Gene Summary

Gene:DAPK1; death associated protein kinase 1
Aliases: DAPK, ROCO3
Summary:Death-associated protein kinase 1 is a positive mediator of gamma-interferon induced programmed cell death. DAPK1 encodes a structurally unique 160-kD calmodulin dependent serine-threonine kinase that carries 8 ankyrin repeats and 2 putative P-loop consensus sites. It is a tumor suppressor candidate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:death-associated protein kinase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: DAPK1 (cancer-related)

Asiaf A, Ahmad ST, Malik AA, et al.
Association of Protein Expression and Methylation of DAPK1 with Clinicopathological Features in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Patients from Kashmir
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):839-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aims: Death-associated protein kinase-1 (DAPK1) is a pro-apoptotic Ser/Thr kinase that participates in cell apoptosis and tumor suppression. DAPK1 is frequently lost in many different tumor types including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the promoter methylation status of DAPK1 and a possible correlation with the expression of DAPK1 and standard clinicopathological features in invasive ductal breast carcinoma patients (IDC). Methods: Methylation Specific PCR (MSP) was carried out to investigate the promoter methylation status of DAPK1 from 128 breast cancer patients. The effect of promoter methylation on protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (n=128) and western blotting (n=56). Results: We found significant difference in DAPK1 promoter methylation frequency among breast tumors when compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Hypermethylation of DAPK1 is significantly correlated with the loss of DAPK1 protein expression (P < .001, rs= -0.361). The loss of DAPK1 protein was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (p= 0.003), triple negative breast cancer (TNB) (p= 0.024) and advanced tumor stages (P = 0.001). Moreover, age at diagnosis (p= 0.041), tumor stage (p= 0.034), ER negativity (p= 0.004) and TNB cancers (p=0.003) correlated significantly with the hypermethylation of the DAPK1 promoter. Coclusion: This study indicates that DAPK1 is methylated in IDC and promoter hypermethylation could be attributed to silencing of DAPK1 gene expression in breast cancer. Thus, we consider DAPK1 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation likely plays a role in the development and progression of breast cancer.

Strzelczyk JK, Krakowczyk Ł, Owczarek AJ
Methylation status of SFRP1, SFRP2, RASSF1A, RARβ and DAPK1 genes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2019; 98:265-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study assessed the methylation status of the SFRP1, SFRP2, RASSF1A, RARβ and DAPK1 genes, which are associated with epigenetic silencing in cancers. In a group of 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, aberrant methylation was detected using methylation-specific PCR in tumours and matched margins. Our results showed significantly higher methylation frequency in tumours than in surgical margin of SFRP2 (26.6% vs 11.9%, p < 0.05) and DAPK1 (65.3% vs 41.3%, p < 0.01) genes. Moreover, methylation of the SFRP1 and DAPK1 genes was associated with older age. Advanced tumour stages were associated with lower rates of SFRP1 gene methylation. Decreased methylation levels of the SFRP2 and RASSF1A genes were associated with positive N stage. On the contrary, lymph node metastasis were associated with higher methylation rates of RARβ and DAPK1 genes. Patients with a familial history of cancer were associated with more frequently methylated SFRP1, SFRP2 and DAPK1 genes. Hypermethylation of DAPK1 was associated with decreased risk of death in patients. Our results are suggestive, although not conclusive, that some epigenetic changes, especially frequent hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DAPK1 genes, can be useful as potential diagnostic biomarkers of oral cavity cancer. Moreover, estimating the methylation status in surgical margins could become an additional strategy for more accurate treatment methods. Further efforts are needed to identify and validate this finding on a larger patient group and using new advanced methylation testing methods.

Qi M, Xiong X
Promoter hypermethylation of RARβ2, DAPK, hMLH1, p14, and p15 is associated with progression of breast cancer: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(51):e13666 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the associations between RARβ2, DAPK, hMLH1, p14, and p15 promoter hypermethylation and clinical progression of patients with breast cancer, however the results remained uncertain due to the small sample size. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the role of RARβ2, DAPK, hMLH1, p14, and p15 promoter hypermethylation in the susceptibility and clinical progression of breast cancer.
METHODS: Eligible studies were obtained by searching Medicine, Embase, Web of knowledge, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate the associations of RARβ2, DAPK, hMLH1, p14, and p15 promoter hypermethylation with breast cancer pathogenesis. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was applied to observe the reliability of pooled results of RARβ2 gene, and obtain a conservative required information size (RIS).
RESULTS: In primary screened 445 articles, 39 literatures with 4492 breast cancer patients were finally enrolled in the final meta-analysis. The results indicated that the frequency of RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation in case group was significantly higher than the frequency of control group (OR = 7.21, 95% CI = 1.54-33.80, P < .05). The RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation had a significant association with lymph node metastasis of breast cancer (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.04-4.47, P < .05). And, the RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation was more common in the breast cancer patients of TNM III-IV stage than those patients of TNM I-II stage (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.33-2.57, P < .05). In addition, the promoter hypermethylation of DAPK, hMLH1, and p14 genes were significantly associated with the susceptibility of breast cancer (for DAPK, OR = 4.93, 95% CI = 3.17-7.65; for hMLH1, OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.26-1.29; for p14, OR = 22.52, 95% CI = 7.00-72.41; for p15, OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 0.30-15.07).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that the RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation significantly increased the risk of breast cancer. In the meantime, the meta-analysis demonstrated that there were significant associations of RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation with lymph node metastasis and TNM-stage of breast cancer patients. In addition, DAPK, hMLH1, and p14 genes promoter hypermethylation were significantly associated with the susceptibility of breast cancer.

Alvarez MC, Maso V, Torello CO, et al.
The polyphenol quercetin induces cell death in leukemia by targeting epigenetic regulators of pro-apoptotic genes.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin (Qu) by evaluating the effect of Qu treatment on DNA methylation and posttranslational histone modifications of genes related to the apoptosis pathway. This study was performed in vivo in two human xenograft acute myeloid leukemia (AML) models and in vitro using HL60 and U937 cell lines.
RESULTS: Qu treatment almost eliminates DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression, and this regulation was in part STAT-3 dependent. The treatment also downregulated class I HDACs. Furthermore, treatment of the cell lines with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, together with Qu prevented degradation of class I HDACs compared to cells treated with Qu alone, indicating increased proteasome degradation of class I HDACS by Qu. Qu induced demethylation of the pro-apoptotic BCL2L11, DAPK1 genes, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, Qu (50 μmol/L) treatment of cell lines for 48 h caused accumulation of acetylated histone 3 and histone 4, resulting in three- to ten fold increases in the promoter region of DAPK1, BCL2L11, BAX, APAF1, BNIP3, and BNIP3L. In addition, Qu treatment significantly increased the mRNA levels of all these genes, when compared to cells treated with vehicle only (control cells) (*p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results showed that enhanced apoptosis, induced by Qu, might be caused in part by its DNA demethylating activity, by HDAC inhibition, and by the enrichment of H3ac and H4ac in the promoter regions of genes involved in the apoptosis pathway, leading to their transcription activation.

Liu JX, Li W, Li JT, et al.
Screening key long non-coding RNAs in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma by RNA-sequencing.
Epigenomics. 2018; 10(9):1215-1228 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We aim to identify the key long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma (COAD).
PATIENTS & METHODS: Compared with colonic intraepithelial neoplasia, differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) in early-stage COAD were obtained by RNA-sequencing. Our previous work has obtained the differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs (DEmRNAs and DEmiRNAs) in early-stage COAD. DEmiRNA-DElncRNA-DEmRNA interaction analysis and functional annotation were performed. Validation of expression and receiver-operating characteristic analyses were performed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas.
RESULTS: Seventy-nine significantly DElncRNAs in early-stage COAD were obtained. MiR-153-3p-TUG1-DAPK1/ARNT2/KLK3/PLD1/SMAD2 and miR-153-3p-SNHG17-COL11A1/IGFBP3/KLF6 interactions were associated with early-stage COAD. Five DElncRNAs (ELFN1-AS1, LINC01234, SNHG17, UCA1 and LOC101929549) involved in early-stage COAD with potential diagnostic value.
CONCLUSION: LncRNAs involve in early-stage COAD by interaction with COAD-regulated genes and miRNAs.

Fiano V, Trevisan M, Fasanelli F, et al.
Methylation in host and viral genes as marker of aggressiveness in cervical lesions: Analysis in 543 unscreened women.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 151(2):319-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between altered methylation and histologically confirmed high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (hgCIN).
METHODS: Methylation levels in selected host (CADM1, MAL, DAPK1) and HPV (L1_I, L1_II, L2) genes were measured by pyrosequencing in DNA samples obtained from 543 women recruited in Curitiba (Brazil), 249 with hgCIN and 294 without cervical lesions. Association of methylation status with hgCIN was estimated by Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The mean methylation level increased with severity of the lesion in the host and viral genes (p-trend < 0.05), with the exception of L1_II region (p-trend = 0.075). Positive association was found between methylation levels for host genes and CIN2 and CIN3 lesions respectively [CADM1: OR 4.17 (95%CI 2.03-8.56) and OR 9.54 (95%CI 4.80-18.97); MAL: OR 5.98 (95%CI 2.26-15.78) and OR 22.66 (95%CI 9.21-55.76); DAPK1: OR 3.37 (95%CI 0.93-12.13) and OR 6.74 (95%CI 1.92-23.64)]. Stronger risk estimates were found for viral genes [L1_I: OR 10.74 (95%CI 2.66-43.31) and OR 15.00 (95%CI 3.00-74.98); L1_II: OR 73.18 (95%CI 4.07-1315.94) and OR 32.50 (95%CI 3.86-273.65); L2: OR 4.73 (95%CI 1.55-14.44) and OR 10.62 (95%CI 2.60-43.39)]. The cumulative effect of the increasing number of host and viral methylated genes was associated with the risk of CIN2 and CIN3 lesions (p-trend < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results, empowered by a wide cervical sample series with a large number of hgCIN, supported the role of methylation as marker of aggressiveness.

Thongchot S, Vidoni C, Ferraresi A, et al.
Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis and autophagy-dependent cell death in cholangiocarcinoma through a DAPK1-BECLIN1 pathway.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(12):1735-1750 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very aggressive cancer arising from the malignant transformation of cholangiocytes. Intrahepatic CCA is associated with reactive inflammation and intense fibrosis of the hepatobiliary tract. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the active compound found in Artemisia annua, has been shown to possess anti-tumor activity in a variety of human cancers, including hepatoma. Here, we tested the ability of DHA to specifically kill CCA cells and have investigated the underlying mechanisms. DHA induced both apoptosis and autophagy-dependent caspase-independent cell death in many CCA cell lines, while being slightly toxic to immortalized cholangiocytes. DHA induced the expression of many apoptosis- and autophagy-related genes in CCA cells. In particular, it greatly induced the expression of DAPK1, and reduced the interaction of BECLIN1 with BCL-2 while promoting its interaction with PI3KC3. Genetic silencing of DAPK1 prevented DHA-induced autophagy. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of BECLIN1 function prevented autophagy and cell death induced by DHA in CCA cells. These data unravel a novel pathway of DHA cancer toxicity and open the possibility to introduce DHA in the therapeutic regimen for the treatment of CCA.

Huang X, Wu C, Fu Y, et al.
Methylation analysis for multiple gene promoters in non-small cell lung cancers in high indoor air pollution region in China.
Bull Cancer. 2018; 105(9):746-754 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The prevalence and mortality rates of lung cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan, China, are the highest in the world. The severe indoor air pollution caused by smoky coals with high benzo (a)pyrene (BaP) and quartz levels is the main environmental factor. The aim of this study was to investigate methylation profiles of promoters in eight genes in primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) exposed to smoky coals.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candidate genes including CDKN2A, DLEC1, CDH1, DAPK, RUNX3, APC, WIF1 and MGMT were determined for the promoter methylation status using Nested methylation-specific PCR (nMSP) in primary 23NSCLC tissues and in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) isolated from 42plasma samples (9matched to tissues) as well as 10healthy plasma samples, using Sanger sequencing to verify the results.
RESULTS: Seven of the 8genes, except MGMT, had relatively high methylation frequencies ranging from 39%-74% in tissues. Moreover, methylation frequencies in five genes identified in lung cancer plasma were 45% for CDKN2A, 48% for DLEC1, 76% for CDH1, 14% for DAPK, 29% for RUNX3, with a relatively good concordance of methylation among 9 tissues and paired plasma. However, the genes from all healthy plasma showed no methylation.
CONCLUSIONS: A panel of genes including CDKN2A, DLEC1, CDH1, DAPK and RUNX3 may be used as potential epigenetic biomarkers for early lung cancer detection. CDH1 promoter methylation was associated with lung cancer metastasis in areas of air pollution from buring of smoky coals. DLEC1 and CDH1 exhibited specific high methylation frequencies, different from previous reports.

Dvojakovska S, Popovic-Monevska D, Grcev A, et al.
Promotor hypermethylated genes: Prospective diagnostic biomarkers in oral cancerogenesis.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018; 46(10):1737-1740 [PubMed] Related Publications
The advancements in epigenetics of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), are made in regard to DNA hypermethylation of MGMT, DAPK, ECAD (E-cadherin) and p16, as an important component of oral carcinogenesis and new potential biomarkers in molecular diagnostic strategies. The objective of the study was to evaluate the methylation status of the proposed genes and their possible role in the tumor genesis and diagnosis of OSCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From sixty surgically treated and molecularly analyzed patients, we obtained three groups of bioptical materials: tumor, normal contralateral and healthy tissues. Comparison of the frequencies of DNA methylation for all transcripts was utilized to validated their potential role in the cancerogenesis and detection of OSCC.
RESULTS: The most often methylated genes in the tumor samples were ECAD, MGMT, DAPK followed by p16 genes (90% vs 75% vs 75% vs 52,5%), respectively. We observed frequent methylated genes in contralateral mucosa and consistently unmethylated- 0% in healthy samples. ECAD methylated genes showed the highest sensitivity for diagnosing OSCC in tumor and contralateral tissues (90% and 89,7% respectively, with a specificity of 100%).
CONCLUSION: ECAD and MGMT have tumor-specific signatures and can be considered as potential noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers in OSCC.

Özdemir İ, Pınarlı FG, Pınarlı FA, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor genes SPI1, PRDX2, KLF4, DLEC1, and DAPK1 in childhood and adolescent lymphomas.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 35(2):131-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and methylation status of seven distinctive genes with tumor suppressing properties in childhood and adolescent lymphomas. A total of 96 patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL, n = 41), Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL, n = 15), and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH, n = 40, as controls) are included in the research. The expression status of CDKN2A, SPI1, PRDX2, DLEC1, FOXO1, KLF4 and DAPK1 genes were measured with QPCR method after the RNA isolation from paraffin blocks of tumor tissue and cDNA conversion. DNA isolation was performed from samples with low gene expression followed by methylation PCR study specific to promoter regions of these genes. We found that SPI1, PRDX2, DLEC1, KLF4, and DAPK1 genes are significantly less expressed in patient than the control group (p = 0.0001). However, expression of CDKNA2 and FOXO1 genes in the patient and control groups were not statistically different. The methylation ratios of all genes excluding the CDKN2A and FOXO1 were significantly higher in the HL and NHL groups than the controls (p = 0.0001). We showed that SPI1, PRDX2, DLEC1, KLF4 and DAPK1 genes are epigenetically silenced via hypermethylation in the tumor tissues of children with HL and NHL. As CDKN2A gene was not expressed in both patient and control groups, we conclude that it is not specific to malignancy. As FOXO1 gene was similarly expressed in both groups, its relationship with malignancy could not be established. The epigenetically silenced genes may be candidates for biomarkers or therapeutic targets in childhood and adolescent lymphomas.

Rogeri CD, Silveira HCS, Causin RL, et al.
Methylation of the hsa-miR-124, SOX1, TERT, and LMX1A genes as biomarkers for precursor lesions in cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 150(3):545-551 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The methylation profile of genes in precursor lesions in cervical cancer was characterized to improve screening techniques for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.
METHODS: A total of 447 cervical cytology samples obtained from women who underwent colposcopy were examined. The cases were distributed as follows: (1) cervices without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 152); (2) cervices with a CIN grade of 1 (CIN 1; n = 147); and (3) cervices with a CIN grade of 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3; n = 148). The methylation pattern for a panel of 15 genes was analysed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) and compared between the groups (≤CIN 1 vs. CIN 2+).
RESULTS: In the validation set, seven genes presented significantly different methylation profiles according to diagnosis, namely, DAPK1 (p = 0.001), EPB41L3 (p = 0.001), HIC1 (p = 0.028), hsa-miR-124-2 (p = 0.001), LMX1A (p = 0.001), SOX1 (p = 0.001), and TERT (p = 0.001). Six genes showed a significant increase in the frequency of methylation in the presence of hr-HPV, namely, DAPK1 (p = 0.001), EPB41L3 (p = 0.001), hsa-miR-124-2 (p = 0.001), LMX1A (p = 0.001), SOX1 (p = 0.001), and TERT (p = 0.001). The methylation of the hsa-miR-124 gene showed sensitivity and specificity (86.7% and 61.3%, respectively) similar to that of the HPV test (91.3% and 50.0%, respectively). The independent factors associated with the diagnosis of CIN 2+ and the methylation of the hsa-miR-124-2 (OR = 5.1), SOX1 (OR = 2.8), TERT (OR = 2.2), and LMX1A (OR = 2.0) genes were a positive test for hr-HPV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of the hsa-miR-124-2, SOX1, TERT, and LMX1A genes may be a promising biomarker for precursor lesions in cervical cancer regardless of the hr-HPV status.

Li X, Pu J, Liu J, et al.
The prognostic value of DAPK1 hypermethylation in gliomas: A site-specific analysis.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(7):940-948 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gene of death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) has been reported to be methylated in various cancers including gliomas. However, its prognostic value for gliomas is still controversy, and the methylation at specific CpG sites of DAPK1 has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to prognostically evaluate the methylation level of different CpG sites within DAPK1 promoter region in gliomas.
METHODS: Based on sodium bisulfite treated DNA products, we made use of DNA pyrosequencing method to evaluate overall and site-specific methylation of DAPK1 in 143 gliomas and 26 benign tumors (meningeomas) or normal brain tissues. We both statistically analyzed the association between methylation levels of each CpG site and the clinicopathological characteristics, and estimated the prognosis predictive value of site-specific methylation for glioma patients.
RESULTS: Methylation status of DAPK1 site -1527, -1543, and the overall five sites concerned was higher in gliomas than controlled subjects (p < 0.001). Hypermethylation at site -1527 or together with site -1543 associated with better survival in patients taken postoperative therapies (-1527: p = 0.002; -1527 & -1543: p = 0.023), as well as in patients just underwent radiotherapy after surgery (-1527: p = 0.015; -1527 & -1543: p = 0.030). However, Cox regression analysis indicated the site-specific methylation was not independent contributor for gliomas prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of DAPK1 gene promoter by quantitative pyrosequencing provided more detailed information of methylation status of CpG sites. DAPK1 methylation level is associated with gliomas clinical features and outcomes. Interestingly, the hypermethylation at site -1527 or together with site -1543 indicated good sensitivity of postoperative therapies, especially radiotherapy. Thus, site specifically analysis of DAPK1 methylation may be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic estimation for gliomas.

Sood S, Patel FD, Srinivasan R, Dhaliwal LK
Chemoradiation therapy induces
Indian J Med Res. 2018; 147(2):151-157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background & objectives: Invasive cervical cancer patients are primarily treated with chemoradiation therapy. The overall and disease-free survival in these patients is variable and depends on the tumoral response apart from the tumour stage. This study was undertaken to assess whether in vivo changes in gene promoter methylation and transcript expression in invasive cervical cancer were induced by chemoradiation. Hence, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsy samples were evaluated for in vivo changes in promoter methylation and transcript expression of 10 genes (ESR1, BRCA1, RASSF1A, MYOD1, MLH1, hTERT, MGMT, DAPK1, BAX and BCL2L1) in response to chemoradiation therapy.
Methods: In patients with locally advanced invasive cervical cancer, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsies after 10 Gy chemoradiation were obtained. DNA/RNA was extracted and gene promoter methylation status was evaluated by custom-synthesized methylation PCR arrays, and the corresponding gene transcript expression was determined by absolute quantification method using quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
Results: Changes in the gene promoter methylation as well as gene expression following chemoradiation therapy were observed. BAX promoter methylation showed a significant increase (P< 0.01) following treatment. There was a significant increase in the gene transcript expression of BRCA1 (P< 0.01), DAPK1 and ESR1 (P< 0.05), whereas MYOD1 and MLH1 gene transcript expression was significantly decreased (P< 0.05) following treatment.
Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study show that chemoradiation therapy can induce epigenetic alterations as well as affect gene expression in tissues of invasive cervical cancer which may have implications in determining radiation response.

Strzelczyk JK, Krakowczyk Ł, Gołąbek K, Owczarek AJ
Expression profiles of selected genes in tumors and matched surgical margins in oral cavity cancer: Do we have to pay attention to the molecular analysis of the surgical margins?
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(6):833-840 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are associated with an interplay between genetics and the environment; they account for 3% of all diagnosed malignant tumors in men and 2% of those in women.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the significance of TIMP3, SFRP1, SFRP2, CDH1, RASSF1, RORA, and DAPK1 gene expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors, and in matching surgical margin samples. We also analyzed the association between clinical parameters and the expression of the selected genes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following surgical resection, 56 primary HNSCC tumors and matching surgical margin samples were collected from patients at the Clinic of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery of Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology in Gliwice, Poland. The gene expression levels were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR.
RESULTS: SFRP1 gene expression was statistically significantly lower in the tumor samples than in the surgical margins (0.30 ±0.36 vs 0.62 ±0.36; p < 0.01). No correlation was found between gene expression and clinical parameters, except DAPK1, where low expression correlated with alcohol abuse (0.85 ±1.19 vs 1.97 ±3.22; p = 0.074). Moreover, patients with G3 grade tumors, i.e., poorly differentiated tumors, had significantly higher values of DAPK1 gene expression than the G1 (well-differentiated tumors) and G2 (moderately differentiated) groups.
CONCLUSIONS: There are many different reasons and concepts for altered gene expression in tumors and surgical margin tissue. Tumor heterogeneity and its microenvironment are undoubtedly linked to the biology of HNSCC. In order to understand specific tumor behavior and the microenvironment, further studies are needed. To find markers connected with cancer development and to provide insight into the earliest stages of cancer development, attention should also be focused on molecular analysis of the surgical margins.

Cui Z, An X, Li J, et al.
LncRNA MIR22HG negatively regulates miR-141-3p to enhance DAPK1 expression and inhibits endometrial carcinoma cells proliferation.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 104:223-228 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in tumor development and progression. Recent studies reported that lncRNA MIR22HG could play important roles in hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer progression. However, the expression and underlying mechanism of MIR22HG in endometrial cancer (EC) remain unclear. In the present study, qRT-PCR showed that MIR22HG expression was significantly downregulated in EC tissues. In vitro function assays showed that increased MIR22HG expression significantly inhibited EC cells proliferation, induced EC cells apoptosis, and arrested EC cells in G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, miR-141-3p was identified and confirmed to be the target of MIR22HG. Subsequently, DAPK1 was confirmed to be regulated by MIR22HG and miR-141-3p, and could play a positive role in inhibiting EC cells proliferation. Collectively, these data demonstrated that lncRNA MIR22HG could act as a tumor suppressor and inhibited EC cells proliferation through regulating miR-141-3p/DAPK1 axis, which provides a new therapeutic target for EC treatment.

Yang XY, Zhang J, Yu XL, et al.
Death-associated protein kinase promoter methylation correlates with clinicopathological and prognostic features in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients: A cohort study.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S65-S71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: The objective was to study the correlation between death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) promoter methylation and the clinicopathological and prognostic features in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 117 NSCLC patients were recruited into our study between December 2012 and December 2014. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the methylation status of DAPK in cancer tissues, peficancerous tissues, and serum samples of 117 NSCLC patients. In addition, serum samples of 115 healthy subjects were analyzed as controls. A literature search of English and Chinese databases, based on predefined criteria, identified published studies closely related to this study. Data were extracted, and meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software (STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, USA).
Results: Our study results showed that DAPK promoter methylation frequency was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues compared to peficancerous normal tissues (58.1% vs. 12.8%, χ
Conclusion: Our results showed that DAPK promoter methylation is tightly correlated with clinicopathological features of NSCLC and is associated with poor prognosis in patients.

Yadav P, Masroor M, Nandi K, et al.
Promoter Methylation of BRCA1, DAPK1 and RASSF1A is Associated with Increased Mortality among Indian Women with Breast Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(2):443-448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Promoter methylation has been observed for several genes in association with cancer development and progression. Hypermethylation mediated-silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) may contribute to breast cancer pathogenesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the promoter methylation status of BRCA1, DAPK1 and RASSF1A genes in Indian women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Promoter methylation was evaluated in DNA extracted from mononuclear cells (MNCs) in peripheral blood samples of 60 histopathologically confirmed newly diagnosed, untreated cases of breast cancer as well as 60 age and sex matched healthy controls using MS-PCR. Association of promoter methylation with breast cancer-specific mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for overall survival of the breast cancer patients. Results: We observed a significant increase of BRCA1, DAPK1 and RASSF1A promoter methylation levels by 51.7% (P <0.001), 55.0% (P <0.001) and 46.6% (P <0.001), respectively, when compared to healthy controls. A strong correlation was noted between hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 (P= 0.009), DAPK1 (P= 0.008) and RASSF1A (P= 0.02)) with early and advanced stages of breast cancer patients. We also found that breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly associated with promoter methylation of BRCA1 [HR and 95% CI: 3.25 (1.448-7.317)] and DAPK1 [HR and 95% CI: 2.32 (1.05-5.11)], whereas limited significant link was evident with RASSF1A [HR and 95% CI: 1.54 (0.697-3.413]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that promoter methylation of BRCA1, DAPK1 and RASSF1A genes may be associated with disease progression and poor overall survival of Indian women with breast cancer.

Laco J, Kovarikova H, Chmelarova M, et al.
Analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA expression in NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):113-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was a detailed clinicopathological investigation of sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), including analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Three (5%) cases of NMC were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas using immunohistochemical screening and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The series comprised 2 males and 1 female, aged 46, 60, and 65 years. Two tumors arose in the nasal cavity and one in the maxillary sinus. The neoplasms were staged pT1, pT3, and pT4a (all cN0M0). All patients were treated by radical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Two patients died 3 and 8 months after operation, but one patient (pT1 stage; R0 resection) experienced no evidence of disease at 108 months. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm. Abrupt keratinization was present in only one case. Immunohistochemically, there was a diffuse expression of cytokeratin (CK) cocktail, CK7, p40, p63, and SMARCB1/INI1. All NMCs tested negative for EBV and HPV infection. Two NMCs showed methylation of RASSF1 gene. All other genes (APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDH13, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CHFR, DAPK1, ESR1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, KLLN, MLH1a, MLH1b, RARB, TIMP3, and VHL) were unmethylated. All NMCs showed upregulation of miR-9 and downregulation of miR-99a and miR-145 and two cases featured also upregulation of miR-21, miR-143, and miR-484. In summary, we described three cases of sinonasal NMCs with novel findings on DNA methylation and miRNA expression, which might be important for new therapeutic strategies in the future.

Vastrad B, Vastrad C, Godavarthi A, Chandrashekar R
Molecular mechanisms underlying gliomas and glioblastoma pathogenesis revealed by bioinformatics analysis of microarray data.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(11):182 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify key genes associated with gliomas and glioblastoma and to explore the related signaling pathways. Gene expression profiles of three glioma stem cell line samples, three normal astrocyte samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 4 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (myc(T58A), OCT-4, p53DD, and H-Ras(G12V)) samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 7 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (OCT4, H-Ras(G12V), myc(T58A), p53DD, cyclin D1, CDK4(RC24) and hTERT) samples and three glioblastoma cell line samples were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database (accession: E-MTAB-4771). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in gliomas and glioblastoma were identified using FDR and t tests, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for these DEGs were constructed using the protein interaction network analysis. The GeneTrail2 1.5 tool was used to identify potentially enriched biological processes among the DEGs using gene ontology (GO) terms and to identify the related pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Reactome and WikiPathways pathway database. In addition, crucial modules of the constructed PPI networks were identified using the PEWCC1 plug-in, and their topological properties were analyzed using NetworkAnalyzer, both available from Cytoscape. We also constructed microRNA-target gene regulatory network and transcription factor-target gene regulatory network for these DEGs were constructed using the miRNet and binding and expression target analysis. We identified 200 genes that could potentially be involved in the gliomas and glioblastoma. Among them, bioinformatics analysis identified 137 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated DEGs in gliomas and glioblastoma. The significant enriched pathway (PI3K-Akt) for up-regulated genes such as COL4A1, COL4A2, EGFR, FGFR1, LAPR6, MYC, PDGFA, SPP1 were selected as well as significant GO term (ear development) for up-regulated genes such as CELSR1, CHRNA9, DDR1, FGFR1, GLI2, LGR5, SOX2, TSHR were selected, while the significant enriched pathway (amebiasis) for down-regulated gene such as COL3A1, COL5A2, LAMA2 were selected as well as significant GO term (RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding (5) such as MEIS2, MEOX2, NR2E1, PITX2, TFAP2B, ZFPM2 were selected. Importantly, MYC and SOX2 were hub proteins in the up-regulated PPI network, while MET and CDKN2A were hub proteins in the down-regulated PPI network. After network module analysis, MYC, FGFR1 and HOXA10 were selected as the up-regulated coexpressed genes in the gliomas and glioblastoma, while SH3GL3 and SNRPN were selected as the down-regulated coexpressed genes in the gliomas and glioblastoma. MicroRNA hsa-mir-22-3p had a regulatory effect on the most up DEGs, including VSNL1, while hsa-mir-103a-3p had a regulatory effect on the most down DEGs, including DAPK1. Transcription factor EZH2 had a regulatory effect on the both up and down DEGs, including CD9, CHI3L1, MEIS2 and NR2E1. The DEGs, such as MYC, FGFR1, CDKN2A, HOXA10 and MET, may be used for targeted diagnosis and treatment of gliomas and glioblastoma.

Yuan W, Chen J, Shu Y, et al.
Correlation of DAPK1 methylation and the risk of gastrointestinal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0184959 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: One of the critical mechanisms of gastrointestinal cancer pathogenesis is the silencing of death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), which could be caused by aberrant methylation of the promoter. However, the relationship between DAPK1 methylation and the risk of gastrointestinal cancer is still controversial. Hence, we conducted this study to determine the potential correlation.
METHODS: Eligible publications were searched in the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library through November 2016 according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Revman 5.3 and Stata 12.0 software were used to analyze the relevant data regarding the association between the frequency of DAPK1 methylation and gastrointestinal cancer.
RESULTS: A total of 22 studies with 2406 patients were included in this meta analysis. Methylation of DAPK1 was positively related with the risk of gastrointestinal cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 5.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.76-10.38, P<0.00001, random effects model). The source of heterogeneity was analyzed by sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. After omitting one heterogeneous study, the I2 decreased and the OR increased in pooled analysis. Also, the heterogeneity decreased most significantly in the subgroup of studies that had a sample size of less than 60 cases. Then, the correlations between DAPK1 methylation and clinicopathological features of gastrointestinal cancer were assessed. DAPK1 methylation was positively correlated with the lymph node (N) stage (positive vs. negative, OR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.01-2.06, P = 0.04, fixed effects model) and poor differentiation (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.02-2.35, P = 0.04, fixed effects model) in gastric cancer, and the association was significant among Asian patients. However, among cases of gastrointestinal cancer, the association between DAPK1 methylation and tumor (T) stage, N stage, distant metastasis (M) stage, and cancer differentiation were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: DAPK1 methylation is a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer. Further analysis of the clinicopathological features indicated that aberrant methylation of DAPK1 is positively associated with the tumorigenesis of gastrointestinal cancer, and metastasis of gastric cancer.

Khatami F, Larijani B, Heshmat R, et al.
Meta-analysis of promoter methylation in eight tumor-suppressor genes and its association with the risk of thyroid cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0184892 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Promoter methylation in a number of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) can play crucial roles in the development of thyroid carcinogenesis. The focus of the current meta-analysis was to determine the impact of promoter methylation of eight selected candidate TSGs on thyroid cancer and to identify the most important molecules in this carcinogenesis pathway. A comprehensive search was performed using Pub Med, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, and eligible studies were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle Ottawa scale table and pooled odds ratios (ORs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the associations with Stata 12.0 software. Egger's and Begg's tests were applied to detect publication bias, in addition to the "Metatrim" method. A total of 55 articles were selected, and 135 genes with altered promoter methylation were found. Finally, we included eight TSGs that were found in more than four studies (RASSF1, TSHR, PTEN, SLC5A, DAPK, P16, RARβ2, and CDH1). The order of the pooled ORs for these eight TSGs from more to less significant was CDH1 (OR = 6.73), SLC5 (OR = 6.15), RASSF1 (OR = 4.16), PTEN (OR = 3.61), DAPK (OR = 3.51), P16 (OR = 3.31), TSHR (OR = 2.93), and RARβ2 (OR = 1.50). Analyses of publication bias and sensitivity confirmed that there was very little bias. Thus, our findings showed that CDH1 and SCL5A8 genes were associated with the risk of thyroid tumor genesis.

Sundaram MK, Ansari MZ, Al Mutery A, et al.
Genistein Induces Alterations of Epigenetic Modulatory Signatures in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018; 18(3):412-421 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies indicate that diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased cancer risk thereby indicating that dietary polyphenols can be potential chemo-preventive agents. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications makes them a favorable target for cancer prevention. Polyphenols have been shown to reverse aberrant epigenetic patterns by targeting the regulatory enzymes, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In vitro and in silico studies of DNMTs and HDACs were planned to examine genistein's role as a natural epigenetic modifier in human cervical cancer cells, HeLa.
METHODS: Expression of the tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) [MGMT, RARβ, p21, E-cadherin, DAPK1] as well the methylation status of their promoters were examined alongwith the activity levels of DNMT and HDAC enzymes after treatment with genistein. Expression of DNMTs and HDACs was also studied. In-silico studies were performed to determine the interaction of genistein with DNMTs and HDACs.
RESULTS: Genistein treatment significantly reduced the expression and enzymatic activity of both DNMTs and HDACs in a time-dependent way. Molecular modeling data suggest that genistein can interact with various members of DNMT and HDAC families and support genistein mediated inhibition of their activity. Timedependent exposure of genistein reversed the promoter region methylation of the TSGs and re-established their expression.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we find that genistein is able to reinstate the expression of the TSGs studied by inhibiting the action of DNMTs and HDACs. This shows that genistein could be an important arsenal in the development of epigenetic based cancer therapy.

Ooft ML, van Ipenburg J, van Loo R, et al.
Molecular profile of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysing tumour suppressor gene promoter hypermethylation by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(4):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To assess differences in methylation profiles, and thus pathogenesis, between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and negative nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). Also, promoter hypermethylation is a common phenomenon in early carcinogenesis to inactivate tumour suppressor genes. Since epigenetic changes are reversible, the therapeutic application of methylation inhibitors could provide treatment options.
METHODS: We evaluated promoter hypermethylation profiles of 22 common tumour suppressor genes in 108 NPCs using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Correlation between methylation, clinicopathological features (including EBV) and survival was examined. Cluster analysis was also performed.
RESULTS: Hypermethylation of RASSF1A and ESR1 was significantly more frequent in EBV-positive NPC, while hypermethylation of DAPK1 was more frequent in EBV-negative NPC. In logistic regression, age, with EBV-positive NPC occurring at earlier age, and RASSF1, with RASSF1 hypermethylation being more frequent in EBV-positive NPC, remained significant. In EBV-positive NPC, hypermethylation of RASSF1A predicted worse overall survival (OS) (HR 3.058,95% CI 1.027 to 9.107). In EBV-negative NPC, hypermethylated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was a predictor of poor disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 6.868, 95% CI 2.142 to 22.022).
CONCLUSION: There are important epigenetic differences between EBV-negative and EBV-positive NPCs, with EBV-negative NPC having a more similar hypermethylation profile to other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas than EBV-positive NPC. Hypermethylation of RASSF1A might contribute to worse OS in EBV-positive NPC, and may be an important event in the pathogenesis of EBV-infected NPC. Hypermethylation of APC might contribute to worse DFS in EBV-negative NPC.

Plissonnier ML, Lahlali T, Raab M, et al.
Reciprocal antagonism between the netrin-1 receptor uncoordinated-phenotype-5A (UNC5A) and the hepatitis C virus.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(48):6712-6724 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly through cirrhosis induction, spurring research for a deeper understanding of HCV versus host interactions in cirrhosis. The present study investigated crosstalks between HCV infection and UNC5A, a netrin-1 dependence receptor that is inactivated in cancer. UNC5A and HCV parameters were monitored in patients samples (n=550) as well as in in vitro. In patients, UNC5A mRNA expression is significantly decreased in clinical HCV(+) specimens irrespective of the viral genotype, but not in (HBV)(+) liver biopsies, as compared to uninfected samples. UNC5A mRNA is downregulated in F2 (3-fold; P=0.009), in F3 (10-fold, P=0.0004) and more dramatically so in F4/cirrhosis (44-fold; P<0.0001) histological stages of HCV(+) hepatic lesions compared to histologically matched HCV(-) tissues. UNC5A transcript was found strongly downregulated in HCC samples (33-fold; P<0.0001) as compared with non-HCC samples. In vivo, association of UNC5A transcripts with polyribosomes is decreased by 50% in HCV(+) livers. Consistent results were obtained in vitro showing HCV-dependent depletion of UNC5A in HCV-infected hepatocyte-like cells and in primary human hepatocytes. Using luciferase reporter constructs, HCV cumulatively decreased UNC5A transcription from the UNC5 promoter and translation in a UNC5A 5'UTR-dependent manner. Proximity ligation assays, kinase assays, as well as knockdown and forced expression experiments identified UNC5A as capable of impeding autophagy and promoting HCV restriction through specific impact on virion infectivity, in a cell death-independent and DAPK-related manner. In conclusion, while the UNC5A dependence receptor counteracts HCV persistence through regulation of autophagy in a DAPK-dependent manner, it is dramatically decreased in all instances in HCC samples, and specifically by HCV in cirrhosis. Such data argue for the evaluation of the implication of UNC5A in liver carcinogenesis.

León IE, Díez P, Baran EJ, et al.
Decoding the anticancer activity of VO-clioquinol compound: the mechanism of action and cell death pathways in human osteosarcoma cells.
Metallomics. 2017; 9(7):891-901 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vanadium compounds were studied in recent years by considering them as a representative of a new class of non-platinum metal anticancer drugs. However, a few challenges still remain in the discovery of new molecular targets of these new metallodrugs. Studies on cell signaling pathways related to vanadium compounds have scarcely been reported and so far this information is highly critical for identifying novel targets that play a key role in the antitumor actions of vanadium complexes. This research deals with the alterations in the intracellular signaling pathways promoted by an oxovanadium(iv) complex with the clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol), VO(CQ)

Nakaoka T, Saito Y, Saito H
Aberrant DNA Methylation as a Biomarker and a Therapeutic Target of Cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including

Ali A, Kumar S, Kakaria VK, et al.
Detection of Promoter DNA Methylation of APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 Genes in tissue Biopsy and Matched Serum of Advanced-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.
Cancer Invest. 2017; 35(6):423-430 [PubMed] Related Publications
Promoter DNA hypermethylation of APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 genes was evaluated in biopsy and matched serum of 160 lung cancer patients and 70 controls. In biopsy, 83.1, 83.1, and 78.1% of lung cancer patients and 72.9, 70, and 70% of controls, while in serum, 52.5, 30.6, and 65.6% of lung cancer patients and 14.3, 18.6, and 30% of controls were positive for APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 hypermethylation respectively. We couldn't find any significant role of DNA hypermethylation in lung cancer. However, long follow-up of methylation positive controls will be required to confirm its role for the prediction of lung cancer.

Sakka L, Delétage N, Chalus M, et al.
Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines. Cell toxicity and gene modulation.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42789-42807 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (p<2.26 10-7), -24.1 (p<5.6 10-9) and -17.7 (p<1.2 10-7). CCNE1, AURKA, IGF2, MYCN and ERBB2 were more moderately down-regulated by both molecules. Glioma markers E2F1, DAPK1 and CCND1 were down-regulated. Citalopram displayed more powerful action with broader and distinct spectrum of action than escitalopram.

Loginov VI, Pronina IV, Burdennyi AM, et al.
Role of Methylation in the Regulation of Apoptosis Genes APAF1, DAPK1, and BCL2 in Breast Cancer.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017; 162(6):797-800 [PubMed] Related Publications
Changes in the levels of expression of proapoptotic genes APAF1 and DAPK1 and antiapoptotic gene BCL2 were studied by real time PCR in specimens of tumors and histologically intact tissue from 28 patients with breast cancer. The expression of APAF1 and DAPK1 was below the normal in the majority of tumor samples (p<0.05), while the level of BCL2 mRNA more often surpassed the normal (p<0.1). Study of the same sample of specimens by methylspecific PCR showed predominance of APAF1 and DAPK1 hypermethylation (p<0.05 and p<0.1, respectively) and more frequent hypomethylation of BCL2. A significant correlation between changes in the levels of expression and methylation (r=0.40-0.49; p<0.05) was detected for all three genes (APAF1, DAPK1, and BCL2). The results suggest that methylation play an important role in the regulation of these apoptosis system genes in breast cancer.

Strzelczyk JK, Gołąbek K, Cuber P, et al.
Comparison of Selected Protein Levels in Tumour and Surgical Margin in a Group of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer.
Biochem Genet. 2017; 55(4):322-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral cavity cancer belongs to head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma group. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of certain proteins in a tumour and surgical margin in a group of patients with oral cavity cancer. The levels of DAPK1, MGMT, CDH1, SFRP1, SFRP2, RORA, TIMP3, p16, APC and RASSF1 proteins were measured by ELISA in tissue homogenates. The protein levels of DAPK1, MGMT, CDH1, SFRP2 and RASSF1 were significantly higher in tumour tissue than in the margin, contrary to TIMP3 which was lower in the tumour itself. DAPK1 level in the tumour was significantly higher in females than in males, the MGMT and p16 levels were lower in the tumours with lymph node metastasis (N1 + N2) than in N0 samples. The CDH1 expression was higher in a group with smoking habits, whereas TIMP3 was lower in this group. Changes in the levels of proteins in tumour and surgical margin may be either reflective of tumour occurrence and development, or they might be also responsible for the progress and reoccurrence of the disease. Levels of the studied proteins might be good prognostic factors; however, further studies are required.

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