NF2

Gene Summary

Gene:NF2; neurofibromin 2 (merlin)
Aliases: ACN, SCH, BANF
Location:22q12.2
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that is similar to some members of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins that are thought to link cytoskeletal components with proteins in the cell membrane. This gene product has been shown to interact with cell-surface proteins, proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and proteins involved in regulating ion transport. This gene is expressed at high levels during embryonic development; in adults, significant expression is found in Schwann cells, meningeal cells, lens and nerve. Mutations in this gene are associated with neurofibromatosis type II which is characterized by nervous system and skin tumors and ocular abnormalities. Two predominant isoforms and a number of minor isoforms are produced by alternatively spliced transcripts. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:merlin
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (35)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Childhood Cancer
  • Stroke
  • Adolescents
  • Neurilemmoma
  • Pyrimidines
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Antisense RNA
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Neurofibromatosis 2
  • Pedigree
  • Retinal Dysplasia
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Rhabdoid Tumours
  • Stromal Cells
  • Cell Proliferation
  • NF2
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Acoustic Neuroma
  • Skin Cancer
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Meningeal Neoplasms
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Brain Tumours
  • Neurofibromatosis 1
  • Chromosome 22
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neurofibromin 2
  • Brain Tumours
  • Meningioma
  • Mesothelioma
Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NF2 (cancer-related)

Yang J, AlTahan AM, Hu D, et al.
The role of histone demethylase KDM4B in Myc signaling in neuroblastoma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(6):djv080 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations, such as histone methylation, modulate Myc signaling, a pathway central to oncogenesis. We investigated the role of the histone demethylase KDM4B in N-Myc-mediated neuroblastoma pathogenesis.
METHODS: Spearman correlation was performed to correlate MYCN and KDM4B expression. RNA interference, microarray analysis, gene set enrichment analysis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to define the functions of KDM4B. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence were used to assess protein-protein interactions between N-Myc and KDM4B. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to assess the binding of Myc targets. Constitutive and inducible lentiviral-mediated KDM4B knockdown with shRNA was used to assess the effects on tumor growth. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of KDM4B expression. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: KDM4B and MYCN expression were found to be statistically significantly correlated in a variety of cancers, including neuroblastoma (R = 0.396, P < .001). Functional studies demonstrated that KDM4B regulates the Myc pathway. N-Myc was found to physically interact with and recruit KDM4B. KDM4B was found to regulate neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo (5 mice/group, two-tailed t test, P ≤ 0.001). Finally, together with MYCN amplification, KDM4B was found to stratify a subgroup of poor-prognosis patients (122 case patients, P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into the epigenetic regulation of Myc via histone demethylation and proof-of-concept for inhibition of histone demethylases to target Myc signaling in cancers such as neuroblastoma.

Smith MJ
Germline and somatic mutations in meningiomas.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(4):107-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Meningiomas arise from the arachnoid layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spine. They account for over one third of all primary central nervous system tumors in adults and confer a significant risk of location-dependent morbidity due to compression or displacement. A significant increase in risk of meningiomas is associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) disease through mutation of the NF2 gene. In addition, approximately 5% of individuals with schwannomatosis disease develop meningiomas, through mutation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex subunit, SMARCB1. Recently, a second SWI/SNF complex subunit, SMARCE1, was identified as a cause of clear cell meningiomas, indicating a wider role for this complex in meningioma disease. The sonic hedgehog (SHH)-GLI1 signaling pathway gene, SUFU, has also been identified as the cause of hereditary multiple meningiomas in a large Finnish family. The recent identification of somatic mutations in components of the SHH-GLI1 and AKT1-MTOR signaling pathways indicates the potential for cross talk of these pathways in the development of meningiomas. This review describes the known meningioma predisposition genes and their links to the recently identified somatic mutations.

Liu YC, Wang YZ
Role of Yes-associated protein 1 in gliomas: pathologic and therapeutic aspects.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2223-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activation of proline-rich phosphoprotein Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) possesses a possible link between stem/progenitor cells, organ size, and cancer. YAP1 has been indicated as an oncoprotein, and overexpression of YAP1 is reported in many human brain tumors, including infiltrating gliomas. During normal brain development, the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) protein suppresses YAP1 activity in neural progenitor cells to promote guidepost cell differentiation, but loss of NF2 causes elevating YAP1 activity in midline neural progenitors, which disrupts guidepost formation. Overexpression of endogenous CD44 (cancer stem cell marker) promotes phosphorylation/inactivation of NF2, and upregulates YAP1 expression and leads to cancer cell resistance in glioblastoma. The hippo pathway is also related to the YAP1 action. However, the mechanism of YAP1 action in glioma is still far from clear understanding. Advances in clinical management based on an improved understanding of the function of YAP1 may help to serve as a molecular target in glioma therapeutics. Knockdown of YAP1 by shRNA technology has been shown to reduce glioma in vitro; however, clinical implications are still under investigation. YAP1 can be used as a diagnostic marker for gliomas to monitor the disease status and may help to evaluate its treatment effects. More functional experiments are needed to support the direct roles of YAP1 on gliomas at molecular and cellular levels.

Juhlin CC, Goh G, Healy JM, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing characterizes the landscape of somatic mutations and copy number alterations in adrenocortical carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(3):E493-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and lethal malignancy with a poorly defined etiology, and the molecular genetics of ACC are incompletely understood.
OBJECTIVE: To utilize whole-exome sequencing for genetic characterization of the underlying somatic mutations and copy number alterations present in ACC.
DESIGN: Screening for somatic mutation events and copy number alterations (CNAs) was performed by comparative analysis of tumors and matched normal samples from 41 patients with ACC.
RESULTS: In total, 966 nonsynonymous somatic mutations were detected, including 40 tumors with a mean of 16 mutations per sample and one tumor with 314 mutations. Somatic mutations in ACC-associated genes included TP53 (8/41 tumors, 19.5%) and CTNNB1 (4/41, 9.8%). Genes with potential disease-causing mutations included GNAS, NF2, and RB1, and recurrently mutated genes with unknown roles in tumorigenesis comprised CDC27, SCN7A, and SDK1. Recurrent CNAs included amplification at 5p15.33 including TERT (6/41, 14.6%) and homozygous deletion at 22q12.1 including the Wnt repressors ZNRF3 and KREMEN1 (4/41 9.8% and 3/41, 7.3%, respectively). Somatic mutations in ACC-established genes and recurrent ZNRF3 and TERT loci CNAs were mutually exclusive in the majority of cases. Moreover, gene ontology identified Wnt signaling as the most frequently mutated pathway in ACCs.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of Wnt pathway dysregulation in ACC and corroborate the finding of homozygous deletion of Wnt repressors ZNRF3 and KREMEN1. Overall, mutations in either TP53 or CTNNB1 as well as focal CNAs at the ZNRF3 or TERT loci denote mutually exclusive events, suggesting separate mechanisms underlying the development of these tumors.

Guo G, Chmielecki J, Goparaju C, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing reveals frequent genetic alterations in BAP1, NF2, CDKN2A, and CUL1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(2):264-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with asbestos exposure. Although previous studies based on candidate gene approaches have identified important common somatic mutations in MPM, these studies have focused on small sets of genes and have provided a limited view of the genetic alterations underlying this disease. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing on DNA from 22 MPMs and matched blood samples, and identified 517 somatic mutations across 490 mutated genes. Integrative analysis of mutations and somatic copy-number alterations revealed frequent genetic alterations in BAP1, NF2, CDKN2A, and CUL1. Our study presents the first unbiased view of the genomic basis of MPM.

Smith MJ, Isidor B, Beetz C, et al.
Mutations in LZTR1 add to the complex heterogeneity of schwannomatosis.
Neurology. 2015; 84(2):141-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the proportion of individuals in our schwannomatosis cohort whose disease is associated with an LZTR1 mutation.
METHODS: We used exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and copy number analysis to screen 65 unrelated individuals with schwannomatosis who were negative for a germline NF2 or SMARCB1 mutation. We also screened samples from 39 patients with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (UVS), plus at least one other schwannoma, but who did not have an identifiable germline or mosaic NF2 mutation.
RESULTS: We identified germline LZTR1 mutations in 6 of 16 patients (37.5%) with schwannomatosis who had at least one affected relative, 11 of 49 (22%) sporadic patients, and 2 of 39 patients with UVS in our cohort. Three germline mutation-positive patients in total had developed a UVS. Mosaicism was excluded in 3 patients without germline mutation in NF2, SMARCB1, or LZTR1 by mutation screening in 2 tumors from each.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the relationship between mutations in LZTR1 and schwannomatosis. They indicate that germline mutations in LZTR1 confer an increased risk of vestibular schwannoma, providing further overlap with NF2, and that further causative genes for schwannomatosis remain to be identified.

Hu JM, Li L, Chen YZ, et al.
HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 methylation changes promote the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(10):1366-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human leukocyte antigen II (HLA-II) plays an important role in host immune responses to cancer cells. Changes in gene methylation may result in aberrant expression of HLA-II, serving a key role in the pathogenesis of Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed the expression level of HLA-II (HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR) by immunohistochemistry, as well as the methylation status of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 by MassARRAY spectrometry in Xinjiang Kazakh ESCC. Expression of HLA-II in ESCC was significantly higher than that in cancer adjacent normal (ACN) samples (P < 0.05). Decreased HLA-II expression was closely associated with later clinical stages of ESCC (P < 0.05). Hypomethylation of HLA-DRB1 and hypermethylation of HLA-DQB1 was significantly correlated with occurrence of Kazakh ESCC (P < 0.01), and mainly manifested as hypomethylation of CpG9, CpG10-11, and CpG16 in HLA-DRB1 and hypermethylation of CpG6-7 and CpG16-17 in HLA-DQB1 (P < 0.01). Moreover, hypomethylation of HLA-DQB1 CpG6-7 correlated with poor differentiation in ESCCs, whereas hypermethylation of HLA-DRB1 CpG16 and hypomethylation of HLA-DQB1 CpG16-17 were significantly associated with later stages of ESCC (P < 0.05). A significant inverse association between HLA-DRB1 CpG9 methylation and HLA-II expression was found in ESCC (P < 0.05). These findings suggest aberrant HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 methylation contributes to the aberrant expression of HLA-II. These molecular changes may influence the immune response to specific tumor epitopes, promoting the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC.

Chu YW, Cheuk DK, Chung BH, et al.
A patient with mosaic neurofibromatosis type 2 presenting with early onset meningioma.
BMJ Case Rep. 2014; 2014 [PubMed] Related Publications
A female patient was found to have meningioma when she was 3 years and 11 months old and subtotal excision was performed. The residual tumour recurred 3 months after the first excision, and again 11 months after the second one. She was also found to have subcutaneous neurofibroma. However, her clinical features did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and her family history was unremarkable. Considering that primary meningioma is extremely rare in the paediatric population, the diagnosis of NF2 was considered. It was thought that this might have an impact on her subsequent management. Genetic testing on blood DNA for NF2 was arranged, and the results confirmed that she had mosaic deletion of the promoter to exon 16 of NF2. With uncertainty of whether NF2 mutations are also present in other tissues, vigilant follow-up for other NF2-related complications would be required in the future.

Durinck S, Stawiski EW, Pavía-Jiménez A, et al.
Spectrum of diverse genomic alterations define non-clear cell renal carcinoma subtypes.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(1):13-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2016 Related Publications
To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors.

Li CJ, Cong Y, Liu XZ, et al.
Research progress on the livin gene and osteosarcomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):8577-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant tumor of bone, but mechanisms underlying its development are still unclear. At present, it is believed that the inhibition of normal apoptotic mechanisms is one of the reasons for the development of tumors, so specific stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis can be considered as an important therapeutic method. Livin, as a member of the newly discovered inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family, has specifically high expression in tumor tissues and can inhibit tumor cell apoptosis through multiple ways, which can become a new target for malignant tumor treatment (including osteosarcoma) and might of great significance in the clinical diagnosis of tumors and the screening of anti-tumor agents and carcinoma treatment.

Torres-Martin M, Lassaletta L, Isla A, et al.
Global expression profile in low grade meningiomas and schwannomas shows upregulation of PDGFD, CDH1 and SLIT2 compared to their healthy tissue.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2327-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2016 Related Publications
Schwannomas and grade I meningiomas are non‑metastatic neoplasms that share the common mutation of gene NF2. They usually appear in neurofibromatosis type 2 patients. Currently, there is no drug treatment available for both tumors, thus the use of wide expression technologies is crucial to identify therapeutic targets. Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST was used to test global gene expression in 22 meningiomas, 31 schwannomas and, as non-tumoral controls, 3 healthy meningeal tissues, 8 non-tumoral nerves and 1 primary Schwann cell culture. A non-stringent P-value cut-off and fold change were used to establish deregulated genes. We identified a subset of genes that were upregulated in meningiomas and schwannomas when compared to their respectively healthy tissues, including PDGFD, CDH1 and SLIT2. Thus, these genes should be thoroughly studied as targets in a possible combined treatment.

Agnihotri S, Gugel I, Remke M, et al.
Gene-expression profiling elucidates molecular signaling networks that can be therapeutically targeted in vestibular schwannoma.
J Neurosurg. 2014; 121(6):1434-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are common benign tumors of the vestibular nerve that cause significant morbidity. The current treatment strategies for VS include surgery or radiation, with each treatment option having associated complications and side effects. The transcriptional landscape of schwannoma remains largely unknown.
METHODS: In this study the authors performed gene-expression profiling of 49 schwannomas and 7 normal control vestibular nerves to identify tumor-specific gene-expression patterns. They also interrogated whether schwannomas comprise several molecular subtypes using several transcription-based clustering strategies. The authors also performed in vitro experiments testing therapeutic inhibitors of over-activated pathways in a schwannoma cell line, namely the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
RESULTS: The authors identified over 4000 differentially expressed genes between controls and schwannomas with network analysis, uncovering proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways previously not implicated in VS. Furthermore, using several distinct clustering technologies, they could not reproducibly identify distinct VS subtypes or significant differences between sporadic and germline NF2-associated schwannomas, suggesting that they are highly similar entities. The authors identified overexpression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling networks in their gene-expression study and evaluated this pathway for therapeutic targeting. Testing the compounds BEZ235 and PKI-587, both novel dual inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR, attenuated tumor growth in a preclinical cell line model of schwannoma (HEI-293). In vitro findings demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway with next-generation compounds led to decreased cell viability and increased cell death.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings implicate aberrant activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in VS and suggest inhibition of this pathway as a potential treatment strategy.

Xiang SS, Wang XA, Li HF, et al.
Schisandrin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gallbladder cancer cells.
Molecules. 2014; 19(9):13235-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer, with high aggressivity and extremely poor prognosis, is the most common malignancy of the bile duct. The main objective of the paper was to investigate the effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) on gallbladder cancer cells and identify the mechanisms underlying its potential anticancer effects. We showed that Sch B inhibited the viability and proliferation of human gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-, time -dependent manner through MTT and colony formation assays, and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at a dose-dependent manner through flow cytometry. Flow cytometry assays also revealed G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. Western blot analysis of Sch B-treated cells revealed the upregulation of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP and downregulation of Bcl-2, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and CDK-4. Moreover, this drug also inhibited the tumor growth in nude mice carrying subcutaneous NOZ tumor xenografts. These data demonstrated that Sch B induced apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related protein expression, and suggests that Sch B may be a promising drug for the treatment of gallbladder cancer.

Smith MJ, Wallace AJ, Bennett C, et al.
Germline SMARCE1 mutations predispose to both spinal and cranial clear cell meningiomas.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):436-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently reported SMARCE1 mutations as a cause of spinal clear cell meningiomas. Here, we have identified five further cases with non-NF2 spinal meningiomas and six with non-NF2 cranial meningiomas. Three of the spinal cases and three of the cranial cases were clear cell tumours. We screened them for SMARCE1 mutations and investigated copy number changes in all point mutation-negative samples. We identified two novel mutations in individuals with spinal clear cell meningiomas and three mutations in individuals with cranial clear cell meningiomas. Copy number analysis identified a large deletion of the 5' end of SMARCE1 in two unrelated probands with spinal clear cell meningiomas. Testing of affected and unaffected relatives of one of these individuals identified the same deletion in two affected female siblings and their unaffected father, providing further evidence of incomplete penetrance of meningioma disease in males. In addition, we found loss of SMARCE1 protein in three of 10 paraffin-embedded cranial clear cell meningiomas. Together, these results demonstrate that loss of SMARCE1 is relevant to cranial as well as spinal meningiomas. Our study broadens the spectrum of mutations in the SMARCE1 gene and expands the phenotype to include cranial clear cell meningiomas.

Schularick NM, Clark JJ, Hansen MR
Primary culture of human vestibular schwannomas.
J Vis Exp. 2014; (89) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2016 Related Publications
Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) represent Schwann cell (SC) tumors of the vestibular nerve, compromising 10% of all intracranial neoplasms. VSs occur in either sporadic or familial (neurofibromatosis type 2, NF2) forms, both associated with inactivating defects in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. Treatment for VSs is generally surgical resection or radiosurgery, however the morbidity of such procedures has driven investigations into less invasive treatments. Historically, lack of access to fresh tissue specimens and the fact that schwannoma cells are not immortalized have significantly hampered the use of primary cultures for investigation of schwannoma tumorigenesis. To overcome the limited supply of primary cultures, the immortalized HEI193 VS cell line was generated by transduction with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes. This oncogenic transduction introduced significant molecular and phenotypic alterations to the cells, which limit their use as a model for human schwannoma tumors. We therefore illustrate a simplified, reproducible protocol for culture of primary human VS cells. This easily mastered technique allows for molecular and cellular investigations that more accurately recapitulate the complexity of VS disease.

Guerrero PA, Yin W, Camacho L, Marchetti D
Oncogenic role of Merlin/NF2 in glioblastoma.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(20):2621-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a poor prognosis because of its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Merlin/NF2 (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein/neurofibromatosis type 2) is a tumor suppressor found to be mutated in most nervous system tumors; however, it is not mutated in glioblastomas. Merlin associates with several transmembrane receptors and intracellular proteins serving as an anchoring molecule. Additionally, it acts as a key component of cell motility. By selecting sub-populations of U251 glioblastoma cells, we observed that high expression of phosphorylated Merlin at serine 518 (S518-Merlin), NOTCH1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlated with increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These cells were defective in cell-contact inhibition with changes in Merlin phosphorylation directly affecting NOTCH1 and EGFR expression, as well as downstream targets HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1) and CCND1 (cyclin D1). Of note, we identified a function for S518-Merlin, which is distinct from what has been reported when the expression of Merlin is diminished in relation to EGFR and NOTCH1 expression, providing first-time evidence that demonstrates that the phosphorylation of S518-Merlin in glioblastoma promotes oncogenic properties that are not only the result of inactivation of the tumor suppressor role of Merlin but also an independent process implicating a Merlin-driven regulation of NOTCH1 and EGFR.

Kim YH, Ohta T, Oh JE, et al.
TP53, MSH4, and LATS1 germline mutations in a family with clustering of nervous system tumors.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(9):2374-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exome DNA sequencing of blood samples from a Li-Fraumeni family with a TP53 germline mutation (codon 236 deletion) and multiple nervous system tumors revealed additional germline mutations. Missense mutations in the MSH4 DNA repair gene (c.2480T>A; p.I827N) were detected in three patients with gliomas (two anaplastic astrocytomas, two glioblastomas). Two family members without a TP53 germline mutation who developed peripheral schwannomas also carried the MSH4 germline mutation, and in addition, a germline mutation of the LATS1 gene (c.286C>T; p.R96W). LATS1 is a downstream mediator of the NF2, but has not previously been found to be related to schwannomas. We therefore screened the entire coding sequence of the LATS1 gene in 65 sporadic schwannomas, 12 neurofibroma/schwannoma hybrid tumors, and 4 cases of schwannomatosis. We only found a single base deletion at codon 827 (exon 5) in a spinal schwannoma, leading to a stop at codon 835 (c.2480delG; p.*R827Kfs*8). Mutational loss of LATS1 function may thus play a role in some inherited schwannomas, but only exceptionally in sporadic schwannomas. This is the first study reporting a germline MSH4 mutation. Since it was present in all patients, it may have contributed to the subsequent acquisition of TP53 and LATS1 germline mutations.

Buza N, Xu F, Wu W, et al.
Recurrent chromosomal aberrations in intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization study.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a distinct smooth muscle neoplasm with a potential of clinical aggressiveness due to its ability to extend into intrauterine and extrauterine vasculature. In this study, chromosomal alterations analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 9 cases of IVL. The analysis was informative in all cases with multiple copy number losses and/or gains observed in each tumor. The most frequent recurrent loss of 22q12.3-q13.1 was observed in 6 tumors (66.7%), followed by losses of 22q11.23-q13.31, 1p36.13-p33, 2p25.3-p23.3, and 2q24.2-q32.2 and gains of 6p22.2, 2q37.3 and 10q22.2-q22.3, in decreasing order of frequency. Copy number variants were identified at 14q11.2, 15q11.1-q11.2, and 15q26.2. Genes mapping to the regions of loss include CHEK2, EWS, NF2, PDGFB, and MAP3K7IP1 on chromosome 22q, HEI10 on chromosome 14q, and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B, E2F2, ARID1A KPNA6, EIF3S2 , PTCH2, and PIK3R3 on chromosome 1p. Regional losses on chromosomes 22q and 1p and gains on chromosomes 12q showed overlaps with those previously observed in uterine leiomyosarcomas. In addition, presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations implies a higher level of genetic instability. Follow-up polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing analysis of MED12 gene revealed absence of G> A transition at nucleotides c.130 or c.131 in all 9 cases, a frequent mutation found in uterine leiomyoma and its variants. In conclusion, this is the first report of high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of IVL by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. The presence of high frequencies of recurrent regional loss involving several chromosomes is an important finding and likely related to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Li W, Cooper J, Zhou L, et al.
Merlin/NF2 loss-driven tumorigenesis linked to CRL4(DCAF1)-mediated inhibition of the hippo pathway kinases Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(1):48-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
It is currently unclear whether Merlin/NF2 suppresses tumorigenesis by activating upstream components of the Hippo pathway at the plasma membrane or by inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) in the nucleus. We found that derepressed CRL4(DCAF1) promotes YAP- and TEAD-dependent transcription by ubiquitylating and, thereby, inhibiting Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus. Genetic epistasis experiments and analysis of tumor-derived missense mutations indicate that this signaling connection sustains the oncogenicity of Merlin-deficient tumor cells. Analysis of clinical samples confirms that this pathway operates in NF2-mutant tumors. We conclude that derepressed CRL4(DCAF1) promotes activation of YAP by inhibiting Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus.

Schulz A, Zoch A, Morrison H
A neuronal function of the tumor suppressor protein merlin.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014; 2:82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Mutagenic loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene encoded protein merlin is known to provoke the hereditary neoplasia syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). In addition to glial cell-derived tumors in the PNS and CNS, disease-related lesions also affect the skin and the eyes. Furthermore, 60% of NF2 patients suffer from peripheral nerve damage, clinically referred to as peripheral neuropathy. Strikingly, NF2-associated neuropathy often occurs in the absence of nerve damaging tumors, suggesting tumor-independent events. Recent findings indicate an important role of merlin in neuronal cell types concerning neuromorphogenesis, axon structure maintenance and communication between axons and Schwann cells. In this review, we compile clinical and experimental evidences for the underestimated role of the tumor suppressor merlin in the neuronal compartment.

Toren A, Reichardt JK, Andalibi A, et al.
Novel age-dependent targets in vestibular schwannomas.
Hum Genomics. 2014; 8:10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas are the most common neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)-associated tumors with significant phenotypic heterogeneity in patients. The most severe subtype has an early and rapid progression and the mild type has a later onset and a less aggressive course. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying molecular differences between these groups. We compared the gene expression pattern between patients with early to late age of onset.
RESULTS: A gene signature of 21 genes was constructed to differentiate between early-onset and late-onset patients. We confirmed these results by real-time PCR for SNF1LK2, NGFRAP1L1 (BEX 5), GMNN, and EPHA2.
CONCLUSION: Genes identified here may be additional aberrations in merlin-depleted cells that govern the disease onset. A significant number of these genes have been suggested as having a role in carcinogenesis and are used as biomarkers for prognosis in several other cancers. The role of these genes in NF2 carcinogenesis and their potential as biomarkers or drug target are worthwhile exploring.

Ahmad I, Yue WY, Fernando A, et al.
p75NTR is highly expressed in vestibular schwannomas and promotes cell survival by activating nuclear transcription factor κB.
Glia. 2014; 62(10):1699-712 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) arise from Schwann cells (SCs) and result from the loss of function of merlin, the protein product of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast to non-neoplastic SCs, VS cells survive long-term in the absence of axons. We find that p75(NTR) is overexpressed in VSs compared with normal nerves, both at the transcript and protein level, similar to the response of non-neoplastic SCs following axotomy. Despite elevated p75(NTR) expression, VS cells are resistant to apoptosis due to treatment with proNGF, a high affinity ligand for p75(NTR) . Furthermore, treatment with proNGF protects VS cells from apoptosis due to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition indicating that p75(NTR) promotes VS cell survival. Treatment of VS cells with proNGF activated NF-κB while inhibition of JNK with SP600125 or siRNA-mediated knockdown reduced NF-κB activity. Significantly, proNGF also activated NF-κB in cultures treated with JNK inhibitors. Thus, JNK activity appears to be required for basal levels of NF-κB activity but not for proNGF-induced NF-κB activity. To confirm that the increase in NF-κB activity contributes to the prosurvival effect of proNGF, we infected VS cultures with Ad.IκB.SerS32/36A virus, which inhibits NF-κB activation. Compared with control virus, Ad.IκB.SerS32/36A significantly increased apoptosis including in VS cells treated with proNGF. Thus, in contrast to non-neoplastic SCs, p75(NTR) signaling provides a prosurvival response in VS cells by activating NF-κB independent of JNK. Such differences may contribute to the ability of VS cells to survive long-term in the absence of axons.

Smith MJ, Wallace AJ, Bowers NL, et al.
SMARCB1 mutations in schwannomatosis and genotype correlations with rhabdoid tumors.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(9):373-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the SMARCB1 gene are involved in several human tumor-predisposing syndromes. They were established as an underlying cause of the tumor suppressor syndrome schwannomatosis in 2008. There is a much higher rate of mutation detection in familial disease than in sporadic disease. We have performed extensive genetic testing on a cohort of familial and sporadic patients who fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis. In our updated cohort, we identified novel mutations within the SMARCB1 gene as well as several recurrent mutations. Of the schwannomatosis screens reported to date, including those in our updated cohort, SMARCB1 mutations have been found in 45% of familial probands and 9% of sporadic patients. The exon 1 mutation, c.41C>A p.Pro14His (10% in our series), and the 3' untranslated region mutation, c.*82C>T (27%), are the most common changes reported in patients with schwannomatosis to date, indicating the presence of mutation hot spots at both 5' and 3' portions of the gene. Comparison with germline SMARCB1 mutations in patients with rhabdoid tumors showed that the schwannomatosis mutations were significantly more likely to occur at either end of the gene and be nontruncating mutations (P < 0.0001). SMARCB1 mutations are found in a significant proportion of schwannomatosis patients, and an even higher proportion of rhabdoid patients. Whereas SMARCB1 alone seems to account for rhabdoid disease, there is likely to be substantial heterogeneity in schwannomatosis even for familial disease. There is a clear genotype-phenotype correlation, with germline rhabdoid mutations being significantly more likely to be centrally placed, involve multiple exon deletions, and be truncating mutations.

Mori T, Gotoh S, Shirakawa M, Hakoshima T
Structural basis of DDB1-and-Cullin 4-associated Factor 1 (DCAF1) recognition by merlin/NF2 and its implication in tumorigenesis by CD44-mediated inhibition of merlin suppression of DCAF1 function.
Genes Cells. 2014; 19(8):603-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Merlin, a tumor suppressor encoded by the neurofibromatosis type 2 gene, has been shown to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting the Cullin 4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF) (1) in the nucleus. This inhibition is mediated by direct binding of merlin to DDB1-and-Cullin 4-associated Factor 1 (DCAF1), yet the binding mode of merlin to DCAF1 is not well defined. Here, we report structural and biophysical studies of the merlin binding to DCAF1 and its interference with CD44 binding. The crystal structure of the merlin FERM domain bound to the DCAF1 C-terminal acidic tail reveals that the hydrophobic IILXLN motif located at the C-terminal end of DCAF1 binds subdomain C of the FERM domain by forming a β-strand. The binding site and mode resemble that of merlin binding to the CD44 cytoplasmic tail. Competition binding assay showed that CD44 and DCAF1 compete for binding to the merlin FERM domain in solution. The CD44 cytoplasmic tail is known to be cleaved for nuclear translocation by regulated intra-membrane proteolysis (RIP). Our structure implies that, in the nucleus, the CD44 cytoplasmic tail cleaved by RIP could release DCAF1 from merlin by competing for binding to the merlin FERM domain, which results in the inhibition of merlin-mediated suppression of tumorigenesis.

Shapiro IM, Kolev VN, Vidal CM, et al.
Merlin deficiency predicts FAK inhibitor sensitivity: a synthetic lethal relationship.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(237):237ra68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The goal of targeted therapy is to match a selective drug with a genetic lesion that predicts for drug sensitivity. In a diverse panel of cancer cell lines, we found that the cells most sensitive to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition lack expression of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene product, Merlin. Merlin expression is often lost in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an asbestos-induced aggressive cancer with limited treatment options. Our data demonstrate that low Merlin expression predicts for increased sensitivity of MPM cells to a FAK inhibitor, VS-4718, in vitro and in tumor xenograft models. Disruption of MPM cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts with blocking antibodies suggests that weak cell-cell adhesions in Merlin-negative MPM cells underlie their greater dependence on cell-ECM-induced FAK signaling. This provides one explanation of why Merlin-negative cells are vulnerable to FAK inhibitor treatment. Furthermore, we validated aldehyde dehydrogenase as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in MPM, a cell population thought to mediate tumor relapse after chemotherapy. Whereas pemetrexed and cisplatin, standard-of-care agents for MPM, enrich for CSCs, FAK inhibitor treatment preferentially eliminates these cells. These preclinical results provide the rationale for a clinical trial in MPM patients using a FAK inhibitor as a single agent after first-line chemotherapy. With this design, the FAK inhibitor could potentially induce a more durable clinical response through reduction of CSCs along with a strong antitumor effect. Furthermore, our data suggest that patients with Merlin-negative tumors may especially benefit from FAK inhibitor treatment.

Wilisch-Neumann A, Pachow D, Wallesch M, et al.
Re-evaluation of cytostatic therapies for meningiomas in vitro.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(8):1343-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose was to re-evaluate in cell culture models the therapeutic usefulness of some discussed chemotherapies or targeted therapies for meningiomas with a special emphasis on the role of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor, which had been neglected so far. In addition, the study intended to evaluate a potential benefit from a treatment with drugs which are well established in other fields of medicine and have been linked recently with tumor disease by epidemiological studies.
METHODS: Meningioma cell lines corresponding to various subtypes and pairs of syngenic meningioma cell lines with or without shRNA-induced NF2 knockdown were analyzed for their dose-dependent response to the drugs in microtiter tetrazolium assays, BrdU assays and for selected cases in ELISAs measuring nucleosome liberation to specifically separate cell death from pure inhibition of cell proliferation.
RESULTS: We confirmed a moderate efficacy of hydroxyurea (HU) in clinically relevant concentrations. Under appropriate dosing, we neither detected major responses to the alkylating compound temozolomide nor to various drugs targeting membrane receptors or enzymes (tamoxifen, erlotinib, mifepristone, losartan, metformin and verapamil). Only concentrations far beyond achievable serum levels generated significant effects with the exception of losartan, which showed no effects at all. Chemosensitivity varied markedly among meningioma cell lines. Importantly, cells with NF2 loss exhibited a significantly higher induction of cell death by HU.
CONCLUSIONS: Alternative chemotherapeutic or targeted approaches besides HU have still to be evaluated in further studies, and the role of NF2 must be taken into account.

Paganini I, Mancini I, Baroncelli M, et al.
Application of COLD-PCR for improved detection of NF2 mosaic mutations.
J Mol Diagn. 2014; 16(4):393-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mosaicism represents the coexistence of two or more cell populations with different genotypes in one person, and it is involved in >30 monogenic disorders. Somatic mosaicism characterizes approximately 25% to 33% of patients with de novo neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). The identification of mosaicism is crucial to patients and their families because the clinical course of the disease and its transmission risk is influenced by the degree and distribution of mutated cells. Moreover, in NF2, the capability of discriminating patients with mosaicism is especially important to make differential diagnosis with schwannomatosis. However, the identification of mosaic variants is considerably difficult, and the development of specific molecular techniques to detect low levels of unknown molecular alterations is required. Co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR has been described as a powerful method to selectively amplify minority alleles from mixtures of wild-type and mutation-containing sequences. Here, we applied COLD-PCR to molecular analysis of patients with NF2 mosaicism. With the use of COLD-PCR, followed by direct sequencing, we were able to detect NF2 mutations in blood DNA of three patients with NF2 mosaicism. Our study has shown the capability of COLD-PCR in enriching low-represented mutated allele in blood DNA sample, making it usable for molecular diagnosis of patients with mosaicism.

Pirazzoli V, Nebhan C, Song X, et al.
Acquired resistance of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas to afatinib plus cetuximab is associated with activation of mTORC1.
Cell Rep. 2014; 7(4):999-1008 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) who initially respond to first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) develop resistance to these drugs. A combination of the irreversible TKI afatinib and the EGFR antibody cetuximab can be used to overcome resistance to first-generation TKIs; however, resistance to this drug combination eventually emerges. We identified activation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway as a mechanism of resistance to dual inhibition of EGFR in mouse models. The addition of rapamycin reversed resistance in vivo. Analysis of afatinib-plus-cetuximab-resistant biopsy specimens revealed the presence of genomic alterations in genes that modulate mTORC1 signaling, including NF2 and TSC1. These findings pinpoint enhanced mTORC1 activation as a mechanism of resistance to afatinib plus cetuximab and identify genomic mechanisms that lead to activation of this pathway, revealing a potential therapeutic strategy for treating patients with resistance to these drugs.

Shah NR, Tancioni I, Ward KK, et al.
Analyses of merlin/NF2 connection to FAK inhibitor responsiveness in serous ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 134(1):104-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Loss of merlin, a product of the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor gene, is being evaluated as a biomarker for FAK inhibitor sensitivity in mesothelioma. Connections between merlin and FAK in ovarian cancer remain undefined.
METHODS: Nine human and two murine ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed for growth in the presence of a small molecule FAK inhibitor (PF-271, also termed VS-6062) from 0.1 to 1 μM for 72 h. Merlin was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunostaining of a human ovarian tumor tissue array. Growth of cells was analyzed in an orthotopic tumor model and evaluated in vitro after stable shRNA-mediated merlin knockdown.
RESULTS: Greater than 50% inhibition of OVCAR8, HEY, and ID8-IP ovarian carcinoma cell growth occurred with 0.1 μM PF-271 in anchorage-independent (p<0.001) but not in adherent culture conditions. PF-271-mediated reduction in FAK Y397 phosphorylation occurred independently of growth inhibition. Suspended growth of OVCAR3, OVCAR10, IGROV1, IGROV1-IP, SKOV3, SKOV3-IP, A2780, and 5009-MOVCAR was not affected by 0.1 μM PF-271. Merlin expression did not correlate with serous ovarian tumor grade or stage. PF-271 (30 mg/kg, BID) did not inhibit 5009-MOVCAR tumor growth and merlin knockdown in SKOV3-IP and OVCAR10 cells did not alter suspended cell growth upon PF-271 addition.
CONCLUSIONS: Differential responsiveness to FAK inhibitor treatment was observed. Intrinsic low merlin protein level correlated with PF-271-mediated anchorage-independent growth inhibition, but reduction in merlin expression did not induce sensitivity to FAK inhibition. Merlin levels may be useful for patient stratification in FAK inhibitor trials.

Cooper J, Giancotti FG
Molecular insights into NF2/Merlin tumor suppressor function.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(16):2743-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The FERM domain protein Merlin, encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene, regulates cell proliferation in response to adhesive signaling. The growth inhibitory function of Merlin is induced by intercellular adhesion and inactivated by joint integrin/receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Merlin contributes to the formation of cell junctions in polarized tissues, activates anti-mitogenic signaling at tight-junctions, and inhibits oncogenic gene expression. Thus, inactivation of Merlin causes uncontrolled mitogenic signaling and tumorigenesis. Merlin's predominant tumor suppressive functions are attributable to its control of oncogenic gene expression through regulation of Hippo signaling. Notably, Merlin translocates to the nucleus where it directly inhibits the CRL4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby suppressing inhibition of the Lats kinases. A dichotomy in NF2 function has emerged whereby Merlin acts at the cell cortex to organize cell junctions and propagate anti-mitogenic signaling, whereas it inhibits oncogenic gene expression through the inhibition of CRL4(DCAF1) and activation of Hippo signaling. The biochemical events underlying Merlin's normal function and tumor suppressive activity will be discussed in this Review, with emphasis on recent discoveries that have greatly influenced our understanding of Merlin biology.

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