Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL16; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 16
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Latest Publications: CXCL16 (cancer-related)

Lacher MD, Bauer G, Fury B, et al.
SV-BR-1-GM, a Clinically Effective GM-CSF-Secreting Breast Cancer Cell Line, Expresses an Immune Signature and Directly Activates CD4
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:776 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted cancer immunotherapy with irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting, allogeneic cancer cell lines has been an effective approach to reduce tumor burden in several patients. It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. We have previously reported that, in a phase I pilot study ( NCT00095862), a subject with stage IV breast cancer experienced substantial regression of breast, lung, and brain lesions following inoculation with clinical formulations of SV-BR-1-GM, a GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor cell line. To identify diagnostic features permitting the prospective identification of patients likely to benefit from SV-BR-1-GM, we conducted a molecular analysis of the SV-BR-1-GM cell line and of patient-derived blood, as well as a tumor specimen. Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. Curiously, despite its presumptive breast epithelial origin, the cell line expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (

Chew V, Lee YH, Pan L, et al.
Immune activation underlies a sustained clinical response to Yttrium-90 radioembolisation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gut. 2019; 68(2):335-346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Yttrium-90 (Y90)-radioembolisation (RE) significantly regresses locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and delays disease progression. The current study is designed to deeply interrogate the immunological impact of Y90-RE, which elicits a sustained therapeutic response.
DESIGN: Time-of-flight mass cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to analyse the immune landscapes of tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs), tumour tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at different time points before and after Y90-RE.
RESULTS: TILs isolated after Y90-RE exhibited signs of local immune activation: higher expression of granzyme B (GB) and infiltration of CD8
CONCLUSION: High-dimensional analysis of tumour and systemic immune landscapes identified local and systemic immune activation that corresponded to the sustained response to Y90-RE. Potential biomarkers associated with a positive clinical response were identified and a prediction model was built to identify sustained responders prior to treatment.

Ajona D, Zandueta C, Corrales L, et al.
Blockade of the Complement C5a/C5aR1 Axis Impairs Lung Cancer Bone Metastasis by CXCL16-mediated Effects.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018; 197(9):1164-1176 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: C5aR1 (CD88), a receptor for complement anaphylatoxin C5a, is a potent immune mediator. Its impact on malignant growth and dissemination of non-small cell lung cancer cells is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of the C5a/C5aR1 axis to the malignant phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer cells, particularly in skeletal colonization, a preferential lung metastasis site.
METHODS: Association between C5aR1 expression and clinical outcome was assessed in silico and validated by immunohistochemistry. Functional significance was evaluated by lentiviral gene silencing and ligand l-aptamer inhibition in in vivo models of lung cancer bone metastasis. In vitro functional assays for signaling, migration, invasion, metalloprotease activity, and osteoclastogenesis were also performed.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: High levels of C5aR1 in human lung tumors were significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and bone metastasis. Silencing of C5aR1 in lung cancer cells led to a substantial reduction in skeletal metastatic burden and osteolysis in in vivo models. Furthermore, metalloproteolytic, migratory, and invasive tumor cell activities were modulated in vitro by C5aR1 stimulation or gene silencing. l-Aptamer blockade or C5aR1 silencing significantly reduced the osseous metastatic activity of lung cancer cells in vivo. This effect was associated with decreased osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and was rescued by the exogenous addition of the chemokine CXCL16.
CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of C5aR1 signaling in lung cancer cells abrogates their tumor-associated osteoclastogenic activity, impairing osseous colonization. This study unveils the role played by the C5a/C5aR1 axis in lung cancer dissemination and supports its potential use as a novel therapeutic target.

Jin JJ, Dai FX, Long ZW, et al.
CXCR6 predicts poor prognosis in gastric cancer and promotes tumor metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3279-3286 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokines and their receptors have been confirmed to be involved in several types of cancer. However, little is known concerning the role of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 in gastric cancer (GC) progression and metastasis. In the present study, expression of CXCL16 and CXCR6 in GC tumor and peritumoral tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a cohort of 352 GC patients who underwent gastrectomy, and the correlation between CXCL16/CXCR6 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was further analyzed. To evaluate the function of CXCR6, we overexpressed and knocked down CXCR6 in GC cell lines. Results showed that expression of CXCR6, but not CXCL16, was significantly upregulated in GC tumor tissues, and was significantly correlated with lymph node and distant metastases, and advanced clinical stage in the GC patients. Survival analysis showed that large tumor size (>5 cm), elevated preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, advanced TNM stage and high CXCR6 expression indicated worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in GC, and CXCR6 was an independent predictor for both OS and DFS in GC. In vitro experiments showed that CXCR6 overexpression induced cell migration and invasion ability, and promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition of GC cells by upregulation of mesenchymal markers and inhibition of epithelial markers. In contrast, knockdown of CXCR6 in GC cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenomenon. Our results demonstrated that CXCR6 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in GC patients, and may promote GC metastasis through EMT.

Roy I, Boyle KA, Vonderhaar EP, et al.
Cancer cell chemokines direct chemotaxis of activated stellate cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Lab Invest. 2017; 97(3):302-317 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanisms by which the extreme desmoplasia observed in pancreatic tumors develops remain unknown and its role in pancreatic cancer progression is unsettled. Chemokines have a key role in the recruitment of a wide variety of cell types in health and disease. Transcript and protein profile analyses of human and murine cell lines and human tissue specimens revealed a consistent elevation in the receptors CCR10 and CXCR6, as well as their respective ligands CCL28 and CXCL16. Elevated ligand expression was restricted to tumor cells, whereas receptors were in both epithelial and stromal cells. Consistent with its regulation by inflammatory cytokines, CCL28 and CCR10, but not CXCL16 or CXCR6, were upregulated in human pancreatitis tissues. Cytokine stimulation of pancreatic cancer cells increased CCL28 secretion in epithelial tumor cells but not an immortalized activated human pancreatic stellate cell line (HPSC). Stellate cells exhibited dose- and receptor-dependent chemotaxis in response to CCL28. This functional response was not linked to changes in activation status as CCL28 had little impact on alpha smooth muscle actin levels or extracellular matrix deposition or alignment. Co-culture assays revealed CCL28-dependent chemotaxis of HPSC toward cancer but not normal pancreatic epithelial cells, consistent with stromal cells being a functional target for the epithelial-derived chemokine. These data together implicate the chemokine CCL28 in the inflammation-mediated recruitment of cancer-associated stellate cells into the pancreatic cancer parenchyma.

Allaoui R, Bergenfelz C, Mohlin S, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblast-secreted CXCL16 attracts monocytes to promote stroma activation in triple-negative breast cancers.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:13050 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (ER

Liu JQ, Talebian F, Wu L, et al.
A Critical Role for CD200R Signaling in Limiting the Growth and Metastasis of CD200+ Melanoma.
J Immunol. 2016; 197(4):1489-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD200 is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions through engaging CD200R on cells of the myeloid lineage and inhibits their functions. Expression of CD200 was implicated in a variety of human cancer cells, including melanoma cells; however, its roles in tumor growth and immunity are not clearly understood. In this study, we used CD200R-deficient mice and the B16 tumor model to evaluate this issue. We found that CD200R-deficient mice exhibited accelerated growth of CD200(+), but not CD200(-), B16 tumors. Strikingly, CD200R-deficient mice receiving CD200(+) B16 cells i.v. exhibited massive tumor growth in multiple organs, including liver, lung, kidney, and peritoneal cavity, whereas the growth of the same tumors in wild-type mice was limited. CD200(+) tumors grown in CD200R-deficient mice contained higher numbers of CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) myeloid cells, exhibited increased expression of VEGF and HIF1α genes with increased angiogenesis, and showed significantly reduced infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, presumably as the result of reduced expression of T cell chemokines, such as CXCL9 and CXCL16. The liver from CD200R-deficient mice, under metastatic growth of CD200(+) tumors, contained significantly increased numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(-) myeloid cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and reduced numbers of NK cells. Liver T cells also had a reduced capacity to produce IFN-γ or TNF-α. Taken together, we revealed a critical role for CD200R signaling in limiting the growth and metastasis of CD200(+) tumors. Thus, targeting CD200R signaling may potentially interfere with the metastatic growth of CD200(+) tumors, like melanoma.

Pizzo RJ, Azadniv M, Guo N, et al.
Phenotypic, genotypic, and functional characterization of normal and acute myeloid leukemia-derived marrow endothelial cells.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(5):378-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
In addition to participation in homing, egress, and transmigration of hematopoietic cells, marrow endothelium also contributes to cell proliferation and survival. Endothelial cells from multiple vascular beds are able to prevent spontaneous or therapy-induced apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blasts. Marrow-derived endothelial cells from leukemia patients have not been well-characterized, and in this work, endothelial cells were purified from marrow aspirates from normal subjects or from newly diagnosed AML patients to compare these cells phenotypically and functionally. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these cells express CD31, Tie-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), supporting endothelial origin. They take up acetyl low-density lipoprotein and are able to form tubular structures. Culture of AML cells with endothelial cells from both normal and AML subjects supported adhesion, transmigration, and leukemia colony-forming unit outgrowth. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed 130 genes significantly up- or downregulated in AML-derived endothelial cells as compared with those derived from normal marrow. The genes differentially expressed (p < 0.001) were included in biological function categories involving cancer, cell development, cell growth and proliferation, cell signaling, inflammatory response, and cell death and survival. Further pathway analysis revealed upregulation of c-Fos and genes involved in chemotaxis such as CXCL16. AML-derived endothelial cells are similar in phenotype and function to their normal marrow-derived counterparts, but genomic analysis suggests a differential signature with altered expression of genes, which could play a role in leukemogenesis or leukemia cell maintenance in the marrow microenvironment.

Takiguchi G, Nishita M, Kurita K, et al.
Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in mesenchymal stem cells promotes proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating CXCL16-CXCR6 axis.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(3):290-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling has been shown to play important roles in promoting aggressiveness of various cancer cells in a cell-autonomous manner. However, little is known about its function in cancer-associated stromal cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Thus, we examined the role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in bone marrow-derived MSCs in regulating proliferation of undifferentiated gastric cancer cells. Coculture of a gastric cancer cell line, MKN45, with MSCs either directly or indirectly promotes proliferation of MKN45 cells, and suppressed expression of Ror2 in MSCs prior to coculture inhibits enhanced proliferation of MKN45 cells. In addition, conditioned media from MSCs, treated with control siRNA, but not siRNAs against Ror2, can enhance proliferation of MKN45 cells. Interestingly, it was found that expression of CXCL16 in MSCs is augmented by Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling, and that recombinant chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)16 protein can enhance proliferation of MKN45 cells in the absence of MSCs. In fact, suppressed expression of CXCL16 in MSCs or an addition of a neutralizing antibody against CXCL16 fails to promote proliferation of MKN45 cells in either direct or indirect coculture with MSCs. Importantly, we show that MKN45 cells express chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)6, a receptor for CXCL16, and that suppressed expression of CXCR6 in MKN45 cells results in a failure of its enhanced proliferation in either direct or indirect coculture with MSCs. These findings indicate that Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling enhances expression of CXCL16 in MSCs and, as a result, enhanced secretion of CXCL16 from MSCs might act on CXCR6 expressed on MKN45, leading to the promotion of its proliferation.

Karakasheva TA, Waldron TJ, Eruslanov E, et al.
CD38-Expressing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Promote Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Esophageal Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(19):4074-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are an immunosuppressive population of immature myeloid cells found in advanced-stage cancer patients and mouse tumor models. Production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase, as well as other suppressive mechanisms, allows MDSCs to suppress T-cell-mediated tumor clearance and foster tumor progression. Using an unbiased global gene expression approach in conditional p120-catenin knockout mice (L2-cre;p120ctn(f/f)), a model of oral-esophageal cancer, we have identified CD38 as playing a vital role in MDSC biology, previously unknown. CD38 belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family and possesses both ectoenzyme and receptor functions. It has been described to function in lymphoid and early myeloid cell differentiation, cell activation, and neutrophil chemotaxis. We find that CD38 expression in MDSCs is evident in other mouse tumor models of esophageal carcinogenesis, and CD38(high) MDSCs are more immature than MDSCs lacking CD38 expression, suggesting a potential role for CD38 in the maturation halt found in MDSC populations. CD38(high) MDSCs also possess a greater capacity to suppress activated T cells, and promote tumor growth to a greater degree than CD38(low) MDSCs, likely as a result of increased iNOS production. In addition, we have identified novel tumor-derived factors, specifically IL6, IGFBP3, and CXCL16, which induce CD38 expression by MDSCs ex vivo. Finally, we have detected an expansion of CD38(+) MDSCs in peripheral blood of advanced-stage cancer patients and validated targeting CD38 in vivo as a novel approach to cancer therapy.

Chung S, Dwabe S, Elshimali Y, et al.
Identification of Novel Biomarkers for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Using Angiogenesis-Antibody Array and Intracellular Signaling Array.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the three leading causes for cancer mortality. CRC kills over 600,000 people annually worldwide. The most common cause of death from CRC is the metastasis to distant organs. However, biomarkers for CRC metastasis remain ill-defined. We compared primary and metastatic CRC cell lines for their angiogenesis-protein profiles and intracellular signaling profiles to identify novel biomarkers for CRC metastasis. To this end, we used primary and metastatic CRC cell lines as a model system and normal human colon cell line as a control. The angiogenesis profiles two isogenic CRC cell lines, SW480 and SW620, and HT-29 and T84 revealed that VEGF was upregulated in both SW620 and T84 whereas coagulation factor III, IGFBP-3, DPP IV, PDGF AA/AB, endothelin I and CXCL16 were downregulated specifically in metastatic cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TIMP-1, amphiregulin, endostatin, angiogenin were upregulated in SW620 whereas downregulated in T84. Angiogenin was downregulated in T84 and GM-CSF was also downregulated in SW620. To induce CRC cell metastasis, we treated cells with pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Upon IL-6 treatment, epithelial-mesenchymal transition was induced in CRC cells. When DLD-1 and HT-29 cells were treated with IL-6; Akt, STAT3, AMPKα and Bad phosphorylation levels were increased. Interestingly, SW620 showed the same signal activation pattern with IL-6 treatment of HT-29 and DLD-1. Our data suggest that Akt, STAT3, AMPKα and Bad activation can be biomarkers for metastatic colorectal cancer. IL-6 treatment specifically reduced phosphorylation levels of EGFR, HER2 receptor, Insulin R and IGF-1R in receptor tyrosine kinase array study with HT-29. Taken together, we have identified novel biomarkers for metastatic CRC through the angiogenesis-antibody array and intracellular signaling array studies. Present study suggests that those novel biomarkers can be used as CRC prognosis biomarkers, and as potential targets for the metastatic CRC therapy.

Zhu Y, Zou C, Zhang Z, et al.
MEK inhibitor diminishes nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell growth and NPC-induced osteoclastogenesis via modulating CCL2 and CXCL16 expressions.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(11):8811-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy in southern China and Southeast Asia. NPC frequently metastasizes to the bone in advanced patients resulting in high mortality. The molecular mechanisms for NPC development and cancer-induced bone lesions are unclear. In this study, we firstly determined chemokine receptor CCR2 and CXCR6 expressions in clinical specimens and CNE2, SUNE1, CNE1, and HK1 cell lines. Then, we measured chemokine CCL2 and CXCL16 production in these NPC cell lines by ELISA. Expression levels of these chemokines and their receptors were observed to positively correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Furthermore, U0126 (MEK inhibitor) was used to treat these NPC cell lines. CCL2 and CXCL16 expression levels and cell proliferation were significantly inhibited by U0126 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Finally, we collected conditioned medium (CM) from NPC cell cultures in the presence of U0126 treatment. When mouse bone marrow non-adherent cells were treated with the CM, the numbers of multinucleated osteoclast formation were dramatically diminished. These results indicate that MEK inhibitor diminishes NPC cell proliferation and NPC-induced osteoclastogenesis via modulating CCL2 and CXCL16 expressions. This study provides novel therapeutic targets such as CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL16/CXCR6 for advanced NPC patients.

Hald SM, Kiselev Y, Al-Saad S, et al.
Prognostic impact of CXCL16 and CXCR6 in non-small cell lung cancer: combined high CXCL16 expression in tumor stroma and cancer cells yields improved survival.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:441 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The chemokine CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 are expressed by a variety of immune cells and have been shown to influence angiogenesis. The expression of CXCR6 and CXCL16 has been examined in numerous human cancers; however no studies have yet investigated their influence on prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to explore their prognostic significance in NSCLC, in addition to examining associations with previously investigated markers.
METHODS: Resected tumor tissue from 335 consecutive unselected stage I-IIIA NSCLC patients (1990-2005) were collected. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of CXCR6 and CXCL16 on tissue microarrays. In vitro, NSCLC cells (NCI-H460, A549 cells) were transfected with CXCL16 siRNA to examine effects on proliferation.
RESULTS: In univariate analysis, ↑ stromal cell CXCL16 expression was a significant positive prognostic factor (P = 0.016). CXCR6 was expressed in cancer cells, but did not show any prognostic impact. In the multivariate analysis, combined ↑cancer, and ↑stromal cell CXCL16 expression was an independent positive prognostic factor when compared to ↓stromal and ↓cancer cell expression (HR: 0.42; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.88; P = 0.022). Knockdown of CXCL16 by siRNA resulted in accelerated proliferation of NSCLC cell lines.
CONCLUSION: We have shown that combined ↑cancer and ↑stromal cell CXCL16 expression is an independent positive prognostic factor in NSCLC. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the biological mechanism underlying this finding.

Schneider MA, Granzow M, Warth A, et al.
Glycodelin: A New Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Functions in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(15):3529-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In recent years, immune therapeutic strategies against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on tissue-derived biomarkers, for example PD1/PD-L1 (CD274), have evolved as novel and promising treatment options. However, the crosstalk between tumor and immune cells is poorly understood. Glycodelin (gene name PAEP), initially described in the context of pregnancy and trophoblastic implantation, is a secreted immunosuppressive glycoprotein with an as-of-yet largely unknown function in lung cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we characterized the expression and role of glycodelin in NSCLC through mRNA and protein expression analyses, functional knockdown experiments, and correlations with clinicopathologic parameters.
RESULTS: Glycodelin mRNA expression was significantly elevated in tumors (n = 336) compared with matched normal tissue (P < 0.0001). Overall survival (OS) was significantly reduced in NSCLC with high glycodelin mRNA levels in women but not in men. Glycodelin was detected in the sera of patients, and the levels correlated with recurrence and metastatic disease. Knockdown of glycodelin with siRNAs in NSCLC cell lines resulted in significant upregulation of immune system modulatory factors such as PDL1, CXCL5, CXCL16, MICA/B, and CD83 as well as proliferation stimulators EDN1 and HBEGF. Furthermore, decreased migration of tumor cells was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the comprehensive characterization of glycodelin in NSCLC provides strong support for its use as a biomarker with immune modulatory function.

Zhao W, Xu Y, Xu J, et al.
Subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma express chemokines and chemokine receptors differentially.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2015; 26(2):314-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors induce the recruitment and expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of cells that can be further sub-divided into polymorphonuclear Ly6G(+) PMN-MDSCs and monocytic Ly6G(-) Mo-MDSCs. To identify chemokines and chemokine-related genes that are differentially expressed within the tumor microenvironment in these two MDSC subsets, we established an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model in immunocompetent mice. Splenic PMN-MDSCs and Mo-MDSCs were isolated to >95% homogeneity by flow cytometry. Using a real-time PCR array, we investigated the expression of 84 genes encoding chemokines and cytokines, chemokine receptors, and related signaling molecules involved with chemotaxis. Clustering analysis suggested that a core set of chemokine-related genes is expressed in both PMN-MDSC and Mo-MDSC populations, but that the expression profile is broader for Mo-MDSCs. Furthermore, 11 genes are more highly expressed in PMN-MDSCs and 12 genes are more highly expressed in Mo-MDSCs. Among these, PMN-MDSCs express Cxcr1, Cxcr2 and Il1b at 33.03- to 109.76-fold higher levels than in Mo-MDSCs, and Mo-MDSCs express eight genes (Ccr2, Ccr5, Cmklr1, Cx3cr1, Ccr3, Ccl9, Cmtm3 and Cxcl16) at 30.2 to 515.5-fold higher levels than in PMN-MDSCs. These results suggest that the profile of chemokines and chemokine-related genes is more expansive for Mo-MDSCs than for PMN-MDSCs. The differential expression of chemokines and chemokine-associated genes may regulate the presence and activity of PMN-MDSCs and Mo-MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment.

Zsiros E, Duttagupta P, Dangaj D, et al.
The Ovarian Cancer Chemokine Landscape Is Conducive to Homing of Vaccine-Primed and CD3/CD28-Costimulated T Cells Prepared for Adoptive Therapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(12):2840-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chemokines are implicated in T-cell trafficking. We mapped the chemokine landscape in advanced stage ovarian cancer and characterized the expression of cognate receptors in autologous dendritic cell (DC)-vaccine primed T cells in the context of cell-based immunotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of all known human chemokines in patients with primary ovarian cancer was analyzed on two independent microarray datasets and validated on tissue microarray. Peripheral blood T cells from five HLA-A2 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, who previously received autologous tumor DC vaccine, underwent CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion ex vivo. Tumor-specific T cells were identified by HER2/neu pentamer staining and were evaluated for the expression and functionality of chemokine receptors important for homing to ovarian cancer.
RESULTS: The chemokine landscape of ovarian cancer is heterogeneous with high expression of known lymphocyte-recruiting chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, and CCL5) in tumors with intraepithelial T cells, whereas CXCL10, CXCL12, and CXCL16 are expressed quasi-universally, including in tumors lacking tumor-infiltrating T cells. DC-vaccine primed T cells were found to express the cognate receptors for the above chemokines. Ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion of vaccine-primed Tcells upregulated CXCR3 and CXCR4, and enhanced their migration toward universally expressed chemokines in ovarian cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: DC-primed tumor-specific T cells are armed with the appropriate receptors to migrate toward universal ovarian cancer chemokines, and these receptors are further upregulated by ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation, which render T cells more fit for migrating toward these chemokines. Clin Cancer Res; 21(12); 2840-50. ©2015 AACR.

Chalabi-Dchar M, Cassant-Sourdy S, Duluc C, et al.
Loss of Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Promotes Growth of KRAS-Induced Pancreatic Tumors in Mice by Activating PI3K Signaling and Overexpression of CXCL16.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 148(7):1452-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The KRAS gene is mutated in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Expression of this KRAS oncoprotein in mice is sufficient to initiate carcinogenesis but not progression to cancer. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for KRAS for induction and maintenance of PDAC in mice. The somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) inhibits PI3K, but sst2 expression is lost during the development of human PDAC. We investigated the effects of sst2 loss during KRAS-induced PDAC development in mice.
METHODS: We analyzed tumor growth in mice that expressed the oncogenic form of KRAS (KRAS(G12D)) in pancreatic precursor cells, as well as sst2+/- and sst2-/-, and in crossed KRAS(G12D);sst2+/- and KRAS(G12D);sst2-/- mice. Pancreatic tissues and acini were collected and assessed by histologic, immunoblot, immunohistochemical, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. We also compared protein levels in paraffin-embedded PDAC samples from patients vs heathy pancreatic tissues from individuals without pancreatic cancer.
RESULTS: In sst2+/- mice, PI3K was activated and signaled via AKT (PKB; protein kinase B); when these mice were crossed with KRAS(G12D) mice, premalignant lesions, tumors, and lymph node metastases developed more rapidly than in KRAS(G12D) mice. In crossed KRAS(G12D);sst2+/- mice, activation of PI3K signaling via AKT resulted in activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which increased KRAS activity and its downstream pathways, promoting initiation and progression of neoplastic lesions. We found this activation loop to be mediated by PI3K-induced production of the chemokine CXCL16. Administration of a CXCL16-neutralizing antibody to KRAS(G12D) mice reduced activation of PI3K signaling to AKT and NF-κB, blocking carcinogenesis. Levels of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 were significantly higher in PDAC tissues and surrounding acini than in healthy pancreatic tissues from mice or human beings. In addition, expression of sst2 was progressively lost, involving increased PI3K activity, in mouse lesions that expressed KRAS(G12D) and progressed to PDAC.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on analyses of mice, loss of sst2 from pancreatic tissues activates PI3K signaling via AKT, leading to activation of NF-κB, amplification of oncogenic KRAS signaling, increased expression of CXCL16, and pancreatic tumor formation. CXCL16 might be a therapeutic target for PDAC.

Higgins J, Brogley M, Palanisamy N, et al.
Interaction of the Androgen Receptor, ETV1, and PTEN Pathways in Mouse Prostate Varies with Pathological Stage and Predicts Cancer Progression.
Horm Cancer. 2015; 6(2-3):67-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To examine the impact of common somatic mutations in prostate cancer (PCa) on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, mouse models were designed to perturb sequentially the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways. Mice with "humanized" AR (hAR) alleles that modified AR transcriptional strength by varying polyglutamine tract (Q-tract) length were crossed with mice expressing a prostate-specific, AR-responsive ETV1 transgene (ETV1(Tg)). While hAR allele did not grossly affect ETV1-induced neoplasia, ETV1 strongly antagonized global AR regulation and repressed critical androgen-induced differentiation and tumor suppressor genes, such as Nkx3-1 and Hoxb13. When Pten was varied to determine its impact on disease progression, mice lacking one Pten allele (Pten(+/-) ) developed more frequent prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Yet, only those with the ETV1 transgene progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, progression was more frequent with the short Q-tract (stronger) AR, suggesting that the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways cooperate in aggressive disease. On the Pten(+/-) background, ETV1 had markedly less effect on AR target genes. However, a strong inflammatory gene expression signature, notably upregulation of Cxcl16, was induced by ETV1. Comparison of mouse and human patient data stratified by the presence of E26 transformation-specific ETS fusion genes highlighted additional factors, some not previously associated with prostate cancer but for which targeted therapies are in development for other diseases. In sum, concerted use of these mouse models illuminates the complex interplay of AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways in pre-cancerous neoplasia and early tumorigenesis, disease stages difficult to analyze in man.

Zhang F, Huang W, Sheng M, Liu T
MiR-451 inhibits cell growth and invasion by targeting CXCL16 and is associated with prognosis of osteosarcoma patients.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):2041-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that microRNA-451 (miR-451) was significantly decreased in osteosarcoma tissues and was identified as a tumor suppressor in other types of human cancers. However, its clinical significance and molecular mechanisms in osteosarcoma are still not well understood. MiR-451 levels are evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in osteosarcoma cell lines and in 68 pairs of osteosarcoma and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Then, the associations of miR-451 expression with clinicopathological features of patients were determined. The effects of miR-451 in osteosarcoma cells were examined by MTT and Matrigel invasion assay. The functional target of miR-451 were determined by bioinformatics analysis and validated by luciferase reporter analyses and Western blot assay. Our results showed that the expression of miR-451 was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with corresponding noncancerous tissues (P < 0.01). Particularly, statistical analysis of primary human osteosarcoma indicated that decreased expression of miR-451 was correlated with metastasis and recurrence. Moreover, the miR-451 force-expression suppressed cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Based on bioinformatics analysis, we found that chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) was identified as a direct functional target of miR-451. Consistent with the effects of miR-451, silencing CXCL16 could phenocopy the effects of miR-451 on phenotypes of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, CXCL16 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and inversely associated with miR-451 in human osteosarcoma tissues. Our data reveal a downregulated expression of miR-451 in osteosarcoma tissues, which is inversely associated with CXCL16 levels. These observations demonstrated that miR-451 may play an important role in tumor growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma.

Fang Y, Henderson FC, Yi Q, et al.
Chemokine CXCL16 expression suppresses migration and invasiveness and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014:478641 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence argues that soluble CXCL16 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. However, the role of transmembrane or cellular CXCL16 in cancer remains relatively unknown. In this study, we determine the function of cellular CXCL16 as tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines was determined at both RNA and protein levels. In vitro and in vivo studies that overexpressed or downregulated CXCL16 were conducted in breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: We report differential expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines that was negatively correlated with cell invasiveness and migration. Overexpression of CXCL16 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to a decrease in cell invasion and migration and induced apoptosis of the cells; downregulation of CXCL16 in MCF-7 cells increased cell migration and invasiveness. Consistent with the in vitro data, CXCL16 overexpression inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Cellular CXCL16 suppresses invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Targeting of cellular CXCL16 expression is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

Hattermann K, Sebens S, Helm O, et al.
Chemokine expression profile of freshly isolated human glioblastoma-associated macrophages/microglia.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):270-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several studies have substantiated the hypothesis that tumor progression is not only driven by the tumor cells themselves but also by their interaction with intrinsic and surrounding stromal cells. Tumor-associated macrophages and microglial cells (TAMs) represent one major stromal cell component of glioblastomas. Additionally, in many gliomas, chemokines are highly expressed and some chemokines were already linked to settlement of TAMs in tumors. However, although chemoattraction mechanisms mediated by chemokines and their receptors are well documented, information on their expression and role in TAMs, particularly in patients, is limited. Therefore, we investigated the transcription of the chemokine-receptor combinations CXCL12-CXCR4-CXCR7, CXCL16-CXCR6 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in freshly isolated TAMs from 20 human glioblastomas in relation to in vitro polarized M1- and M2-macrophages. We demonstrated that TAMs express both M1- and M2-markers. Compared to in vitro polarized macrophages, the M1-marker interleukin (IL)-6 was similarly expressed, whereas IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were found at lower levels. The M2-marker IL-10 was comparably expressed, while CD163 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were detected with one tenth lower intensities in TAMs. All investigated chemokines/receptors were transcribed at moderate to high levels in TAMs as well as in vitro polarized macrophages. However, CX3CR1 was markedly higher and CXCR7 was somewhat higher expressed in TAMs, whereas M2-macrophages were characterized by the highest CXCL12 and a moderate CX3CL1 expression. Collectively, TAMs share properties of M1- and M2-macrophages and show a considerably higher expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR7 and CX3CR1.

Chaturvedi P, Gilkes DM, Takano N, Semenza GL
Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent signaling between triple-negative breast cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells promotes macrophage recruitment.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(20):E2120-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intratumoral hypoxia induces the recruitment of stromal cells, such as macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which stimulate invasion and metastasis by breast cancer cells (BCCs). Production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) by BCCs is required for macrophage recruitment, but the mechanisms underlying CSF1 expression have not been delineated. Triple-negative breast cancers have increased expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In this study, we delineate two feed-forward signaling loops between human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative BCCs and human MSCs that drive stromal cell recruitment to primary breast tumors. The first loop, in which BCCs secrete chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) that binds to C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6) on MSCs and MSCs secrete chemokine CXCL10 that binds to receptor CXCR3 on BCCs, drives recruitment of MSCs. The second loop, in which MSCs secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 that binds to C-C chemokine receptor type 5 on BCCs and BCCs secrete cytokine CSF1 that binds to the CSF1 receptor on MSCs, drives recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These two signaling loops operate independent of each other, but both are dependent on the transcriptional activity of HIFs, with hypoxia serving as a pathophysiological signal that synergizes with chemokine signals from MSCs to trigger CSF1 gene transcription in triple-negative BCCs.

Vansaun MN, Mendonsa AM, Lee Gorden D
Hepatocellular proliferation correlates with inflammatory cell and cytokine changes in a murine model of nonalchoholic fatty liver disease.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73054 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nonalchoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a problem of increasing prevalence and clinical significance worldwide and is associated with increased risk of development of end stage liver disease and cirrhosis, and can be complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD is characterized by physical and molecular changes in the liver microenvironment which include an influx of inflammatory cell populations, fibrosis, changes in gene expression, and cytokine production. To better understand changes to the liver in the setting of steatosis, we used a murine model of diet induced hepatic steatosis and corroborated our results with human patient samples of NAFLD. Among the cellular changes, we identified a significant increase in hepatocellular proliferation in the setting of steatosis as compared to controls. Analysis of inflammatory cell populations revealed increased infiltration of CD11b positive myeloid and CD3 positive lymphocytic cell populations in steatotic livers compared to normal livers. Resident Kupffer cells of the liver comprise the largest percentage of these myeloid cells and appear to be responsible for important cytokine alterations impacting proliferation of cells in the liver microenvironment. Significant alterations in cytokine profiles in the plasma and liver tissue lysates from normal and steatotic mice were detected including leptin, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL16 that were further shown to directly increase hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. This increased hepatocellular proliferation and turnover in the setting of steatosis may play important roles in the progression and complications of NAFLD.

Wang YH, Dong YY, Wang WM, et al.
Vascular endothelial cells facilitated HCC invasion and metastasis through the Akt and NF-κB pathways induced by paracrine cytokines.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 32(1):51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that cancer cells secrete angiogenic factors to recruit and sustain tumor vascular networks. However, little is known about the effects of endothelial cells on the behavior of tumor cells. The study here was to determine the roles of endothelial cells in HCC cell growth, migration and invasion.
METHODS: A mixture of highly metastatic MHCC97H cells and HUVEC cells, as well as MHCC97H cells alone were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to observe the effects of HUVECs on HCC growth. The biological characteristics of MHCC97H cells respectively treated with conditioned medium (CM) derived from HUVECs and endothelial cell basal medium (EBM) in vitro, such as proliferation, migration and invasion, invasion/metastasis associated gene expression, were comparatively analyzed. Differential cytokines between CM and EBM were screened and identified using human cytokine array. Effects of the interested differential cytokine CCL2, IL-8 and CXCL16 and its related signaling pathways were further investigated in HCC cells.
RESULTS: Subcutaneous tumorigenicity of MHCC97H cells in nude mice was promoted by HUVECs and its invasion/metastasis associated genes were significantly upregulated. The in vitro, proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells treated with CM were all significantly enhanced as compared to those with EBM stimulation. Simultaneously, PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathway in HCC cells were activated by CM. Total of 25 differential cytokines were identified between CM and EBM such as angiopoietin-2, CCL2 (MCP-1), uPA, endostatin, CXCL16, IL-8, pentraxin 3 etc. The selected differential cytokines CCL2, IL-8 and CXCL16 all modulated the expressions of HCC invasion/metastasis genes, especially MMP2 and MMP9. In exposure to CCL2 or CXCL16 alone, upregulation in AKT phosphorylation but no change in ERK phosphorylation were found in MHCC97H cells, moreover the contents of nuclear transcription factor NF-κB were increased as compared to the control. However, no effects on the activation of Akt and ERK pathway in MHCC97H were found in exposure to IL-8.
CONCLUSION: This study expands the contribution of endothelial cells to the progression of HCC. It unveils a new paradigm in which endothelial cells function as initiators of molecular crosstalks that enhance survival, migration and invasion of HCC cells.

Jung Y, Kim JK, Shiozawa Y, et al.
Recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells into prostate tumours promotes metastasis.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1795 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumours recruit mesenchymal stem cells to facilitate healing, which induces their conversion into cancer-associated fibroblasts that facilitate metastasis. However, this process is poorly understood on the molecular level. Here we show that CXCL16, a ligand for CXCR6, facilitates mesenchymal stem cell or very small embryonic-like cells recruitment into prostate tumours. CXCR6 signalling stimulates the conversion of mesenchymal stem cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which secrete stromal-derived factor-1, also known as CXCL12. CXCL12 expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts then binds to CXCR4 on tumour cells and induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which ultimately promotes metastasis to secondary tumour sites. Our results provide the molecular basis for mesenchymal stem cell recruitment into tumours and how this process leads to tumour metastasis.

Liu F, Zhang G, Liu F, et al.
Effect of shRNA targeting mouse CD99L2 gene in a murine B cell lymphoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(4):1405-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mouse CD99 antigen-like 2 (mCD99L2) has previously been confirmed to be expressed in murine B lymphoma (A20) cells by our group. The present study aimed to establish a mCD99L2‑downregulated A20 cell line and to investigate the effect of shRNA targeting mCD99L2 in A20 cells in vitro and in vivo. Four pLenti6/mCD99L2 expression vectors containing the mCD99L2 shRNA-expressing cassette were constructed, transfected into A20 cells and stable mCD99L2-downregulated A20 subclones, termed A20-mCD99L2- cells, were established and identified by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Light and transmission electron microscopy, MTT assay, flow cytometry and immunofluorenscence labeling were used to observe the morphological, biological and phenotypic characteristics in vitro. Some of the A20-mCD99L2- cells exhibited H/RS‑cell like morphology, a decreased proliferative ability, a prolonged G2 phase and increased CD30 and CD15 expression. Upon injecting cells into nude or immunocompetent BALB/c mice, tumorigenesis, tumor growth, morphology and phenotypes in vivo were observed. A20-mCD99L2- cells induced tumors in nude and BALB/c mice, but with less potency in the latter compared with the controls. Similar morphological, biological and phenotypic characteristics were observed in the A20-mCD99L2- cell-induced tumors as those in vitro. Several cytokines including CD30T, IL-12p40/p70, IL-3, IFN-γ, CXCL16, MIP-1α and CD40 were upregulated following mCD99L2 downregulation when detected using antibody arrays. The results from western blot analysis indicated that the regulation of mCD99L2 expression may involve the activated nuclear factor-κB pathway in the murine B lymphoma cells. The present study provides data for further investigation into the mCD99L2 gene in tumor cells.

Kee JY, Ito A, Hojo S, et al.
Chemokine CXCL16 suppresses liver metastasis of colorectal cancer via augmentation of tumor-infiltrating natural killer T cells in a murine model.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(3):975-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a typical lifestyle-related disease, and it metastasizes mostly to the liver. It is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of CRC metastasis in order to design new and effective treatments for CRC patients. Chemokines are known to have antitumor effects as their chemoattractant properties stimulate the accumulation of infiltrating immune cells (TILs) in tumors. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16), also known as SR-PSOX, is a unique membrane-bound chemokine that induces the expression of its specific receptor CXCR6. We previously reported that the expression of CXCL16 by cancer cells enhances the recruitment of TILs, thereby improving the prognosis of CRC. It has since been reported that CXCL16/CXCR6 expression is involved in the metastasis of various types of cancer. However, there is no report of the association between CXCL16 expression and liver metastasis in CRC. In this study, we investigated the role of cancer-derived CXCL16 and the possibility of gene therapy using CXCL16. Therefore, we examined the metastasis of colon 38 SL4 cells to the liver in an experimental model. Following injection of cancer cells into the intraportal vein, CXCL16-expressing CRC cells drastically inhibited liver metastasis. We also found that CD8 T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells, known as CXCR6-expressing cells, increased in CXCL16-expressing metastatic tissue. Collectively, the inhibitory effect on metastasis to the liver by CXCL16 was observed in NKT cell-depleted mice but not in CD8 T cell-depleted mice. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effect of CXCL16 on liver metastasis via NKT cells in CRC.

Gao Q, Zhao YJ, Wang XY, et al.
CXCR6 upregulation contributes to a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment that drives metastasis and poor patient outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(14):3546-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXC chemokines and their cognate receptors have been implicated widely in cancer pathogenesis. In this study, we report a critical causal relationship between CXCR6 expression and tumorigenesis in the setting of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the CXC chemokine receptors, only CXCR6 was detected in all the hepatoma cell lines studied. Moreover, in HCC tissue, CXCR6 expression was significantly higher than in noncancerous liver tissues. Reduction of CXCR6 or its ligand CXCL16 in cancer cells reduced cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastases in vivo. Importantly, loss of CXCR6 led to reduced Gr-1+ neutrophil infiltration and decreased neoangiogenesis in hepatoma xenografts via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. Clinically, high expression of CXCR6 was an independent predictor of increased recurrence and poor survival in HCCs. Human HCC samples expressing high levels of CXCR6 also contained an increased number of CD66b+ neutrophils and microvessels, and the combination of CXCR6 and neutrophils was a superior predictor of recurrence and survival than either marker used alone. Together, our findings suggest that elevated expression of CXCR6 promotes HCC invasiveness and a protumor inflammatory environment and is associated with poor patient outcome. These results support the concept that inhibition of the CXCR6-CXCL16 pathway may improve prognosis after HCC treatment.

La Porta CA
CXCR6: the role of environment in tumor progression. Challenges for therapy.
Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2012; 8(4):1282-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of chemokines in tumor progression is an essential event that leads to homing and metastasis of tumor cells in a receptor-dependent, organ specific manner. In recent years, the involvement of CXCR6 and its ligand CXCL16 in tumor progression is becoming more evident. Here I review the recent literature on CXCR6/CXCL16. Since CXCR6 was shown recently to be involved in stem cell self renewal and the same cytokine is expressed by a subpopulation of melanoma cells, I discuss new evidences on cancer stem cell theory and the involvement of CXCR6. In particular, in the effort to develop more specific strategies to stop the tumor growth, the present review proposes and discusses the possibility to modulate tumor self renewal affecting asymmetric/symmetric cell division targeting specific factors such as CXCR6.

Santhekadur PK, Das SK, Gredler R, et al.
Multifunction protein staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1) promotes tumor angiogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma through novel pathway that involves nuclear factor κB and miR-221.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(17):13952-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing 1 (SND1) is a multifunctional protein that is overexpressed in multiple cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Stable overexpression of SND1 in Hep3B cells expressing a low level of SND1 augments, whereas stable knockdown of SND1 in QGY-7703 cells expressing a high level of SND1 inhibits establishment of xenografts in nude mice, indicating that SND1 promotes an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. In this study we analyzed the role of SND1 in regulating tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer. Conditioned medium from Hep3B-SND1 cells stably overexpressing SND1 augmented, whereas that from QGY-SND1si cells stably overexpressing SND1 siRNA significantly inhibited angiogenesis, as analyzed by a chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell differentiation assay. We unraveled a linear pathway in which SND1-induced activation of NF-κB resulted in induction of miR-221 and subsequent induction of angiogenic factors Angiogenin and CXCL16. Inhibition of either of these components resulted in significant inhibition of SND1-induced angiogenesis, thus highlighting the importance of this molecular cascade in regulating SND1 function. Because SND1 regulates NF-κB and miR-221, two important determinants of HCC controlling the aggressive phenotype, SND1 inhibition might be an effective strategy to counteract this fatal malady.

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