhibited immunoblast-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated 9 cases with ≥50% MYC-positive cells. There was significant difference in MYC intensity (P=0.00004) and MIB-1 positivity (P=0.001) between double-hit follicular lymphomas and high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements. The genome profile of double-hit follicular lymphomas was comparable with conventional follicular lymphomas (GSE67385, n=198) with characteristic gains of 2p25.3-p11.1, 7p22.3-q36.3, 12q11-q24.33, and loss of 18q21.32-q23 (P<0.05). In comparison with high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements, double-hit follicular lymphomas had fewer copy-number alterations and minimal common region of gain at 2p16.1 (70%), locus also significant against conventional follicular lymphomas (P=0.0001). In summary, double-hit follicular lymphomas tended to be high-grade histology, high MYC protein expression, high MYC/IGH fusion, and minimal common region of gain at 2p16.1. Double-hit follicular lymphomas seemed to be a different disease from high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements and have an indolent clinical behavior similar to follicular lymphomas without MYC rearrangement.

Melzer C, von der Ohe J, Hass R, Ungefroren H
TGF-β-Dependent Growth Arrest and Cell Migration in Benign and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cells Are Antagonistically Controlled by Rac1 and Rac1b.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer is still the most common cancer type among non-smoking females. TGF-β can inhibit breast cancer development by inducing cell cycle arrest in both, cancer cells and, as part of a senescence program in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Moreover, TGF-β also drives cell migration and invasion, in part through the small GTPases Rac1 and Rac1b. Depletion of Rac1b or Rac1 and Rac1b in MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells by RNA interference enhanced or suppressed, respectively, TGF-β1-induced migration/invasion. Rac1b depletion in MDA-MB-231 cells also increased TGF-β-induced p21

Mohamed M, Fisher C, Thway K
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: Clinical, morphologic and genetic features.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2017; 28:60-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a bland spindle cell neoplasm that typically arises in the deep soft tissues of the proximal extremities or trunk of young adults. The majority of LGFMS are characterized by a recurrent (7;16)(q34;p11) translocation, resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene, which generates a chimeric protein with transcriptional regulatory activity. Small numbers harbor a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion resulting from t(11;16)(p11;p11), whilst rare cases harbor the EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion. LGFMS is of low to moderate cellularity and consists of bland spindle cells with small, angulated nuclei and scant, wispy cytoplasm, arranged in a whorled growth pattern and typically showing abrupt transition from myxoid to fibrous areas. Immunohistochemical expression of MUC4 is a consistent finding. Hyalinized spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCTGR) is a morphological variant of LGFMS that shares the same balanced translocation, and is also immunoreactive for MUC4. A potential relationship between LGFMS and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), a rare fibroblastic neoplasm that most commonly arises in the deep soft tissues of the lower extremities, limb girdles or trunk, has also been suggested. SEF is classically composed of nests and cords of epithelioid cells with clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm embedded within densely sclerotic stroma. In some cases, areas indistinguishable from LGFMS are present, and these have been shown to contain FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. The majority of pure SEF tumors harbor EWSR1 rearrangements, with EWSR1-CREB3L1 and more rarely EWSR1-CREB3L2 gene fusions more common than those involving FUS. MUC4 immunoreactivity is also seen in approximately 70% of SEF. Surgical resection of these tumors with clear margins is the treatment of choice. Correct diagnosis is important because of the significant potential for recurrence and late metastatic spread. We review LGFMS and SEF, discussing morphology and immunohistochemistry, genetics and molecular findings, and the differential diagnosis.

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