Gene Summary

Gene:DPYD; dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a pyrimidine catabolic enzyme and the initial and rate-limiting factor in the pathway of uracil and thymidine catabolism. Mutations in this gene result in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, an error in pyrimidine metabolism associated with thymine-uraciluria and an increased risk of toxicity in cancer patients receiving 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP)
  • X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Protein Conformation
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Fluorouracil
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Young Adult
  • Mutation
  • Xenograft Models
  • Messenger RNA
  • Capecitabine
  • Transcription Factors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 1
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Promoter Regions
  • p53 Protein
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
  • Turkey
  • Genotype
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Staging
  • Vomiting
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Thymidylate Synthase
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Uracil
  • Risk Factors
  • Polymorphism
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DPYD (cancer-related)

De Falco V, Natalicchio MI, Napolitano S, et al.
A case report of a severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity due to an uncommon DPYD variant.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(21):e15759 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Fluoropyrimidines such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its orally active prodrug, capecitabine, are widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, including colorectal cancer. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) plays an important role in the 5-FU metabolism. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) is a highly polymorphic gene with several hundreds of reported genetic variants and DPD activity levels vary considerably among individuals, with different 5-FU-related efficacy and toxicity. About 5% of the population is deficient in DPD enzyme activity. The most well studied DPYD variant is the IVS14+1G>A, also known as DPYD *2A. In this report, we present a case of a patient with a double heterozygote DPYD variant (DPYD activity score: 0,5 according to Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium) who experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity resolved without any consequence.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-years-old Caucasian man with diagnosis of left colon adenocarcinoma underwent left hemicolectomy on July 2017: pT3 G3 N1c M0. According to the disease stage, he started an adjuvant therapy with XELOX using capecitabine at 50% of total dose, because of his DPYD IVS14+1G>A variant, detected before the treatment.
DIAGNOSIS: After few days, despite of this dose reduction, he experienced life-threatening adverse events such as mucositis G3, diarrhea G3, neutropenia G4, thrombocytopenia G4, and hyperbilirubinemia G3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 5.0.
INTERVENTIONS: As first, we set up an intensive rehydration therapy, antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis, Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factors, and supportive blood transfusions. Additional genetic tests revealed a double heterozygote variant of DPYD gene (DPYD IVS14+1G>A and 2846A>T) which is a very rare situation and only 3 cases are described in literature, all of them concluded with patient's death.
OUTCOMES: After 3 weeks of intensive therapy, the patient was fully recovered. Furthermore, all the whole-body CT scans performed since discharge from the hospital until now, have confirmed no evidence of disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies demonstrated that screening strategy for the most common DPYD variants allowed for avoiding toxicities and saving money. This report underlines the importance of genotyping DPYD before treatment and emphasizes the role of genotype-guided dose individualization.

Mukherji D, Massih SA, Tfayli A, et al.
Three different polymorphisms of the DPYD gene associated with severe toxicity following administration of 5-FU: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2019; 13(1):76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency secondary to polymorphisms in the DPYD gene can lead to significant toxicity associated with the administration of fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 59-year-old Lebanese woman with metastatic pancreatic cancer who received FOLFIRINOX therapy and developed severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity after a single cycle. The entire DPYD gene was sequenced, and the patient was found to be heterozygous for three different polymorphisms that have reportedly been associated with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency.
CONCLUSION: Because data regarding the prevalence and clinical significance of several heterozygous polymorphisms in a single DPYD gene are very limited, we suggest that full gene sequencing should be carried out, at least in populations in which the allele frequencies are unknown.

Du B, Wang T, Yang X, et al.
SOX9, miR-495, miR-590-3p, and miR-320d were identified as chemoradiotherapy-sensitive genes and miRNAs in colorectal cancer patients based on a microarray dataset.
Neoplasma. 2019; 66(1):8-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study aimed to identify chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-sensitive biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The GSE15781 dataset used in this study contains 42 samples: 22 CRC tissues (non-CRT: n = 13; CRT: n = 9) and 20 normal colorectal tissues (non-CRT: n = 10; CRT: n = 10). Following pretreatment, differentially expressed genes were selected using the limma package. Potential CRT-sensitive genes were identified with Venn analysis and then enriched in function and pathway clusters using the DAVID online tool. Moreover, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was implemented using the STRING database. The TRRUST database was used to establish a transcription factor (TF)-target transcriptional network. A miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on relevant databases. miRNA and mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. A group of 259 candidate CRT-sensitive genes were identified that were mainly enriched in cell cycle regulation, adhesion-associated processes, and the p53 signaling pathway. A PPI network was established that contained striking nodes, including ITGA2, MYC, ESR1, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), among which ESR1 was linked to MYC, and the two nodes were also highlighted in the TF-target regulation network. SRY-box 9 (SOX9) was another key TF. Hsa-miR-590-3p, hsa-miR-495, hsa-miR-320c, and hsa-miR-320d were predominant in the miRNA-mRNA network. Expression levels of SOX9, DPYD mRNA, miR-495, and miR-590-3p were clearly reduced after X-ray treatment in irradiated HT-29 cells, whereas that of miR-320d was notably enhanced. SOX9 may be a CRT-sensitive gene in CRC patients, and hsa-miR-590-3p, hsa-miR-495, and hsa-miR-320d may be CRT-sensitive microRNAs in CRC patients. Therefore, SOX9, hsa-miR-590-3p, hsa-miR-495, and hsa-miR-320d may be used as sensitive biomarkers in CRC patients.

Ren W, Sun Q, Wu PY, et al.
Profiles of genomic alterations in primary esophageal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(48):e13413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a rare tumor with FDC differentiation that typically arises within lymph nodes but can also occur extranodally. To date, the primary esophageal FDC sarcoma has not been reported in the English literature.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We described a 67-year-old female who foremostly presented with dysphagia, and the patient was readmitted due to a dry cough and pain of his right shoulder 2 years after initial treatment.
DIAGNOSES: Primary esophageal FDC sarcoma with the right superior mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
INTERVENTIONS: The esophageal tumor was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection at the first hospitalization. At the second hospitalization 2 years after the initial visit, the tracheal stent loaded with (125) iodine radioactive seeds was placed. The profiles of genetic variations and immunotherapeutic biomarkers were also explored by next-generation sequencing protocol from the patient's blood, esophageal primary, and mediastinal metastatic tumor samples.
OUTCOMES: The patient's symptom transitorily relieved, but she gave up further treatment and died 2 months after the tracheal stent was placed. As for the genomic alterations, we found 9 gene mutations in all the samples, including checkpoint kinase 2(CHEK2), FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1), tumor protein 53 (TP53), DPYD, ERBB2 interacting protein (ERBB2IP), FBXW7, KMT2D, PPP2R1A, TSC2, whereas amplification of MYC was only in the metastatic example. The analysis of clonal evolution and phylogenetic tree showed the propagation and replay of polyclonal esophageal FDC sarcoma. At the same time, the detection of biomarkers for immunotherapy revealed microsatellite stable and mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR), which predicted a relatively poor anti-programmed death (PD-1)/programmed death ligand (PD-L1) immunotherapy outcome. On the contrary, the tumor mutational burdens were 10 mutations per 1 million bases in both the primary and metastatic tumor sample, which ranked the top 23.3% in solid tumors mutational burdens database of Geneseeq and might be a good predictor of the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.
LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, this case report announced the first case of extranodal primary esophageal FDC sarcoma in the world, and firstly revealed its unique genetic alterations profiles, which might contribute to further in-depth study of this rare disease.

Henricks LM, Lunenburg CATC, de Man FM, et al.
DPYD genotype-guided dose individualisation of fluoropyrimidine therapy in patients with cancer: a prospective safety analysis.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(11):1459-1467 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidine treatment can result in severe toxicity in up to 30% of patients and is often the result of reduced activity of the key metabolic enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), mostly caused by genetic variants in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD). We assessed the effect of prospective screening for the four most relevant DPYD variants (DPYD*2A [rs3918290, c.1905+1G>A, IVS14+1G>A], c.2846A>T [rs67376798, D949V], c.1679T>G [rs55886062, DPYD*13, I560S], and c.1236G>A [rs56038477, E412E, in haplotype B3]) on patient safety and subsequent DPYD genotype-guided dose individualisation in daily clinical care.
METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, safety analysis in 17 hospitals in the Netherlands, the study population consisted of adult patients (≥18 years) with cancer who were intended to start on a fluoropyrimidine-based anticancer therapy (capecitabine or fluorouracil as single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy). Patients with all tumour types for which fluoropyrimidine-based therapy was considered in their best interest were eligible. We did prospective genotyping for DPYD*2A, c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, and c.1236G>A. Heterozygous DPYD variant allele carriers received an initial dose reduction of 25% (c.2846A>T and c.1236G>A) or 50% (DPYD*2A and c.1679T>G), and DPYD wild-type patients were treated according to the current standard of care. The primary endpoint of the study was the frequency of severe (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03 grade ≥3) overall fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity across the entire treatment duration. We compared toxicity incidence between DPYD variant allele carriers and DPYD wild-type patients on an intention-to-treat basis, and relative risks (RRs) for severe toxicity were compared between the current study and a historical cohort of DPYD variant allele carriers treated with full dose fluoropyrimidine-based therapy (derived from a previously published meta-analysis). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324452, and is complete.
FINDINGS: Between April 30, 2015, and Dec 21, 2017, we enrolled 1181 patients. 78 patients were considered non-evaluable, because they were retrospectively identified as not meeting inclusion criteria, did not start fluoropyrimidine-based treatment, or were homozygous or compound heterozygous DPYD variant allele carriers. Of 1103 evaluable patients, 85 (8%) were heterozygous DPYD variant allele carriers, and 1018 (92%) were DPYD wild-type patients. Overall, fluoropyrimidine-related severe toxicity was higher in DPYD variant carriers (33 [39%] of 85 patients) than in wild-type patients (231 [23%] of 1018 patients; p=0·0013). The RR for severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity was 1·31 (95% CI 0·63-2·73) for genotype-guided dosing compared with 2·87 (2·14-3·86) in the historical cohort for DPYD*2A carriers, no toxicity compared with 4·30 (2·10-8·80) in c.1679T>G carriers, 2·00 (1·19-3·34) compared with 3·11 (2·25-4·28) for c.2846A>T carriers, and 1·69 (1·18-2·42) compared with 1·72 (1·22-2·42) for c.1236G>A carriers.
INTERPRETATION: Prospective DPYD genotyping was feasible in routine clinical practice, and DPYD genotype-based dose reductions improved patient safety of fluoropyrimidine treatment. For DPYD*2A and c.1679T>G carriers, a 50% initial dose reduction was adequate. For c.1236G>A and c.2846A>T carriers, a larger dose reduction of 50% (instead of 25%) requires investigation. Since fluoropyrimidines are among the most commonly used anticancer agents, these findings suggest that implementation of DPYD genotype-guided individualised dosing should be a new standard of care.
FUNDING: Dutch Cancer Society.

Lin K, Jiang H, Zhuang SS, et al.
Long noncoding RNA LINC00261 induces chemosensitization to 5-fluorouracil by mediating methylation-dependent repression of DPYD in human esophageal cancer.
FASEB J. 2019; 33(2):1972-1988 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 85% of a single administered dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) will be degraded by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DYPD). Studies have highlighted a link between the complete or partial loss of DYPD function and clinical responses to 5-FU; however, the underlying molecular basis of DPD deficiency remains poorly understood. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevailing hypothesis which suggests that overexpression of LINC00261 possesses the ability to modulate the methylation-dependent repression of DPYD, ultimately resulting in an elevation of the sensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells to 5-FU. LINC00261 levels were initially quantified, followed by analysis of DYPD methylation within the cancerous tissues collected from 75 patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer undergoing 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In an attempt to determine the levels of LINC00261 related to the esophageal cancer cell resistance to 5-FU and to identify the interaction between the levels of LINC00261 and methylation of the DYPD promoter, esophageal cancer cells TE-1 and -5 were prepared, in which LINC00261 and the 5-FU-resistant TE-1 and -5 cells were overexpressed. The levels of LINC00261 were reduced among the cancerous tissues obtained from patients exhibiting resistance to 5-FU. Overexpression of LINC00261 was determined to dramatically inhibit proliferation and resistance to apoptosis among 5-FU-resistant TE-1 and -5 cells, whereas silencing of LINC00261 was determined to enhance proliferation and resistance to apoptosis among the TE-1 and -5 cells. DPYD, a confirmed target of LINC00261, displayed a greater incidence of DNA methylation among patient's sensitive to 5-FU. A key finding revealed that overexpressed LINC00261 could increase the methylation of the DPYD promoter through the recruitment of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), which, in turn, acts to decrease DPYD activity in 5-FU-resistant TE-1 cells, whereas a reversible change was recorded once the demethylation reagent 5-aza-2'-deoxyctidine was employed to treat the 5-FU-resistant TE-1 cells. Taken together, the results of the study provided evidence emphasizing the distinct antitumor ability of LINC00261 in cases of esophageal cancer, which was manifested by overexpression of LINC00261 detected to increase the sensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells to 5-FU by mediating methylation-dependent repression of DPYD. Our study highlighted the potential of LINC00261 as a novel target capable of improving the chemotherapeutic response and survival of patients with esophageal cancer.-Lin, K., Jiang, H., Zhuang, S.-S., Qin, Y.-S., Qiu, G.-D., She, Y.-Q., Zheng, J.-T., Chen, C., Fang, L., Zhang, S.-Y. Long noncoding RNA LINC00261 induces chemosensitization to 5-fluorouracil by mediating methylation-dependent repression of DPYD in human esophageal cancer.

Zawiah M, Yousef AM, Kadi T, et al.
Early disease relapse in a patient with colorectal cancer who harbors genetic variants of DPYD, TYMS, MTHFR and DHFR after treatment with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy.
Drug Metab Pers Ther. 2018; 33(4):201-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Early relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC) after curative resection is mainly attributed to the key determinants such as tumor histology, stage, lymphovascular invasion, and the response to chemotherapy. Case presentation Interindividual variability in the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy between patients receiving the same treatment may be ascribed to the patients' genetic profile. In this report, we highlight a clinical case of a patient with stage II CRC who relapsed within a short period after starting adjuvant chemotherapy and was later found to have multiple genetic polymorphisms in the DPYD, TYMS, MTHFR, and DHFR genes. Conclusions Based on the clinical data of the patient and the key role of these genes in 5-fluorouracil pathway, we hypothesize that these variants may contribute to the drug response and early relapse in CRC.

Madi A, Fisher D, Maughan TS, et al.
Pharmacogenetic analyses of 2183 patients with advanced colorectal cancer; potential role for common dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase variants in toxicity to chemotherapy.
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 102:31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited genetic variants may influence response to, and side-effects from, chemotherapy. We sought to generate a comprehensive inherited pharmacogenetic profile for oxaliplatin and 5FU/capecitabine therapy in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC).
METHODS: We analysed more than 200 potentially functional, common, inherited variants in genes within the 5FU, capecitabine, oxaliplatin and DNA repair pathways, together with four rare dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) variants, in 2183 aCRC patients treated with oxaliplatin-fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy with, or without, cetuximab (from MRC COIN and COIN-B trials). Primary end-points were response, any toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. We had >85% power to detect odds ratios (ORs) = 1.3 for variants with minor allele frequencies >20%.
RESULTS: Variants in DNA repair genes (Asn279Ser in EXO1 and Arg399Gln in XRCC1) were most associated with response (OR 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.9, P = 0.004, and OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, P = 0.003, respectively). Common variants in DPYD (Cys29Arg and Val732Ile) were most associated with toxicity (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0, P = 0.008, and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P = 0.006, respectively). Two rare DPYD variants were associated with increased toxicity (Asp949Val with neutropenia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea and infection; IVS14+1G>A with lethargy, diarrhoea, stomatitis, hand-foot syndrome and infection; all ORs > 3). Asp317His in DCLRE1A was most associated with peripheral neuropathy (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, P = 0.003). No common variant associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA repair genes may play a significant role in the pharmacogenetics of aCRC. Our data suggest that both common and rare DPYD variants may be associated with toxicity to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

Cecchin E, De Mattia E, Ecca F, Toffoli G
Host genetic profiling to increase drug safety in colorectal cancer from discovery to implementation.
Drug Resist Updat. 2018; 39:18-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adverse events affect the pharmacological treatment of approximately 90% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at any stage of the disease. Chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin is the cornerstone of the pharmacological treatment of CRC. The introduction of novel targeted agents, as anti-EGFR (i.e. cetuximab, panitumumab) and antiangiogenic (i.e. bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, regorafenib, and ramucirumab) molecules, into the oncologist's toolbox has led to significant improvements in the life expectancy of advanced CRC patients, but with a substantial increase in toxicity burden. In this respect, pharmacogenomics has largely been applied to the personalization of CRC chemotherapy, focusing mainly on the study of inhered polymorphisms in genes encoding phase I and II enzymes, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)/solute carrier (SLC) membrane transporters, proteins involved in DNA repair, folate pathway and immune response. These research efforts have led to the identification of some validated genetic markers of chemotherapy toxicity, for fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan. No validated genetic determinants of oxaliplatin-specific toxicity, as peripheral neuropathy, has thus far been established. The contribution of host genetic markers in predicting the toxicity associated with novel targeted agents' administration is still controversial due to the heterogeneity of published data. Pharmacogenomics guidelines have been published by some international scientific consortia such as the Clinical Pharmacogenomics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) strongly suggesting a pre-treatment dose adjustment of irinotecan based on UGT1A1*28 genotype and of fluoropyrimidines based on some DPYD genetic variants, to increase treatment safety. However, these recommendations are still poorly applied at the patient's bedside. Several ongoing projects in the U.S. and Europe are currently evaluating how pharmacogenomics can be implemented successfully in daily clinical practice. The majority of drug-related adverse events are still unexplained, and a great deal of ongoing research is aimed at improving knowledge of the role of pharmacogenomics in increasing treatment safety. In this review, the issue of pre-treatment identification of CRC patients at risk of toxicity via the analysis of patients' genetic profiles is addressed. Available pharmacogenomics guidelines with ongoing efforts to implement them in clinical practice and new exploratory markers for clinical validation are described.

Hu X, Akutsu Y, Suganami A, et al.
Low-dose hyperthermia enhances the antitumor effects of chemotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma.
Dis Esophagus. 2017; 30(7):1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a highly aggressive neoplasm and the sixth leading cause of global cancer-related death; the 5-year survival rate for esophageal cancer is only about 20%-25% for all stages. Therefore, improving the therapeutic effect is important. This study assessed whether low-dose hyperthermia (LDH) enhances the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. The antitumor effect of chemotherapy with/without LDH in the squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCCVII was evaluated. A comprehensive analysis was performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to study the hyperthermia-induced changes in the gene expression of SCCVII cell lines. In addition, the cytotoxic and apoptotic changes in the cells treated with LDH combined with/without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were measured. LDH combined with 5-FU (10 nM) strongly inhibited the cell growth of SCCVII, with flow cytometry showing an increased population of apoptotic cells. PCR showed that LDH promoted a 25.22-fold increase of p53 mRNA and 18.08-fold increase of Bax mRNA in vitro. MDR1 expression was decreased to 28.7% after LDH. This treatment can result in much higher efficacy of antitumor drugs. After LDH, the expressions of TS decreased to 12.06%, OPRT increased by 4.17-fold, and DPD did not change (1.03-fold). This transformations will induce susceptibility to 5-FU. LDH may be a useful enhancer of chemotherapy drugs for squamous cell carcinoma.

Gallegos-Arreola MP, Zúñiga-González GM, Sánchez-López JY, et al.
TYMS 2R3R polymorphism and DPYD [IVS]14+1G>A gene mutation in Mexican colorectal cancer patients.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2018; 65(2):227-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between TYMS 2R3R polymorphism and DPYD [IVS]14+1G>A mutation by comparing healthy subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in the Mexican population.
METHOD: Genotyping of the 2R/3R was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and [IVS]14+1G>A mutation by real-time PCR analysis.
RESULTS: The observed frequencies of the TYMS 2R3R polymorphism and the -[IVS]14+1G>A mutation in DPYD did not indicate an increased risk for CRC (p>0.05). However we observed an association of the 2R/2R (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.66-6.08, p=0.0017) and heterozygous (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.32-2.97, p=0.0012) genotypes as risk factors when comparing controls and CRC patients that were also tobacco consumers. An association between the genotype and the disease was evident. The distribution of the 2R/2R genotype and hematological toxicity (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.54-4.45, p=0.0259), heterozygous (2R/3R) with tumor stage III-IV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.11-2.94, p=0.020) and 2R/2R-2R/3R in non-chemotherapy response CRC patients with hematological (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21-4.4, p=0.014) and gastric toxicities (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.18-8.2, p=0.035) confirmed that this factor may significantly contribute to the CRC susceptibility.
CONCLUSION: TYMS 2R3R polymorphism and the -[IVS]14+1G>A mutation in DPYD was not associated with susceptibility to CRC. However, the 2R/2R and 2R/3R genotypes of TYMS polymorphism could significantly contribute to hematological and gastric toxicity in CRC patients in this sample population.

Yousef AM, Zawiah M, Al-Yacoub S, et al.
The association of polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes with response to adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 82(2):237-243 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major health issues worldwide. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a cornerstone of chemotherapy for CRC and the major targets of 5-FU are folate-metabolizing enzymes.
METHODS: A total of 103 CRC patients with complete clinical data were included in this prospective cohort study. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. Using Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazard models, we evaluated associations between functional polymorphisms in four genes MTHFR (1298A>C and 677C>T), DPYD (496A>G and 85T>C), DHFR 19 bp del, and MTR (2756 A>G) with disease-free survival (DFS).
RESULTS: The minor allele frequencies of MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, DPYD 496A>G, DPYD 85T>C, DHFR 19 bp del, and MTR 2756 A>G were 0.364, 0.214, 0.116, 0.209, 0.383, and 0.097, respectively. CRC patients carrying the homozygous GG genotype in DPYD 496A>G had 4.36 times shorter DFS than wild-type AA carriers, (DFS
CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphism in DPYD seems to be associated with DFS in CRC patients receiving an adjuvant regimen of 5-FU/capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to verify these findings.

Gajjar KK, Vora HH, Kobawala TP, et al.
Deciphering the potential value of 5-fluorouracil metabolic enzymes in predicting prognosis and treatment response of colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(2):180-188 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: 5-flourouracil (5-FU) is one of the standard chemotherapeutic drugs used today in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Disruption of 5-FU metabolic pathway may contribute to altered effectiveness towards 5-FU-based therapy. Hence, the study of 5-FU metabolizing enzymes might have the potential efficacy to predict survival and response to treatment in colorectal cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical localization of 5-FU metabolic enzymes (TS, MTHFR, DPYD, and TP) was evaluated in 143 untreated patients with colorectal cancer; their prognostic and predictive values were also evaluated.
RESULTS: Immuno-positivity for TS, MTHFR, DPYD, and TP was observed in 77%, 75%, 88%, and 96% of colorectal cancer patients, respectively. Univariate survival analysis in total patients showed that low DPYD expression significantly predicted adverse overall survival ( P=0.042). Moreover, subgroup of colon cancer patients with low TS expression was associated with unfavorable prognosis. TP expression also emerged as a prognosticator in the subgroup of early and advanced stage patients. Additionally, when effect of co-expression of 5-FU metabolic enzymes was evaluated in total patients, low coexpression of all four proteins was predictive of poor overall survival than for individuals expressing high coexpression of these proteins ( P=0.045). In contrast, none of the 5-FU metabolic enzymes-either singly or on coexpression-emerged as a useful biomarker of potential therapeutic value when evaluated in the subgroup of patients treated with 5-FU alone or 5-FU plus oxaliplatin.
CONCLUSION: The above findings suggest that coexpression of 5-FU metabolic enzymes possess significant prognostic value and could be useful biomarkers in colorectal cancer patients.

Matáková T, Halašová E, Škovierová H, et al.
DPYD genotype and haplotype analysis and colorectal cancer susceptibility in a case-control study from Slovakia.
Gen Physiol Biophys. 2017; 36(5):557-563 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) acts as the first-step enzyme catabolizing pyrimidines in vivo. DPYD gene mutations interfere with the breakdown of uracil and thymine. Genetic variations of DPYD can cause an enzyme deficiency state, which results in severe toxicity or other adverse side effects such as DNA damage or RNA damage caused by imbalance of the nucleotide pool. Our case-control study investigates the possible association between seven DPYD gene polymophisms (rs1801267, rs72547602, rs1801160, rs3918290, rs1801159, rs1801158, rs1801265) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The association analysis for DPD was performed on 273 CRC patients and 187 healthy controls. There is significant allele association of SNP rs1801160 with colorectal cancer (p = 0.003, OR = 3.264, 95% CI = 1.425-7.475) in present analysis. Haplotype analysis of four DPYD polymorphisms showed significant difference in the distribution "IISt" haplotype between cases and controls. In comparison to the most common haplotype (VISt), the "IISt" haplotype was associated with increased risk for CRC (p = 0.038, OR = 2.733, 95% CI = 1.019-7.326). The present study suggests that the SNP rs1801160 and the "IISt" haplotype in the DPYD gene may also have a role in colorectal cancer risk.

Zhu WP, Liu ZY, Zhao YM, et al.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase predicts survival and response to interferon-α in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis and recurrence contribute to poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, we reported that interferon-α (IFN-α) can suppress metastasis of HCC; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully described. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), a pyrimidine catabolic enzyme, was dose-dependently downregulated by IFN-α in HCC tissues from nude mice. Notably, DPYD expression was found to be significantly increased in HCC cell lines with higher metastatic potentials compared with their controls. Moreover, upregulation of DPYD in HCC cells could promote in vitro migration, invasion, and in vivo lung metastasis, and inducing changes characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast, knockdown of DPYD inhibited these processes. Mechanistically, DPYD functioned as a positive regulator of EMT in HCC by targeting the p38/NF-κB/Snail1 pathway. Clinically, tissue microarray analysis showed that high DPYD expression was positively associated with aggressive tumor characteristics, including larger tumor size, tumor recurrence, and advanced tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and independently correlated with poorer overall survival times after curative resection. HCC patients with low DPYD expression have better response to IFN-α therapy. Taken together, our findings elucidate that IFN-α could downregulate DPYD expression to inhibit EMT and HCC metastasis, and suggest that DPYD might be a potential prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for HCC.

Ruzzo A, Graziano F, Galli F, et al.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase pharmacogenetics for predicting fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity in the randomised, phase III adjuvant TOSCA trial in high-risk colon cancer patients.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 117(9):1269-1277 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) catabolises ∼85% of the administered dose of fluoropyrimidines. Functional DPYD gene variants cause reduced/abrogated DPD activity. DPYD variants analysis may help for defining individual patients' risk of fluoropyrimidine-related severe toxicity.
METHODS: The TOSCA Italian randomised trial enrolled colon cancer patients for 3 or 6 months of either FOLFOX-4 or XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy. In an ancillary pharmacogenetic study, 10 DPYD variants (*2A rs3918290 G>A, *13 rs55886062 T>G, rs67376798 A>T, *4 rs1801158 G>A, *5 rs1801159 A>G, *6 rs1801160 G>A, *9A rs1801265 T>C, rs2297595 A>G, rs17376848 T>C, and rs75017182 C>G), were retrospectively tested for associations with ⩾grade 3 fluoropyrimidine-related adverse events (FAEs). An association analysis and a time-to-toxicity (TTT) analysis were planned. To adjust for multiple testing, the Benjamini and Hochberg's False Discovery Rate (FDR) procedure was used.
RESULTS: FAEs occurred in 194 out of 508 assessable patients (38.2%). In the association analysis, FAEs occurred more frequently in *6 rs1801160 A allele carriers (FDR=0.0083). At multivariate TTT analysis, significant associations were found for *6 rs1801160 A allele carriers (FDR<0.0001), *2A rs3918290 A allele carriers (FDR<0.0001), and rs2297595 GG genotype carriers (FDR=0.0014). Neutropenia was the most common FAEs (28.5%). *6 rs1801160 (FDR<0.0001), and *2A rs3918290 (FDR=0.0004) variant alleles were significantly associated with time to neutropenia.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds evidence on the role of DPYD pharmacogenetics for safety of patients undergoing fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

Das K, Taguri M, Imamura H, et al.
Genomic predictors of chemotherapy efficacy in advanced or recurrent gastric cancer in the GC0301/TOP002 phase III clinical trial.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 412:208-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent gastric cancer clinical trials have aimed to establish the efficacy of combination therapy over monotherapy, however, the role for genomic biomarkers in these trials has remained largely unexplored. Here, using the NanoString expression platform, we analyzed 105 gastric tumors from a randomized phase III Japanese clinical trial (GC0301/TOP002) testing the efficacy of irinotecan plus S-1(IRI-S) versus S-1 therapy. We found that previously established proliferative subtype signatures, were associated with older patients (>65 years) and liver metastasis while mesenchymal subtype signatures were associated with younger patients (≤65 years) and peritoneal metastasis. Genes associated with tumor microenvironment (CD4, CD14, ADAMTS1, CCL5, CXCL12, CCL19), therapeutic implications (DPYD) and oncogenic signaling (Wnt5A, PTRF) were significantly associated with patient age, histology, tumor status, measurable lesions and metastasis. We identified Wnt5A downregulation as a candidate predictor of improved progression free survival (>8 weeks) in S-1 but not in IRI-S treatment. Although statistical significance was not achieved, mesenchymal subtype showed a trend for treatment interaction with IRI-S for efficacy. These findings highlight promising genomic markers that could be useful predictors of chemotherapy efficacy for better prognosis and survival outcome in gastric cancer.

Gokare P, Finnberg NK, Abbosh PH, et al.
P53 represses pyrimidine catabolic gene dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) expression in response to thymidylate synthase (TS) targeting.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9711 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleotide metabolism in cancer cells can influence malignant behavior and intrinsic resistance to therapy. Here we describe p53-dependent control of the rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine catabolic pathway, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and its effect on pharmacokinetics of and response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Using in silico/chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis we identify a conserved p53 DNA-binding site (p53BS) downstream of the DPYD gene with increased p53 occupancy following 5-FU treatment of cells. Consequently, decrease in Histone H3K9AC and increase in H3K27me3 marks at the DPYD promoter are observed concomitantly with reduced expression of DPYD mRNA and protein in a p53-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies reveal inhibition of DPYD expression by p53 is augmented following thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition and DPYD repression by p53 is dependent on DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling. In-vivo, liver specific Tp53 loss increases the conversion of 5-FU to 5-FUH

Pellicer M, García-González X, García MI, et al.
Use of exome sequencing to determine the full profile of genetic variants in the fluoropyrimidine pathway in colorectal cancer patients affected by severe toxicity.
Pharmacogenomics. 2017; 18(13):1215-1223 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify genetic variants associated with capecitabine toxicity in fluoropyrimidine pathway genes using exome sequencing.
PATIENTS & METHODS: Exomes from eight capecitabine-treated patients with severe adverse reactions (grade >2), among a population of 319, were sequenced (Ion Proton). SNPs in genes classified as potentially damaging (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant and Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) were tested for association with toxicity in a validation cohort of 319 capecitabine-treated patients.
RESULTS: A total of 17 nonsynonymous genetic variants were identified. Of these, five putative damaging SNPs in DPYD, ABCC4 and MTHFR were genotyped in the validation cohort. DPYD rs1801160 was associated with the risk of toxicity (p = 0.029) and MTHFR rs1801133 with delayed administration of chemotherapy due to toxicity (p = 0.047).
CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing revealed two specific biomarkers of the risk of toxicity to capecitabine.

Yap YS, Kwok LL, Syn N, et al.
Predictors of Hand-Foot Syndrome and Pyridoxine for Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(11):1538-1545 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common adverse effect of capecitabine treatment.
Objective: To compare the incidence and time to onset of grade 2 or greater HFS in patients receiving pyridoxine vs placebo and to identify biomarkers predictive of HFS.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial conducted at National Cancer Centre Singapore assessed whether oral pyridoxine could prevent the onset of grade 2 or higher HFS in 210 patients scheduled to receive single-agent capecitabine chemotherapy for breast, colorectal, and other cancers.
Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive concurrent pyridoxine (200 mg) or placebo daily for a maximum of 8 cycles of capecitabine, with stratification by sex and use in adjuvant or neoadjuvant vs palliative setting. Patients were withdrawn from the study on development of grade 2 or higher HFS or cessation of capecitabine.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was the incidence of grade 2 or higher HFS in patients receiving pyridoxine. Secondary end points included the time to onset (days) of grade 2 or higher HFS and identification of biomarkers predictive of HFS, including baseline folate and vitamin B12 levels, as well as genetic polymorphisms with genome-wide arrays.
Results: In this cohort of 210 patients (median [range] age, 58 [26-82] years; 162 women) grade 2 or higher HFS occurred in 33 patients (31.4%) in the pyridoxine arm vs 39 patients (37.1%) in the placebo arm (P = .38). The median time to onset of grade 2 or higher HFS was not reached in both arms. In univariate analysis, the starting dose of capecitabine (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.32-3.00; P = .001), serum folate levels (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.47; P = .001), and red blood cell folate levels (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.44; P = .003) were associated with increased risk of grade 2 or higher HFS. In multivariate analyses, serum folate (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.12-1.52; P < .001) and red blood cell folate (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49; P = .001) were the only significant predictors of grade 2 or higher HFS. Grade 2 or higher HFS was associated with 300 DNA variants at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), including a novel DPYD variant (rs75267292; P = 1.57 × 10-10), and variants in the MACF1 (rs183324967, P = 4.80 × 10-11; rs148221738, P = 5.73 × 10-10) and SPRY2 (rs117876855, P < 1.01 × 10-8; rs139544515, P = 1.30 × 10-8) genes involved in wound healing.
Conclusions and Relevance: Pyridoxine did not significantly prevent or delay the onset of grade 2 or higher HFS. Serum and red blood cell folate levels are independent predictors of HFS.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00486213.

Deenen MJ, Henricks LM, Sonke GS, et al.
Letter regarding Zhao et al. entitled " DPYD gene polymorphisms are associated with risk and chemotherapy prognosis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia".
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317701629 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zhao et al. investigated the association between germline genetic polymorphisms in DPYD, the gene encoding dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, and (1) the risk of developing pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and (2) outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia following the treatment with 5-fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). The authors found that the common DPYD variant c.85T>C (rs1801265, DPYD*9A) was significantly associated with (1) risk of developing pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, (2) complete response rate, (3) event-free survival, and (4) treatment-related toxicity. The authors conclude that patients carrying the c.85T>C C allele have an increased risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia and have inferior outcome, and that DPYD c.85T>C can be used as a guide for individualized treatment and the decision to utilize 5-fluorouracil in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In our view, the published article gives rise to multiple critical issues regarding the study's rationale and the methodology used, which strongly question the validity of the authors' conclusions.

Falvella FS, Luoni M, Cheli S, et al.
Fluoropyrimidine-Associated Toxicity in Two Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients: Potential Role of Common DPYD Polymorphisms.
Chemotherapy. 2017; 62(5):323-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
While the majority of patients can be treated safely with fluoropyrimidine, some experience severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. The frequency and severity of these adverse events vary from patient to patient and are partially explained by genetic polymorphism into the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene. Carriers of the rare allelic variants DPYD*2A, DPYD*13, and DPYD D949V are more likely to experience severe adverse reactions during fluoropyrimidine-based therapy. However, these 3 genetic variants explain only a small percentage of the overall drug toxicity, and more frequent ones such as homozygous or compound heterozygous DPYD V732I can play a key role.

Nakamura Y, Kajihara I, Yamada-Kanazawa S, et al.
Intratumor dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase mRNA expression levels are decreased in extramammary Paget's disease.
Drug Discov Ther. 2017; 11(3):152-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
S-1, a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based anti-cancer agent, is an important drug for treating metastatic extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD). Although intratumor expression levels of 5-FU metabolism enzymes have been studied widely in many solid tumors, no studies have examined on the expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), orotate phosphoribosyl-transferase (OPRT) or dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in skin cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the intratumoral mRNA expression levels of these genes in EMPD by real time PCR. Intratumoral DPD mRNA levels were decreased in EMPD compared to those in normal skin, but its intratumoral DPD mRNA expression levels were not correlated with clinical manifestations. Intratumoral DPD mRNA levels were positively correlated with OPRT mRNA levels in EMPD. Based on these results, low expression of intratumoral DPD mRNA in EMPD may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.

Przybyła T, Sakowicz-Burkiewicz M, Maciejewska I, et al.
Suppression of ID1 expression in colon cancer cells increases sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2017; 64(2):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil remains the basic treatment for patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. The major obstacle in successful treatment is the ability of CRC cells to acquire chemoresistance. Here we examined the impact of ID1 silencing on the sensitivity of CRC cells to 5-FU. To suppress ID1 expression in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells the cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying the ID1 silencing sequence. Cells with silenced ID1 showed altered expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers and exhibited increased proliferation rate compared to the parental cells. HCT-116 cells with suppressed ID1 became sensitized to 5-FU and this was not observed in HT-29 cells. Silencing ID1 resulted in altered expression of genes encoding enzymes metabolizing 5-FU. HT-29 cells with suppressed ID1 had significantly reduced mRNA level for thymidine phosphorylase, uridine-cytydine kinase 2 and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. ID1 suppression in HCT-116 cells resulted in an increase of mRNA level for thymidine phosphorylase, thymidine kinase and uridine-cytydine kinase 2 with concurrent drop of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidylate synthetase mRNA levels. In conclusion, ID1 expression impacts the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to 5-FU and may be considered as a potential predictive marker in CRC treatment.

Meulendijks D, Henricks LM, Jacobs BAW, et al.
Pretreatment serum uracil concentration as a predictor of severe and fatal fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 116(11):1415-1424 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We investigated the predictive value of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) phenotype, measured as pretreatment serum uracil and dihydrouracil concentrations, for severe as well as fatal fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in 550 patients treated previously with fluoropyrimidines during a prospective multicenter study.
METHODS: Pretreatment serum concentrations of uracil and dihydrouracil were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The primary endpoint of this analysis was global (any) severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity, that is, grade ⩾3 toxicity according to the NCI CTC-AE v3.0, occurring during the first cycle of treatment. The predictive value of uracil and the uracil/dihydrouracil ratio for early severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity were compared. Pharmacogenetic variants in DPYD (c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, c.1129-5923C>G, and c.1601G>A) and TYMS (TYMS 5'-UTR VNTR and TYMS 3'-UTR 6-bp ins/del) were measured and tested for associations with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity to compare predictive value with DPD phenotype. The Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method was used to control for type I errors at level q<0.050 (corresponding to P<0.010).
RESULTS: Uracil was superior to the dihydrouracil/uracil ratio as a predictor of severe toxicity. High pretreatment uracil concentrations (>16 ng ml
CONCLUSIONS: High pretreatment uracil concentration was strongly predictive of severe, including fatal, fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity, and is a highly promising phenotypic marker to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.

Qian L, Xu F, Wang X, et al.
LncRNA expression profile of ΔNp63α in cervical squamous cancers and its suppressive effects on LIF expression.
Cytokine. 2017; 96:114-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aim to determine the lncRNA targets of ΔNp63α in cervical cancer and molecular programs in cancerous differentiation. Different profiles of the lncRNAs were assayed and validated in overexpressing p63 SiHa cells (SiHa/ΔNp63α) and the control cell lines (SiHa/pCon). ENST00000422259, ENST00000447565 (Lnc-LIF-AS) and ENST00000469965, together with their related antisense mRNA DPYD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, a pyrimidine catabolic pathway gene), LIF (leukemia inhibitor factor) and FLNC (filamin C) were all notably differentially expressed in both ΔNp63α overexpression cells and knockdown cells. Here, we illustrated that ΔNp63α can inhibit the levels of LIF mRNA by direct transcription regulation and decrease LIF mRNA stability by suppressing the expression of Lnc-LIF-AS. An inverse interaction of LIF and ΔNp63α expression was as well validated in clinical samples of cervical cancer, and high level of LIF in cervical cancers was related with poor patient survival. The decrease of ΔNp63α also attenuated the differentiation of cervical cancerous cells. Suggesting that ΔNp63α may be form a complex network in regulation cervical cancerous differentiation.

Pellicer M, García-González X, García MI, et al.
Identification of new SNPs associated with severe toxicity to capecitabine.
Pharmacol Res. 2017; 120:133-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
Predicting individual risk of chemotherapy-induced severe adverse reaction is a critical issue when selecting the best treatment for cancer patients. SNPs have been identified in genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of fluoropyrimidines, and guidelines even recommend genotyping some DPYD variants in order to estimate the risk of toxicity. However, the predictive value of this approach remains insufficient, thus limiting its clinical implementation. The aim of the present study was to identify new genetic variants by selecting a group of tag SNPs in genes associated with the pharmacodynamics of fluoropyrimidines (CDA, DPYD, ENOSF1, CES1, TYMS, SLC22A7, TYMP, and UMPS). For this purpose, 23 selected SNPs were genotyped on an OpenArray™ platform in a cohort of 301 colorectal cancer patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis by logistic regression revealed 10 SNPs associated with severe adverse reactions to capecitabine (P<0.05): rs1048977, rs12726436, and rs2072671 in CDA; rs12119882 in DPYD; rs2853741 in TYMS; rs699517 in TYMS/ENOSF1; rs2270860 and rs4149178 in SLC22A7; and rs2279199 and rs4678145 in UMPS. Except for rs2072671, no association had previously been reported between these SNPs and the risk of capecitabine-induced toxicity. The use of tag SNPs to find new polymorphisms related to adverse reactions to capecitabine was successful. These new variants could increase the predictive power of currently available tests and thus prevent severe adverse reactions to capecitabine.

Botticelli A, Onesti CE, Strigari L, et al.
A nomogram to predict 5-fluorouracil toxicity: when pharmacogenomics meets the patient.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(5):551-556 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluoropyrimidines combined with other agents are commonly used for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Considering that severe toxicities occur in 30% of patients, we aimed to structure a nomogram to predict toxicity, based on metabolic parameter and patients' characteristics. We retrospectively enrolled patients affected by gastrointestinal tract cancers. Pretreatment 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate and DPYD, TSER, MTHFR A1298T, and C677T gene polymorphisms were characterized. Data on toxicities were collected according to CTCAE v3.0. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to structure a nomogram. 642 patients were enrolled (384 men; 258 female; median age: 67 years, range: 27-87): 449 (69.9%) patients were affected by colorectal cancer; 118 (18.4%) by gastroesophageal cancer; 66 (10.3%) by pancreatic cancer; and nine (1.4%) by other cancers. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 118 (18.4%) patients and were most frequently observed in patients with altered 5-FU degradation rate (43.5 and 26.7% of the patients in the poor metabolizer and in the ultrarapid metabolizer group respectively, vs. 17% in the normal metabolizer group) and in DPYD heterozygous mutated patients (83.3% of the patients). Age, DPYD status, the number of drugs administered, and 5-FU degradation rate value were associated to severe toxicities. On the basis of these findings, we structured a nomogram to assess a score to predict the risk of developing severe toxicity. Compared with the available pharmacogenetic tests, this approach can be applied to the whole population, predicting the risk for severe toxicity, with an easy, low-cost, and not invasive technique.

Zhang C, Liu H, Ma B, et al.
The Impact of the Expression Level of Intratumoral Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase on Chemotherapy Sensitivity and Survival of Patients in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:9202676 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The potential impact that the intratumoral expression level of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) has on chemotherapy sensitivity and long-term survival for gastric cancer (GC) patients remains controversial; therefore, this study seeks to clarify this issue. Our meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. In vitro drug sensitivity tests, correlation coefficients between sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and expression levels of intratumoral DPD were used as effective indexes to analyse. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used as endpoints for patient outcome, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were noted as measures of effect. There were 15 eligible studies including 1805 patients for the final analysis. The analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the expression level of intratumoral DPD activity, DPD mRNA levels, and sensitivity to 5-FU in GC patients, with high expression levels of intratumoral DPD resulting in low sensitivity to 5-FU. However, no matter what therapeutic regimens were used, there was no significant difference for patient outcomes between high and low DPD expression groups, either in OS or in PFS. In conclusion, high levels of intratumoral DPD expression have a negative impact on sensitivity to 5-FU in GC patients, but no prognostic value for long-term survival was uncovered.

Del Re M, Restante G, Di Paolo A, et al.
Pharmacogenetics and Metabolism from Science to Implementation in Clinical Practice: The Example of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase.
Curr Pharm Des. 2017; 23(14):2028-2034 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidines are widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and remain the backbone of many combination chemotherapy regimens. Despite their clinical benefit, they are associated with frequent gastrointestinal and hematological toxicities, which often lead to treatment discontinuation. Fluoropyrimidines undergo complex anabolic and catabolic biotransformation. Enzymes involved in this pathway include dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), which breaks down 5-FU and its prodrugs. Candidate gene approaches have demonstrated associations between 5-FU treatment outcomes and germline polymorphisms in DPD. The aim of this review is to report and discuss the latest results on fluoropyrimidine pharmacogenetics.
METHODS: Literature from PubMed databases and bibliography from retrieved publications have been analyzed according to terms such DPD, DPYD, fluoropyrimdines, polymorphisms, toxicity, pharmacogenetics.
RESULTS: To date, many sequence variations have been identified within DPYD gene, although the majority of these have no functional consequences on enzymatic activity. Nowadays, there is a general agreement on the clinical significance of the importance of DPD deficiency in patients who suffer from severe, life-threatening drug toxicity although preemptive testing is not applied to all patients.
CONCLUSION: Considering the published literature, clinicians are strongly encouraged to consider testing for DPD poor metabolizer variants as a rational pre-treatment screening for patients candidate to a fluoropyrimidine-based regimens, in order to prevent toxicities and personalise treatments.

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