Gene Summary

Gene:CLDN7; claudin 7
Aliases: CLDN-7, CEPTRL2, CPETRL2, Hs.84359, claudin-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the claudin family. Claudins are integral membrane proteins and components of tight junction strands. Tight junction strands serve as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space between epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, and also play critical roles in maintaining cell polarity and signal transductions. Differential expression of this gene has been observed in different types of malignancies, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinomas, urinary tumors, prostate cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancers, thyroid carcinomas, etc.. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Western Blotting
  • Claudin-3
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Zonula Occludens-2 Protein
  • Pathology, Molecular
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transfection
  • Biological Models
  • Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Claudin-4
  • Breast Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Claudin-1
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Up-Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tight Junctions
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Promoter Regions
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Disease Progression
  • Claudins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Movement
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Chromosome 17
  • Gene Expression
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Immunohistochemistry
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CLDN7 (cancer-related)

Wu TK, Chen CH, Pan YR, et al.
Cetrimonium Bromide Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatic SK-HEP-1 Cells Through Modulating the Canonical and Non-canonical TGF-β Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3621-3631 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a quaternary ammonium surfactant, is an antiseptic agent against bacteria and fungi. However, the mechanisms by which its pharmacological actions affect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, such as adenocarcinoma in SK-HEP-1 cells, have not been investigated. We, thereby, investigated whether CTAB inhibits cellular mobility and invasiveness of human hepatic adenocarcinoma in SK-HEP-1 cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SK-HEP-1 cells were treated with CTAB, and subsequent migration and invasion were measured by wound healing and transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunoblotting analysis.
RESULTS: Our data revealed that treatment of SK-HEP-1 cells with CTAB altered their mesenchymal spindle-like morphology. CTAB exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of SK-HEP-1 cells dose-dependently, and reduced protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, snail, slug, twist, vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, β-catenin, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but increased protein levels of tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, claudin-1 and p-GSK3β. Based on these observations, we suggest that CTAB not only inhibits the canonical transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway though reducing SMADs (an acronym from the fusion of Caenorhabditis elegans Sma genes and the Drosophila Mad, Mothers against decapentaplegic proteins), but also restrains the non-canonical TGF-β signaling including MAPK pathways like ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and PI3K.
CONCLUSION: CTAB is involved in the suppression of TGF-β-mediated mesenchymal phenotype and could be a potent medical agent for use in controlling the migration and invasion of hepatic adenocarcinoma.

Yang Y, Liu L, Fang M, et al.
The chromatin remodeling protein BRM regulates the transcription of tight junction proteins: Implication in breast cancer metastasis.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2019; 1862(5):547-556 [PubMed] Related Publications
Claudins are a group of cell tight junction proteins that play versatile roles in cancer biology. Recent studies have correlated down-regulation of Claudins with augmented breast cancer malignancy and poor prognosis. The mechanism underlying repression of Claudin transcription in breast cancer cells is not well understood. Here we report that expression levels of Brahma (BRM) were down-regulated in triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-231) compared to the less malignant MCF-7 cells and in high-grade human breast cancer specimens compared to low-grade ones. TGF-β treatment in MCF-7 cells repressed BRM transcription likely through targeting C/EBPβ. BRM over-expression suppressed whereas BRM knockdown promoted TGF-β induced migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells. BRM down-regulation was accompanied by the loss of a panel of Claudins in breast cancer cells. BRM directly bound to the promoter region of Claudin genes via interacting with Sp1 and activated transcription by modulating histone modifications. Together, our data have identified a novel epigenetic pathway that links Claudin transcription to breast cancer metastasis.

Zhao X, Sun Q, Dou C, et al.
BMP4 inhibits glioblastoma invasion by promoting E-cadherin and claudin expression.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2019; 24:1060-1070 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a brain tumor that deeply infiltrates adjacent tissues and causes significant mortality. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that derive the invasion of brain tissue by GBM might help the treatment of this cancer. To this end, we examined the impact of BMP4 on invasion of GBM. In this study, Human GBM samples, GBM cells and human orthotopic GBM-xenografted animal model, quantitative PCR, immunostaining, immunoblotting, Scratch wound and transwell assays were used to detect the effect and the mechanism of BMP4 in GBM cells. BMP4 expression was found to positively correlate with E-cadherin and claudin expression in human GBM samples. Elevation or suppression of BMP4 expression resulted in a respective increase or decrease in E-cadherin and claudin levels, both

Xu C, Wang K, Ding YH, et al.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(5):584-599 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Claudin-7, one of the important components of cellular tight junctions, is currently considered to be expressed abnormally in colorectal inflammation and colorectal cancer. However, there is currently no effective animal model to study its specific mechanism. Therefore, we constructed three lines of
AIM: To determine the function of the tumor suppressor gene
METHODS: We crossed
RESULTS: We generated
CONCLUSION: The knockout of

Tu X, Hong D, Jiang Y, et al.
FH535 inhibits proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells by regulating CyclinA2 and Claudin1 gene expression.
Gene. 2019; 690:48-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt signaling pathway plays a major role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Small molecules which can cut off this signal transduction can be promising anti-cancer drugs for CRC therapy. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of FH535, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, on inhibiting proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells DLD-1 and SW620. We found that FH535 could significantly suppress the growth of DLD-1 and SW620 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. The results of cell cycle tests showed that FH535 could significantly induce G2/M arrest in colorectal cancer cells. Transwell and Wound-healing assays revealed that FH535 notably inhibited cell migration. Moreover, we found that FH535 down-regulated β-catenin and CyclinA2 expressions while up-regulating Claudin-1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, which may contribute to the FH535-induced inhibitory effect on proliferation and migration in human colorectal cancer cells. Our study revealed that FH535 inhibited proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells by regulating CyclinA2 and Claudin1 gene expression, which enriches regulatory network of FH535 and may contribute to being promising anti-cancer drugs for CRC therapy.

Li Y, Gong Y, Ning X, et al.
Downregulation of CLDN7 due to promoter hypermethylation is associated with human clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression and poor prognosis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):276 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the primary cause of death in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, including tight junctions (TJs) is the initial step in the process of metastasis. Claudin-7 (CLDN7) is a major component of TJs. However, the clinical significance and its regulation of kidney tumorigenesis remain poorly understood.
METHODS: A total of 120 fresh clear cell RCC (ccRCC) specimens and 144 primary RCC and adjacent nonmalignant renal paraffin specimens were obtained from Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital. Expression of CLDN7 in ccRCC tissues and cell lines were determined using bioinformatic data mining, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting and immunostaining. The clinical significance of CLDN7 expression and promoter DNA methylation status was analyzed in ccRCC patients from Peking University First Hospital and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Additionally, the methylation specific-PCR, bisulfite genomic sequencing and demethylation analysis of CLDN7 were performed. Biological functions of CLDN7 were investigated by examining cell proliferation using MTS assays and EdU incorporation assays, cell migration by in vitro wound healing assays and transwell migration assays, cell invasion by transwell invasion assays, and cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Mouse model experiments were performed to confirm the effects of CLDN7 on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The molecular mechanism of CLDN7 function was investigated using gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and confirmed by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunostaining in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Our findings revealed that CLDN7 is frequently downregulated via hypermethylation of its promoter in ccRCC. CLDN7 can help predict aggressive tumor status and poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. Interestingly, hypermethylation of the CLDN7 promoter was related to advanced ccRCC status and poor prognosis. Moreover, overexpression of CLDN7 induced cell apoptosis, suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of ccRCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, GSEA and RNA-Seq results showed that CLDN7 had negative effects in cancer-associated signaling pathways and (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) EMT-related pathways. These results were validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunostaining.
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a previously undescribed role of CLDN7 as a ccRCC suppressor and suggest that loss of CLDN7 potentiates EMT and tumor progression. CLDN7 may serve as a functional tumor suppressor in tumor progression and a potential biomarker and target in patients with ccRCC.

Okui N, Kamata Y, Sagawa Y, et al.
Claudin 7 as a possible novel molecular target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(1):88-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic cancer consists of various subpopulations of cells, some of which have aggressive proliferative properties. The molecules responsible for the aggressive proliferation of pancreatic cancer may become molecular targets for the therapies against pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: From a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, MIA PaCa-2-A cells with an epithelial morphology and MIA PaCa-2-R cells with a non-epithelial morphology were clonogenically isolated by the limiting dilution method. Gene expression of these subpopulations was analyzed by DNA microarray. Gene knockdown was performed using siRNA.
RESULTS: Although the MIA PaCa-2-A and MIA PaCa-2-R cells displayed the same DNA short tandem repeat (STR) pattern identical to that of the parental MIA PaCa-2 cells, the MIA PaCa-2-A cells were more proliferative than the MIA PaCa-2-R cells both in culture and in tumor xenografts generated in immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, the MIA PaCa-2-A cells were more resistant to gemcitabine than the MIA PaCa-2-R cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed a high expression of claudin (CLDN) 7 in the MIA PaCa-2-A cells, as opposed to a low expression in the MIA PaCa-2-R cells. The knockdown of CLDN7 in the MIA PaCa-2-A cells induced a marked inhibition of proliferation. The MIA PaCa-2-A cells in which CLDN7 was knocked down exhibited a decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-Erk)1/2 and G1 cell cycle arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: CLDN7 may be expressed in the rapidly proliferating and dominant cell population in human pancreatic cancer tissues and may be a novel molecular target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Akimoto T, Takasawa A, Takasawa K, et al.
Estrogen/GPR30 Signaling Contributes to the Malignant Potentials of ER-Negative Cervical Adenocarcinoma via Regulation of Claudin-1 Expression.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(10):1083-1093 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical adenocarcinomas are believed to lose estrogen response on the basis of no expression of a nuclear estrogen receptor such as ERα in clinical pathology. Here, we demonstrated that cervical adenocarcinoma cells respond to a physiological concentration of estrogen to upregulate claudin-1, a cell surface molecule highly expressed in cervical adenocarcinomas. Knockout of claudin-1 induced apoptosis and significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of cervical adenocarcinoma cells and tumorigenicity in vivo. Importantly, all of the cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines examined expressed a membrane-bound type estrogen receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30/GPER1), but not ERα. Estrogen-dependent induction of claudin-1 expression was mediated by GPR30 via ERK and/or Akt signaling. In surgical specimens, there was a positive correlation between claudin-1 expression and GPR30 expression. Double high expression of claudin-1 and GPR30 predicts poor prognosis in patients with cervical adenocarcinomas. Mechanism-based targeting of estrogen/GPR30 signaling and claudin-1 may be effective for cervical adenocarcinoma therapy.

Kurihara J, Yokoo S, Ichikawa M, et al.
Intraosseous intraneural perineurioma derived from the inferior alveolar nerve with an abnormality of chromosome 22 and expression of the BCR-ABL fusion gene: report of a case and review of recent literature.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):189 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Perineurioma (PN) is a peripheral nerve disease that primarily develops in the limbs and trunk and very rarely occurs in the oral cavity. PN is classified into two types: intraneural perineurioma (INPN) and soft tissue perineurioma (extraneural perineurioma, ENPN). In this article, we report a patient with mandibular body INPN derived from the perineurium of the inferior alveolar nerve.
CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 43-year-old male. He consulted our department for a detailed examination of the right mandibular body. A biopsy was performed at another hospital and he was diagnosed with a schwannoma. At his first visit, hypesthesia extending from the right lower lip to the mental region was recognized and enlargement of the right mandibular canal was confirmed with X-ray CT and MRI. Considering the possibility of future tumor growth, we extirpated the tumor under general anesthesia. Cystic tumor was seen continuously in the inferior alveolar nerve. Immunohistologically, the tumor cells were positive for Glut-1, weakly positive for EMA, and weakly positive for Claudin-1, and the histopathological diagnosis was INPN. In addition, absence of the BCR region of chromosome 22 and expression of the BCR-ABL fusion gene were observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and a chromosome 22 abnormality was confirmed. These findings indicated that the disease was a neoplastic lesion.
CONCLUSION: Expression of the BCR-ABL fusion gene in INPN that develops in the oral cavity is thought to be very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first case to be reported in the literature. About three postoperative years have passed, but findings suggestive of recurrence have not been observed.

Kim JC, Ha YJ, Tak KH, et al.
Opposite functions of GSN and OAS2 on colorectal cancer metastasis, mediating perineural and lymphovascular invasion, respectively.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(8):e0202856 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to identify molecules associated with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion (PNI) and to examine their biological behavior in colorectal cancer (CRC). LVI- and PNI-associated molecules were identified and verified using sequential processes including (1) identification of 117 recurrence-associated genes differentially expressed on RNA-seq analysis using primary cancer tissues from 130 CRC patients with and without systemic recurrence; (2) analysis of molecules associated with LVI and PNI; (3) assessment of biological properties by measuring proliferation, anoikis, invasion/migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and autophagy flux; and (4) verification of disease-free survival using public datasets. Gelsolin (GSN) and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2) were associated with PNI and LVI, respectively. Invasion potential was >2-fold greater in GSN-overexpressing LoVo cells than in control cells (p<0.001-0.005), whereas OAS2-overexpressing RKO cells showed reduced invasion (p<0.001-0.005). GSN downregulated E-cadherin, β-catenin, claudin-1 and snail, and upregulated N-cadherin and ZEB1, whereas OAS2 overexpression had the opposite effects. Several autophagy-related proteins including ATG5-12, ATG6/BECN1, ATG7 and ATG101 were downregulated in GSN-overexpressing LoVo cells, whereas the opposite pattern was observed in OAS2-overexpressing RKO cells. Patients with low GSN expression had significantly higher 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates than those with GSN overexpression (73.6% vs. 64.7%, p = 0.038), whereas RFS was longer in patients with OAS2 overexpression than in those with underexpression (73.4% vs. 63.7%, p = 0.01). In conclusion, GSN and OAS2 were positively and negatively associated with recurrence, respectively, suggesting their potential value as predictors of recurrence or therapeutic targets in CRC patients.

Jang JE, Kim HP, Han SW, et al.
NFATC3-PLA2G15 Fusion Transcript Identified by RNA Sequencing Promotes Tumor Invasion and Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(1):391-401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study was designed to identify novel fusion transcripts (FTs) and their functional significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) lines.
Materials and Methods: We performed paired-end RNA sequencing of 28 CRC cell lines. FT candidates were identified using TopHat-fusion, ChimeraScan, and FusionMap tools and further experimental validation was conducted through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. FT was depleted in human CRC line and the effects on cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell invasion were analyzed.
RESULTS: One thousand three hundred eighty FT candidates were detected through bioinformatics filtering. We selected six candidate FTs, including four inter-chromosomal and two intrachromosomal FTs and each FT was found in at least one of the 28 cell lines. Moreover, when we tested 19 pairs of CRC tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, NFATC3-PLA2G15 FT was found in two. Knockdown of NFATC3-PLA2G15 using siRNA reduced mRNA expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as vimentin, twist, and fibronectin and increased mesenchymal-epithelial transition markers of E-cadherin, claudin-1, and FOXC2 in colo-320 cell line harboring NFATC3-PLA2G15 FT. The NFATC3-PLA2G15 knockdown also inhibited invasion, colony formation capacity, and cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that that NFATC3-PLA2G15 FTs may contribute to tumor progression by enhancing invasion by EMT and proliferation.

Zheng Q, Wang C, Wang L, et al.
Interaction with SP1, but not binding to the E-box motifs, is responsible for BHLHE40/DEC1-induced transcriptional suppression of CLDN1 and cell invasion in MCF-7 cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(9):1116-1129 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basic helix-loop-helix family member e40 (BHLHE40) is located in 3p26.1 and acts as a transcriptional repressor of the circadian rhythm by suppressing the expression of the clock genes and clock-controlled genes. Recent research indicated that BHLHE40 may be involved in regulating tumor cell progression. However the mechanism by which BHLHE40 regulates the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells is unclear. Our in vitro assays showed that BHLHE40 promoted tumor cell invasion while BHLHE40 silencing by siRNA suppressed tumor cell invasion of MCF-7 cells. BHLHE40 suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of CLDN1 CLDN4 and CDH1 and promoted the expression of SNAI1 and SNAI2. Reporter assays demonstrated that BHLHE40 suppressed CLDN1 transcription but not through direct binding to the E-box motifs in the CLDN1 promoter. Further studies demonstrated BHLHE40 suppressed CLDN1 transcription by preventing the interaction between SP1 and a specific motif within the promoter region of CLDN1. BHLHE40 could not further suppress CLDN1 transactivation after SP1 siRNA transfection that is, BHLHE40-induced suppression of CLDN1 relied on SP1. Furthermore our data indicated that SP1 was a major regulator of CLDN1 transcription by binding to a specific motif that was located at -233 to -61 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Immunoprecipitation and co-localization data revealed an interaction between BHLHE40 and SP1. By constructing deletion mutants we found that the BHLH and Orange regions are both essential for the BHLHE40-SP1 interaction. BHLHE40 probably acts as an inhibitory nuclear cofactor or perhaps recruits other inhibitory cofactors to inhibit the SP1-mediated CLDN1 transactivation. These results suggest that BHLHE40 facilitates cell invasion and may be used as a novel target for breast cancer prevention and treatment.

Upmanyu N, Bulldan A, Papadopoulos D, et al.
Impairment of the Gnα11-controlled expression of claudin-1 and MMP-9 and collective migration of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by DHEAS.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018; 182:50-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) constitutes the most abundant steroid in humans, in-depth investigations of its effects are rather scarce. We address here DHEAS effects on the estrogen receptor-positive metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We focus on DHEAS-mediated signaling that might influence expression of claudin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), both known to be critical factors for migration and invasiveness of various cancers, including breast cancer cells. Physiological concentrations of DHEAS trigger persistent phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in MCF-7 cells. Exposure of these cells for 24 h to 1 μM DHEAS also leads to a significant reduction of claudin-1 expression that cannot be prevented by high concentrations of the steroid sulfatase inhibitor STX64, indicating that desulfation and further conversion of DHEAS to some other steroid hormone is not required for this action. In addition, exposure of MCF-7 cells to the same concentration of DHEAS completely abolishes MMP-9 expression and considerably impairs cell migratory behavior. Abrogation of Gnα11 expression by siRNA prevents the stimulatory effect of DHEAS on Erk1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a G-protein-coupled receptor being involved in the DHEAS-induced signaling. Nevertheless, Gnα11 also has direct effects that do not depend on DHEAS; thus, when Gnα11 expression is suppressed, expression of claudin-1 and MMP-9 as well as cell migration are significantly reduced. This is the first report demonstrating direct involvement of DHEAS and Gnα11 in the regulation of claudin-1 and MMP-9 expression and migration of MCF-7 cells.

Weiler J, Mohr M, Zänker KS, Dittmar T
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is involved in the TNF-α-induced fusion of human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In addition to physiological events such as fertilisation, placentation, osteoclastogenesis, or tissue regeneration/wound healing, cell fusion is involved in pathophysiological conditions such as cancer. Cell fusion, which applies to both the proteins and conditions that induce the merging of two or more cells, is not a fully understood process. Inflammation/pro-inflammatory cytokines might be a positive trigger for cell fusion. Using a Cre-LoxP-based cell fusion assay we demonstrated that the fusion between human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells was induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).
METHODS: The gene expression profile of the cells in the presence of TNF-α and under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was analysed by cDNA microarray analysis. cDNA microarray data were verified by qPCR, PCR, Western blot and zymography. Quantification of cell fusion events was determined by flow cytometry. Proteins of interest were either blocked or knocked-down using a specific inhibitor, siRNA or a blocking antibody.
RESULTS: The data showed an up-regulation of various genes, including claudin-1 (CLDN1), ICAM1, CCL2 and MMP9 in M13SV1-Cre and/or MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cells. Inhibition of these proteins using a blocking ICAM1 antibody, CLDN1 siRNA or an MMP9 inhibitor showed that only the blockage of MMP9 was correlated with a decreased fusion rate of the cells. Likewise, the tetracycline-based antibiotic minocycline, which exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, was also effective in both inhibiting the TNF-α-induced MMP9 expression in M13SV1-Cre cells and blocking the TNF-α-induced fusion frequency of human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is most likely involved in the TNF-α-mediated fusion of human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells. Likewise, our data indicate that the tetracycline-based antibiotic minocycline might exhibit anti-fusogenic properties because it inhibits a cell fusion-related mechanism.

Sekhar V, Pollicino T, Diaz G, et al.
Infection with hepatitis C virus depends on TACSTD2, a regulator of claudin-1 and occludin highly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(3):e1006916 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into hepatocytes is a complex process that involves numerous cellular factors, including the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), the tetraspanin CD81, and the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN). Despite expression of all known HCV-entry factors, in vitro models based on hepatoma cell lines do not fully reproduce the in vivo susceptibility of liver cells to primary HCV isolates, implying the existence of additional host factors which are critical for HCV entry and/or replication. Likewise, HCV replication is severely impaired within hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue in vivo, but the mechanisms responsible for this restriction are presently unknown. Here, we identify tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), one of the most downregulated genes in primary HCC tissue, as a host factor that interacts with CLDN1 and OCLN and regulates their cellular localization. TACSTD2 gene silencing disrupts the typical linear distribution of CLDN1 and OCLN along the cellular membrane in both hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes, recapitulating the pattern observed in vivo in primary HCC tissue. Mechanistic studies suggest that TACSTD2 is involved in the phosphorylation of CLDN1 and OCLN, which is required for their proper cellular localization. Silencing of TACSTD2 dramatically inhibits HCV infection with a pan-genotype effect that occurs at the level of viral entry. Our study identifies TACSTD2 as a novel regulator of two major HCV-entry factors, CLDN1 and OCLN, which is strongly downregulated in malignant hepatocytes. These results provide new insights into the complex process of HCV entry into hepatocytes and may assist in the development of more efficient cellular systems for HCV propagation in vitro.

Akizuki R, Maruhashi R, Eguchi H, et al.
Decrease in paracellular permeability and chemosensitivity to doxorubicin by claudin-1 in spheroid culture models of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(5):769-780 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy resistance is a major problem in the treatment of cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We found that the expression levels of claudin-1 (CLDN1) and 3, tight junctional proteins, are upregulated in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 (A549R) cells. A549R cells showed cross-resistance to doxorubicin (DXR). Here, the expression mechanism and function of CLDN1 and 3 were examined. CLDN1 and 3 were mainly localized at tight junctions concomitant with zonula occludens (ZO)-1, a scaffolding protein, in A549 and A549R cells. The phosphorylation levels of Src, MEK, ERK, c-Fos, and Akt in A549R cells were higher than those in A549 cells. The expression levels of CLDN1 and 3 were decreased by LY-294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, and BAY 11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor. The overexpression of CLDN1 and 3 decreased the paracellular permeability of DXR in A549 cells. Hypoxia levels in A549R and CLDN1-overexpressing cells (CLDN1/A549) were greater than those in A549, mock/A549, and CLDN3/A549 cells in a spheroid culture model. In contrast, accumulation in the region inside the spheroids and the toxicity of DXR in A549R and CLDN1/A549 cells were lower than those in other cells. Furthermore, the accumulation and toxicity of DXR were rescued by CLDN1 siRNA in A549R cells. We suggest that CLDN1 is upregulated by CDDP resistance through activation of a PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway, resulting in the inhibition of penetration of anticancer drugs into the inner area of spheroids.

Ouban A
Claudin-1 role in colon cancer: An update and a review.
Histol Histopathol. 2018; 33(10):1013-1019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tight junction proteins are essential for sealing the cellular sheets and controlling para-cellular ion flux. Our understanding of the role that tight junction proteins, particularly claudins, play in cellular functions and pathologic conditions is continuously expanding. Particularly, the role of claudin-1 in oncogenesis in multiple locations in the human body is coming to light. This review will shed light on the role of claudin-1 in colon cancer. It will address the mechanisms through which claudin-1 becomes dysregulated in colon cancer. This will provide a platform to address results of claudin-1 expression in the third most common malignant tumour worldwide. Furthermore, it will provide updates about possible use of this biomarker in the surveillance of difficult colon maladies, such as inflammatory bowel disease. The use of claudin-1 as a biomarker of diagnostic and prognostic values will provide Medicine with much needed ammunition in the fight against cancer and will bring about, with added refinements, a new chapter in the era of personalized medicine to tackle this disease and match its destructive course with equally powerful and specifically targeted therapies.

Jääskeläinen A, Soini Y, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, et al.
High-level cytoplasmic claudin 3 expression is an independent predictor of poor survival in triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The subtype of claudin-low breast cancer can be reliably determined only by gene-expression profiling. Attempts have been made to develop immunohistochemical surrogates, which nearly always focus on membranous claudin expression.
METHODS: We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of both membranous and cytoplasmic claudins 3, 4 and 7 in a series of 197 non-metastatic breast cancers, enriched with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs; 60%). The expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-regulating transcription factors Sip1, Zeb1 and vimentin had previously been determined in the same material.
RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, strong cytoplasmic claudin 3 expression was associated with poor relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival among TNBC patients (for RFS, RR 5.202, 95% CI 1.210-22.369, p = 0.027, vs. T-class, RR 0.663, 95% CI 0.168-2.623, p = 0.558, and N-class, RR 3.940, 95% CI 0.933-16.631, p = 0.062). Cytoplasmic claudin 3 expression was also associated with strong nuclear Sip1 expression (p = 0.000053), TNBC phenotype (p = 0.012) and within them, non-basal-like phenotype (p = 0.026). Cytoplasmic claudin 7 was associated with dismal RFS (RR 6.328, 95% CI 1.401-28.593, p = 0.016, vs. T-class, RR 0.692, 95% CI 0.242-1.982, p = 0.493, and N-class, RR 2.981, 95% CI 1.1016-8.749, p = 0.047). Low cytoplasmic expression of claudins 3, 4 and 7 together also predicted poor RFS (RR 6.070, 95% CI 1.347-27.363, p = 0.019, vs. T-class, RR 0.677, 95% CI 0.237-1.934, p = 0.467, and N-class, RR 3.167, 95% CI 1.079-9.290, p = 0.036).
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical expression levels of cytoplasmic claudins 3 and 7 appear to be novel prognostic factors in TNBC.

Kim K, Son MY, Jung CR, et al.
EHMT2 is a metastasis regulator in breast cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 496(2):758-762 [PubMed] Related Publications
Various modes of epigenetic regulation of breast cancer proliferation and metastasis have been investigated, but epigenetic mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis remain elusive. Thus, in this study, EHMT2 (a histone methyltransferase) was determined to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and in Oncomine data. In addition, knockdown of EHMT2 reduced cell migration/invasion and regulated the expression of EMT-related markers (E-cadherin, Claudin 1, and Vimentin). Furthermore, treatment with BIX-01294, a specific inhibitor of EHMT2, affected migration/invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, our findings demonstrate functions of EHMT2 in breast cancer metastasis and suggest that targeting EHMT2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing breast cancer metastasis.

Afaloniati H, Karagiannis GS, Hardas A, et al.
Inflammation-driven colon neoplasmatogenesis in uPA-deficient mice is associated with an increased expression of Runx transcriptional regulators.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 361(2):257-264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway has been documented in colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we investigated possible associations between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) deficiency and expression of extracellular constituents of BMP signaling in a newly developed mouse model of inflammation-driven intestinal neoplasmatogenesis, in which chronic colitis and CRC are induced using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In this report, we explored the contribution of intracellular components of Smad-mediated BMP signal transduction using the same model. Interestingly, upon DSS treatment, we noticed an overexpression of Runx1/2/3 transcription factors in both wild-type and uPA-deficient mice. Moreover, Runx1 and Runx2 expression levels exhibited an even higher increase in DSS-treated/uPA-deficient mice as compared to DSS-treated/wild-type animals. In all experimental conditions, in situ investigation of Runx-expressing cell types, revealed detection of all three Runx in the immune cells, yet in the DSS-treated/uPA-deficient mice Runx1 and Runx2 were also identified in the preneoplastic epithelium of advanced high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in-situ colonic lesions. Finally, the uPA-deficient pro-tumorigenic colitic microenvironment exhibited increased levels of the Runx-induced target genes Snai2, Bim and Claudin1, known to have a role in tumor development and progression. These findings suggest that the absence of uPA correlates with increased levels of Runx transcriptional regulators in a way that promotes inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

Chavarría-Velázquez CO, Torres-Martínez AC, Montaño LF, Rendón-Huerta EP
TLR2 activation induced by H. pylori LPS promotes the differential expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 via either STAT3 and ERK1/2 in AGS cells.
Immunobiology. 2018; 223(1):38-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric carcinogenesis has been associated to H. pylori virulence factors that induce a chronic inflammation process. Lipopolysaccharides play a role in chronic inflammatory responses via TLR2- and TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Similarly, cellular invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis are usually associated to claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 expression in gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if H. pylori LPS exerts an influence on carcinogenesis-related claudin expression and if it was directly regulated through the TLR2 pathway. Human antrum gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells exposed or not to H. pylori LPS were used. Polyclonal anti-claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9, anti-TLR2, anti-pERK1/2 as well as rabbit monoclonal anti-pNFκB p65 and mouse monoclonal anti-CdX2 were used. ERK1/2 inhibitor UO126 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic were also used. Western blot, immunofluorescence and confocal experiments were performed in whole cells as well as total protein, nuclear and cell membrane fractions. The results showed that H. pylori LPS increased the expression of TLR2 in a time dependent bi-phasic manner (<12 and >12h exposure). Immunofluorescence using AGS monolayers corroborated the double phase TLR2 expression mainly on the cell membrane but a detectable signal was also determined in the cytoplasm of the cells. Activation of NFkB was downstream and depended on TLR2 expression as a statistically significant increase in pNFkB, that followed a pattern highly similar to the TLR2 expression was observed on the cell membrane fraction. The increase in TLR2 expression was accompanied by dramatically increased claudin-4 expression in cultures exposed from 30m to 8h to LPS. Increased expression of claudin-6, -7 and -9 also increases in >12h LPS exposure times. The increase in claudins expression was also dependent on NFkB activation. The results also showed an increase in pSTAT3 that followed a bi-phasic pattern that began 30min after stimulation and was compatible with the increase in TLR2 expression. The expression of the claudin-4 related CDX2 transcription factor did not followed the biphasic pattern. The results also showed that claudin-4 expression was STAT3 dependent whereas claudin-6, 7 and 9 expressions was ERK1/2 dependent. Our results suggest that H. pylori LPS induces TLR2 expression in the AGS cells, and that the longer the exposure to LPS, the greater the expression of TLR2 in the cell membrane. Consequently the expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 also increases.

Rashed HE, Hussein S, Mosaad H, et al.
Prognostic significance of the genetic and the immunohistochemical expression of epithelial-mesenchymal-related markers in colon cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 20(1):107-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the main events in colorectal cancer (CRC) spread. Snail-1 is a zinc transcription factor that mediates EMT in tumor cells probably by down-regulation of E-cadherin and claudin-1.
OBJECTIVES: To detect the expression of epithelial markers (claudin-1 and E-cadherin) and mesenchymal markers (snail-1 and vimentin) in primary cancer colon. Also, to select stage II cancer patients of a high risk that can benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
METHODS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to investigate snail-1, claudin-1, E-cadherin and vimentin expressions at mRNA and protein levels in fresh tissues of cancer colon and normal colonic mucosa. The correlations between the expression of these markers and clinicopathological parameters were performed.
RESULTS: Normal colonic mucosa revealed complete membranous expression of claudin-1, preserved E-cadherin and negative snail-1 and vimentin expressions. Compared to control, the expression of snail-1 and vimentin mRNA in cancer colon was significantly up-regulated while the expression of claudin-1 and E-cadherin mRNA was significantly down-regulated. These changes were significantly associated with stage and lymph node involvement at both mRNA and protein levels (p< 0.05). There were significant negative correlations between vimentin and each of E-cadherin and claudin-1 gene expression and between snail-1 and each of E-cadherin and claudin-1 gene expression. Moreover, these changes were independent predictors of recurrence of stage II cancer colon cases.
CONCLUSION: There is a clinical significance of snail-1, claudin-1, E-cadherin and vimentin as possible markers for recognizing patients with lymph node involvement, advanced stage and high incidence of tumor recurrence in cancer colon.

Geoffroy M, Kleinclauss A, Grandemange S, et al.
Pro-apoptotic effect of Δ2-TGZ in "claudin-1-low" triple-negative breast cancer cells: involvement of claudin-1.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 165(3):517-527 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: 40% of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) do not express claudin-1, a major constituent of tight junction. Patients with these "claudin-1-low" tumors present a higher relapse incidence. A major challenge in oncology is the development of innovative therapies for such poor prognosis tumors. In this context, we study the anticancer effects of ∆2-TGZ, a compound derived from troglitazone (TGZ), on cell models of these tumors.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T "claudin-1-low" TNBC cells, Δ2-TGZ treatment induced claudin-1 protein expression and triggered apoptosis as measured by FACS analysis (annexin V/PI co-staining). Interestingly, in the non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, the basal level of claudin-1 was not modified following Δ2-TGZ treatment, which did not induce apoptosis. Furthermore, claudin-1-transfected MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells displayed a significant increase of cleaved PARP-1 and caspase 7, caspase 3/7 activities, and TUNEL staining. RNA interference was performed in order to inhibit Δ2-TGZ-induced claudin-1 expression in both the cells. In absence of claudin-1, a decrease of cleaved PARP-1 and caspase 7 and caspase 3/7 activities were observed in MDA-MB-231 but not in Hs578T cells.
CONCLUSION: Claudin-1 overexpression and Δ2-TGZ treatment are associated to apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T "claudin-1-low" TNBC. Moreover, in MDA-MB-231 cells, claudin-1 is involved in the pro-apoptotic effect of Δ2-TGZ. Our results suggest that claudin-1 re-expression could be an interesting therapeutic strategy for "claudin-1-low" TNBC.

Cherradi S, Ayrolles-Torro A, Vezzo-Vié N, et al.
Antibody targeting of claudin-1 as a potential colorectal cancer therapy.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death. Despite the substantial progress in mCRC management, it remains important to identify new therapeutic options and biological markers for personalized medicine. Here, we investigated the expression of claudin-1 (CLDN1), a major tight junction transmembrane protein, in the different colorectal cancer (CRC) molecular subtypes and then assessed the anti-tumor effect of a new anti-CLDN1 monoclonal antibody (mAb).
METHODS: Gene expression profiling and immunochemistry analysis of normal and tumor tissue samples from patients with stage IV CRC were used to determine CLDN1 gene expression. Then, the 6F6 mAb against CLDN1 extracellular part was generated. Its effect on CRC cell cycle, proliferation, survival and migration was assessed in vitro, using a 3D cell culture system, flow cytometry, clonogenic and migration assays. In vivo, 6 F6 mAb efficacy was evaluated in nude mice after subcutaneous xenografts or intrasplenic injection of CRC cells.
RESULTS: Compared with normal mucosa where it was almost exclusively cytoplasmic, in CRC samples CLDN1 was overexpressed (p < 0.001) and mainly localized at the membrane. Moreover, it was differentially expressed in the various CRC molecular subtypes. The strongest expressions were found in the consensus molecular subtype CMS2 (p < 0.001), the transit-ampliflying (p < 0.001) and the C5 subtypes (p < 0.001). Lower CLDN1 expression predicted a better outcome in the molecular subtypes C3 and C5 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.004, respectively). CLDN1 targeting with the 6 F6 mAb led to reduction of survival, growth and migration of CLDN1-positive cells. In preclinical mouse models, the 6F6 mAb decreased tumor growth and liver metastasis formation.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that CLDN1 targeting with an anti-CLDN1 mAb results in decreased growth and survival of CRC cells. This suggests that CLDN1 could be a new potential therapeutic target.

Mahati S, Bolati D, Yang Y, et al.
TMPRSS4 promotes cancer stem cell traits by regulating CLDN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 490(3):906-912 [PubMed] Related Publications
Encouraging advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) have been achieved; however, a considerable part of patients still relapse or metastasize after therapy, and the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified yet. Here, we found that CLDN1 was markedly up-regulated in HCC tissues, and correlated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of CLDN1 dramatically promoted the capability of tumorsphere formation and cancer stem cell (CSC) traits. Furthermore, we found that TMPRSS4 was up-regulated in HCC tissues and there was a positive correlation between TMPRSS4 and CLDN1. In addition, the expression of CLDN1 was regulated by TMPRSS4. Moreover, TMPRSS4 mediated CSC properties and up-regulated CLDN1 by activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results revealed that CLDN1 contributed to CSC features of HCC, which was altered by TMPRSS4 expression via ERK1/2 signaling pathway, providing promising targets for novel specific therapies.

Chen YJ, You ML, Chong QY, et al.
Autocrine Human Growth Hormone Promotes Invasive and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Behavior of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by STAT3 Dependent Inhibition of CLAUDIN-1 Expression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite progress in diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the clinical outcome is still unsatisfactory. Increased expression of human growth hormone (hGH) in HCC has been reported and is associated with poor survival outcome in HCC patients. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of the oncogenic effects of hGH in HCC cell lines. In vitro functional assays demonstrated that forced expression of hGH in these HCC cell lines promoted cell proliferation, cell survival, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and invasion, as previously reported. In addition, forced expression of hGH promoted cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties of HCC cells. The increased invasive and CSC-like properties of HCC cells with forced expression of hGH were mediated by inhibition of the expression of the tight junction component CLAUDIN-1. Consistently, depletion of CLAUDIN-1 expression increased the invasive and CSC-like properties of HCC cell lines. Moreover, forced expression of CLAUDIN-1 abrogated the acquired invasive and CSC-like properties of HCC cell lines with forced expression of hGH. We further demonstrated that forced expression of hGH inhibited CLAUDIN-1 expression in HCC cell lines via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediated inhibition of CLAUDIN-1 transcription. Hence, we have elucidated a novel hGH-STAT3-CLAUDIN-1 axis responsible for invasive and CSC-like properties in HCC. Inhibition of hGH should be considered as a therapeutic option to hinder progression and relapse of HCC.

Zhao Z, Li J, Jiang Y, et al.
CLDN1 Increases Drug Resistance of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Activating Autophagy via Up-Regulation of ULK1 Phosphorylation.
Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23:2906-2916 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CLDN1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its mechanism of action in cisplatin resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 55 patients with NSCLC admitted to our hospital between October 2013 and October 2015 were included. NSCLC tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues (≥5 cm from tumor edge) were collected. Among the 55 patients, 37 had adenocarcinoma and 18 had squamous cell carcinoma. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mRNA expression, and protein expression was examined using Western blotting. CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation and Transwell assay was used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. Confocal microscopy was used to observe autophagosomes. RESULTS Increased CLDN1 expression promoted the development and metastasis of NSCLC. CLDN1 expression in A549/CDDP cells was up-regulated at both transcriptional and translational levels. Reduced CLDN1 expression decreased the drug resistance, proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of A549/CDDP cells. Decreased CLDN1 expression promoted the apoptosis of A549/CDDP cells. CLDN1 enhanced CDDP drug resistance of A549 cells by activating autophagy. CLDN1 promoted the autophagy of A549 cells by up-regulating the phosphorylation level of ULK1. CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrates that expression of CLDN1 in NSCLC is up-regulated and it is correlated with clinicopathological features. CLDN1 activates autophagy through up-regulation of ULK1 phosphorylation and promotes drug resistance of NSCLC cells to CDDP.

Park JM, Han YM, Jeong M, et al.
Synthetic 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine inhibited metastasis of pancreatic cancer through concerted inhibitions of ERM and Rho-GTPase.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017; 110:151-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is generated consequent to oxidative stress, but its paradoxical anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic effects via Rho-GTPase inhibition were noted in various models of inflammation and cancer. Metastasis occurs through cell detachment, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration; during these processes, changes in cell morphology are initiated through Rho-GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeleton polymerization. In this study, we explored the anti-metastatic mechanisms of 8-OHdG in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells. 8-OHdG inhibits cell migration by inactivating ERM and Rho-GTPase proteins, and inhibiting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). At 15min, 8-OHdG significantly inactivated ERM (p < 0.05) and led to a significant retardation of wound healing; siERM and H1152 (ROCK inhibitor) had similar effects (p < 0.05). However, FAK inhibitor 14, DPI (NOX inhibitor), and NAC (antioxidant) significantly delayed wound healing without inhibiting ERM or CD44 (p < 0.05). In the experiments on cell migration, siERM, siCD44, DPI, and 8-OHdG significantly inhibited MMPs. 8-OHdG significantly decreased DCF-DA activation in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and down-regulated NOXs (nox-1, nox-2, and nox-3). Finally, all of these anti-migration actions of 8-OHdG resulted in significant inhibition of EMT, as evidenced by the up-regulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 and down-regulation of vimentin. We found significant inhibition of lung metastasis of Panc-1 cells by 8-OHdG. In conclusion, exogenous 8-OHdG had potent anti-metastasis effects mediated by either ERM or Rho GTPase inhibition in metastasis-prone pancreatic cancer cells.

Roy A, Ansari SA, Das K, et al.
Coagulation factor VIIa-mediated protease-activated receptor 2 activation leads to β-catenin accumulation via the AKT/GSK3β pathway and contributes to breast cancer progression.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(33):13688-13701 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell migration and invasion are very characteristic features of cancer cells that promote metastasis, which is one of the most common causes of mortality among cancer patients. Emerging evidence has shown that coagulation factors can directly mediate cancer-associated complications either by enhancing thrombus formation or by initiating various signaling events leading to metastatic cancer progression. It is well established that, apart from its distinct role in blood coagulation, coagulation factor FVIIa enhances aggressive behaviors of breast cancer cells, but the underlying signaling mechanisms still remain elusive. To this end, we investigated FVIIa's role in the migration and invasiveness of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Consistent with previous observations, we observed that FVIIa increased the migratory and invasive potential of these cells. We also provide molecular evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 activation followed by PI3K-AKT activation and GSK3β inactivation is involved in these processes and that β-catenin, a well known tumor-regulatory protein, contributes to this signaling pathway. The pivotal role of β-catenin was further indicated by the up-regulation of its downstream targets cyclin D1, c-Myc, COX-2, MMP-7, MMP-14, and Claudin-1. β-Catenin knockdown almost completely attenuated the FVIIa-induced enhancement of breast cancer migration and invasion. These findings provide a new perspective to counteract the invasive behavior of breast cancer, indicating that blocking PI3K-AKT pathway-dependent β-catenin accumulation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to control breast cancer.

Wang L, Jia Y, Jiang Z, et al.
FSCN1 is upregulated by SNAI2 and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(8):833-841 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we investigated whether there is any association between the expression of FSCN1 and SNAI2 and the possible underlying mechanisms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). In addition, we also investigated whether FSCN1 modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HNSC cells. Microarray data of dysregulated genes in HNSC were searched in GEO datasets. The association between FSCN1 expression and the 5-year/10-year overall survival (OS), as well as the correlation between the expression of FSCN1 and SOX2, MYBL2, SNAI2, STAT1, and SOX4, was analyzed based on data in TCGA HNSC cohort (TCGA-HNSC). The binding site of SNAI2 in FSCN1 promoter was verified using luciferase reporter assay. SCC9 and SCC15 cells were transfected with pCMV-SNAI2 or pCMV-FSCN1 expression vector or the empty control. Alteration of E-cadherin, Claudin 1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin was then quantified. Our results showed that FSCN1 is significantly upregulated in HNSC tissues compared with the normal control tissues. High FSCN1 expression is associated with worse 5-year and 10-year OS among the HNSC patients. Bioinformatic prediction showed a highly possible SNAI2 binding site in FSCN1 promoter and following luciferase reporter assay verified this site. SNAI2 overexpression significantly increased FSCN1 expression at both mRNA and protein level. FSCN1 overexpression reduced the expression of E-cadherin and Claudin 1, but increased the expression of Vimentin and N-cadherin in SCC9 and SCC-15 cells. Therefore, we infer that FSCN1 is a downstream effector of SNAI2 in promoting EMT in HNSC cells.

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