Gene Summary

Gene:BUB3; BUB3 mitotic checkpoint protein
Aliases: BUB3L, hBUB3
Summary:This gene encodes a protein involved in spindle checkpoint function. The encoded protein contains four WD repeat domains and has sequence similarity with the yeast BUB3 protein. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tubulin
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Protein Kinases
  • Chromosome 10
  • Breast Cancer
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Chromosomes, Human
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Brain Tumours
  • Mad2 Proteins
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Glioblastoma
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Apoptosis
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Transcriptome
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Microtubules
  • World Health Organization
  • Up-Regulation
  • Survivin
  • Mitosis
  • Chromosome Segregation
  • Proteins
  • Aneuploidy
  • Cancer DNA
  • Treatment Failure
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Repressor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BUB3 (cancer-related)

Li J, Hu B, Wang T, et al.
C-Src confers resistance to mitotic stress through inhibition DMAP1/Bub3 complex formation in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromatin modification at mitosis is closely related to transcriptional reactivation in the subsequent cell cycle. We reasoned this process is deregulated by oncogenic signals, which would contribute to mitotic stress resistance in pancreatic cancer. Here, we show DMAP1/Bub3 complex mediates mitotic stress-induced cellular apoptosis, while this effect is counteracted by c-Src in pancreatic cancer cells. Our study aims to uncover an unidentified mechanism underlying the distinct response to mitotic stress between normal cells and pancreatic cancer cells.
METHODS: The interaction between Bub3 and DMAP1 upon mitotic stress signaling was determined through molecular and cell biological methods. The inhibitory effect of c-Src on DMAP1/Bub3-mediated DNA methylation and gene transcription profile was investigated. The association between c-Src-mediated DMAP1 phosphorylation and paclitaxel activity in vivo and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed.
RESULTS: Mitotic arrest induced p38-dependent phosphorylation of Bub3 at Ser211, which promotes DMAP1/Bub3 interaction. DMAP1/Bub3 complex is recruited by TAp73 to the promoter of anti-apoptotic gene BCL2L1, thus mediates the DNA methylation and represses gene transcription linked to cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, DMAP1 was highly phosphorylated at Tyr 246 by c-Src in pancreatic cancer cells, which impedes DMAP1/Bub3 interaction and the relevant cellular activites. Blocking DMAP1 pTyr-246 potentiates paclitaxel-inhibited tumor growth. Clinically, DMAP1 Tyr 246 phosphorylation correlates with c-Src activity in human pancreatic cancer specimens and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a regulatory role of Bub3 in DMAP1-mediated DNA methylation upon mitotic stress and provide the relevance of DMAP1 pTyr-246 to mitotic stress resistance during pancreatic cancer treatment.

Mur P, De Voer RM, Olivera-Salguero R, et al.
Germline mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 are infrequent in familial colorectal cancer and polyposis.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Germline mutations in BUB1 and BUB3 have been reported to increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) at young age, in presence of variegated aneuploidy and reminiscent dysmorphic traits of mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. We performed a mutational analysis of BUB1 and BUB3 in 456 uncharacterized mismatch repair-proficient hereditary non-polyposis CRC families and 88 polyposis cases. Four novel or rare germline variants, one splice-site and three missense, were identified in four families. Neither variegated aneuploidy nor dysmorphic traits were observed in carriers. Evident functional effects in the heterozygous form were observed for c.1965-1G>A, but not for c.2296G>A (p.E766K), in spite of the positive co-segregation in the family. BUB1 c.2473C>T (p.P825S) and BUB3 c.77C>T (p.T26I) remained as variants of uncertain significance. As of today, the rarity of functionally relevant mutations identified in familial and/or early onset series does not support the inclusion of BUB1 and BUB3 testing in routine genetic diagnostics of familial CRC.

Mesic A, Markocic E, Rogar M, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms rs911160 in AURKA and rs2289590 in AURKB mitotic checkpoint genes contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2017; 58(9):701-711 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitotic checkpoint genes could confer increased susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the association of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), Aurora kinase C (AURKC), Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and Budding uninhibited by benzimidazol 3, yeast (BUB3) gene polymorphisms with GC risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping of 6 SNPs in AURKA (rs911160 and rs8173), AURKB (rs2289590), AURKC (rs11084490), PLK1 (rs42873), and BUB3 (rs7897156) was performed using TaqMan genotyping assays.
RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that rs911160 (AURKA) heterozygous genotype was associated with an increased GC risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.22, P = 0.043). Analysis of rs911160 (AURKA) showed significant association with an increased risk for intestinal type GC (OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.01-3.21, P = 0.040) and the risk was significantly higher in women than men (OR = 2.65, 95%CI = 1.02-6.87, P = 0.033). SNP rs2289590 in AURKB might contribute to susceptibility for the development of gastric cancer, particularly in women (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.05-4.09, P = 0.032).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that AURKA (rs911160) and AURKB (rs2289590) polymorphisms could affect GC risk. Further validation studies in larger and multi-ethnical populations are needed to elucidate their functional impact on the development of GC. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:701-711, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Shindo K, Yu J, Suenaga M, et al.
Deleterious Germline Mutations in Patients With Apparently Sporadic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(30):3382-3390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose Deleterious germline mutations contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility and are well documented in families in which multiple members have had pancreatic cancer. Methods To define the prevalence of these germline mutations in patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic cancer, we sequenced 32 genes, including known pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, in DNA prepared from normal tissue obtained from 854 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 288 patients with other pancreatic and periampullary neoplasms, and 51 patients with non-neoplastic diseases who underwent pancreatic resection at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2015. Results Thirty-three (3.9%; 95% CI, 3.0% to 5.8%) of 854 patients with pancreatic cancer had a deleterious germline mutation, 31 (3.5%) of which affected known familial pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes: BRCA2 (12 patients), ATM (10 patients), BRCA1 (3 patients), PALB2 (2 patients), MLH1 (2 patients), CDKN2A (1 patient), and TP53 (1 patient). Patients with these germline mutations were younger than those without (mean ± SD, 60.8 ± 10.6 v 65.1 ± 10.5 years; P = .03). Deleterious germline mutations were also found in BUB1B (1) and BUB3 (1). Only three of these 33 patients had reported a family history of pancreatic cancer, and most did not have a cancer family history to suggest an inherited cancer syndrome. Five (1.7%) of 288 patients with other periampullary neoplasms also had a deleterious germline mutation. Conclusion Germline mutations in pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are commonly identified in patients with pancreatic cancer without a significant family history of cancer. These deleterious pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene mutations, some of which are therapeutically targetable, will be missed if current family history guidelines are the main criteria used to determine the appropriateness of gene testing.

Broderick P, Dobbins SE, Chubb D, et al.
Validation of Recently Proposed Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Gene Variants in an Analysis of Families and Patients-a Systematic Review.
Gastroenterology. 2017; 152(1):75-77.e4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-throughput sequencing analysis has accelerated searches for genes associated with risk for colorectal cancer (CRC); germline mutations in NTHL1, RPS20, FANCM, FAN1, TP53, BUB1, BUB3, LRP6, and PTPN12 have been recently proposed to increase CRC risk. We attempted to validate the association between variants in these genes and development of CRC in a systematic review of 11 publications, using sequence data from 863 familial CRC cases and 1604 individuals without CRC (controls). All cases were diagnosed at an age of 55 years or younger and did not carry mutations in an established CRC predisposition gene. We found sufficient evidence for NTHL1 to be considered a CRC predisposition gene-members of 3 unrelated Dutch families were homozygous for inactivating p.Gln90Ter mutations; a Canadian woman with polyposis, CRC, and multiple tumors was reported to be heterozygous for the inactivating NTHL1 p.Gln90Ter/c.709+1G>A mutations; and a man with polyposis was reported to carry p.Gln90Ter/p.Gln287Ter; whereas no inactivating homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were detected in controls. Variants that disrupted RPS20 were detected in a Finnish family with early-onset CRC (p.Val50SerfsTer23), a 39-year old individual with metachronous CRC (p.Leu61GlufsTer11 mutation), and a 41-year-old individual with CRC (missense p.Val54Leu), but not in controls. We therefore found published evidence to support the association between variants in NTHL1 and RPS20 with CRC, but not of other recently reported CRC susceptibility variants. We urge the research community to adopt rigorous statistical and biological approaches coupled with independent replication before making claims of pathogenicity.

Li T, Chen L, Cheng J, et al.
SUMOylated NKAP is essential for chromosome alignment by anchoring CENP-E to kinetochores.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:12969 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome alignment is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Chromosome misalignment can result in genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Here, we show that NF-κB activating protein (NKAP) is critical for chromosome alignment through anchoring CENP-E to kinetochores. NKAP knockdown causes chromosome misalignment and prometaphase arrest in human cells. NKAP dynamically localizes to kinetochores, and is required for CENP-E kinetochore localization. NKAP is SUMOylated predominantly in mitosis and the SUMOylation is needed for NKAP to bind CENP-E. A SUMOylation-deficient mutant of NKAP cannot support the localization of CENP-E on kinetochores or proper chromosome alignment. Moreover, Bub3 recruits NKAP to stabilize the binding of CENP-E to BubR1 at kinetochores. Importantly, loss of NKAP expression causes aneuploidy in cultured cells, and is observed in human soft tissue sarcomas. These findings indicate that NKAP is a novel and key regulator of mitosis, and its dysregulation might contribute to tumorigenesis by causing chromosomal instability.

Hahn MM, Vreede L, Bemelmans SA, et al.
Prevalence of germline mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint gene BUB1B in individuals with early-onset colorectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(11):855-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in BUB1B, encoding BUBR1, one of the crucial components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), have been shown to cause variable phenotypes, including the recessive mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome, which predisposes to cancer. Reduced levels of the wild-type BUBR1 protein have been linked to the development of gastrointestinal neoplasms. To determine whether mutations in BUB1B are enriched in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed amplicon-based targeted next-generation sequencing of BUB1B on germline DNA of 192 individuals with early-onset CRC (≤50 years). None of the individuals was found to be homozygous or compound heterozygous for mutations in BUB1B. However, we did identify two rare heterozygous variants, p.Glu390del and p.Cys945Tyr, in patients who developed CRC at the ages of 41 and 43 years, respectively. Both variants were shown not to affect BUBR1 protein expression levels and protein localization. Since the p.Glu390del variant is located in the BUB3-binding domain, we also performed immunoprecipitation to examine whether this variant affects the binding of BUB1 or BUB3 to BUBR1 but, compared to wild-type BUBR1, no difference was observed. Our data suggest that mutations in BUB1B do not occur frequently in the germline of individuals with CRC and that BUB1B unlikely plays a major role in the predisposition to early-onset CRC. Whether carriers of pathogenic BUB1B mutations, such as the parents of MVA syndrome patients, have an increased risk for cancer remains of interest, as studies in mice have suggested that haploinsufficiency of BUB1B may cause an increase in carcinogen-induced tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rosa EA, Lia EN, Macedo SB, Amorim RF
In situ carcinoma developed over oral lichen planus: a case report with analysis of BUB3, p16, p53, Ki67 and SOX4 expression.
J Appl Oral Sci. 2015 Jul-Aug; 23(4):442-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral lichen planus (OLP) represents a common mucocutaneous disease. Various authors have suggested that OLP has malignant potential; however, the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation have not yet been elucidated. A 79-year-old man presented a white lesion for five months in the buccal mucosa diagnosed as OLP. After two months using 0.05% clobetasol ointment for treatment, the lesion became ulcerated. A new biopsy of the same lesion was performed, and histological analysis showed an in situ oral carcinoma (ISOC). An immunohistochemistry panel was performed, and p16 expression was negative in OLP, however, it showed weak cytoplasmic staining in ISOC. There was strong nuclear BUB3 staining in both OLP and ISOC areas. p53 showed less intense nuclear staining in both regions. Ki67 was negative in OLP area, but showed nuclear staining in the ISOC. SOX4 was negative in both studied areas. BUB3 expression, first reported in this case, and the p16 expression may suggest some influence of these genes on pathogenesis or malignant potential of OLP.

Giovinazzi S, Sirleto P, Aksenova V, et al.
Usp7 protects genomic stability by regulating Bub3.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(11):3728-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
USP7 (Ubiquitin Specific processing Protease-7) is a deubiquitinase which, over the past decade emerged as a critical regulator of cellular processes. Deregulation of USP7 activity has been linked to cancer, making USP7 inhibition an appealing anti-cancer strategy. The identification of novel USP7 substrates and additional USP7-dependent cellular activities will broaden our knowledge towards potential clinical application of USP7 inhibitors. Results presented in this study uncover a novel and pivotal function of USP7 in the maintenance of genomic stability. Upon USP7 depletion we observed prolonged mitosis and mitotic abnormalities including micronuclei accumulation, lagging chromosomes and karyotype instability. Inhibition of USP7 with small molecule inhibitors stabilizes cyclin B and causes mitotic abnormalities. Our results suggest that these USP7-dependent effects are mediated by decreased levels of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component Bub3, which we characterized as an interacting partner and substrate of USP7. In silico analysis across the NCI-60 panels of cell lines supports our results where lower levels of USP7 strongly correlate with genomic instability. In conclusion, we identified a novel role of USP7 as regulator of the SAC component Bub3 and genomic stability.

Singh CK, George J, Nihal M, et al.
Novel downstream molecular targets of SIRT1 in melanoma: a quantitative proteomics approach.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(7):1987-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer and its incidence is continuing to rise in the United States. Therefore, novel mechanism and target-based strategies are needed for the management of this disease. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes and pathological conditions. We recently demonstrated that SIRT1 is upregulated in melanoma and its inhibition by a small-molecule, tenovin-1, inhibits cell proliferation and clonogenic survival of melanoma cells, possibly via activating p53. Here, we employed a gel free quantitative proteomics approach to identify the downstream effectors and targets of SIRT1 in melanoma. The human malignant melanoma, G361 cells were treated with tenovin-1 followed by protein extraction, in liquid trypsin digestion, and peptide analyses using nanoLC-MS/MS. A total of 1091 proteins were identified, of which 20 proteins showed significant differential expression with 95% confidence interval. These proteins were subjected to gene ontology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to obtain the information regarding their biological and molecular functions. Real-Time qRT-PCR validation showed that five of these (PSAP, MYO1B, MOCOS, HIS1H4A and BUB3) were differentially expressed at mRNA levels. Based on their important role in cell cycle regulation, we selected to focus on BUB family proteins (BUB3, as well as BUB1 and BUBR1) for subsequent validation. The qRT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that tenovin-1 inhibition of SIRT1 resulted in a downregulation of BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1 in multiple melanoma cell lines. Since tenovin-1 is an inhibitor of both SIRT1 and SIRT2, we employed lentivirus mediated silencing of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in G361 cells to determine if the observed effects on BUB family proteins are due to SIRT1- or SIRT2- inhibition. We found that only SIRT1 inhibition resulted in a decrease in BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1. Our study identified the mitotic checkpoint regulator BUB family proteins as novel downstream targets of SIRT1. However, further validation is needed in appropriate models to confirm our findings and expand on our observations.

Wang P, Wang Y, Yan H, et al.
Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes and risk of breast cancer: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6701-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mitotic checkpoint system is a mechanism essential for maintaining genomic stability and defects which have been linked to cancer development. We conducted this hospital-based case-control study to investigate whether genetic variants in three major spindle checkpoint genes (BUB3, MAD2L1, and BUB1) had any bearing on an individual risk of breast cancer (BC). A total of 462 incident BC patients and 529 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this study. Results showed that neither variants in BUB3 nor variants in MAD2L1 caused any significant effect on the risk of BC. However, the variant rs12623473 in BUB1 was significantly associated with increased BC risk with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.64) under the allelic model. The estimated population attributable risk of one copy of the risk allele for developing BC was 10.3 %. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that this variant may regulate the transcriptional ability of BUB1.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Jiang Y, Li X, Yang W, et al.
PKM2 regulates chromosome segregation and mitosis progression of tumor cells.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(1):75-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is instrumental in both aerobic glycolysis and gene transcription. PKM2 regulates G1-S phase transition by controlling cyclin D1 expression. However, it is not known whether PKM2 directly controls cell-cycle progression. We show here that PKM2, but not PKM1, binds to the spindle checkpoint protein Bub3 during mitosis and phosphorylates Bub3 at Y207. This phosphorylation is required for Bub3-Bub1 complex recruitment to kinetochores, where it interacts with Blinkin and is essential for correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment, mitotic/spindle-assembly checkpoint, accurate chromosome segregation, cell survival and proliferation, and active EGF receptor-induced brain tumorigenesis. In addition, the level of Bub3 Y207 phosphorylation correlated with histone H3-S10 phosphorylation in human glioblastoma specimens and with glioblastoma prognosis. These findings highlight the role of PKM2 as a protein kinase controlling the fidelity of chromosome segregation, cell-cycle progression, and tumorigenesis.

de Voer RM, Geurts van Kessel A, Weren RD, et al.
Germline mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 are risk factors for colorectal cancer.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 145(3):544-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spindle assembly checkpoint controls proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and prevents aneuploidy-an important feature of cancer cells. We performed genome-wide and targeted copy number and mutation analyses of germline DNA from 208 patients with familial or early-onset (40 years of age or younger) colorectal cancer; we identified haploinsufficiency or heterozygous mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 in 2.9% of them. Besides colorectal cancer, these patients had variegated aneuploidies in multiple tissues and variable dysmorphic features. These results indicate that mutations in BUB1 and BUB3 cause mosaic variegated aneuploidy and increase the risk of colorectal cancer at a young age.

Morales AG, Pezuk JA, Brassesco MS, et al.
BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition decreases proliferation and colony formation, and enhances radiation sensitivity in pediatric glioblastoma cells.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2013; 29(12):2241-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a very aggressive and lethal brain tumor with poor prognosis. Despite new treatment strategies, patients' median survival is still lower than 1 year in most cases. The expression of the BUB gene family has demonstrated to be altered in a variety of solid tumors, pointing to a role as putative therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to determine BUB1, BUB3, and BUBR1 gene expression profiles in glioblastoma and to analyze the effects of BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition combined or not with Temozolomide and radiation in the pediatric SF188 GBM cell line.
METHODS: For gene expression analysis, 8 cell lines and 18 tumor samples were used. The effect of BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition was evaluated using siRNA. Apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, micronuclei formation, and clonogenic capacity were analyzed after BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition. Additionally, combinatorial effects of gene inhibition and radiation or Temozolomide (TMZ) treatment were evaluated through proliferation and clonogenic capacity assays.
RESULTS: We report the upregulation of BUB1 and BUBR1 expression and the downregulation of BUB3 in GBM samples and cell lines when compared to white matter samples (p < 0.05). Decreased cell proliferation and colony formation after BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition were observed, along with increased micronuclei formation. Combinations with TMZ also caused cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Moreover, our results demonstrate that BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition sensitized SF188 cells to γ-irradiation as shown by decreased growth and abrogation of colony formation capacity.
CONCLUSION: BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition decreases proliferation and shows radiosensitizing effects on pediatric GBM cells, which could improve treatment strategies for this devastating tumor. Collectively, these findings highlight the potentials of BUB1 and BUBR1 as putative therapeutic targets for glioblastoma treatment.

Bava FA, Eliscovich C, Ferreira PG, et al.
CPEB1 coordinates alternative 3'-UTR formation with translational regulation.
Nature. 2013; 495(7439):121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
More than half of mammalian genes generate multiple messenger RNA isoforms that differ in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and therefore in regulatory sequences, often associated with cell proliferation and cancer; however, the mechanisms coordinating alternative 3'-UTR processing for specific mRNA populations remain poorly defined. Here we report that the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA translation, also controls alternative 3'-UTR processing. CPEB1 shuttles to the nucleus, where it co-localizes with splicing factors and mediates shortening of hundreds of mRNA 3' UTRs, thereby modulating their translation efficiency in the cytoplasm. CPEB1-mediated 3'-UTR shortening correlates with cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. CPEB1 binding to pre-mRNAs not only directs the use of alternative polyadenylation sites, but also changes alternative splicing by preventing U2AF65 recruitment. Our results reveal a novel function of CPEB1 in mediating alternative 3'-UTR processing, which is coordinated with regulation of mRNA translation, through its dual nuclear and cytoplasmic functions.

Iacobucci I, Iraci N, Messina M, et al.
IKAROS deletions dictate a unique gene expression signature in patients with adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deletions of IKAROS (IKZF1) frequently occur in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) but the mechanisms by which they influence pathogenesis are unclear. To address this issue, a cohort of 144 adult B-ALL patients (106 BCR-ABL1-positive and 38 B-ALL negative for known molecular rearrangements) was screened for IKZF1 deletions by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays; a sub-cohort of these patients (44%) was then analyzed for gene expression profiling.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total or partial deletions of IKZF1 were more frequent in BCR-ABL1-positive than in BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL cases (75% vs 58%, respectively, p = 0.04). Comparison of the gene expression signatures of patients carrying IKZF1 deletion vs those without showed a unique signature featured by down-regulation of B-cell lineage and DNA repair genes and up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, JAK-STAT signalling and stem cell self-renewal. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays we corroborated these findings both in vivo and in vitro, showing that Ikaros deleted isoforms lacked the ability to directly regulate a large group of the genes in the signature, such as IGLL1, BLK, EBF1, MSH2, BUB3, ETV6, YES1, CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2C (p18) and MCL1.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we identified and validated for the first time molecular pathways specifically controlled by IKZF1, shedding light into IKZF1 role in B-ALL pathogenesis.

Xu M, Takanashi M, Oikawa K, et al.
Identification of a novel role of Septin 10 in paclitaxel-resistance in cancers through a functional genomics screen.
Cancer Sci. 2012; 103(4):821-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel (also known as taxol) is a member of the taxane class of anticancer agents, which has a well-known mechanism that blocks cell mitosis and kills tumor cells, that is often used in clinics to treat cancer. However, some carcinomas such as breast, ovarian and non-small-cell lung cancers are often resistant to paclitaxel treatment. In this study, we used a lentiviral siRNA library against the entire human genomes to identify genes associated with sensitivity to paclitaxel. We isolated two paclitaxel-resistant clones carrying the siRNA specific to septin 10 (SEPT10) and to budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3. The relation of budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 to paclitaxel sensitivity has already been established, but that of SEPT10 remains unknown. Interestingly, overexpression of SEPT10 increased cells' sensitivity to paclitaxel; we also found that SEPT10 is an important regulator for microtubule stability. Furthermore, we found that paclitaxel-resistant tumors had decreased expression of SEPT10. Thus, SEPT10 may be a novel candidate molecule that acts as a good indicator of paclitaxel-resistant carcinomas.

Yan H, Zhu S, Song C, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates mitotic checkpoint protein levels in human breast cancer cells.
Cell Signal. 2012; 24(4):961-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of mitotic checkpoint genes compromises mitotic checkpoint, leads to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis. However, the cell signals that control mitotic checkpoint gene expression have not been reported so far. In the present study we show that, in human breast cancer cells, chemical inhibition of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), but not Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), abrogates the mitotic arrest induced by nocodazole. Protein expression analysis reveals that inhibition of BMP signaling dramatically down regulates protein levels of mitotic checkpoint components BUB3, Hec1, TTK and MAD2, but inhibition of TGF-β has relatively minor effect on the expression of these proteins. Activation of BMP signaling specifically up regulates BUB3, and activation of Activin A signaling globally down regulates these proteins level. Furthermore, overexpressing MAD2, TTK, BUB3 or Hec1 significantly rescues the mitotic arrest defect caused by BMP inhibition. Our results demonstrated for the first time that TGF-β family cytokines are cellular signals regulating mitotic checkpoint and perturbations in intrinsic BMP signaling could lead to suppression of mitotic checkpoint signaling by downregulating key checkpoint proteins. The results suggest a possible mechanism by which dysregulation of TGF-β signaling causes mitotic checkpoint defects and drives tumorigenesis. The finding also provides a potential and more specific strategy for cancer prevention by targeting BMP and mitotic checkpoint connection.

Bie L, Zhao G, Cheng P, et al.
The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25631 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK) significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001), and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.

Wolanin K, Magalska A, Kusio-Kobialka M, et al.
Expression of oncogenic kinase Bcr-Abl impairs mitotic checkpoint and promotes aberrant divisions and resistance to microtubule-targeting agents.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2010; 9(5):1328-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent findings showed that BRCA1, in addition to its role in DNA damage response, acts as an upstream regulator of genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint regulation, thus protecting against promotion of aberrant divisions and aneuploidy. Moreover, there is also an indication that the BRCA1 protein is downregulated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. We have investigated a possible functional relationship between BRCA1 and mitotic checkpoint competence in cells with the same genetic background expressing different levels of Bcr-Abl, an oncogene responsible for CML. Herein, we show that Bcr-Abl strongly downregulates the BRCA1 protein level, which is partially reversed on treatment with imatinib, an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl leads to decreased expression of genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint activation--Mad2, Bub1, Bub3, and BubR1, resulting in mitosis perturbances, weakened mitotic checkpoint function, and mitotic slippage after nocodazole treatment. Furthermore, high Bcr-Abl-expressing cells showed also postmitotic checkpoint dysfunctions and inability to effectively arrest in the 4NG1 phase of the cell cycle, which was associated with limited p21 induction. These observations had significant biological consequences, as we found a high level of improper divisions, chromosomal missegregation, and generation of polyploid cells on mitotic checkpoint prolonged activation. Additionally, Bcr-Abl-expressing cells showed resistance to death activated by spindle defects, reversed by imatinib. Our study presents new facts and supports the hypothesis concerning the mutator nature of Bcr-Abl itself. The functional interaction between Bcr-Abl and mitosis dysfunctions, due to compromised mitotic checkpoints, may have important implications for the generation of aneuploidy and CML progression.

Turner N, Lambros MB, Horlings HM, et al.
Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(14):2013-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a relatively poor prognosis and cannot be effectively treated with current targeted therapies. We searched for genes that have the potential to be therapeutic targets by identifying genes consistently overexpressed when amplified. Fifty-six TNBCs were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), of which 24 were subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis. TNBCs were genetically heterogeneous; no individual focal amplification was present at high frequency, although 78.6% of TNBCs harboured at least one focal amplification. Integration of aCGH and expression data revealed 40 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified, including the known oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets, FGFR2 (10q26.3), BUB3 (10q26.3), RAB20 (13q34), PKN1 (19p13.12) and NOTCH3 (19p13.12). We identified two TNBC cell lines with FGFR2 amplification, which both had constitutive activation of FGFR2. Amplified cell lines were highly sensitive to FGFR inhibitor PD173074, and to RNAi silencing of FGFR2. Treatment with PD173074 induced apoptosis resulting partly from inhibition of PI3K-AKT signalling. Independent validation using publicly available aCGH data sets revealed FGFR2 gene was amplified in 4% (6/165) of TNBC, but not in other subtypes (0/214, P=0.0065). Our analysis demonstrates that TNBCs are heterogeneous tumours with amplifications of FGFR2 in a subgroup of tumours.

Caprini E, Cristofoletti C, Arcelli D, et al.
Identification of key regions and genes important in the pathogenesis of sezary syndrome by combining genomic and expression microarrays.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(21):8438-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphism and comparative genomic hybridization array to study DNA copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity for 28 patients affected by Sézary syndrome (SS), a rare form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Our data identified, further confirming previous studies, recurrent losses of 17p13.2-p11.2 and 10p12.1-q26.3 occurring in 71% and 68% of cases, respectively; common gains were detected for 17p11.2-q25.3 (64%) and chromosome 8/8q (50%). Moreover, we identified novel genomic lesions recurring in >30% of tumors: loss of 9q13-q21.33 and gain of 10p15.3-10p12.2. Individual chromosomal aberrations did not show a significant correlation with prognosis; however, when more than three recurrent chromosomal alterations (gain or loss) were considered, a statistical association was observed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Integrating mapping and transcriptional data, we were able to identify a total of 113 deregulated transcripts in aberrant chromosomal regions that included cancer-related genes such as members of the NF-kappaB pathway (BAG4, BTRC, NKIRAS2, PSMD3, and TRAF2) that might explain its constitutive activation in CTCL. Matching this list of genes with those discriminating patients with different survival times, we identify several common candidates that might exert critical roles in SS, such as BUB3 and PIP5K1B. Altogether, our study confirms and maps more precisely the regions of gain and loss and, combined to transcriptional profiles, suggests a novel set of genes of potential interest in SS.

Pinto M, Vieira J, Ribeiro FR, et al.
Overexpression of the mitotic checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUBR1 is associated with genomic complexity in clear cell kidney carcinomas.
Cell Oncol. 2008; 30(5):389-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A defective mitotic checkpoint has been proposed to contribute to chromosomal instability (CIN). We have previously shown that expression changes of the mitotic arrest deficiency (MAD) gene family plays a role in renal cell cancer (RCC) characterized by numerical chromosomal changes, namely papillary and chromophobe carcinomas, but nothing is known about the expression of mitotic checkpoint genes in the clear cell histotype (ccRCC).
METHODS: We analyzed the mRNA expression levels of the major mitotic checkpoint genes of the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole family (BUB1, BUBR1, BUB3) and of the MAD gene family (MAD1, MAD2L1, MAD2L2) by real-time quantitative PCR in 39 ccRCC and in 36 normal kidney tissue samples. We have additionally analyzed these tumors by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to evaluate the relationship between mitotic checkpoint defects and the pattern of chromosome changes in this subset of RCC.
RESULTS: BUB1, BUBR1, MAD1 and MAD2L1 showed significant expression differences in tumor tissue compared to controls (BUB1, BUBR1 and MAD2L1 were overexpressed, whereas MAD1 was underexpressed). Overexpression of BUB1 and BUBR1 was significantly correlated with the number of genomic copy number changes (p<0.001 for both genes) and with Furhman grade of the tumors (p=0.006 and p=0.005, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BUB1 and BUBR1 overexpression plays a role in cytogenetic and morphologic progression of ccRCC.

Morandi E, Severini C, Quercioli D, et al.
Gene expression time-series analysis of camptothecin effects in U87-MG and DBTRG-05 glioblastoma cell lines.
Mol Cancer. 2008; 7:66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of camptothecin (CPT), a drug specifically targeting topoisomerase I (TopoI), is under evaluation for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Due to the high unresponsiveness of these tumours to chemotherapy, it would be very important to study the signalling network that drives camptothecin outcome in this type of cancer cells. To address this issue, we had previously compared the expression profile of human U87-MG glioblastoma cells with that of a CPT-resistant counterpart, giving evidence that the development of a robust inflammatory response was the main transcriptional effect associated with CPT resistance. Here we report time-related changes and cell line specific patterns of gene expression after CPT treatment by using two p53 wild-type glioblastoma cell lines, U87-MG and DBTRG-05, with different sensitivities to TopoI inhibition.
RESULTS: First, we demonstrated that CPT treatment brings the two cell lines to completely different outcomes: accelerated senescence in U87-MG and apoptosis in DBTRG-05 cells. Then, to understand the different susceptibility to CPT, we used oligo-microarray to identify the genes whose expression was regulated during a time-course treatment, ranging from 2 h to 72 h. The statistical analysis of microarray data by MAANOVA (MicroArray ANalysis Of VAriance) showed much less modulated genes in apoptotic DBTRG-05 cells (155) with respect to the senescent U87-MG cells (3168), where the number of down-regulated genes largely exceeded that of the up-regulated ones (80% vs. 20%). Despite this great difference, the two data-sets showed a large overlapping (60% circa) mainly due to the expression of early stress responsive genes. The use of High-Throughput GoMINER and EASE tools, for functional analysis of significantly enriched GO terms, highlighted common cellular processes and showed that U87-MG and DBTRG-05 cells shared many GO terms, which are related to the down-regulation of cell cycle and mitosis and to the up-regulation of cell growth inhibition and DNA damage.Furthermore, the down-regulation of MYC and DP1 genes, which act as key transcription factors in cell growth control, together with the inhibition of BUB1, BUB3 and MAD2 mRNAs, which are known to be involved in the spindle checkpoint pathway, were specifically associated with the execution of senescence in U87-MG cells and addressed as critical factors that could drive the choice between different CPT-inducible effectors programs. In U87-MG cells we also found inflammation response and IL1-beta induction, as late transcriptional effects of Topo I treatment but these changes were only partially involved in the senescence development, as shown by IL1-beta gene silencing.
CONCLUSION: By comparing the transcription profile of two glioblastoma cell lines treated with camptothecin, we were able to identify the common cellular pathways activated upon Topo I inhibition. Moreover, our results helped in identifying some key genes whose expression seemed to be associated with the execution of senescence or apoptosis in U87-MG and DBTRG-05 cells, respectively.

Wada N, Yoshida A, Miyagi Y, et al.
Overexpression of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint genes hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature.
Anticancer Res. 2008 Jan-Feb; 28(1A):139-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (MSAC) genes are responsible for preventing chromosome missegregation. MSAC gene expressions have been reported to be associated with tumor cell proliferation or unfavorable cancer behavior. The present study was conducted to preliminary investigate the MSAC gene expressions in thyroid neoplasms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression levels of MSAC genes (hBUB1, hBUBR1, hBUB3 and hMAD2) were evaluated in 9 follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs), 9 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 21 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 5 anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and 3 adjacent normal thyroid tissues (NTs) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. These gene expressions were compared between undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) and between advanced DTCs and non-advanced DTCs. DTCs included PTCs and FTCs. Advanced DTCs were defined as carcinoma with aggressive nature such as extrathyroid extension, distant metastasis, recurrence or death from the disease.
RESULTS: MSAC gene expressions varied in different thyroid tumors and fell in the order of ATC, DTC (PTC and FTC), FA and NT Carcinomas had higher expression compared to adenoma or normal tissue. hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 expressions in ATCs were significantly higher than those in DTCs (p<0.005). hBUBR1 and hMAD2 expressions in advanced DTCs were significantly higher than those in non-advanced DTCs (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The MSAC genes were overexpressed in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature. Further studies are required to clarify the relationship between the MSAC gene expressions and thyroid cancer behavior.

Greene LM, Campiani G, Lawler M, et al.
BubR1 is required for a sustained mitotic spindle checkpoint arrest in human cancer cells treated with tubulin-targeting pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines.
Mol Pharmacol. 2008; 73(2):419-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major clinical problem that has evoked the need to develop innovative approaches to predict and ultimately reverse drug resistance. A prolonged G(2)M arrest has been associated with apoptotic resistance to various microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs). In this study, we describe the functional significance of the mitotic spindle checkpoint proteins, BubR1 and Bub3, in maintaining a mitotic arrest after microtubule disruption by nocodazole and a novel series of MTAs, the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines (PBOXs), in human cancer cells. Cells expressing high levels of BubR1 and Bub3 (K562, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa) display a prolonged G(2)M arrest after exposure to MTAs. On the other hand, cells with low endogenous levels of mitotic spindle checkpoint proteins (SK-BR-3 and HL-60) transiently arrest in mitosis and undergo increased apoptosis. The phosphorylation of BubR1 correlated with PBOX-induced G(2)M arrest in four cell lines tested, indicating an active mitotic spindle checkpoint. Gene silencing of BubR1 by small interfering RNA interference reduced PBOX-induced G(2)M arrest without enhancing apoptotic efficacy. Further analysis demonstrated that PBOX-treated BubR1-depleted cells were both mononucleated and multinucleated with a polyploid DNA content, suggesting a requirement for BubR1 in cytokinesis. Taken together, these results suggest that BubR1 contributes to the mitotic checkpoint induced by the PBOXs.

Pinto M, Soares MJ, Cerveira N, et al.
Expression changes of the MAD mitotic checkpoint gene family in renal cell carcinomas characterized by numerical chromosome changes.
Virchows Arch. 2007; 450(4):379-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are characterized by multiple trisomies and monosomies, respectively, but the molecular mechanisms behind the acquisition of these numerical chromosome changes are unknown. To evaluate the role of mitotic checkpoint defects for the karyotypic patterns characteristic of these two renal cell cancer subtypes, we analyzed the messenger RNA expression levels of the major mitotic checkpoint genes of the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole family (BUB1, BUBR1, BUB3) and of the mitotic arrest deficiency family (MAD1, MAD2L1, MAD2L2) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 30 renal cell cancer samples (11 chromophobe and 19 papillary) and 36 normal kidney tissue samples. MAD1, MAD2L1, and MAD2L2 showed significant expression differences in tumor tissue compared to controls. Chromophobe tumors presented underexpression of MAD1, and MAD2L2, whereas papillary tumors showed overexpression of MAD2L1. The expression level of the BUB gene family did not differ significantly from that of normal kidney. We conclude that expression changes in mitotic arrest deficiency genes (MAD1, MAD2L1, and MAD2L2) play a role in renal carcinogenesis characterized by multiple numerical chromosome abnormalities.

Vaclavicek A, Bermejo JL, Wappenschmidt B, et al.
Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes does not affect familial breast cancer risk.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007; 106(2):205-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aneuploidy, an aberrant number of chromosomes, is a very common characteristic of many types of cancers, including tumors of the breast. There is increasing evidence that defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint, which controls correct chromosome segregation between two daughter cells, might contribute to tumorigenesis. In the present study we examined the effect of promoter and coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six major spindle checkpoint genes (BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD2L1, MAD2L2, TTK) on familial breast cancer (BC) risk. A case-control study was carried out with a total of nine SNPs using 441 German, familial BC cases and 552 controls matched by age, ethnicity and geographical region. Neither the individual SNPs in the studied genes nor the haplotypes in the BUB1B, CENPE and TTK genes caused any significant effect on the risk of BC. We used the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method in order to identify gene-gene interactions among the six mitotic checkpoint genes, but no association was detected. Therefore, our results indicate that the investigated SNPs in the mitotic checkpoint genes do not affect the risk of familial BC.

Crosby ME, Jacobberger J, Gupta D, et al.
E2F4 regulates a stable G2 arrest response to genotoxic stress in prostate carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(13):1897-909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The retinoblastoma (pRB) family proteins regulate the E2F transcription factors; their complexes regulate critical transitions through the cell cycle. The function of these pRB family/E2F complexes, which includes p130/E2F4, in response to genotoxic agents, is not well understood. We investigated the role of E2F4 in the genotoxic stress response. Following radiation treatment, E2F4 colocalized with p130 in the nucleus during a radiation-induced stable G(2)-phase arrest. Arrested cells had significantly decreased expression of Cyclins A2 and B1 and decreased phosphorylation of mitotic protein monoclonal-2 (MPM-2) mitotic proteins. Small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of E2F4 sensitized cells to subsequent irradiation, resulting in enhanced cellular DNA damage and cell death, as determined by caspase activation and decreased clonogenic cell survival. Downstream E2F4 targets potentially involved in the progression from G(2) into M phase were identified by oligonucleotide microarray expression profiling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation localized E2F4 at promoter regions of the Bub3 and Pttg1 mitotic genes following irradiation, which were among the downregulated genes identified by the microarray. These data suggest that in response to radiation, E2F4 becomes active in the nucleus, enforces a stable G(2) arrest by target gene repression, and thus provides increased cell survival ability by minimizing propagation of cells that have irreparable DNA damage.

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