Gene Summary

Gene:CRTC3; CREB regulated transcription coactivator 3
Aliases: TORC3, TORC-3
Summary:This gene is a member of the CREB regulated transcription coactivator gene family. This family regulates CREB-dependent gene transcription in a phosphorylation-independent manner and may be selective for cAMP-responsive genes. The protein encoded by this gene may induce mitochondrial biogenesis and attenuate catecholamine signaling in adipose tissue. A translocation event between this gene and Notch coactivator mastermind-like gene 2, which results in a fusion protein, has been reported in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sequence Alignment
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • NFI Transcription Factors
  • FISH
  • Gene Fusion
  • Messenger RNA
  • Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid
  • Testis
  • Calmodulin-Binding Proteins
  • Sertoli Cells
  • Gynecomastia
  • CRTC1
  • Repressor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Carcinoma
  • CRTC3
  • MLL
  • Chromosome 15
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • EWSR1
  • Oncogene Fusion
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Biopsy
  • STK11
  • Salivary Gland Cancer
  • Translocation
  • Adolescents
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Adenoma, Pleomorphic
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Oncogene Proteins v-myb
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CRTC3 (cancer-related)

Skálová A, Vanecek T, Simpson RH, et al.
CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions were not detected in metaplastic Warthin tumor and metaplastic pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(11):1743-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The recurrent translocations t(11;19) and t(11;15) resulting in CRTC1-MAML2 or CRTC3-MAML2 fusion oncogenes, respectively, are identified in a large proportion of mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the salivary gland and have impact on prognosis. However, there are conflicting data on the specificity of this translocation, in particular, on its putative occurrence in Warthin tumor (WT) of the parotid gland as reported in few previous cases. It was speculated that extensive squamous metaplasia could explain the presence of t(11;19) translocation in a subset of WTs. We evaluated 76 salivary gland tumors, including 16 cases of metaplastic WT and 8 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) with squamous and/or mucinous metaplasia, extensive enough morphologically to mimic MEC. Detection of CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts and MAML2 gene break was performed using nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively. None of 16 analyzed metaplastic WTs showed positivity for fusion transcripts CRTC1-MAML2 or CRTC3-MAML2, and none showed rearrangement of the MAML2 gene by FISH. Similarly, we did not detect these transcripts or break of MAML2 gene in any case of PA with extensive squamous/mucinous metaplasia. For comparison, 40 cases of low-grade MEC were also evaluated. CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts were detected in 17 and 5 cases, respectively. The FISH method using break-apart probe demonstrated the MAML2 gene rearrangement in 25 cases of low-grade MEC. In contrast to low-grade MEC, neither metaplastic WTs nor metaplastic PAs harbored translocations t(11;19) and anticipated t(11;15) resulting in CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts, respectively, and/or MAML2 gene rearrangement.

Ham S, Meachem SJ, Choong CS, et al.
Overexpression of aromatase associated with loss of heterozygosity of the STK11 gene accounts for prepubertal gynecomastia in boys with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(12):E1979-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that arises as a consequence of mutations in the STK11 gene that encodes LKB1. PJS males often have estrogen excess manifesting as gynecomastia and advanced bone age. We and others have previously described an increase in testicular aromatase expression in PJS patients. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been explored.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the role of LKB1 in regulating the expression of aromatase in boys with PJS via signaling pathways involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-regulated transcription coactivators (CRTCs).
PATIENTS: We studied testicular biopsies from two boys with STK11 mutations: a 13-year-old boy and an unrelated 4-year-old boy with prepubertal gynecomastia and advanced bone age, as well as breast tissue from the 13-year-old boy.
RESULTS: Loss of heterozygosity of STK11, measured by the absence of LKB1 immunofluorescence, was observed in Sertoli cells of abnormal cords of testis samples from affected individuals. This was associated with loss of p21 expression and decreased phosphorylation of AMPK, known downstream targets of LKB1, as well as the increased expression of aromatase. Similar results of low LKB1 expression in cells expressing aromatase were observed in the mammary epithelium from one of these individuals. Nuclear expression of the CRTC proteins, potent stimulators of aromatase and known to be inhibited by AMPK, was significantly correlated with aromatase.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of heterozygosity of the STK11 gene leads to an increase in aromatase expression associated with an increase in CRTC nuclear localization, thereby providing a mechanism whereby PJS results in increased endogenous estrogens in affected males.

Noda H, Okumura Y, Nakayama T, et al.
Clinicopathological significance of MAML2 gene split in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(1):85-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions have been associated with favorable clinicopathological features of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. However, the significance of the MAML2 gene split has not been fully clarified. In the present study, 95 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (paraffin-embedded materials) were analyzed for CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions by RT-PCR and for the MAML2 gene split by FISH. Quantitative RT-PCR for the CRTC1-MAML2 transcript was performed in selected cases. MLL gene involvement, which has been reported in some leukemia cases, was examined by FISH in fusion partner-unknown cases. CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions were detected in 37 and 6 cases, respectively. The MAML2 gene split was detected in 62 cases, which included all CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusion-positive cases. The level of CRTC1-MAML2 transcript expression was highly variable, and its clinicopathological impact was unclear. The MLL gene split was not detected. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas negative for CRTC1/3-MAML2 and positive for the MAML2 gene split (n = 19) showed favorable clinicopathological tumor features similar to those positive for CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions. Compared with negative cases (n = 33), mucoepidermoid carcinomas positive for the MAML2 split (n = 62) were associated with lower patient age, a mild female predilection, a smaller tumor size, less frequent nodal metastasis, a lower clinical stage, a lower histological grade, and longer overall and disease-free survival. The MAML2 gene split emerged as an independent prognostic factor for both overall and disease-free survival in multivariate prognostic analysis. The presence of the MAML2 gene split defines a distinct mucoepidermoid carcinoma subset that is associated clinicopathologically with favorable tumor features.

Nakayama T, Miyabe S, Okabe M, et al.
Clinicopathological significance of the CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcript in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2009; 22(12):1575-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary gland. We and others showed that CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion was associated with favorable clinicopathological tumor features. Recently, a novel gene fusion, CRTC3-MAML2, was reported as a rare gene alteration in a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. However, its frequency and clinicopathological significance remains unclear. In all, 101 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 89 cases of non-mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland were analyzed, and RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. In the CRTC family, there have been three genes, CRTC1, CRTC2, and CRTC3. We developed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for CRTC1-MAML2, CRTC2-MAML2, and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions. Clinicopathological data of the patients were obtained from their clinical records. Of 101 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 34 (34%) and 6 (6%) were positive for CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts. However, in the 89 cases of non-mucoepidermoid carcinoma, neither transcript was noted. In the former cases, CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions were mutually exclusive. The other fusion, CRTC2-MAML2, was not detected. We confirmed that the clinicopathological features of CRTC1-MAML2-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas indicated an indolent course. CRTC3-MAML2-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas also had clinicopathologically favorable features; all cases showed a less advanced clinical stage, negative nodal metastasis, no high-grade tumor histology, and no recurrence or tumor-related death after surgical resection of the tumor. It is interesting to note that patients with CRTC3-MAML2-positive tumors (mean 36 years of age) were significantly younger that those with the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion (55 years) and those with fusion-negative tumors (58 years). In conclusion, CRTC3-MAML2 fusion, which is mutually exclusive with CRTC1-MAML2 fusion and specific to mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may be detected more frequently than previously expected. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas possessing CRTC3-MAML2 fusion may be associated with favorable clinicopathological features and patients may be younger than those with CRTC1-MAML2 fusion or those with no detectable gene fusion.

Fehr A, Röser K, Heidorn K, et al.
A new type of MAML2 fusion in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008; 47(3):203-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study reports for the first time a CRTC3-MAML2 fusion gene in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma, as determined by RT-PCR and sequencing. We screened a total of 67 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mucoepidermoid carcinomas for the presence of chimeric genes. In one of these samples, a CRTC3-MAML2 fusion gene was detected. Thus, this report demonstrates the existence of a fusion of MAML2 with CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator CRTC3 additional to the already known fusion of MAML2 and CRTC1. Both gene fusions seem to result in an identical tumor phenotype and the fusion genes CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 may play a similar role in the development of mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CRTC3, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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