Gene Summary

Gene:CFTR; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7)
Aliases: CF, MRP7, ABC35, ABCC7, CFTR/MRP, TNR-CFTR, dJ760C5.1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily that is involved in multi-drug resistance. The encoded protein functions as a chloride channel and controls the regulation of other transport pathways. Mutations in this gene are associated with the autosomal recessive disorders cystic fibrosis and congenital bilateral aplasia of the vas deferens. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, many of which result from mutations in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (36)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Preimplantation Diagnosis
  • Pancreatitis, Chronic
  • Chromosome 7
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Base Sequence
  • Wales
  • Smoking
  • Alleles
  • Risk Factors
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Heterozygote
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Ureohydrolases
  • Cervical Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Mutation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Trans-Splicing
  • Trypsinogen
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Pancreatitis
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Republic of Korea
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Exons
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Trypsin
  • Transfection
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Lung Cancer
  • Recurrence
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CFTR (cancer-related)

Doran MG, Watson PA, Cheal SM, et al.
Annotating STEAP1 regulation in prostate cancer with 89Zr immuno-PET.
J Nucl Med. 2014; 55(12):2045-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates targeting the cell surface protein 6 transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 1 (STEAP1) are in early clinical development for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). In general, antigen expression directly affects the bioactivity of therapeutic antibodies, and the biologic regulation of STEAP1 is unusually complicated in PCa. Paradoxically, STEAP1 can be induced or repressed by the androgen receptor (AR) in different human PCa models, while also expressed in AR-null PCa. Consequently, there is an urgent need to translate diagnostic strategies to establish which regulatory mechanism predominates in patients to situate the appropriate therapy within standard of care therapies inhibiting AR.
METHODS: To this end, we prepared and evaluated (89)Zr-labeled MSTP2109A ((89)Zr-2109A), a radiotracer for PET derived from a fully humanized monoclonal antibody to STEAP1 in preclinical PCa models.
RESULTS: (89)Zr-2109A specifically localized to the STEAP1-positive human PCa models CWR22Pc, 22Rv1, and PC3. Moreover, (89)Zr-2109A sensitively measured treatment-induced changes (∼66% decline) in STEAP1 expression in CWR22PC in vitro and in vivo, a model we showed to express STEAP1 in an AR-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the ability of immuno-PET with (89)Zr-2109A to detect acute changes in STEAP1 expression and argue for an expansion of ongoing efforts to image PCa patients with (89)Zr-2109A to maximize the clinical benefit associated with antibodies or antibody-drug conjugates to STEAP1.

Jenkins NC, Kalra RR, Dubuc A, et al.
Genetic drivers of metastatic dissemination in sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014; 2:85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD), the metastatic spread of tumor cells via the cerebrospinal fluid to the brain and spinal cord, is an ominous prognostic sign for patients with the pediatric brain tumor medulloblastoma. The need to reduce the risk of LMD has driven the development of aggressive treatment regimens, which cause disabling neurotoxic side effects in long-term survivors. Transposon-mediated mutagenesis studies in mice have revealed numerous candidate metastasis genes. Understanding how these genes drive LMD will require functional assessment using in vivo and cell culture models of medulloblastoma. We analyzed two genes that were sites of frequent transposon insertion and highly expressed in human medulloblastomas: Arnt (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) and Gdi2 (GDP dissociation inhibitor 2). Here we show that ectopic expression of Arnt and Gdi2 promoted LMD in mice bearing Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced medulloblastomas. We overexpressed Arnt and Gdi2 in a human medulloblastoma cell line (DAOY) and an immortalized, nontransformed cell line derived from mouse granule neuron precursors (SHH-NPD) and quantified migration, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth, cell traits that are associated with metastatic competence in carcinomas. In SHH-NPD cells. Arnt and Gdi2 stimulated all three traits. In DAOY cells, Arnt had the same effects, but Gdi2 stimulated invasiveness only. These results support a mechanism whereby Arnt and Gdi2 cause cells to detach from the primary tumor mass by increasing cell motility and invasiveness. By conferring to tumor cells the ability to proliferate without surface attachment, Arnt and Gdi2 favor the formation of stable colonies of cells capable of seeding the leptomeninges.

Ashour N, Angulo JC, Andrés G, et al.
A DNA hypermethylation profile reveals new potential biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Prostate. 2014; 74(12):1171-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA hypermethylation has emerged as a novel molecular biomarker for the evaluation of prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Defining the specific gene hypermethylation profile for prostate cancer could involve groups of genes that specifically discriminate patients with indolent and aggressive tumors.
METHODS: Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on 83 tumor and 10 normal prostate samples using the GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I (Illumina, Inc.). All clinical stages of disease were considered.
RESULTS: We found 41 genes hypermethylated in more than 20% of the tumors analyzed (P < 0.01). Of these, we newly identified GSTM2 and PENK as being genes that are hypermethylated in prostate cancer and that were simultaneously methylated in 40.9% of the tumors analyzed. We also identified panels of genes that are more frequently methylated in tumor samples with clinico-pathological indicators of poor prognosis: a high Gleason score, elevated Ki-67, and advanced disease. Of these, we found simultaneous hypermethylation of CFTR and HTR1B to be common in patients with a high Gleason score and high Ki-67 levels; this might indicate the population at higher risk of therapeutic failure. The DNA hypermethylation profile was associated with cancer-specific mortality (log-rank test, P = 0.007) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.0008).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly indicate that epigenetic silencing of GSTM2 and PENK is a common event in prostate cancer that could be used as a molecular marker for prostate cancer diagnosis. In addition, simultaneous HTR1B and CFTR hypermethylation could help discriminate aggressive from indolent prostate tumors.

Hedditch EL, Gao B, Russell AJ, et al.
ABCA transporter gene expression and poor outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown.
METHODS: The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA-mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the "A" subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e-6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor outcome in serous ovarian cancer, implicating lipid trafficking as a potentially important process in EOC.

Fritz S, Cassir N, Noudel R, et al.
Postsurgical Pantoea calida meningitis: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2014; 8:195 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Pantoea calida, a recently described environmental Enterobacteriaceae organism, has not yet been associated with human infection.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of postoperative meningitis caused by P. calida. After pituitary adenoma resection, a 52-year-old Caucasian woman developed febrile meningitis confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis. P. calida was grown in pure culture from this fluid and was firmly identified with partial rpoB gene sequencing. She was cured by a 14-day course of meropenem.
CONCLUSIONS: P. calida must be added to the list of opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae pathogens responsible for postsurgical meningitis. It is easily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Moscato EH, Peng X, Jain A, et al.
Acute mechanisms underlying antibody effects in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.
Ann Neurol. 2014; 76(1):108-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: A severe but treatable form of immune-mediated encephalitis is associated with antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) against the GluN1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Prolonged exposure of hippocampal neurons to antibodies from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis caused a reversible decrease in the synaptic localization and function of NMDARs. However, acute effects of the antibodies, fate of the internalized receptors, type of neurons affected, and whether neurons develop compensatory homeostatic mechanisms were unknown and are the focus of this study.
METHODS: Dissociated hippocampal neuron cultures and rodent brain sections were used for immunocytochemical, physiological, and molecular studies.
RESULTS: Patient antibodies bind to NMDARs throughout the rodent brain, and decrease NMDAR cluster density in both excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. They rapidly increase the internalization rate of surface NMDAR clusters, independent of receptor activity. This internalization likely accounts for the observed decrease in NMDAR-mediated currents, as no evidence of direct blockade was detected. Once internalized, antibody-bound NMDARs traffic through both recycling endosomes and lysosomes, similar to pharmacologically induced NMDAR endocytosis. The antibodies are responsible for receptor internalization, as their depletion from CSF abrogates these effects in hippocampal neurons. We find that although anti-NMDAR antibodies do not induce compensatory changes in glutamate receptor gene expression, they cause a decrease in inhibitory synapse density onto excitatory hippocampal neurons.
INTERPRETATION: Our data support an antibody-mediated mechanism of disease pathogenesis driven by immunoglobulin-induced receptor internalization. Antibody-mediated downregulation of surface NMDARs engages homeostatic synaptic plasticity mechanisms, which may inadvertently contribute to disease progression.

Gupta MK, Jayaram S, Madugundu AK, et al.
Chromosome-centric human proteome project: deciphering proteins associated with glioma and neurodegenerative disorders on chromosome 12.
J Proteome Res. 2014; 13(7):3178-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
In line with the aims of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) to completely annotate proteins of each chromosome and biology/disease driven HPP (B/D-HPP) to decipher their relation to diseases, we have generated a nonredundant catalogue of protein-coding genes for Chromosome 12 (Chr. 12) and further annotated proteins associated with major neurological disorders. Integrating high level proteomic evidence from four major databases (neXtProt, Global Proteome Machine (GPMdb), PeptideAtlas, and Human Protein Atlas (HPA)) along with Ensembl data resource resulted in the identification of 1066 protein coding genes, of which 171 were defined as "missing proteins" based on the weak or complete absence of experimental evidence. With functional annotations using DAVID and GAD, about 40% of the proteins could be grouped as brain related with implications in cancer or neurological disorders. We used published and unpublished high confidence mass spectrometry data from our group and other literature consisting of more than 5000 proteins derived from clinical specimens from patients with human gliomas, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease and mapped it onto Chr. 12. We observed a total of 202 proteins mapping to human Chr. 12, 136 of which were differentially expressed in these disease conditions as compared to the normal. Functional grouping indicated their association with cell cycle, cell-to-cell signaling, and other important processes and networks, whereas their disease association analysis confirmed neurological diseases and cancer as the major group along with psycological disorders, with several overexpressed genes/proteins mapping to 12q13-15 amplicon region. Using multiple strategies and bioinformatics tools, we identified 103 differentially expressed proteins to have secretory potential, 17 of which have already been reported in direct analysis of the plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the patients and 21 of them mapped to cancer associated protein (CAPs) database that are amenable to selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays for targeted proteomic analysis. Our analysis also reveals, for the first time, mass spectrometric evidence for two "missing proteins" from Chr. 12, namely, synaptic vesicle 2-related protein (SVOP) and IQ motif containing D (IQCD). The analysis provides a snapshot of Chr. 12 encoded proteins associated with gliomas and major neurological conditions and their secretability which can be used to drive efforts for clinical applications.

Williams MT, Yousafzai Y, Cox C, et al.
Interleukin-15 enhances cellular proliferation and upregulates CNS homing molecules in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2014; 123(20):3116-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies have consistently implicated the interleukin-15 (IL-15) gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) biology, including associations with disease susceptibility, and increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. However, whether pre-B ALL blasts directly respond to IL-15 is unknown. Here, we show that most pre-B ALL primary samples and cell lines express IL-15 and components of its receptor and that primary pre-B ALL cells show increased growth in culture in response to IL-15. Investigation of mechanisms of action using IL-15-responsive SD-1 cells shows this growth advantage is maximal under low-serum conditions, mimicking those found in cerebrospinal fluid. IL-15 also upregulates PSGL-1 and CXCR3, molecules associated with CNS trafficking. Investigation of downstream signaling pathways indicates that IL-15 induces signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and to a lesser extent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation. The IL-15-mediated growth advantage is abolished by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK), PI3K, and NF-κB inhibitors but preserved in the presence of STAT5 inhibition. Together, these observations provide a mechanistic link between increased levels of IL-15 expression and leukemogenesis, high-risk disease, and CNS relapse and suggest potential therapeutic targets.

Noori-Daloii MR, Saffari M, Raoofian R, et al.
The multidrug resistance pumps are inhibited by silibinin and apoptosis induced in K562 and KCL22 leukemia cell lines.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(5):575-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Silibinin have been introduced for several years as a potent antioxidant in the field of nutraceuticals. Based on wide persuasive effects of this drug, we have decided to investigate the effects of silibinin on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in vitro models, K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay) and real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and expression of various multidrug resistance genes in these cell lines, respectively. Our results have shown that presence of silibinin has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Also, our data indicated that silibinin, in a dose-dependent manner with applying no cytotoxic effects, inhibited cell proliferation and reduced mRNA expression levels of some transporter genes e.g. MDR1, MRP3, MRP2, MRP1, MRP5, MRP4, ABCG2, ABCB11, MRP6 and MRP7. The multifarious in vitro inhibitory effects of silibinin are in agreement with growing body of evidence that silibinin would be an efficient anticancer agent in order to be used in multi-target therapy to prevail the therapeutic hold backs against CML.

Nizon M, Boutron A, Boddaert N, et al.
Leukoencephalopathy with cysts and hyperglycinemia may result from NFU1 deficiency.
Mitochondrion. 2014; 15:59-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoic acid metabolism defects are new metabolic disorders that cause neurological, cardiomuscular or pulmonary impairment. We report on a patient that presented with progressive neurological regression suggestive of an energetic disease, involving leukoencephalopathy with cysts. Elevated levels of glycine in plasma, urine and CSF associated with intermittent increases of lactate were consistent with a defect in lipoic acid metabolism. Support for the diagnosis was provided by pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and multiple mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency in skin fibroblasts, as well as no lipoylated protein by western blot. Two mutations in the NFU1 gene confirmed the diagnosis. The p.Gly208Cys mutation has previously been reported suggesting a founder effect in Europe.

Sun TT, Wang Y, Cheng H, et al.
Disrupted interaction between CFTR and AF-6/afadin aggravates malignant phenotypes of colon cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1843(3):618-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
How mutations or dysfunction of CFTR may increase the risk of malignancies in various tissues remains an open question. Here we report the interaction between CFTR and an adherens junction molecule, AF-6/afadin, and its involvement in the development of colon cancer. We have found that CFTR and AF-6/afadin are co-localized at the cell-cell contacts and physically interact with each other in colon cancer cell lines. Knockdown of CFTR results in reduced epithelial tightness and enhanced malignancies, with increased degradation and reduced stability of AF-6/afadin protein. The enhanced invasive phenotype of CFTR-knockdown cells can be completely reversed by either AF-6/afadin over-expression or ERK inhibitor, indicating the involvement of AF-6/MAPK pathway. More interestingly, the expression levels of CFTR and AF-6/afadin are significantly downregulated in human colon cancer tissues and lower expression of CFTR and/or AF-6/afadin is correlated with poor prognosis of colon cancer patients. The present study has revealed a previously unrecognized interaction between CFTR and AF-6/afadin that is involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer and indicated the potential of the two as novel markers of metastasis and prognostic predictors for human colon cancer.

Joo YN, Eun SY, Park SW, et al.
Honokiol inhibits U87MG human glioblastoma cell invasion through endothelial cells by regulating membrane permeability and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):187-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is one of the most lethal and prevalent malignant human brain tumors, with aggressive proliferation and highly invasive properties. There is still no effective cure for patients with glioblastoma. Honokiol, derived from Magnolia officinalis, can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), making it a strong candidate for an effective drug for the treatment of brain tumors, including glioblastoma. In our previous study, we demonstrated that honokiol effectively induced apoptotic cell death in glioblastoma. Metastasis poses the largest problem to cancer treatment and is the primary cause of death in cancer patients. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of honokiol on the cell invasion process of U87MG human glioblastoma cells through brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and its possible mechanisms. Honokiol dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in BMECs and adhesion of U87MG to BMECs. Moreover, honokiol effectively blocked U87MG invasion through BMEC-Matrigel-coated transwell membranes. Increased phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and membrane permeability by TNF-α were suppressed by honokiol in BMECs. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of honokiol on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in U87MG cells. Honokiol reduced the expression levels of Snail, N-cadherin and β-catenin, which are mesenchymal markers, but increased E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. In conclusion, these results suggest that honokiol inhibits metastasis by targeting the interaction between U87MG and BMECs, regulating the adhesion of U87MG to BMECs by inhibiting VCAM-1, and regulating the invasion of U87MG through BMECs by reducing membrane permeability and EMT processes of U87MG cells.

Pavlik CM, Wong CY, Ononye S, et al.
Santacruzamate A, a potent and selective histone deacetylase inhibitor from the Panamanian marine cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.
J Nat Prod. 2013; 76(11):2026-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
A dark brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity.

Magbanua MJ, Melisko M, Roy R, et al.
Molecular profiling of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid and matched primary tumors from metastatic breast cancer patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(23):7134-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a well-established clinical syndrome, virtually nothing is known about the tumor cells responsible for this particularly aggressive metastatic process. To isolate cerebrospinal fluid-derived tumor cells (CSFTC) from 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, CSF samples were subjected to a two-step method involving immunomagnetic enrichment and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (IE/FACS), a technique previously used for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTC) from blood. CSFTCs were subjected to genome-wide copy number analysis by array comparative genomic hybridization. Genomic profiling was successfully performed for 13 of 15 patients (87%). Copy number analysis in CSFTCs revealed genomic alterations commonly observed in primary breast cancer and CTCs, indicating their malignant origin. Interestingly, 12 (92%) harbored high-level gains on the 8q24 locus, which includes the MYC oncogene. Comparison of CSFTCs against corresponding archival primary tumors in six patients revealed clonal relationships with some divergence. Good concordance among serial samples attested to the reproducibility of the assay. Our approach for isolation and molecular analysis of CSFTCs yielded new insights into the molecular nature of these cells. Further genomic and functional analyses may help elucidate mechanisms by which tumor cells metastasize to the central nervous system.

Hauser S, Zahalka T, Fechner G, et al.
Serum DNA hypermethylation in patients with kidney cancer: results of a prospective study.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(10):4651-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: No reliable biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exists. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of CpG island hypermethylation of cell-free (cf) circulating serum DNA in patients with RCC as a potential biomarker.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total 35 patients with RCC and 54 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Cell-free DNA (cFDNA) in serum was isolated and digested with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes (Bsh1236I, HpaII and HinP1I) to quantify the amount of methylated Adenomatosis-poliposis-coli gene (APC), Gluthation-a-transferase-protein 1 gene (GSTP1), ARF tumor suppressor protein gene (p14(ARF)), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16), Retinoid-acid-receptor-beta gene (RAR-B), RAS-association domain family-1 gene (RASSF1), Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-gene (TIMP3) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxid synthase 2 (PTGS2) DNA fragments.
RESULTS: In 30 of 35 investigated patients with RCC, at least one gene was methylated within the serum cfDNA. The methylation frequency ranged from 14.3% for p14(ARF) to 54.3% for APC. All genes, except p16 and TIMP3, were significantly more frequently methylated in patients with RCC compared to healthy individuals. Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed a high specificity for serum cfDNA methylation [between 85.2% for RAR-B and 100% for p14(ARF)], but the sensitivity was low in single-gene analysis [range-14.3% for p14(ARF) to 54.3% for APC]. The combined analysis of multiple genes increased the diagnostic sensitivity (i.e. APC, PTGS2 and GSTP1, 62.9%) at a high specificity (87%). DNA hypermethylation of APC was correlated with advanced tumor stage.
CONCLUSION: The detection of hypermethylated cfDNA in serum may be helpful for the identification of RCC; the combinatorial analysis of multiple genes may increase the diagnostic accuracy.

Campbell L, Al-Jayyoussi G, Gutteridge R, et al.
Caveolin-1 in renal cell carcinoma promotes tumour cell invasion, and in co-operation with pERK predicts metastases in patients with clinically confined disease.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:255 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with clinically-confined renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and who undergo curative surgery will nevertheless relapse with metastatic disease (mRCC) associated with poor long term survival. The discovery of novel prognostic/predictive biomarkers and drug targets is needed and in this context the aim of the current study was to investigate a putative caveolin-1/ERK signalling axis in clinically confined RCC, and to examine in a panel of RCC cell lines the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) on pathological processes (invasion and growth) and select signalling pathways.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry we assessed the expression of both Cav-1 and phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) in 176 patients with clinically confined RCC, their correlation with histological parameters and their impact upon disease-free survival. Using a panel of RCC cell lines we explored the functional effects of Cav-1 knockdown upon cell growth, cell invasion and VEGF-A secretion, as well Cav-1 regulation by cognate cell signalling pathways.
RESULTS: We found a significant correlation (P = 0.03) between Cav-1 and pERK in a cohort of patients with clinically confined disease which represented a prognostic biomarker combination (HR = 4.2) that effectively stratified patients into low, intermediate and high risk groups with respect to relapse, even if the patients' tumours displayed low grade and/or low stage disease. In RCC cell lines Cav-1 knockdown unequivocally reduced cell invasive capacity while also displaying both pro-and anti-proliferative effects; targeted knockdown of Cav-1 also partially suppressed VEGF-A secretion in VHL-negative RCC cells. The actions of Cav-1 in the RCC cell lines appeared independent of both ERK and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways.
CONCLUSION: The combined expression of Cav-1 and pERK serves as an independent biomarker signature with potential merit in RCC surveillance strategies able to predict those patients with clinically confined disease who will eventually relapse. In a panel of in-vitro RCC cells Cav-1 promotes cell invasion with variable effects on cell growth and VEGF-A secretion. Cav-1 has potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of mRCC.

Taylor JW, Flanagan EP, O'Neill BP, et al.
Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma: International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report.
Neurology. 2013; 81(19):1690-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical presentation, optimal diagnostic evaluation and treatment, and outcome in primary leptomeningeal lymphoma, a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma without parenchymal or systemic involvement.
METHODS: The International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group, a multidisciplinary group of physicians with a particular interest in primary CNS lymphoma, retrospectively identified cases of lymphoma isolated to the leptomeninges as diagnosed by CSF cytology, flow cytometry, or biopsy, without systemic or parenchymal brain/spinal cord lymphoma or immunodeficiency.
RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were identified, with median age at diagnosis of 51 years and median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Presenting symptoms were multifocal in 68%. Leptomeningeal enhancement was seen in 74% and CSF profile was abnormal in all cases. CSF cytology detected malignant lymphocytes in 67%. Flow cytometry identified monoclonal population in 80%, as did receptor gene rearrangement studies in 71%. Sixty-two percent had B-cell lymphoma, 19% T-cell, and 19% unclassified. Treatment varied and included fractionated radiotherapy (36%), systemic chemotherapy (78%), and intra-CSF chemotherapy (66%), with 66% receiving ≥ 2 modalities. Seventy-one percent had a favorable clinical response; ultimately, 44% received salvage treatment. Median overall survival was 24 months, with 11 patients still alive at 50 months follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma is a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma. Patients usually present with multifocal symptoms, with evidence of leptomeningeal enhancement and diagnostic CSF analysis. Although treatment is highly variable, patients have a better prognosis than previously reported and a subset may be cured.

Jia W, Sander AJ, Jia G, et al.
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an independent indicator for invasion in human pituitary adenomas.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(9):3815-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary ademonas are benign tumours from the pituitary gland but may have an invasive and destructive growth pattern. There is little understanding of the growth and progression control of pituitary tumours. In the present study, we investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), a vascular endothelial growth and apoptosis regulator and VEGI receptor Death Receptor-3 (DR3), in clinical pituitary tumours. Pituitary tumours from 95 patients were included in the study. Fresh pituitary tumours were obtained immediately after surgery and processed for histological and molecular-based analyses. Histopathological and clinical information including tumour size, tumour invasion and endocrine status were analyzed against the gene transcript expression of VEGI, DR3 and VEGF. VEGI and VEGF family and VEGF receptors were quantitatively determined for their gene transcript expression. The expression levels of VEGI were significantly lower in pituitary tumours which invaded the sella floor, and with suprasellar extension than in non-invasive tumours (p=0.0073). VEGI levels were also negatively correlated with cavernous sinus invasion stage (p<0.0001), in that a high level of VEGI was associated with low tumour grade. Multivariate analysis indicated that VEGI is an independent factor predictive of invasion (p=0.05). It was further demonstrated that the relationship between VEGI and pituitary tumour invasion were independent of the expression of VEGF and its receptors. Low levels of VEGI transcripts were associated with the intratumoural haemorrhage (p=0.05). Out of all the pituitary tumours, 59 were non-functional. Out of the functional tumours, it was found that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-expressing and gonadotrophic tumours tended to have markedly low levels of VEGI transcripts, compared with non-functional tumours (p=0.0026 and p=0.003, respectively). The opposite was seen with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting tumours. Levels of DR3 in tumours with sella destruction were also lower than in those without destruction. VEGI, possibly via DR3, suppresses the aggressive nature of pituitary tumours and its expression level is closely linked to the invasion and destruction of the suprasellar and sella regions. It also has implications for the endocrine nature of these tumours. VEGI thus has an important predictive and prognostic value in patients with pituitary tumours.

Kim YM, Kim IH, Nam TJ
Capsosiphon fulvescens glycoprotein inhibits AGS gastric cancer cell proliferation by downregulating Wnt-1 signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1395-401 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Previously, we examined various apoptosis pathways in the AGS gastric cancer cell line using Capsosiphon fulvescens glycoprotein (Cf-GP). In this study, we focused on the downregulation of the Wnt-1 signaling pathway and cell cycle arrest. Upregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been observed in various cancer cells. The Wnt signal ligand acts in both canonical and non-canonical pathways. Among them, Wnt-1 was dependent on the canonical pathway. Here, we show inhibition of Wnt-1 signaling, β-catenin and transcription factors in AGS cells via Cf-GP. First, we examined the Frizzled receptor and Wnt-1 signal-related proteins including Axin, LRP, β-catenin, APC and GSK-3β. In addition, the expression levels of transcription factors Tcf/LEF were determined by western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Based on the data, we confirmed downregulation of the Wnt-1 signaling pathway by Cf-GP. Also, we determined the expression levels of cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D and c-myc, and looked for cell cycle arrest by cell cycle test analysis. We found that AGS cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase by Cf-GP. These results provide a mechanism of AGS cell inhibition through the downregulation of Wnt-1 signaling by Cf-GP.

Than BL, Goos JA, Sarver AL, et al.
The role of KCNQ1 in mouse and human gastrointestinal cancers.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(29):3861-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Kcnq1, which encodes for the pore-forming α-subunit of a voltage-gated potassium channel, was identified as a gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer susceptibility gene in multiple Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. To confirm that Kcnq1 has a functional role in GI tract cancer, we created Apc(Min) mice that carried a targeted deletion mutation in Kcnq1. Results demonstrated that Kcnq1 is a tumor suppressor gene as Kcnq1 mutant mice developed significantly more intestinal tumors, especially in the proximal small intestine and colon, and some of these tumors progressed to become aggressive adenocarcinomas. Gross tissue abnormalities were also observed in the rectum, pancreas and stomach. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Kcnq1 mutant mice compared with wild-type littermate controls, suggesting a role for Kcnq1 in the regulation of the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment. To identify gene expression changes due to loss of Kcnq1, we carried out microarray studies in the colon and proximal small intestine. We identified altered genes involved in innate immune responses, goblet and Paneth cell function, ion channels, intestinal stem cells, epidermal growth factor receptor and other growth regulatory signaling pathways. We also found genes implicated in inflammation and in cellular detoxification. Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed the importance of these gene clusters and further identified significant overlap with genes regulated by MUC2 and CFTR, two important regulators of intestinal homeostasis. To investigate the role of KCNQ1 in human colorectal cancer (CRC), we measured protein levels of KCNQ1 by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing samples from CRC patients with liver metastases who had undergone hepatic resection. Results showed that low expression of KCNQ1 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival.

Kim YM, Kim IH, Nam TJ
Capsosiphon fulvescens glycoprotein reduces AGS gastric cancer cell migration by downregulating transforming growth factor-β1 and integrin expression.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(4):1059-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Seaweeds are commonly used as functional foods and drugs. A glycoprotein (GP) from the green alga Capsosiphon fulvescens (Cf) has been reported to have antitumor activity toward various cancer cells. We previously observed that Cf-GP induced different pathways of apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 plays an important role in cancer cell migration. Increased TGF-β1 levels increase the expression of the small GTPases and activate the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathways, resulting in the upregulation of integrin receptor proteins, which mediate the attachment of cells to surrounding tissues, cells or extracellular matrix. Thus, the inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling would downregulate integrin expression and thereby effectively decrease cell growth and migration. In the present study, we determined the effect of Cf-GP treatment on the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of AGS human gastric cancer cells. To investigate the mechanism by which Cf-GP exerts its anticancer actions, we examined the effect of Cf-GP on the expression levels of TGF-β1, FAK, PI3K, AKT, the small GTPases and integrins in AGS cells. Our findings indicate that Cf-GP inhibits AGS cell proliferation and migration by downregulating integrin expression via the TGF-β1-activated FAK/PI3K/AKT pathways. These results suggest that Cf-GP may be an important factor in the development of functional foods and therapeutic agents.

Zane M, Agostini M, Enzo MV, et al.
Circulating cell-free DNA, SLC5A8 and SLC26A4 hypermethylation, BRAF(V600E): A non-invasive tool panel for early detection of thyroid cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(8):723-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In the latest years, high levels of circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) have been found to be associated with cancer diagnosis and progression, and cf-DNA has become a potential candidate as biomarker for tumor detection. cf-DNA has been investigated in plasma or serum of many tumor patients affected by different malignancies, but not yet in thyroid cancer (TC). Furthermore, in TC cells the capability to metabolize iodine is frequently lost. SLC5A8 and SLC26A4 genes are both involved in the iodine metabolism, and SLC5A8 hypermethylation status is associated with the BRAF(V600E) mutation, which is the most frequent genetic event underlying the development of papillary TC. The aim of our study is the development of a new non-invasive tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of TC based on cf-DNA, SLC5A8 and SLC26A4 hypermethylation, and BRAF(V600E) analysis.
METHODS: cf-DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in nine cases of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), 58 medullary thyroid cancers (MTC), five of synchronous medullary and follicular thyroid cancers (SMFC), 23 follicular adenomas (FA), 86 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). A control group of 19 healthy subjects was taken. Moreover, in the PTC group we analyze the state of hypermethylation of SLC5A8 and SLC26A4, BRAF(V600E) mutation, and their involvement in the loss of function of the thyroid.
RESULTS: cf-DNA showed a high ability to discriminate healthy individuals from cancer patients. cf-DNAALU83 and cf-DNAALU244 values were significantly correlated with the histological type of TC (P-value < 0.0001). A significant increase in the amount of cf-DNAALU83 and cf-DNAALU244 when methylation occurs was observed (P-value = 0.02). A correlation between BRAF(V600E) and cf-DNAALU244/ALU83 was also found (P-value = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: According to our experimental results, the panel including cf-DNA, SLC5A8 and SLC26A4 hypermethylation, and BRAF(V600E) analysis appears easy, reproducible, and non-invasive for the diagnosis on TC. Its possible implication in clinical setting remains to be elucidated.

Orsini M, Travaglione A, Capobianco E
Cancer markers: integratively annotated classification.
Gene. 2013; 530(2):257-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translational cancer genomics research aims to ensure that experimental knowledge is subject to computational analysis, and integrated with a variety of records from omics and clinical sources. The data retrieval from such sources is not trivial, due to their redundancy and heterogeneity, and the presence of false evidence. In silico marker identification, therefore, remains a complex task that is mainly motivated by the impact that target identification from the elucidation of gene co-expression dynamics and regulation mechanisms, combined with the discovery of genotype-phenotype associations, may have for clinical validation. Based on the reuse of publicly available gene expression data, our aim is to propose cancer marker classification by integrating the prediction power of multiple annotation sources. In particular, with reference to the functional annotation for colorectal markers, we indicate a classification of markers into diagnostic and prognostic classes combined with susceptibility and risk factors.

Zhang JT, Jiang XH, Xie C, et al.
Downregulation of CFTR promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1833(12):2961-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process involving the breakdown of cell-cell junctions and loss of epithelial polarity, is closely related to cancer development and metastatic progression. While the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl(-) and HCO3(-) conducting anion channel expressed in a wide variety of epithelial cells, has been implicated in the regulation of epithelial polarity, the exact role of CFTR in the pathogenesis of cancer and its possible involvement in EMT process have not been elucidated. Here we report that interfering with CFTR function either by its specific inhibitor or lentiviral miRNA-mediated knockdown mimics TGF-β1-induced EMT and enhances cell migration and invasion in MCF-7. Ectopic overexpression of CFTR in a highly metastatic MDA-231 breast cancer cell line downregulates EMT markers and suppresses cell invasion and migration in vitro, as well as metastasis in vivo. The EMT-suppressing effect of CFTR is found to be associated with its ability to inhibit NFκB targeting urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), known to be involved in the regulation of EMT. More importantly, CFTR expression is found significantly downregulated in primary human breast cancer samples, and is closely associated with poor prognosis in different cohorts of breast cancer patients. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated a previously undefined role of CFTR as an EMT suppressor and its potential as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer.

Hao Y, Kuang Z, Xu Y, et al.
Pyocyanin-induced mucin production is associated with redox modification of FOXA2.
Respir Res. 2013; 14:82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The redox-active pyocyanin (PCN) is a toxic, secondary metabolite secreted by the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Previously, we have shown that mouse lungs chronically exposed to PCN develop goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia (GCHM) and mucus hypersecretion, fibrosis and emphysema. These pathological features are commonly found in the airways of several chronic lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as in mouse airways deficient in the forkhead box A2 (FOXA2), a transcriptional repressor of goblet GCHM and mucus biosynthesis. Furthermore, PCN inhibits FOXA2 by activating the pro-GCHM signaling pathways Stat6 and EGFR. However, it is not known whether PCN-generated reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species posttranslationally modify and inactivate FOXA2.
METHODS: We examined the posttranslational modifications of FOXA2 by PCN using specific antibodies against oxidation, nitrosylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to examine the ability of modified FOXA2 to bind the promoter of MUC5B mucin gene. In addition, we used quantitative real time PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence and mouse lung infection to assess whether the loss of FOXA2 function caused GCHM and mucin overexpression. Finally, we examined the restoration of FOXA2 function by the antioxidant glutathione (GSH).
RESULTS: We found that PCN-generated ROS/RNS caused nitrosylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and degradation of FOXA2. Modified FOXA2 had reduced ability to bind the promoter of the MUC5B gene. The antioxidant GSH alleviated the modification of FOXA2 by PCN, and inhibited the overexpression of MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PCN-mediated posttranslational modifications of FOXA2 are positively correlated with GCHM and overexpression of airway mucins. Furthermore, antioxidant treatment restores the function of FOXA2 to attenuate GCHM and mucus hypersecretion.

Schubert M, Spahn M, Kneitz S, et al.
Distinct microRNA expression profile in prostate cancer patients with early clinical failure and the impact of let-7 as prognostic marker in high-risk prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The identification of additional prognostic markers to improve risk stratification and to avoid overtreatment is one of the most urgent clinical needs in prostate cancer (PCa). MicroRNAs, being important regulators of gene expression, are promising biomarkers in various cancer entities, though the impact as prognostic predictors in PCa is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify specific miRNAs as potential prognostic markers in high-risk PCa and to validate their clinical impact.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed miRNA-microarray analysis in a high-risk PCa study group selected by their clinical outcome (clinical progression free survival (CPFS) vs. clinical failure (CF)). We identified seven candidate miRNAs (let-7a/b/c, miR-515-3p/5p, -181b, -146b, and -361) that showed differential expression between both groups. Further qRT-PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of members of the let-7 family in the majority of a large, well-characterized high-risk PCa cohort (n = 98). Expression of let-7a/b/and -c was correlated to clinical outcome parameters of this group. While let-7a showed no association or correlation with clinical relevant data, let-7b and let-7c were associated with CF in PCa patients and functioned partially as independent prognostic marker. Validation of the data using an independent high-risk study cohort revealed that let-7b, but not let-7c, has impact as an independent prognostic marker for BCR and CF. Furthermore, we identified HMGA1, a non-histone protein, as a new target of let-7b and found correlation of let-7b down-regulation with HMGA1 over-expression in primary PCa samples.
CONCLUSION: Our findings define a distinct miRNA expression profile in PCa cases with early CF and identified let-7b as prognostic biomarker in high-risk PCa. This study highlights the importance of let-7b as tumor suppressor miRNA in high-risk PCa and presents a basis to improve individual therapy for high-risk PCa patients.

Tian F, Yip SP, Kwong DL, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in serum as potential biomarker for the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(5):708-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes may serve as a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of cancer. Cell-free circulating DNA (cf-DNA) shares hypermethylation status with primary tumors. This study investigated promoter hypermethylation of five tumor suppressor genes as markers in the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in serum samples.
METHODS: cf-DNA was extracted from serum collected from 40 NPC patients and 41 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The promoter hypermethylation status of the five genes (RASSF1, CDKN2A, DLEC1, DAPK1 and UCHL1) was assessed by methylation-specific PCR after sodium bisulfite conversion. Differences in the methylation status of these five genes between NPC patients and healthy subjects were compared.
RESULTS: The concentration of cf-DNA in the serum of NPC patients was significantly higher than that in normal controls. The five tumor suppressor genes - RASSF1, CDKN2A, DLEC1, DAPK1 and UCHL1 - were found to be methylated in 17.5%, 22.5%, 25.0%, 51.4% and 64.9% of patients, respectively. The combination of four-gene marker - CDKN2A, DLEC1, DAPK1 and UCHL1 - had the highest sensitivity and specificity in predicting NPC.
CONCLUSION: Screening DNA hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in serum was a promising approach for the diagnosis of NPC.

Li F, Fan J, Wu Z, et al.
Reversal effects of Rabdosia rubescens extract on multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells in vitro.
Pharm Biol. 2013; 51(9):1196-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara (Lamiaceae) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidation. It is also used as a supplement in the treatment of many cancers, such as esophagus, mammary gland, liver and prostate cancers.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal effects and its possible mechanism of R. rubescens extracts on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/Adr (Michigan Cancer Foundation--7/adriamycin resistance).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabdosia rubescens were extracted by reflux extraction method with different solvent such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and water in order and obtain petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butyl alcohol fraction (BAF) and aqueous fraction (AF). The active extract fractions of R. rubescens were screened by rhodamine123 (Rh123) accumulation assay. Cytotoxicity of the effect fraction was examined by the MTT assay; the intracellular accumulation of adriamycin and expression of P-gp were examined by flow cytometry; the gene transcription of MDR1 was determined by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: CF and EAF fractions could increase the intracellular accumulation of adriamycin in MCF-7/Adr cells, PEF, BAF and AF fractions showed little effect on the intracellular accumulation of adriamycin or Rh123. When adriamycin was used in combination with CF and EAF fractions at non-toxic concentration on MCF-7/Adr cells, CF and EAF fractions can reverse MDR of MCF-7/Adr cells, and the reverse folds were 2.16 (CF, 4 μg/mL), 4.60 (CF, 20 μg/mL), 1.87 (EAF, 4 μg/mL) and 4.02 (EAF, 20 μg/mL), respectively. After treatment with CF (4.20 μg/mL) and EAF (4.20 μg/mL) for 48 h, the MDR1 gene expression level in MCF-7/Adr cells was decreased by 40.17, 48.14, 33.86 and 42.52%, and the abundance of P-gp also decreased by 8.63, 24.53, 27.50 and 34.91% in MCF-7/Adr cells, respectively.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results indicate the therapeutic value of chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from R. rubescens as potential MDR reversing agents and warranted further investigation.

Phi JH, Choi SA, Lim SH, et al.
ID3 contributes to cerebrospinal fluid seeding and poor prognosis in medulloblastoma.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:291 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The inhibitor of differentiation (ID) genes have been implicated as promoters of tumor progression and metastasis in many human cancers. The current study investigated the expression and functional roles of ID genes in seeding and prognosis of medulloblastoma.
METHODS: ID gene expression was screened in human medulloblastoma tissues. Knockdown of ID3 gene was performed in medulloblastoma cells in vitro. The expression of metastasis-related genes after ID3 knockdown was assessed. The effect of ID3 knockdown on tumor seeding was observed in an animal model in vivo. The survival of medulloblastoma patients was plotted according to the ID3 expression levels.
RESULTS: Significantly higher ID3 expression was observed in medulloblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid seeding than tumors without seeding. Knockdown of ID3 decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and suppressed the migration of D283 medulloblastoma cells in vitro. In a seeding model of medulloblastoma, ID3 knockdown in vivo with shRNA inhibited the growth of primary tumors, prevented the development of leptomeningeal seeding, and prolonged animal survival. High ID3 expression was associated with shorter survival of medulloblastoma patients, especially in Group 4 medulloblastomas.
CONCLUSIONS: High ID3 expression is associated with medulloblastoma seeding and is a poor prognostic factor, especially in patients with Group 4 tumors. ID3 may represent the metastatic/ aggressive phenotype of a subgroup of medulloblastoma.

Hamoir C, Pepermans X, Piessevaux H, et al.
Clinical and morphological characteristics of sporadic genetically determined pancreatitis as compared to idiopathic pancreatitis: higher risk of pancreatic cancer in CFTR variants.
Digestion. 2013; 87(4):229-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Idiopathic pancreatitis is considered to be a multigenic and multifactorial disease. Genetically determined pancreatitis is associated with mutations in the PRSS1,SPINK1 and CFTR genes. This study aimed at examining the clinical and morphological characteristics of patients diagnosed with genetically determined sporadic pancreatitis.
METHODS: Inclusion criteria were the presence of PRSS1,CFTR or SPINK1 gene mutations in patients with idiopathic recurrent or chronic pancreatitis. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis were excluded. Age- and sex-matched patients with idiopathic pancreatitis and negative genetic testing served as controls (n = 68).
RESULTS: Genetic testing was performed in 351 probands referred to our centre since 1999. Sixty-one patients (17.4%) carried at least 1 detected mutation in 1 of the 3 tested genes (34 CFTR, 10 PRSS1 and 13 SPINK1 mutations), and 4 patients showed a combination of mutations. Follow-up has been currently extended to a median of 5 years (range 1-40). Similar clinical features were noted in the case and matched groups except for an earlier age of onset of pancreatic symptoms and a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer in the case group and in patients with CFTR mutations compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The standardized incidence ratio, the ratio of observed to expected pancreatic cancers, averaged 26.5 (95% confidence interval 8.6-61.9). All pancreatic cancer patients were smokers.
CONCLUSION: Clinical parameters of patients with sporadic idiopathic pancreatitis and gene mutations are similar to those of age- and sex-matched patients without gene mutations, except for the age of pancreatic disease onset. A significantly higher occurrence of pancreas cancer was observed in the case group, particularly in those patients carrying CFTR mutations. We therefore suggest to include patients with CFTR variants presenting with risk factors in a screening and surveillance programme and to strongly advise them to stop smoking.

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