Gene Summary

Gene:CTTN; cortactin
Aliases: EMS1
Summary:This gene is overexpressed in breast cancer and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The encoded protein is localized in the cytoplasm and in areas of the cell-substratum contacts. This gene has two roles: (1) regulating the interactions between components of adherens-type junctions and (2) organizing the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion structures of epithelia and carcinoma cells. During apoptosis, the encoded protein is degraded in a caspase-dependent manner. The aberrant regulation of this gene contributes to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Three splice variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:src substrate cortactin
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CTTN (cancer-related)

Hong CC, Chen PS, Chiou J, et al.
miR326 maturation is crucial for VEGF-C-driven cortactin expression and esophageal cancer progression.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6280-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is an aggressive human malignancy with increasing incidence in the developed world. VEGF-C makes crucial contributions to esophageal cancer progression that are not well understood. Here, we report the discovery of regulatory relationship in esophageal cancers between the expression of VEGF-C and cortactin (CTTN), a regulator of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation of CTTN expression by VEGF-C enhanced the invasive properties of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that VEGF-C increased CTTN expression by downregulating Dicer-mediated maturation of miR326, thereby relieving the suppressive effect of miR326 on CTTN expression. Clinically, expression of Dicer and miR326 correlated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. Our findings offer insights into how VEGF-C enhances the robust invasive and metastatic properties of esophageal cancer, which has potential implications for the development of new biomarkers or therapies in this setting.

Lu P, Qiao J, He W, et al.
Genome-wide gene expression profile analyses identify CTTN as a potential prognostic marker in esophageal cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88918 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common fatal malignances of the digestive tract. Its prognosis is poor mainly due to the lack of reliable markers for early detection and prognostic prediction. Here we aim to identify the molecules involved in ESCC carcinogenesis and those as potential markers for prognosis and as new molecular therapeutic targets.
METHODS: We performed genome-wide gene expression profile analyses of 10 primary ESCCs and their adjacent normal tissues by cDNA microarrays representing 47,000 transcripts and variants. Candidate genes were then validated by semi quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), tissue microarrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining.
RESULTS: Using an arbitrary cutoff line of signal log ratio of ≥1.5 or ≤-1.5, we observed 549 up-regulated genes and 766 down-regulated genes in ESCCs compared with normal esophageal tissues. The functions of 302 differentially expressed genes were associated with cell metabolism, cell adhesion and immune response. Several candidate deregulated genes including four overexpressed (CTTN, DMRT2, MCM10 and SCYA26) and two underexpressed (HMGCS2 and SORBS2) were subsequently verified, which can be served as biomarkers for ESCC. Moreover, overexpression of cortactin (CTTN) was observed in 126/198 (63.6%) of ESCC cases and was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000), pathologic stage (P = 0.000) and poor survival (P<0.001) of ESCC patients. Furthermore, a significant correlation between CTTN overexpression and shorter disease-specific survival rate was found in different subgroups of ESCC patient stratified by the pathologic stage (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our data provide valuable information for establishing molecules as candidates for prognostic and/or as therapeutic targets.

Tokui N, Yoneyama MS, Hatakeyama S, et al.
Extravasation during bladder cancer metastasis requires cortactin‑mediated invadopodia formation.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(4):1142-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive cancer cells form the filamentous actin‑based membrane protrusions known as invadopodia. Invadopodia are thought to play a critical role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis due to their ability to degrade the extracellular matrix. The present study assessed whether invadopodia formation is essential in extravasation of circulating bladder cancer cells and lung metastasis. To analyze the importance of invadopodia, bladder cancer cell lines with reduced invadopodia formation were established by silencing the expression of cortactin, an essential component of invadopodia, using cortactin short hairpin RNA. Bladder cancer cells with cortactin knockdown demonstrated a markedly decreased ability to form invadopodia, secrete matrix metalloproteinases and invade the extracellular matrix. In addition, the knockdown cells exhibited a reduced transendothelial invasion capacity and decreased formation of metastatic foci in the lungs. The present study demonstrated that bladder cancer cells with cortactin knockdown have a reduced capacity to extravasate into the lung from the circulation, due to the decreased invasive character of invadopodia. This suggests that invadopodia formation is a critical process for cancer cell extravasation.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

Radhakrishnan VM, Kojs P, Young G, et al.
pTyr421 cortactin is overexpressed in colon cancer and is dephosphorylated by curcumin: involvement of non-receptor type 1 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN1).
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85796 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cortactin (CTTN), first identified as a major substrate of the Src tyrosine kinase, actively participates in branching F-actin assembly and in cell motility and invasion. CTTN gene is amplified and its protein is overexpressed in several types of cancer. The phosphorylated form of cortactin (pTyr(421)) is required for cancer cell motility and invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that a majority of the tested primary colorectal tumor specimens show greatly enhanced expression of pTyr(421)-CTTN, but no change at the mRNA level as compared to healthy subjects, thus suggesting post-translational activation rather than gene amplification in these tumors. Curcumin (diferulolylmethane), a natural compound with promising chemopreventive and chemosensitizing effects, reduced the indirect association of cortactin with the plasma membrane protein fraction in colon adenocarcinoma cells as measured by surface biotinylation, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting. Curcumin significantly decreased the pTyr(421)-CTTN in HCT116 cells and SW480 cells, but was ineffective in HT-29 cells. Curcumin physically interacted with PTPN1 tyrosine phosphatases to increase its activity and lead to dephosphorylation of pTyr(421)-CTTN. PTPN1 inhibition eliminated the effects of curcumin on pTyr(421)-CTTN. Transduction with adenovirally-encoded CTTN increased migration of HCT116, SW480, and HT-29. Curcumin decreased migration of HCT116 and SW480 cells which highly express PTPN1, but not of HT-29 cells with significantly reduced endogenous expression of PTPN1. Curcumin significantly reduced the physical interaction of CTTN and pTyr(421)-CTTN with p120 catenin (CTNND1). Collectively, these data suggest that curcumin is an activator of PTPN1 and can reduce cell motility in colon cancer via dephosphorylation of pTyr(421)-CTTN which could be exploited for novel therapeutic approaches in colon cancer therapy based on tumor pTyr(421)-CTTN expression.

Gang Z, Ya-Lin K, Dong-Qing W, et al.
Combining cortactin and CTTN detection with clinicopathologic features increases effectiveness of survival predictions for patients with resectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Lab. 2013; 59(11-12):1343-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cortactin is an important regulator involved in invasion and migration of tumor cells. Although the relationship between cortactin and tumor invasion has been reported, it lacks follow-up evidence to support the forecasting role of cortactin for HCC prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether cortactin detection combined with clinicopathologic features predicts the prognosis efficaciously.
METHODS: 91 resectable HCCs were grouped according to clinicopathologic characteristics, and immunohistochemical (IHC) cortactin tumor tissue expression was evaluated. Cortactin gene (CTTN) mRNA of 77 HCCs, as well as that of 20 normal liver tissues, was examined by real-time PCR. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis.
RESULTS: It was found that cortactin expression was associated with liver capsule integrity, cancer embolus in portal vein or distant neoplasm metastasis, and with TNM stage. (p < 0.01) Moreover, CTTN mRNA expression level was higher in high invasiveness group. But no statistical significance was found between low invasiveness and normal control groups. Combining cortactin and CTTN mRNA detection with clinicopathologic features improved the predictive power. High expression of both cortactin and CTTN indicated poor survival time of 12 +/- 3.67 months and low expression indicated longer median survival time of 65 +/- 6.62 months.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time that cortactin overexpression indicates highly invasive potentialities and poor prognoses with HCCs. Further, the results also suggest that this new accurate evaluating method may be more useful to survival prediction and, therefore, the clinical decision making for resectable

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic gains and losses in oral squamous cell carcinoma: impact on clinical management.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The identification of genetic markers associated with oral cancer is considered essential to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, early tumor and relapse detection and, ultimately, to delineate individualized therapeutic approaches. Here, we aimed at identifying such markers.
METHODS: Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analyses encompassing 133 cancer-related genes were performed on a panel of primary oral tumor samples and its corresponding resection margins (macroscopically tumor-free tissue) allowing, in both types of tissue, the detection of a wide arrange of copy number imbalances on various human chromosomes.
RESULTS: We found that in tumor tissue, from the 133 cancer-related genes included in this study, those that most frequently exhibited copy number gains were located on chromosomal arms 3q, 6p, 8q, 11q, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q and 19q, whereas those most frequently exhibiting copy number losses were located on chromosomal arms 2q, 3p, 4q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 11q and 18q. Several imbalances were highlighted, i.e., losses of ERBB4, CTNNB1, NFKB1, IL2, IL12B, TUSC3, CDKN2A, CASP1, and gains of MME, BCL6, VEGF, PTK2, PTP4A3, RNF139, CCND1, FGF3, CTTN, MVP, CDH1, BRCA1, CDKN2D, BAX, as well as exon 4 of TP53. Comparisons between tumor and matched macroscopically tumor-free tissues allowed us to build a logistic regression model to predict the tissue type (benign versus malignant). In this model, the TUSC3 gene showed statistical significance, indicating that loss of this gene may serve as a good indicator of malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards relevance of the above mentioned cancer-related genes as putative genetic markers for oral cancer. For practical clinical purposes, these genetic markers should be validated in additional studies.

Jia D, Jing Y, Zhang Z, et al.
Amplification of MPZL1/PZR promotes tumor cell migration through Src-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Res. 2014; 24(2):204-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously identified 1 241 regions of somatic copy number alterations (CNAs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we found that a novel recurrent focal amplicon, 1q24.1-24.2, targets the MPZL1 gene in HCC. Notably, there is a positive correlation between the expression levels of MPZL1 and intrahepatic metastasis of the HCC specimens. MPZL1 can significantly enhance the migratory and metastatic potential of the HCC cells. Moreover, we found that one of the mechanisms by which MPZL1 promotes HCC cell migration is by inducing the phosphorylation and activation of the pro-metastatic protein, cortactin. Additionally, we found that Src kinase mediates the phosphorylation and activation of cortactin induced by MPZL1 overexpression. Taken together, these findings suggest that MPZL1 is a novel pro-metastatic gene targeted by a recurrent region of copy number amplification at 1q24.1-24.2 in HCC.

Zhou J, Chen L, Zhang Y, et al.
Synergistic effect of EMS1-shRNA and sorafenib on proliferation, migration, invasion and endocytosis of SMMC-7721.
J Mol Histol. 2014; 45(2):205-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the synergistic effect of EMS1-PSilencer4.1-shRNA (EMS1-shRNA) and sorafenib on biological behaviors of HCC cell line SMMC-7721. EMS1-shRNA was constructed and transfected into SMMC-7721 cells. Decreased levels of EMS1/cortactin were tested in RT-QPCR and Western blot assay. Proliferation, migration, invasion, and endocytosis of SMMC-7721 were tested through CCK8 assay, scratch test, transwell invasion assay and transferrin endocytosis assay, respectively. Raf-1 was detected by Western blot assay. HCC xenograft model was prepared to observe tumor growth. Animals were euthanized and their subcutaneous lesions were weighed. Then the tissues were fixed and paraffin sections were prepared. Cortactin and PCNA (a proliferation marker) were then detected by immunohistochemistry. As compared with untreated group, the levels of EMS1 gene and cortactin protein in EMS1-shRNA-transfected group were significantly reduced; Among EMS1-shRNA-transfected group, sorafenib-treated group and combined group, the levels of proliferation at 48 h were reduced to 83.69, 57.18, 41.94 %; the levels of migration were reduced to 49.69, 60.83, and 21. 67 %; the levels of invasion were reduced to 42.97, 53.65, 18.18 %; the levels of endocytosis were reduced to 37.15, 97.95 % (p > 0.05), 20.68 % (p < 0.05, respectively). Western blot assay showed levels of Raf-1 were reduced to 68.56, 59.09, 21.90 %. The tumor volume and weight of nude mice HCC xenograft tumors were reduced significantly either (p < 0.05, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed levels of cortactin and PCNA were reduced to 35.69, 93.84, 23.68 and 87.69, 43.84, 33.68 % in each group, respectively. The biological behaviors of SMMC-7721 were inhibited in the presence of EMS1-shRNA and sorafenib both alone and in combination. The combination of the agents improved the curative effect over either single agent, showing synergetic effect.

Reynolds AB, Kanner SB, Bouton AH, et al.
SRChing for the substrates of Src.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(37):4537-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
By the mid 1980's, it was clear that the transforming activity of oncogenic Src was linked to the activity of its tyrosine kinase domain and attention turned to identifying substrates, the putative next level of control in the pathway to transformation. Among the first to recognize the potential of phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies, Parsons and colleagues launched a risky shotgun-based approach that led ultimately to the cDNA cloning and functional characterization of many of today's best-known Src substrates (for example, p85-Cortactin, p110-AFAP1, p130Cas, p125FAK and p120-catenin). Two decades and over 6000 citations later, the original goals of the project may be seen as secondary to the enormous impact of these protein substrates in many areas of biology. At the request of the editors, this review is not restricted to the current status of the substrates, but reflects also on the anatomy of the project itself and some of the challenges and decisions encountered along the way.

Lee ST, Ji H, Greening DW, et al.
Global protein profiling reveals anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody 806-modulated proteins in A431 tumor xenografts.
Growth Factors. 2013; 31(5):154-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
An important mediator of tumorigenesis, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in almost all non-transformed cell types, associated with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. The significance of the EGFR as a cancer therapeutic target is underscored by the clinical development of several different classes of EGFR antagonists, including monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Extensive preclinical studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of mAb806 against tumor xenografts overexpressing EGFR. EGF stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Detailed understanding of the intracellular signalling pathways and components modulated by mAbs (such as mAb806) to EGFR, and other growth factor receptors, remain limited. The use of fluorescence 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), coupled with sensitive MS-based protein profiling in A431 tumor (epidermoid carcinoma) xenografts, in combination with mAb806, revealed proteins modulating endocytosis, cell architecture, apoptosis, cell signalling pathways and cell cycle regulation, including Dynamin-1-like protein, cofilin-1 protein, and 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta. Further, we report various proteins, including Interferon-induced protein 53 (IFI53), and Oncogene EMS1 (EMS1) which have roles in the tumor microenvironment, regulating cancer cell invasiveness, angiogenesis and formation of metastases. These findings contribute to understanding the underlying biological processes associated with mAb806 therapy of EGFR-positive tumors, and identifying further potential protein markers that may contribute in assessment of the treatment response.

Hwang YS, Park KK, Chung WY
Epigallocatechin-3 gallate inhibits cancer invasion by repressing functional invadopodia formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2013; 715(1-3):286-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the polyphenol EGCG has various beneficial biological effects, its effect on cytoskeletal activities during cancer invasion is not well defined, and the precise molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we provide molecular evidence on the anti-invasion effect of EGCG in OSCC cells using an in vitro 3-D culture system and in vivo athymic mouse model. Briefly, EGCG exerted an inhibitory effect on the Matrigel-based Transwell invasion and migration of OSCC cells. These effects were not due to decreased cell viability or adhesion capacity to ECM. EGCG-treated OSCC cells possessed fully extended actin fibers without invadopodia, indicating a loss of ECM degradation capacity. Decreased phosphorylation of Src, CTTN, and FAK also followed EGCG treatment. Additionally, EGCG reduced activation of RhoA in dominant-negative RhoA N19 and constitutively active RhoA Q63E cells, and inhibited the invasive capability of these cells in the 3-D cell growth model. Furthermore, the administration of EGCG led to substantial inhibition of tumor growth and activation of invadopodial proteins in the tumor tissues of mice inoculated with OSCC cells. The data indicate the potential value of EGCG as an invadopodia-targeted anti-invasive agent in cancer therapy.

Jarmuz-Szymczak M, Pelinska K, Kostrzewska-Poczekaj M, et al.
Heterogeneity of 11q13 region rearrangements in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma analyzed by microarray platforms and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(7):4161-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
We reinvestigated rearrangements occurring in region q13 of chromosome 11 aiming to: (i) describe heterogeneity of the observed structural alterations, (ii) estimate amplicon size and (iii) identify of oncogenes involved in laryngeal cancer progression as potential targets for therapy. The study included 17 cell lines derived from laryngeal cancers and 34 specimens from primary laryngeal tumors. The region 11q13 was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression microarray. Next, quantitative real time PCR was used for chosen genes to confirm results from aCGH and gene expression microarray. The observed pattern of aberrations allows to distinguish three ways, in which gain and amplification involving 11q13 region may occur: formation of a homogeneously staining region; breakpoints in/near 11q13, which lead to the three to sevenfold increase of the copy number of 11q13 region; the presence of additional copies of the whole chromosome 11. The minimal altered region of gain and/or amplification was limited to ~1.8 Mb (chr.11:69,395,184-71,209,568) and comprised mostly 11q13.3 band which contain 12 genes. Five, out of these genes (CCND1, ORAOV1, FADD, PPFIA1, CTTN) had higher expression levels in comparison to healthy controls. Apart from CCND1 gene, which has an established role in pathogenesis of head and neck cancers, CTTN, ORAOV1 and FADD genes appear to be oncogene-candidates in laryngeal cancers, while a function of PPFIA1 requires further studies.

Folio C, Zalacain M, Zandueta C, et al.
Cortactin (CTTN) overexpression in osteosarcoma correlates with advanced stage and reduced survival.
Cancer Biomark. 2011-2012; 10(1):35-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cortactin (CTTN) gene has been found, by transcriptomic profiling, to be overexpressed in pediatric osteosarcoma. The location of CTTN at 11q13 and the role of cortactin in cytoskeleton restructuring make CTTN of interest as a potential biomarker for osteosarcoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoblasts were isolated from 20 high-grade osteosarcomas before chemotherapy, and paired with cell samples from normal tissue, prior to RNA expression analysis on HG-U133A chips (Affymetrix). Semiquantitative CTTN mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. An osteosarcoma tissue microarray (TMA) containing 233 tissue spots from 48 patients was used for an immunohistochemical (IHC) study of cortactin.
RESULTS: Transcriptomic profiling and real-time PCR analysis indicated increased CTTN expression in osteosarcomas (p = 0.001, Student's T test). TMA IHC showed cortactin to be present more frequently and in greater abundance in osteosarcomas than non-tumoral osteoblastic samples (p< 0.006, Mann-Withney test). Analysis of clinical outcomes indicated that overall survival for patients with primary tumors positive for cortactin was significantly lower than that for patients with cortactin negative (or only weakly staining) tumors (p = 0.0278, Log-rank test).
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that over-expression of cortactin, contained in the 11q13 amplicon, is involved in osteosarcoma carcinogenesis. The potential of cortactin overexpression as a biomarker for osteosarcoma is consolidated.

Gutiérrez VF, Marcos CÁ, Llorente JL, et al.
Genetic profile of second primary tumors and recurrences in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Head Neck. 2012; 34(6):830-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Second primary tumors and recurrences are an important problem in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic changes in tumor samples to improve knowledge of tumor progression.
METHODS: Copy number changes of 37 genes were analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 36 primary tumors and their corresponding 21 second primary tumors and 15 recurrences.
RESULTS: CCND1 and EMS1 amplifications and gain of BCL2L1 were the most common genetic alterations in the primary tumor, second primary tumor, and recurrence samples. Gains of ERBB2 and PTPN1 were associated with recurrences.
CONCLUSION: Specific genetic profiles for each group have been found. Similarities between primary tumor and second primary tumor and dissimilarity between primary tumor and recurrence suggest that clinicopathological criteria do not always accurately differentiate these entities. Genetic profiling may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of these difficult cases.

Nakane K, Fujita Y, Terazawa R, et al.
Inhibition of cortactin and SIRT1 expression attenuates migration and invasion of prostate cancer DU145 cells.
Int J Urol. 2012; 19(1):71-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Cortactin is overexpressed in various types of cancer and enhances cell motility. It has been recently reported that silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 interacts with cortactin and promotes cell migration. Here, we examined the role of cortactin and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 in migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: The cortactin expression levels in DU145, LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and in PrEC normal human prostate epithelial cells were evaluated by western blot analysis. In DU145 cells, the expression of cortactin or silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 was inhibited by small interfering RNA, and the effects of their knockdown on migration and invasion were examined by cell migration and invasion assays. To determine the localization of cortactin and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1, western blot and immunofluorescence microscopic analyses were carried out. The functional interaction between silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 and cortactin was also studied by in vivo acetylation assay.
RESULTS: The protein expression of cortactin was significantly higher in DU145 cells than in other cell lines. Knockdown of cortactin or silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 expression inhibited both migration and invasion of DU145 cells. Similarly to cortactin, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 was found to be predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm. Finally, the knockdown of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 expression increased the acetylation level of cortactin.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inhibition of cortactin or silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 expression attenuates migration and invasion of DU145 cells and this could represent a promising strategy to regulate metastasis of prostate cancer.

Huang CW, Chen HY, Yen MH, et al.
Gene expression of human lung cancer cell line CL1-5 in response to a direct current electric field.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25928 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Electrotaxis is the movement of adherent living cells in response to a direct current (dc) electric field (EF) of physiological strength. Highly metastatic human lung cancer cells, CL1-5, exhibit directional migration and orientation under dcEFs. To understand the transcriptional response of CL1-5 cells to a dcEF, microarray analysis was performed in this study.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large electric-field chip (LEFC) was designed, fabricated, and used in this study. CL1-5 cells were treated with the EF strength of 0 mV/mm (the control group) and 300 mV/mm (the EF-treated group) for two hours. Signaling pathways involving the genes that expressed differently between the two groups were revealed. It was shown that the EF-regulated genes highly correlated to adherens junction, telomerase RNA component gene regulation, and tight junction. Some up-regulated genes such as ACVR1B and CTTN, and some down-regulated genes such as PTEN, are known to be positively and negatively correlated to cell migration, respectively. The protein-protein interactions of adherens junction-associated EF-regulated genes suggested that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors and ephrin receptors may participate in sensing extracellular electrical stimuli. We further observed a high percentage of significantly regulated genes which encode cell membrane proteins, suggesting that dcEF may directly influence the activity of cell membrane proteins in signal transduction.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, some of the EF-regulated genes have been reported to be essential whereas others are novel for electrotaxis. Our result confirms that the regulation of gene expression is involved in the mechanism of electrotactic response.

Sugahara K, Michikawa Y, Ishikawa K, et al.
Combination effects of distinct cores in 11q13 amplification region on cervical lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 39(4):761-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is known to associate with a significant decrease of 5-year survival. Genetic factors related to the difference of the LNM status in the OSCC have been not fully elucidated. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with individual gene-level resolution and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) were conducted using primary tumor materials resected from 54 OSCC patients with (n=22) or without (n=32) cervical LNM. Frequent gain was observed at the 11q13 region exclusively in patients with cervical LNM, which was confirmed by real-time QPCR experiments using 11 genes (TPCN2, MYEOV, CCND1, ORAOV1, FGF4, TMEM16A, FADD, PPFIA1, CTTN, SHANK2 and DHCR7) in this region. It was revealed that two distinct amplification cores existed, which were separated by a breakpoint between MYEOV and CCND1 in the 11q13 region. The combination of copy number amplification at CTTN (core 2) and/or TPCN2/MYEOV (core 1), selected from each core, was most significantly associated with cervical LNM (P=0.0035). Two amplification cores at the 11q13 region may have biological impacts on OSCC cells to spread from the primary site to local lymph nodes. Further study of a larger patient series should be conducted to validate these results.

Rodrigo JP, Álvarez-Alija G, Menéndez ST, et al.
Cortactin and focal adhesion kinase as predictors of cancer risk in patients with laryngeal premalignancy.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011; 4(8):1333-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel markers are needed to accurately predict the risk of malignant transformation in laryngeal premalignancies. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of cortactin (CTTN) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) during laryngeal tumorigenesis and their potential utility as cancer risk markers. CTTN and FAK protein expression and gene amplification were assessed in 82 patients with laryngeal dysplasia and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and laryngeal cancer risk. Increased CTTN and FAK expression was found respectively in 41 (50%) and 40 (49%) of 82 laryngeal dysplasias; protein expression was maintained or further augmented in the corresponding patient-matched invasive tumors subsequently developed. CTTN and FAK/PTK2 gene amplifications were respectively detected in 10 (12%) and 26 (32%) laryngeal dysplasias. Both CTTN and FAK protein expression increased with the grade of dysplasia; however, CTTN and FAK expression but not histology correlated significantly with increased laryngeal cancer risk (P = 0.009 and P = 0.002, respectively). Patients carrying strong CTTN- or FAK-expressing dysplastic lesions experienced a significantly higher cancer incidence (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively; log-rank test). Furthermore, FAK expression was an independent predictor of laryngeal cancer development (HR = 3.706, 95% CI: 1.735-7.916; P = 0.001) and the combination of FAK and CTTN showed superior predictive value (HR = 5.042, 95% CI: 2.255-11.274; P < 0.001). Taken together, our findings support the involvement of CTTN and FAK in malignant transformation and provide original evidence for their potential clinical utility as biomarkers for the risk of developing laryngeal cancer.

Tsunoda K, Oikawa H, Tada H, et al.
Nucleus accumbens-associated 1 contributes to cortactin deacetylation and augments the migration of melanoma cells.
J Invest Dermatol. 2011; 131(8):1710-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the prognostic significance and post-transcriptional acetylation-modification of cortactin (CTTN) via the nucleus accumbens-associated 1 (NACC1)-histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) deacetylation system in primary melanomas and melanoma cell lines. Overexpression of CTTN protein was observed in 56 (73%) of 77 stage I-IV melanomas, and was significantly correlated with tumor thickness, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and disease outcome. The patients whose tumors exhibited CTTN overexpression had a poorer outcome than patients without this feature (P=0.028, log-rank test). NACC1 and CTTN proteins, but not HDAC6, were overexpressed in four melanoma cell lines in comparison with a primary culture of normal human epidermal melanocytes. Knockdown of both NACC1 and HDAC6 markedly downregulated the migration activity of all melanoma cell lines (P<0.05), and induced a gain of CTTN protein acetylation status. Confocal microscopy showed that hyperacetylation of CTTN modulated by depletion of both NACC1 and HDAC6 induced disappearance of CTTN protein at the leading edge of migrating cells, resulting in stabilization of the focal adhesion structure and development of actin stress fibers. These data suggest that the acetylation status of CTTN modulated by the NACC1-HDAC6 deacetylation system induces acceleration of melanoma cell migration activity via an actin-dependent cellular process, possibly contributing to aggressive behavior (invasion/metastasis) of the melanoma cells.

Zhang L, Liu T, Huang Y, Liu J
microRNA-182 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through its effect on human cortical actin-associated protein.
Int J Mol Med. 2011; 28(3):381-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The cortactin gene, CTTN, may play a pivotal role in the proliferation and invasion of tumors. A microRNA (miR-182) was cloned and used to study the expression of CTTN and its regulatory effects on the proliferation and invasion of the lung cancer cell line, A549. Cortactin protein and CTTN mRNA expression decreased in A549 cells that were transfected with the miR-182 expression plasmid. A cell proliferation assay indicated that miR-182 expression affected cell cycle regulation and suppressed proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro. In addition, xenograft experiments confirmed the suppression of tumor growth in vivo, which was due to the promotion of apoptosis. In conclusion, endogenous mature miR-182 expression may have an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer through its interference with the target gene CTTN by epigenetic modification.

Hirooka S, Akashi T, Ando N, et al.
Localization of the invadopodia-related proteins actinin-1 and cortactin to matrix-contact-side cytoplasm of cancer cells in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas.
Pathobiology. 2011; 78(1):10-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Actin-associated proteins at cell-matrix-contact sites form invadopodia in cancer cells and participate in migration, matrix degradation and invasion. We investigated an alteration of subcellular localization of invadopodia-related actin-associated proteins, actinin-1 and cortactin, in lung adenocarcinomas, its clinical significance, and its possible regulatory factors.
METHODS: Invadopodia-related proteins, actinin-1 and cortactin, were immunohistochemically examined in 90 cases of lung adenocarcinomas. Expression of invadopodia-associated proteins and their possible regulators in lung adenocarcinomas were examined by real-time RT-PCR, database search, and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Actinin-1 and cortactin showed matrix-contact-side localization in adenocarcinoma cells, but rarely in normal bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar cells, or precursor lesion atypical adenomatous hyperplasia cells. Immunoelectron-microscopic examination of adenocarcinoma cells revealed actinin-1 localization to matrix-contact-side cytoplasm with cytoplasmic protrusions. Matrix-contact-side localization of actinin-1 and cortactin was correlated with tumor stages, lymph node metastasis, vascular permeation, and loss of basement membrane. The tumor-specific survival rate was worse for the group in which matrix-contact-side localization of cortactin was high than for the low group. mRNA of the Rho guanine exchange factor epithelial cell transforming sequence-2 (Ect2) tended to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinomas and cytoplasmic expression of Ect2 tended to be correlated with matrix-contact-side localization of actinin-1.
CONCLUSION: Matrix-contact-side localization of invadopodia-related proteins in the lung adenocarcinoma cells were correlated with invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Ect2 was a possible regulator of matrix-contact-side localization of invadopodia-related proteins.

Ambrosio EP, Rosa FE, Domingues MA, et al.
Cortactin is associated with perineural invasion in the deep invasive front area of laryngeal carcinomas.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(9):1221-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cortactin gene, mapped at 11q13, has been associated with an aggressive clinical course in many cancers because of its function of invasiveness. This study evaluated CTTN protein and its prognostic value in the deep invasive front and superficial areas of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The transcript expression levels were evaluated in a subset of cases. Overexpression of CTTN cytoplasmatic protein (80% of cases in both the deep invasive front and superficial areas) and transcript (30% of samples) was detected in a significant number of cases. In more than 20% of cases, observation verified membrane immunostaining in the deep invasive front and superficial areas. Perineural invasion was significantly associated with N stage and recurrence (P = .0058 and P = .0037, respectively). Higher protein expression levels were correlated with perineural invasion (P = .004) in deep invasive front cells, suggesting that this area should be considered a prognostic tool in laryngeal carcinomas. Although most cases had moderate to strong CTTN expression on the tumor surface, 2 sets of cases revealed a differential expression pattern in the deep invasive front. A group of cases with absent to weak expression of CTTN in the deep invasive front showed good prognosis parameters, and a second group with moderate to strong expression of CTTN were associated with an unfavorable prognosis, suggesting an association with worse outcome. Taken together, these results suggest that the deep invasive front might be considered a grading system in laryngeal carcinomas and that cortactin is a putative marker of worse outcome in the deep invasive front of laryngeal carcinomas.

Croucher DR, Rickwood D, Tactacan CM, et al.
Cortactin modulates RhoA activation and expression of Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors to promote cell cycle progression in 11q13-amplified head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2010; 30(21):5057-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) downstream of cortactin were confirmed by the transient knockdown of each CDKI by specific small interfering RNAs, which led to partial rescue of cell cycle progression. Interestingly, FaDu cells with reduced cortactin levels also exhibited a significant diminution in RhoA expression and activity, together with decreased expression of Skp2, a critical component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) for degradation. Transient knockdown of RhoA in FaDu cells decreased expression of Skp2, enhanced the level of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and attenuated S-phase entry. These findings identify a novel mechanism for regulation of proliferation in 11q13-amplified HNSCC cells, in which overexpressed cortactin acts via RhoA to decrease expression of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and highlight Skp2 as a downstream effector for RhoA in this process.

Marcos CÁ, Alonso-Guervós M, Prado NR, et al.
Genetic model of transformation and neoplastic progression in laryngeal epithelium.
Head Neck. 2011; 33(2):216-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze genetic alterations in the transformation-progression model of laryngeal tumors.
METHODS: Copy number changes of 37 genes were analyzed by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 94 tissue samples.
RESULTS: In the smoker normal mucosa group TP53 loss was predominant, whereas in the precursor lesions CDKN2A loss and CDKN2D gain were most frequent. Precursor lesions with progression presented CTNNB1 loss. In the carcinoma group the most common changes were CDKN2A, MLH1, CTNNB1, and CASP6 losses and RECQL4, CCND1, and EMS1 gains. Positive lymph node primary tumors were related to TP53, IL1A, and RB1 losses and STK11 gain. The lymph node metastases differed from their corresponding primary tumor in LMNA, RECQL4, and IGF1R losses, and N33 and CDKN2D gains.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic changes and new key genes were found to be associated with specific steps. We included new steps, not presented in the classic models: normal mucosa tobacco exposed, positive lymph node primary tumor, and corresponding lymph node metastases.

Xie HL, Li ZY, Gan RL, et al.
Differential gene and protein expression in primary gastric carcinomas and their lymph node metastases as revealed by combined cDNA microarray and tissue microarray analysis.
J Dig Dis. 2010; 11(3):167-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the molecular events of lymph node metastasis of human gastric carcinoma.
METHODS: The gene expression profile of five matched primary gastric carcinomas and their lymph node metastases was analyzed by complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray. Differential genes were identified in the metastatic and corresponding primary tumor pairs. Among the differentially expressed genes, carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP 4) genes were detected by RT-PCR. CTTN protein expression was examined by tissue microarray.
RESULTS: There was a high expression (over twofold) of 44 genes and a low expression (under twofold) of 32 genes in lymph node metastasis compared with primary gastric carcinoma, respectively. CAII mRNA was downregulated and IGFBP 4 mRNA was upregulated in paired lymph node metastases of gastric carcinomas. The overexpression of CTTN protein was related to the lymph node metastasis and the clinical stage of gastric carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is a low expression of genes relative to growth signal and immune response in lymph node metastases, and a high expression of genes relative to growth factor, cell cycle, cell motility and adhesion in lymph node metastases compared with primary gastric carcinomas. The expression of CTTN was related to the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer.

Honma M, Kato N, Hashimoto M, et al.
Subungual keratoacanthoma: analysis of cell proliferation and copy number variation of oncogenes compared with periungual squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011; 36(1):57-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Subungual keratoacanthoma (SUKA) is a rare cutaneous tumour with several features distinct from ordinary KA. SUKA may not show spontaneous regression and sometimes grows progressively, resulting in phalangeal bone destruction. This makes its distinction from digital squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) difficult. Aim.  To investigate differences in molecular expression between SUKA and digital SCC.
METHODS: In addition to immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67, one of the markers differentiating KA from SCC, we investigated the copy numbers of various oncogenes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) using two cases of SUKA and three cases of periungual SCC.
RESULTS: Ki-67 was moderately or strongly positive in SCC but negative in SUKA. The MLPA analysis showed that the nuclear factor (NF)κB1 and cortactin (CTTN; formerly known as EMS1) genes are amplified in SUKA but not in digital SCC. This increase in NFκB1 was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.
CONCLUSION: NFκB1 could be a novel marker to differentiate between SUKA and SCC. Although this study was performed on limited numbers of patients with SUKA, MLPA analysis could be applied to differentiate other benign tumours from their malignant counterparts.

Hickinson DM, Marshall GB, Beran GJ, et al.
Identification of biomarkers in human head and neck tumor cell lines that predict for in vitro sensitivity to gefitinib.
Clin Transl Sci. 2009; 2(3):183-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Potential biomarkers were identified for in vitro sensitivity to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in head and neck cancer. Gefitinib sensitivity was determined in cell lines, followed by transcript profiling coupled with a novel pathway analysis approach. Eleven cell lines were highly sensitive to gefitinib (inhibitor concentration required to give 50% growth inhibition [GI(50)] < 1 microM), three had intermediate sensitivity (GI(50) 1-7 microM), and six were resistant (GI(50) > 7 microM); an exploratory principal component analysis revealed a separation between the genomic profiles of sensitive and resistant cell lines. Subsequently, a hypothesis-driven analysis of Affymetrix data (Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) revealed higher mRNA levels for E-cadherin (CDH1); transforming growth factor, alpha (TGF-alpha); amphiregulin (AREG); FLJ22662; EGFR; p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6); glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1); and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 5 (ABCC5) in sensitive versus resistant cell lines. A hypothesis-free analysis identified 46 gene transcripts that were strongly differentiated, seven of which had a known association with EGFR and head and neck cancer (human EGF receptor 3 [HER3], TGF-alpha, CDH1, EGFR, keratin 16 [KRT16], fibroblast growth factor 2 [FGF2], and cortactin [CTTN]). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay analysis confirmed Affymetrix data, and EGFR gene mutation, amplification, and genomic gain correlated strongly with gefitinib sensitivity. We identified biomarkers that predict for in vitro responsiveness to gefitinib, seven of which have known association with EGFR and head and neck cancer. These in vitro predictive biomarkers may have potential utility in the clinic and warrant further investigation.

Dedes KJ, Lopez-Garcia MA, Geyer FC, et al.
Cortactin gene amplification and expression in breast cancer: a chromogenic in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 124(3):653-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amplification of 11q13 is found in approximately 15% of breast cancers. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) has been reported to be the 'driver' of this amplicon, however, multiple genes map to the smallest region of amplification of 11q13. Out of these genes, cortactin (CTTN) has been shown to be consistently overexpressed at the mRNA level in tumours harbouring 11q13 amplification. The aims of this study are to define whether CTTN is consistently co-amplified with the main core of the 11q13 amplicon, whether it is consistently overexpressed when amplified and to determine correlations between CTTN amplification and overexpression with clinicopathological features of breast cancers and survival of breast cancer patients. CTTN and CCND1 chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) probes and a validated monoclonal antibody against CTTN were applied to a tissue microarray of a cohort of breast cancers from patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CTTN and CCND1 amplifications were found in 12.3 and 12.4% of cases, respectively. All cases harbouring CTTN amplification also displayed CCND1 amplification. High expression of CTTN was found in 10.8% of cases and was associated with CTTN amplification, expression of 'basal' markers and topoisomerase IIα. Exploratory subgroup analysis of tumours devoid of 11q13 amplification revealed that high expression of CTTN in the absence of CTTN gene amplification was associated with lymph node negative disease, lack of hormone receptors and FOXA1, expression of 'basal' markers, high Ki-67 indices, p53 nuclear expression, and basal-like and triple negative phenotypes. CTTN expression and CTTN gene amplification were not associated with disease-, metastasis-free and overall survival. In conclusion, CTTN is consistently co-amplified with CCND1 and expressed at higher levels in breast cancers harbouring 11q13 amplification, suggesting that CTTN may also constitute one of the drivers of this amplicon. CTTN expression is not associated with the outcome of breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Freier K, Hofele C, Knoepfle K, et al.
Cytogenetic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines as model systems for the functional analyses of tumor-associated genes.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2010; 39(5):382-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a solid malignant neoplasm exhibiting aggressive phenotypes and high recurrence rates. To improve its clinical management, understanding the molecular basis of HNSCC development is of critical importance. For the investigation of tumor-associated genes, functional analyses in well-characterized tumor cell systems are required. To establish an experimental platform, a set of 20 HNSCC cell lines was screened for genetic imbalances by chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (cCGH). Frequent DNA copy number gains were detected on 3q26.3-qter, 5p, 7p11-p13, 8q23-qter, 9p11-p13, 9q31-qter, 11q13 and 20q13.1, whereas copy number losses were found on 3p, 4p, 4q32.1-qter, 8p11-p12 and 18q22 in agreement with previous observations on genetic aberrations detected in primary HNSCC specimens. Subsequent mRNA expression analysis of 11q13 candidate genes CCND1 and CTTN revealed that HNSCC cell lines exhibiting a DNA copy number gain on 11q13 had a higher transcript level of CCND1 and CTTN compared with HNSCC cell lines without 11q13 copy number gain (P = 0.014 and P = 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, CCND1 and CTTN amplification as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization correlated with protein expression as assessed by immunocytochemistry. In summary, the cytogenetic characterization illustrates that this set of HNSCC cell lines is representative for the HNSCC genome and provides tumor model systems for detailed analysis of genes with a possible role in the pathomechanism of head and neck tumors.

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