Research IndicatorsGraph generated 26 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 26 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
TICdb, Universidad de Navarra
Search the database of Translocation breakpoints In Cancer for "ERC1"
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ERC1 (cancer-related)
Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.
Cousminer DL, Berry DJ, Timpson NJ, et al.Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(13):2735-47 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and adverse cardiometabolic health. The only gene so far associated with pubertal height growth, LIN28B, pleiotropically influences childhood growth, puberty and cancer progression, pointing to shared underlying mechanisms. To discover genetic loci influencing pubertal height and growth and to place them in context of overall growth and maturation, we performed genome-wide association meta-analyses in 18 737 European samples utilizing longitudinally collected height measurements. We found significant associations (P < 1.67 × 10(-8)) at 10 loci, including LIN28B. Five loci associated with pubertal timing, all impacting multiple aspects of growth. In particular, a novel variant correlated with expression of MAPK3, and associated both with increased prepubertal growth and earlier menarche. Another variant near ADCY3-POMC associated with increased body mass index, reduced pubertal growth and earlier puberty. Whereas epidemiological correlations suggest that early puberty marks a pathway from rapid prepubertal growth to reduced final height and adult obesity, our study shows that individual loci associating with pubertal growth have variable longitudinal growth patterns that may differ from epidemiological observations. Overall, this study uncovers part of the complex genetic architecture linking pubertal height growth, the timing of puberty and childhood obesity and provides new information to pinpoint processes linking these traits.
Hameed O, Perry A, Banerjee R, et al.Papillary carcinoma of the breast lacks evidence of RET rearrangements despite morphological similarities to papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2009; 22(9):1236-42 [PubMed
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Rare breast neoplasms resembling the tall-cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma have been reported. In addition, papillary carcinoma of the breast occasionally displays nuclear features reminiscent of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated 33 intraductal/intracystic papillary carcinomas of the breast for the presence and extent of nuclear overlap, grooves, clearing, and inclusions, as well as features of the tall-cell or columnar-cell variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma. RET rearrangements were assessed in a subset of these cases. Paired probes localizing to the centromeric and telomeric ends of the RET gene on chromosome 10 were used for FISH using a break-apart approach. Single round and nested PCR was performed to detect RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, RET/PTC3 and ELKS-RET fusion transcripts. Nuclear overlap, grooves, stratification, and clearing were identified in 24 (73%), 14 (42%), 11 (33%), and 9 (27%) cases respectively, whereas nuclear inclusions and 'tall-cell' features were each seen in only one (3%) and two (6%) cases, respectively. Four of 19 tested cases displayed split FISH signals in a low percentage of cells and were considered borderline for RET rearrangement. All 19 tested cases with amplifiable RNA were negative for the four RET fusion transcripts evaluated by RT-PCR. Although papillary carcinomas of breast often display one or more cytoarchitectural features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, there is no evidence that RET rearrangements are involved.
BACKGROUND: The MDM2 gene encodes a negative regulator of the p53 tumour suppressor protein. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MDM2 promoter (a T to G exchange at nucleotide 309) has been reported to produce accelerated tumour formation in individuals with inherited p53 mutations. We have investigated the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 on clinical outcome in a cohort of patients with germline mutations of BRCA1.
METHODS: Genomic DNA was obtained for 102 healthy controls and 116 patients with established pathogenic mutations of BRCA1 and Pyrosequencing technologytrade mark was used to determine the genotype at the MDM2 SNP309 locus.
RESULTS: The polymorphism was present in 52.9% of the controls (G/T in 37.3% and G/G in 15.6%) and 58.6% of the BRCA1 mutation carriers (47.4% G/T and 11.2% G/G). Incidence of malignancy in female BRCA1 carriers was not significantly higher in SNP309 carriers than in wildtype (T/T) individuals (72.7% vs. 75.6%, p = 1.00). Mean age of diagnosis of first breast cancer was 41.2 years in the SNP309 G/G genotype carriers, 38.6 years in those with the SNP309 G/T genotype and 39.0 years in wildtype subjects (p = 0.80).
CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that the MDM2 SNP309 accelerates tumour development in carriers of known pathogenic germline mutations of BRCA1.
Liu RT, Chou FF, Wang CH, et al.Low prevalence of RET rearrangements (RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, RET/PTC3, and ELKS-RET) in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinomas in Taiwan Chinese.
Thyroid. 2005; 15(4):326-35 [PubMed
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Somatic rearrangement of the tyrosine kinase receptor RET is restricted to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The prevalence of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, and RET/PTC3 has been found to vary between 0% and 20% in most series of sporadic (nonradiation-induced) PTCs analyzed by type-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) alone. However, high prevalence reported from Taiwan (6 out of 11, 55%) indicates RET rearrangement is an important genetic lesion underlying the development of PTC in Taiwan. Because the high prevalence of RET rearrangements in Chinese patients was particularly striking, we were prompted to reexamine chimeric transcripts of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, and RET/PTC3 using the same experimental designs in a larger number of cases in the same population. RT-PCR was performed to amplify fusion products of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, RET/PTC3, and ELKS-RET from frozen tissue of 105 sporadic PTCs. RT-PCR was also performed with two different primer sets for RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, and RET/PTC3 followed by Southern hybridization in the first 62 tumors. In our study, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, and RET/PTC3 oncogenes were found in only 7 of 105 (7%) sporadic PTCs. Of these tumors, 3 involved RET/PTC1 and 4 involved RET/PTC3. No RET/PTC2 rearrangements were observed. In the first 62 tumor samples, another two different primer sets for each rearrangement also gave concordant results. Furthermore, application of Southern hybridization in these 62 PTCs did not identify additional tumor harboring RET chimeric transcripts. We identified one tumor as having an ELKS-RET rearrangement (1 of 105, 1%). In conclusion, we detected RET rearrangements in 8 of 105 (8%) sporadic PTCs in Taiwan, a much lower prevalence than previously reported for this population but comparable to those reported in other nations using similar methodology. RET chimeric oncogenes only account for a small fraction of PTCs in Taiwan.
Kodama Y, Asai N, Kawai K, et al.The RET proto-oncogene: a molecular therapeutic target in thyroid cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2005; 96(3):143-8 [PubMed
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The RET proto-oncogene is responsible for the development of several human inherited and non-inherited diseases. Germline point mutations were identified in multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 10 rearranged forms of RET, referred to as RET/PTC 1-9, ELKS/RET and RFP/RET, have been cloned from sporadic and radiation-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas. These mutations induced oncogenic activation of RET tyrosine kinase by different mechanisms. To date, various kinds of therapeutic approaches have been developed for the treatment of RET-associated cancers, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, gene therapy with dominant negative RET mutants, and RNA interference to abrogate oncogenic mutant RET expression. RET and some signaling molecules that function downstream of RET could be potential targets for the development of selective cancer therapeutics.
Nakata T, Yokota T, Emi M, Minami SDifferential expression of multiple isoforms of the ELKS mRNAs involved in a papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(1):30-7 [PubMed
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A novel gene, ELKS, whose 5' portion was fused to the RET gene, was found in a papillary thyroid carcinoma. A cDNA of this gene obtained from a human-brain cDNA library revealed that it encoded a peptide of 948 amino acids, termed ELKSalpha. We identified four other isoforms, which encoded ELKSbeta, ELKSgamma, ELKSdelta, and ELKSepsilon proteins consisting, respectively, of 992, 720, 1088, and 1116 amino acid residues. Analysis of the gene structure revealed that the isoforms were generated by alternative splicing. Isoforms beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon all contain an optional exon (exon14a), but ELKSgamma, -delta, and -epsilon lack exon 1b. ELKSgamma lacks exons 3 to 6. ELKSdelta and -epsilon lack exons 12 and 17; ELKSepsilon contains an optional exon (exon 6a). Analysis by RT-PCR suggested that ELKSalpha and ELKSbeta mRNAs are abundant in the brain, ELKSdelta and ELKSepsilon mRNAs predominate in testis and thyroid, and ELKSepsilon mRNA predominates in other tissues. To prove whether the fusion of different ELKS isoforms to RET (between ELKS coiled-coil domains and the RET kinase domain) could produce chimeric proteins that could be autophosphorylated, we synthesized ELKSgamma-RET, ELKSdelta-RET, and ELKSepsilon-RET fusion proteins in vitro. Immunoblotting with anti-ELKS, anti-RET, and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies demonstrated that the chimeric proteins were constitutively phosphorylated at tyrosine residues, whereas native RET protein was not. These results indicate that the ELKS gene is alternatively spliced, and that every type of ELKS-RET chimeric protein having oligomerization domains can activate RET's cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase.
Yokota T, Nakata T, Minami S, et al.Genomic organization and chromosomal mapping of ELKS, a gene rearranged in a papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J Hum Genet. 2000; 45(1):6-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We recently isolated a novel cDNA, designated ELKS, that was fused to RET cDNA in a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Its encoded polypeptide sequence was rich in glutamic acid (E), leucine (L), lysine (K), and serine (S), and was characterized by the presence of nine alpha-helical coiled-coil domains consisting of periodic heptad repeats. We have now cloned the entire structure of the human ELKS gene from within a 700-kb genomic region represented by overlapping bacteriophage P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, and localized it to chromosomal band 12p13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene is approximately 500 kb long, with 19 exons and 18 introns; the transcription initiation site within exon 1 is separate from the initiation codon (in exon 2). Analysis of the exon/intron structure revealed that introns interrupt the coding sequence in such a way that many functional segments of the protein are encoded by distinct exons. Exon 1 encodes the 5' non-coding region; exons 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, and 15 encode the nine coiled-coil domains. Exons 17-19 constitute the 3' non-coding region. Analysis of the region immediately upstream of exon 1 showed that it was extremely rich in G/C nucleotides and contained multiple Sp-1 and AP2 binding sequences. The ELKS-RET gene fusion rearrangement we had observed in a papillary thyroid carcinoma occurred between intron 10 of the ELKS gene and intron 11 of RET.
Nakata T, Kitamura Y, Shimizu K, et al.Fusion of a novel gene, ELKS, to RET due to translocation t(10;12)(q11;p13) in a papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 25(2):97-103 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In papillary thyroid carcinomas, the genes for receptor-type tyrosine kinase, RET or TRKA, are sometimes rearranged, resulting in fusion of its tyrosine kinase domain to 5' portions of several activating genes. In a papillary thyroid carcinoma, we identified a novel gene (ELKS), the 5' portion of which is fused to the RET gene by gene rearrangement due to the translocation t(10;12)(q11;p13). Subsequent cloning of the ELKS cDNA revealed that ELKS encodes a novel 948 amino acid peptide and is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues. The presence of multiple coiled-coil domains in the ELKS product suggests that the ELKS protein forms dimers. Since the tyrosine kinase of RET is activated by dimerization that occurs when its ligands bind to the receptor, fusion of RET with the 5' dimerization domains of ELKS would activate its cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase constitutively in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
Traycoff CM, Srour EF, Dutt P, et al.The 30/35 kDa chymotryptic fragment of fibronectin enhances retroviral-mediated gene transfer in purified chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow progenitors.
Leukemia. 1997; 11(1):159-67 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have previously shown by reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtPCR) that CML CD34+ HLA-DR- cells are enriched for BCR/ABL(-) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) while leukemic HPC reside predominately within CML CD34+ HLA-DR+ cells. We investigated whether the 30/35 kDa fragment of fibronectin (FN) could be used to enhance retroviral-mediated gene transfer (RMGT) in chronic phase CML marrow HPC. CML CD34+ HLA-DR- and CD34+ HLA-DR+ cells were transduced with vector supernate containing the neomycin resistance gene on plates coated with either FN or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as control, then assayed for transduced HPC in progenitor cell assays in the presence or absence of G418. Transduction efficiency of CML CD34+ HLA-DR- cells over BSA ranged from 0.09 to 7.2% (mean 3.3 +/- 1.5%), while that over FN plates ranged from 3.8 to 23% (mean 11.0 +/- 4.5%) (n = 4). Transduction efficiencies of CML CD34+ HLA-DR+ cells ranged from 0.4 to 9.8% (mean 3.7 +/- 1.7%) and 6.0 to 26% (mean 17.3 +/- 4.5%) (n = 5) over BSA and FN, respectively. rtPCR analysis for BCR/ABL mRNA of individual G418-resistant HPC generated from CD34+ HLA-DR- cells revealed that normal BCR/ABL(-) HPC were successfully transduced under these experimental conditions. These results demonstrate the feasibility of transducing normal CML primitive HPC, and illustrate the potential clinical use of FN in the setting of gene therapy for CML, as well as other diseases.