AURKB

Gene Summary

Gene:AURKB; aurora kinase B
Aliases: AIK2, AIM1, ARK2, AurB, IPL1, STK5, AIM-1, STK12, PPP1R48, aurkb-sv1, aurkb-sv2
Location:17p13.1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the aurora kinase subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The genes encoding the other two members of this subfamily are located on chromosomes 19 and 20. These kinases participate in the regulation of segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis through association with microtubules. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:aurora kinase B
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 18 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (32)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 18 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • AURKB
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Cycle
  • Mutation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Validation Studies as Topic
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • beta Catenin
  • Xenograft Models
  • Up-Regulation
  • Quinazolines
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Mitosis
  • p53 Protein
  • Chromosome 17
  • cdc25 Phosphatases
  • Transcription
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Aurora Kinases
  • Virus Replication
  • Aurora Kinase A
  • Phosphorylation
  • Stem Cells
  • Aurora Kinase B
  • Protein Binding
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • siRNA
  • Zinc Fingers
  • RB1
  • RTPCR
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Tumor Markers
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transfection
Tag cloud generated 18 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AURKB (cancer-related)

He JY, Xi WH, Zhu LB, et al.
Knockdown of Aurora-B alters osteosarcoma cell malignant phenotype via decreasing phosphorylation of VCP and NF-κB signaling.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3895-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of inhibiting Aurora-B on osteosarcoma (OS) cell malignant phenotype, phosphorylation of valosin-containing protein (VCP), and the activity of NF-κB signaling in vitro. The expressions of Aurora-B and p-VCP proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in 24 OS tissues, and the relationship between Aurora-B and p-VCP was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between Aurora-B and p-VCP proteins. The expression of Aurora-B in human OS cell lines U2-OS and HOS cells was inhibited by specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus (AURKB-shRNA lentivirus, Lv-shAURKB) which targeted Aurora-B. The results showed that the phosphorylation of VCP, the activity of NF-κB signaling pathway and the malignant phenotype of OS cells were all suppressed by knockdown of Aurora-B. It indicated that the inhibition of Aurora-B alters OS cells malignant phenotype by downregulating phosphorylation of VCP and activating of the NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro.

Sijare F, Geißler AL, Fichter CD, et al.
Aurora B expression and histone variant H1.4S27 phosphorylation are no longer coordinated during metaphase in aneuploid colorectal carcinomas.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(5):503-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Experimental model systems identified phosphorylation of linker histone variant H1.4 at Ser 27 (H1.4S27p) as a novel mitotic mark set by Aurora B kinase. Here, we examined expression of Aurora B and H1.4S27p in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines (HCT116, DLD1, Caco-2, HT29) and tissue specimens (n = 36), in relation to microsatellite instability (MSI) status and ploidy. In vitro, Aurora B (pro-/meta-/anaphase) and H1.4S27p (pro-/metaphase) were localized in mitotic figures. The proportion of labeled mitoses was significantly different between cell lines for Aurora B (p = 0.019) but not for H1.4S27p (p = 0.879). For Aurora B, these differences were not associated with an altered Aurora B gene copy number (FISH) or messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level (qRT-PCR). Moreover, Aurora B expression and H1.4S27 phosphorylation were no longer coordinated during metaphase in aneuploid HT29 cells (p = 0.039). In CRCs, immunoreactivity for Aurora B or H1.4S27p did not correlate with T- or N-stage, grade, or MSI status. However, metaphase labeling of H1.4S27p was significantly higher in diploid than in aneuploid CRCs (p = 0.011). Aurora B was significantly correlated with H1.4S27p-positive metaphases in MSI (p = 0.010) or diploid (p = 0.003) CRCs. Finally, combined classification of MSI status and ploidy revealed a significant positive correlation of Aurora B with H1.4S27p in metaphases of diploid/MSI (p = 0.010) and diploid/microsatellite-stable (MSS; p = 0.031) but not of aneuploid/MSS (p = 0.458) CRCs. The present study underlines the functional link of Aurora B expression and H1.4S27p during specific phases of mitosis in diploid and/or MSI-positive CRCs in vitro and in situ. Importantly, the study shows that the coordination between Aurora B expression and phosphorylation of H1.4 at Ser 27 is lost in cycling aneuploid CRC cells.

Kabisch M, Lorenzo Bermejo J, Dünnebier T, et al.
Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(2):256-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key CPC components and breast cancer risk. Fifteen SNPs in four CPC genes (INCENP, AURKB, BIRC5 and CDCA8) were genotyped in 88 911 European women from 39 case-control studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Possible associations were investigated in fixed-effects meta-analyses. The synonymous SNP rs1675126 in exon 7 of INCENP was associated with overall breast cancer risk [per A allele odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.98, P = 0.007] and particularly with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors (per A allele OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95, P = 0.0005). SNPs not directly genotyped were imputed based on 1000 Genomes. The SNPs rs1047739 in the 3' untranslated region and rs144045115 downstream of INCENP showed the strongest association signals for overall (per T allele OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.0009) and ER-negative breast cancer risk (per A allele OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10, P = 0.0002). Two genotyped SNPs in BIRC5 were associated with familial breast cancer risk (top SNP rs2071214: per G allele OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, P = 0.002). The data suggest that INCENP in the CPC pathway contributes to ER-negative breast cancer susceptibility in the European population. In spite of a modest contribution of CPC-inherited variants to the total burden of sporadic and familial breast cancer, their potential as novel targets for breast cancer treatment should be further investigated.

Jiang Y, Wang Y, Wang T, et al.
PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 and regulates cytokinesis of tumour cells.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5566 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is expressed at high levels during embryonic development and tumour progression and is important for cell growth. However, it is not known whether it directly controls cell division. Here, we found that Aurora B phosphorylates PKM2, but not PKM1, at T45; this phosphorylation is required for PKM2's localization and interaction with myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) in the contractile ring region of mitotic cells during cytokinesis. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 at Y118, which primes the binding of ROCK2 to MLC2 and subsequent ROCK2-dependent MLC2 S15 phosphorylation. PKM2-regulated MLC2 phosphorylation, which is greatly enhanced by EGF stimulation or EGFRvIII, K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E mutant expression, plays a pivotal role in cytokinesis, cell proliferation and brain tumour development. These findings underscore the instrumental function of PKM2 in oncogenic EGFR-, K-Ras- and B-Raf-regulated cytokinesis and tumorigenesis.

Wan L, Tan HL, Thomas-Ahner JM, et al.
Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014; 7(12):1228-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Consumption of tomato products containing the carotenoid lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. To identify gene expression patterns associated with early testosterone-driven prostate carcinogenesis, which are impacted by dietary tomato and lycopene, wild-type (WT) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were fed control or tomato- or lycopene-containing diets from 4 to 10 weeks of age. Eight-week-old mice underwent sham surgery, castration, or castration followed by testosterone repletion (2.5 mg/kg/d initiated 1 week after castration). Ten-week-old intact TRAMP mice exhibit early multifocal prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Of the 200 prostate cancer-related genes measured by quantitative NanoString, 189 are detectable, 164 significantly differ by genotype, 179 by testosterone status, and 30 by diet type (P < 0.05). In TRAMP, expression of Birc5, Mki67, Aurkb, Ccnb2, Foxm1, and Ccne2 is greater compared with WT and is decreased by castration. In parallel, castration reduces Ki67-positive staining (P < 0.0001) compared with intact and testosterone-repleted TRAMP mice. Expression of genes involved in androgen metabolism/signaling pathways is reduced by lycopene feeding (Srd5a1) and by tomato feeding (Srd5a2, Pxn, and Srebf1). In addition, tomato feeding significantly reduced expression of genes associated with stem cell features, Aldh1a and Ly6a, whereas lycopene feeding significantly reduced expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related genes, Ngfr and Syp. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a profile of testosterone-regulated genes associated with early prostate carcinogenesis that are potential mechanistic targets of dietary tomato components. Future studies on androgen signaling/metabolism, stem cell features, and neuroendocrine differentiation pathways may elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary tomato and lycopene impact prostate cancer risk.

Zekri A, Ghaffari SH, Ghanizadeh-Vesali S, et al.
AZD1152-HQPA induces growth arrest and apoptosis in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) via producing aneugenic micronuclei and polyploidy.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):623-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the frequent non-cutaneous tumor with high mortality in men. Prostate tumors contain cells with different status of androgen receptor. Androgen receptor plays important roles in progression and treatment of prostate cancer. Aurora B kinase, with oncogenic potential, is involved in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, and its inhibition is a promising anti-cancer therapy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Aurora B inhibitor, AZD1152-HQPA, on survival and proliferation of androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer cells. LNCaP was used as androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line. We explored the effects of AZD1152-HQPA on cell viability, DNA content, micronuclei formation, and expression of genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle. Moreover, the expression of Aurora B and AR were investigated in 23 benign prostatic hyperplasia and 38 prostate cancer specimens. AZD1152-HQPA treatment induced defective cell survival, polyploidy, and cell death in LNCaP cell line. Centromeric labeling with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the loss of whole chromosomes is the origin of micronuclei, indicating on aneugenic action of AZD1152-HQPA. Treatment of AZD1152-HQPA decreased expression of AR. Moreover, we found weak positive correlations between the expression of Aurora B and AR in both benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer specimens (r = 0.25, r = 0.41). This is the first time to show that AZD1152-HQPA can be a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line. AZD1152-HQPA induces aneugenic mechanism of micronuclei production. Taken together, this study provides new insight into the direction to overcome the therapeutic impediments against prostate cancer.

Michaelis M, Selt F, Rothweiler F, et al.
Aurora kinases as targets in drug-resistant neuroblastoma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108758 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Aurora kinase inhibitors displayed activity in pre-clinical neuroblastoma models. Here, we studied the effects of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) and the aurora kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) that shows some specificity for aurora kinase A over aurora kinase B in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Both compounds displayed anti-neuroblastoma activity in the nanomolar range. The anti-neuroblastoma mechanism included inhibition of aurora kinase signalling as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the aurora kinase substrate histone H3, cell cycle inhibition in G2/M phase, and induction of apoptosis. The activity of alisertib but not of tozasertib was affected by ABCB1 expression. Aurora kinase inhibitors induced a p53 response and their activity was enhanced in combination with the MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, aurora kinases are potential drug targets in therapy-refractory neuroblastoma, in particular for the vast majority of p53 wild-type cases.

Sako N, Dessirier V, Bagot M, et al.
HACE1, a potential tumor suppressor gene on 6q21, is not involved in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma pathophysiology.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(11):2899-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal natural killer-T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of nasal type is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of natural killer or more rarely T cells, associated with clonal Epstein-Barr virus infection. NKTCL is an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis. Although the pathogenesis of NKTCL is little understood, some insight has been gained in the recent years, especially from genome-wide studies, which revealed a deletion on chromosome 6q21 in more than 50% of patients. Of interest, this deleted region contains four candidate tumor suppressor genes whose decreased expression has been confirmed at the mRNA level: PRDM1, ATG5, AIM1, and HACE1. Mutations and methylation in PRDM1, ATG5, and AIM1 have been reported in NKTCL cell lines. We investigated the involvement of HACE1 in NKTCL pathophysiology. Even though the hypermethylation of CpG-177 island located directly upstream of HACE1 locus led to down-regulation of HACE1 mRNA, the protein product was expressed at nearly normal levels and was functional in the NKTCL cell lines regardless of 6q21 deletion (and indeed no double deletion of 6q21 and no nonfunctional mutations have been reported). Furthermore, contrary to previous report, overexpression of HACE1 by transduction of recombinant protein did not affect proliferation or survival of NKTCL cell lines. We therefore conclude that HACE1 is not directly involved in NKTCL pathophysiology.

Hatfield KJ, Reikvam H, Bruserud Ø
Identification of a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia characterized by long-term in vitro proliferation and altered cell cycle regulation of the leukemic cells.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014; 18(11):1237-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The malignant cell population of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) includes a small population of stem/progenitor cells with long-term in vitro proliferation. We wanted to compare long-term AML cell proliferation for unselected patients, investigate the influence of endothelial cells on AML cell proliferation and identify biological characteristics associated with clonogenic capacity.
METHODS: Cells were cultured in medium supplemented with recombinant growth factors FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, stem cell factor, IL-3, G-CSF and thrombopoietin. The colony-forming unit assay was used to estimate the number of progenitors in AML cell populations after 35 days of culture, and microarray was used to study global gene expression profiles between AML patients.
RESULTS: Long-term cell proliferation was observed in 7 of 31 patients, whereas 3 additional patients showed long-term proliferation after endothelial cell coculture. Patient-specific differences in constitutive cytokine release were maintained during cell culture. Patients with long-term proliferation showed altered expression in six cell cycle-related genes (HMMR, BUB1, NUSAP1, AURKB, CCNF, DLGAP5), two genes involved in DNA replication (TOP2A, RFC3) and one gene with unknown function (LHFPL2).
CONCLUSION: We identified a subset of AML patients characterized by long-term in vitro cell proliferation and altered expression of cell cycle regulators that may be potential candidates for treatment of AML.

Liu JM, Long XH, Zhang GM, et al.
Let-7g reverses malignant phenotype of osteosarcoma cells by targeting Aurora-B.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8):4596-606 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Accumulating studies revealed that the expression levels of several miRNAs are up or down-regulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance and molecular of the let-7g in OS cells. The expression levels of let-7g was significantly down-regulated in OS cell lines U2-OS and HOS cell compared to osteoblast cell lines HOB cell. Moreover, bioinformatic prediction suggested that Aurora-B, which is overexpressed and functions as an oncogene in OS cells, is a putative target gene of let-7g. Using mRNA and protein expression analysis and luciferase assays, we further identified let-7g directly regulated Aurora-B expression in OS cells. Functional investigation revealed both restoration of let-7g and silencing Aurora-B induce cell apoptosis and suppressed cell viability, migratory and invasive ability in OS cells. Finally, we found that silencing Aurora-B in OS cells could partly dampen anti-let-7g mediated tumor promotion. Thus, our findings suggested that let-7g inhibits OS cell malignant phenotype at least partly through targeting Aurora-B. Targeting of let-7g and Aurora-B may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating OS.

Han SS, Han S, Kamberos NL
Piperlongumine inhibits the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines irrespective of glucocorticoid resistance.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 452(3):669-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. PL selectively kills both solid and hematologic cancer cells, but not normal counterparts. Here we evaluated the effect of PL on the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), including glucocorticoid (GC)-resistant B-ALL. Regardless of GC-resistance, PL inhibited the proliferation of all B-ALL cell lines, but not normal B cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via elevation of ROS. Interestingly, PL did not sensitize most of B-ALL cell lines to dexamethasone (DEX). Only UoC-B1 exhibited a weak synergistic effect between PL and DEX. All B-ALL cell lines tested exhibited constitutive activation of multiple transcription factors (TFs), including AP-1, MYC, NF-κB, SP1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT6 and YY1. Treatment of the B-ALL cells with PL significantly downregulated these TFs and modulated their target genes. While activation of AURKB, BIRC5, E2F1, and MYB mRNA levels were significantly downregulated by PL, but SOX4 and XBP levels were increased by PL. Intriguingly, PL also increased the expression of p21 in B-ALL cells through a p53-independent mechanism. Given that these TFs and their target genes play critical roles in a variety of hematological malignancies, our findings provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including B-ALL and GC-resistant B-ALL.

Ou O, Huppi K, Chakka S, et al.
Loss-of-function RNAi screens in breast cancer cells identify AURKB, PLK1, PIK3R1, MAPK12, PRKD2, and PTK6 as sensitizing targets of rapamycin activity.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(2):336-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/11/2015 Related Publications
The use of molecularly targeted drugs as single agents has shown limited utility in many tumor types, largely due to the complex and redundant nature of oncogenic signaling networks. Targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway through inhibition of mTOR in combination with aromatase inhibitors has seen success in particular sub-types of breast cancer and there is a need to identify additional synergistic combinations to maximize the clinical potential of mTOR inhibitors. We have used loss-of-function RNAi screens of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin to identify sensitizers of mTOR inhibition. RNAi screens conducted in combination with rapamycin in multiple breast cancer cell lines identified six genes, AURKB, PLK1, PIK3R1, MAPK12, PRKD2, and PTK6 that when silenced, each enhanced the sensitivity of multiple breast cancer lines to rapamycin. Using selective pharmacological agents we confirmed that inhibition of AURKB or PLK1 synergizes with rapamycin. Compound-associated gene expression data suggested histone deacetylation (HDAC) inhibition as a strategy for reducing the expression of several of the rapamycin-sensitizing genes, and we tested and validated this using the HDAC inhibitor entinostat in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate new approaches for enhancing the efficacy of rapamycin including the use of combining its application with HDAC inhibition.

Boeckx C, Op de Beeck K, Wouters A, et al.
Overcoming cetuximab resistance in HNSCC: the role of AURKB and DUSP proteins.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(2):365-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Unraveling the underlying mechanisms of cetuximab resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is of major importance as many tumors remain non-responsive or become resistant. Our microarray results suggest that "resistant" cells still exhibit RAS-MAPK pathway signaling contributing to drug resistance, as witnessed by low expression of DUSP5 and DUSP6, negative regulators of ERK1/2, and increased expression of AURKB, a key regulator of mitosis. Therefore, interrupting the RAS-MAPK pathway by an ERK1/2 inhibitor (apigenin) or an AURKB inhibitor (barasertib) might be a new strategy for overcoming cetuximab resistance in HNSCC.

Sheng Y, Li W, Zhu F, et al.
3,6,2',4',5'-Pentahydroxyflavone, an orally bioavailable multiple protein kinase inhibitor, overcomes gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(41):28192-201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most lethal cancer, causing more than 150,000 deaths in the United States in 2013. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib are not perfect clinical therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment due to primary or acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Herein, 3,6,2',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone (36245-PHF) was identified as a multiple kinase inhibitor for NSCLC treatment based on the computational screening of a natural products database. 36245-PHF was shown to inhibit PI3K and Aurora A and B kinases and overcome gefitinib-resistant NSCLC growth. Our data clearly showed that 36245-PHF markedly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines and exerted a substantial chemotherapeutic effect following oral administration in a gefitinib-resistant NSCLC xenograft model. The evidence from three different subsequent methodological approaches, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, all confirmed that 36245-PHF as a multiple protein kinase inhibitor. Overall, we identified 36245-PHF as a multiple protein kinase inhibitor and as a novel therapeutic agent to overcome gefitinib-resistant NSCLC growth, which could provide a new option for clinical NSCLC oral treatment.

Zhu LB, Jiang J, Zhu XP, et al.
Knockdown of Aurora-B inhibits osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration via modulating PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(7):3984-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Increasing evidences reveal that Aurora-B may be involved in metastasis of malignant tumor. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Aurora-B on invasion and migration of OS cells and the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro. The expression of Aurora-B and p-Akt (Ser473) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between Aurora-B and p-Akt was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between Aurora-B and p-Akt protein expression. Furthermore, we down-regulated the expression of Aurora-B through a recombinant lentivirus (Lv-shAURKB). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. Results showed that silencing Aurora-B inhibited cell migratory and invasive ability of OS cells in vitro. Finally, knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in OS cells. Our results indicated that knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses OS cells migratory and invasive ability via modulating the "PI3K/Akt/NF-κB" signaling pathway in vitro. The Aurora-B blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management.

Salvi S, Calistri D, Gurioli G, et al.
Copy number analysis of 24 oncogenes: MDM4 identified as a putative marker for low recurrence risk in non muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(7):12458-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally have a high risk of relapsing locally after primary tumor resection. The search for new predictive markers of local recurrence thus represents an important goal for the management of this disease. We studied the copy number variations (CNVs) of 24 oncogenes (MDM4, MYCN, ALK, PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, DHFR, EGFR, MET, SMO, FGFR1, MYC, ABL1, RET, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, MDM2, AURKB, ERBB2, TOP2A, AURKA, AR and BRAF) using multiplex ligation probe amplification technique to verify their role as predictive markers of recurrence. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 43 patients who underwent transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) were used; 23 patients had relapsed and 20 were disease-free after 5 years. Amplification frequencies were analyzed for all genes and MDM4 was the only gene that showed significantly higher amplification in non recurrent patients than in recurrent ones (0.65 vs. 0.3; Fisher's test p=0.023). Recurrence-free survival analysis confirmed the predictive role of MDM4 (log-rank test p=0.041). Our preliminary results indicate a putative role for the MDM4 gene in predicting local recurrence of bladder cancer. Confirmation of this hypothesis is needed in a larger cohort of NMIBC patients.

Maldonado L, Brait M, Michailidi C, et al.
An epigenetic marker panel for recurrence risk prediction of low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) and its potential use for surveillance after transurethral resection using urine.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(14):5218-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
By a candidate gene approach, we analyzed the promoter methylation (PM) of 8 genes genes (ARF, TIMP3, RAR-β2, NID2, CCNA1, AIM1, CALCA and CCND2) by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in DNA of 17 non-recurrent and 19 recurrent noninvasive low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) archival tissues. Among the genes tested, by establishing an empiric cutoff value, CCND2, CCNA1, NID2, and CALCA showed higher frequency of methylation in recurrent than in non-recurrent LGPUCC: CCND2 10/19 (53%) vs. 2/17 (12%) (p=0.014); CCNA1 11/19 (58%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%) (p=0.048); NID2 13/19 (68%) vs. 3/17 (18%) (p=0.003) and CALCA 10/19 (53%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%) (p=0.097), respectively. We further analyzed PM of CCND2, CCNA1, and CALCA in urine DNA from UCC patients including LGPUCC and controls. The frequency of CCND2, CCNA1 and CALCA was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in urine of UCC cases [ 38/148 (26%), 50/73 (68%) and 94/148 (63.5%) respectively] than controls [0/56 (0%), 10/60 (17%) and 16/56 (28.5%), respectively)]. Most importantly we found any one of the 3 markers methylation positive in 25 out of 30 (83%) cytology negative LGPUCC cases. We also explored the biological function of CCNA1 in UCC. Prospective confirmatory studies are needed to develop a reliable tool for prediction of recurrence using primary LGPUCC tissues and/or urine.

Hung SY, Lin HH, Yeh KT, Chang JG
Histone-modifying genes as biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(5):2496-507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the world's fifth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in Taiwan. Over 600,000 HCC patients die each year worldwide despite recent advances in surgical techniques and medical treatments. Epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation and histone modification control gene expressions and play important roles during tumorigenesis. This study evaluates association between histone-modifying genes and prognosis of HCC to ferret out new diagnostic markers. We collected 50 paired HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from Taiwanese patients for survey by RT-qPCR and tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry (TMA-based IHC) staining. RT-qPCR data showed four of twenty-four genes over eightfold up-regulated in tumor tissues: e.g., histone phosphorylation gene-ARK2, methylation genes-G9a, SUV39H2, and EZH2 (n=50, all p<0.0001). Results of TMA-based IHC staining showed proteins of ARK2, EZH2, G9a, and SUV39H2 also overexpressed in tumor tissues. Staining intensity of SUV39H2 correlated with HCV infection (p=0.025). We further restricted the analysis only in tumor tissues, we found EZH2 staining intensity associated with tumor stage (p=0.016) and survival (p=0.007); SUV39H2 intensity associated with tumor stage (p=0.044). Our findings indicate overexpression of histone-modifying genes EZH2 and SUV39H2 associated with prognosis of HCC cases. EZH2 expression can serve as a novel prognostic biomarker during HCC progression among Taiwanese.

Jour G, Scarborough JD, Jones RL, et al.
Molecular profiling of soft tissue sarcomas using next-generation sequencing: a pilot study toward precision therapeutics.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(8):1563-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can provide in-depth detection of numerous gene alterations. To date, there are very few reports describing the use of this technique in soft tissue sarcomas. Herein, we aim to test the utility of NGS in identifying targetable mutations in these tumors. NGS was performed using a clinically validated multiplexed gene sequencing panel interrogating the full coding sequence of 194 cancer-related genes. A custom bioinformatics pipeline was developed to detect all classes of mutations directly from the NGS data, including single-nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, copy number variation, and complex structural variations. Twenty-five soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed; 18 of these patients had metastatic disease and 7 primary locally advanced tumors. Targetable mutations for which clinical trials are available were identified in 60% of the cases. MAP2K4, AURKA, AURKB, and c-MYC amplification were recurrent events in leiomyosarcomas. Frequent non-targetable variants included copy losses of the TP53 (24%), PTEN (16%), and CDKN2A (20%). Additional frameshift mutations, deletion mutations, and single-nucleotide variants involving numerous genes, including RB1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, PDGFRB, EPHA5, KDM6A, NF1, and FLT4 genes, were also identified. NGS is useful in identifying targetable mutations in soft tissue sarcomas that can serve as a rationale for inclusion of patients with advanced disease in ongoing clinical trials and allow for better risk stratification.

Matson DR, Stukenberg PT
CENP-I and Aurora B act as a molecular switch that ties RZZ/Mad1 recruitment to kinetochore attachment status.
J Cell Biol. 2014; 205(4):541-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
The RZZ (Rod, ZW10, and Zwilch) complex and Mad1 proteins tightly associate with kinetochores to generate the spindle checkpoint signal, but they are released when a kinetochore forms mature microtubule attachments. Here we demonstrate that the centromere protein CENP-I is required to generate a stable association of RZZ and Mad1 with kinetochores. CENP-I also inhibits their removal by dynein stripping. This regulation of Mad1 and RZZ dissociation functions independently of Aurora B, which regulates their association. We show that the microtubule status of each kinetochore independently dictates the recruitment of Aurora B kinase, kinase activity on a kinetochore substrate, and loading of spindle checkpoint proteins. This dynamic regulation of Mad1 association by Aurora B is only uncovered when CENP-I is depleted, consistent with our finding that CENP-I inhibits the dissociation of Mad1. We conclude that the dual activities of Aurora B and CENP-I generate a molecular switch that maintains a robust spindle checkpoint signal at prometaphase kinetochores until they attain mature attachments to microtubules.

Wang Y, Wang Z, Qi Z, et al.
The negative interplay between Aurora A/B and BRCA1/2 controls cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis via distinct regulation of cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, and tetraploidy.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
It is well known that the activation of Aurora A/B (Aur A/B) or inactivation of BRCA1/2 induces tumor formation. Others and we have reported that the mutual suppression between Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 may manipulate cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis, however, the interactive regulation and mechanism between these molecules are still elusive. In this study, by consecutive silencing of Aur A/B or/and BRCA1/2 with specific shRNAs, we showed that, in BRCA2-deficient pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-1 and in ovarian cancer cell line OVCA433, Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 inversely regulated the expression of each other likely through proteasome-mediated proteolysis but not through gene transcription. Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 conversely regulated cell cycle progression mainly through control of p53 and cyclin A. Moreover, the disruption of Aur A/B blocked abnormal cytokinesis and decreased cell multinuclearity and chromosome tetraploidy, whereas the deprivation of BRCA1/2 promoted the abnormal cytokinesis and enhanced the cell multinuclearity and tetraploidy. Furthermore, we showed by animal assays that the depletion of Aur A/B inhibited tumor growth of both cell lines, while the knockdown of BRCA1/2 promoted the tumor growth. However, the concurrent silencing of Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 diminished the effects of these molecules on the regulation of cell cycle, cytokinesis, and tetraploidy, leading to the burdened tumor sizes similar to those induced by scrambled shRNA-treated control cells. In summary, our study revealed that the negative interplay between Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 inversely controls the cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell multinuclearity, and tetraploidization to modulate tumorigenesis.

Maldonado L, Brait M, Loyo M, et al.
GSTP1 promoter methylation is associated with recurrence in early stage prostate cancer.
J Urol. 2014; 192(5):1542-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recurrent prostate cancer remains a major problem. Staging, grading and prostate specific antigen level at surgery are helpful but still imperfect predictors of recurrence. For this reason there is an imperative need for additional biomarkers that add to the prediction of currently used prognostic factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the extent of promoter methylation of genes previously reported as aberrantly methylated in prostate cancer (AIM1, APC, CCND2, GPX3, GSTP1, MCAM, RARβ2, SSBP2 and TIMP3) by quantitative fluorogenic methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. We used cancer tissue from a nested case-control study of 452 patients surgically treated for prostate cancer. Recurrence cases and controls were compared and the association between methylation extent and recurrence risk was estimated by logistic regression adjusting for patient age at prostatectomy, prostatectomy year, stage, grade, surgical margins and preprostatectomy prostate specific antigen. All statistical tests were 2-sided with p ≤0.05 considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The extent of GSTP1 methylation was higher in patients with recurrence than in controls (p = 0.01), especially patients with early disease, ie organ confined or limited extraprostatic extension (p = 0.001). After multivariate adjustment GSTP1 promoter methylation at or above the median was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, including in men with early disease (each p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Greater GSTP1 promoter methylation in cancer tissue was independently associated with the risk of recurrence in patients with early prostate cancer. This suggests that GSTP1 promoter methylation may be a potential tissue based recurrence marker.

Davidson B, Nymoen DA, Elgaaen BV, et al.
BUB1 mRNA is significantly co-expressed with AURKA and AURKB mRNA in advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(6):701-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical role of the spindle checkpoint kinase budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 (Bub1) in primary and metastatic advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma. BUB1 mRNA expression was analyzed in 178 tumors (88 effusions, 38 primary carcinomas, and 52 solid metastases) from 144 patients with advanced-stage disease using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bub1 protein expression by Western blotting was studied in 63 carcinomas (30 effusions and 33 solid lesions). BUB1 mRNA expression at different anatomic sites was studied for association with clinicopathologic parameters, including chemotherapy resistance and survival. BUB1 mRNA was universally expressed in serous carcinomas, irrespective of anatomic site. BUB1 mRNA levels were uniformly low in six ovarian surface epithelium specimens analyzed for comparative purposes. Bub1 protein was expressed in 22/30 effusions and 28/33 solid lesions. BUB1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in chemo-naïve primary carcinomas and solid metastases compared to specimens obtained following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.001) and was unrelated to chemotherapy exposure in effusions nor to chemoresponse or survival at any anatomic site. BUB1 mRNA levels in both effusions and solid lesions were strongly related to the mRNA levels of AURKA and AURKB previously studied in this cohort (p < 0.001 for both). Bub1 is widely expressed in primary and metastatic OC, suggesting a biological role in this cancer. BUB1 mRNA levels are lower following chemotherapy exposure in solid lesions, though its presence is unrelated to clinical behavior including response to chemotherapy and survival. BUB1 is co-expressed with AURKA and AURKB suggesting biological relationship between these spindle cell components.

de Oliveira FM, Rodrigues-Alves AP, Lucena-Araújo AR, et al.
Mantle cell lymphoma harboring Burkitt's-like translocations presents differential expression of aurora kinase genes compared with others 8q abnormalities.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(5):931 [PubMed] Related Publications
We compared the levels of AURKA and AURKB in 24 (mantle cell lymphoma) MCL patients harboring 8q abnormalities and its relationship with MYCC gene status. Two distinct subgroups were observed, in terms of MYCC expression. Except for the patients with Burkitt's-like translocation, none of the patients harboring 8q abnormalities, including balanced translocations or duplications of MYCC band, identified both by G-banding and SKY, showed differential expression levels of MYCC. These previous findings also reflected in the differential expression of AURKA and AURKB genes. We found that AURKA and AURKB mRNA were expressed at significantly higher levels in MCL patients harboring Burkitt's-like translocation, when compared to patients with 8q rearrangements. The high expression of aurora kinase genes is reported to be associated with some parameters of clinical oncologic aggressiveness, such as high histological grade, invasion and increased rates of metastasis in several types of cancers. It is possible that in MCL patients expressing abnormal levels of MYCC together with a high expression of AURKA might offer some resistant to the conventional therapy purposes. Thus, aurora kinase inhibitors may also be considered for this specific subgroup on MCL, whose aggressive clinical course resembles high-grade lymphoma.

Salhia B, Kiefer J, Ross JT, et al.
Integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis of breast cancer brain metastasis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85448 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, CRYAB and HSPB2 genes were commonly deleted and underexpressed. Knowledge mining revealed enrichment in cell cycle and G2/M transition pathways, which contained AURKA, AURKB and FOXM1. Using the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic classifier, Luminal B, Her2+/ER negative, and basal-like tumors were identified as the most commonly represented breast cancer subtypes in our brain metastasis cohort. While overall methylation levels were increased in breast cancer brain metastasis, basal-like brain metastases were associated with significantly lower levels of methylation. Integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed defects in cell migration and adhesion due to hypermethylation and downregulation of PENK, EDN3, and ITGAM. Hypomethylation and upregulation of KRT8 likely affects adhesion and permeability. Genomic and epigenomic profiling of breast brain metastasis has provided insight into the somatic events underlying this disease, which have potential in forming the basis of future therapeutic strategies.

Ahn SG, Lee HM, Lee HW, et al.
Prognostic discrimination using a 70-gene signature among patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and an intermediate 21-gene recurrence score.
Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14(12):23685-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
The Oncotype DX® recurrence score (RS) predictor has been clinically utilized to appropriately select adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer. However, the selection of chemotherapy for patients with intermediate RSs remains controversial. We assessed the prognostic value of a 70-gene signature (70GS) among patients with ER-positive breast cancer and intermediate RSs. In addition, we sought to identify genes associated with poor 70GS scores based on gene expression profiling (GEP). GEP was performed using gene expression data from 186 patients with ER-positive breast cancer. The RS and 70GS score were calculated on the basis of GEP. Among 186 patients, 82 ER-positive patients with intermediate RSs were identified. These patients were stratified by 70GS, overall survival (OS) significantly differed according to 70GS (p=0.013). In a supervised hierarchical analysis according to 70GS, the expression of several representative genes for cell proliferation was significantly higher in the poor 70GS cluster than in the good 70GS cluster. Furthermore, among these patients, FOXM1, AURKA, AURKB, and BIRC5 displayed prognostic significance for OS. In conclusion, 70GS can help to discriminate survival differences among ER-positive patients with intermediate RSs. FOXM1, AURKA, AURKB, and BIRC5, are associated with poor 70GS scores.

Akbari Moqadam F, Boer JM, Lange-Turenhout EA, et al.
Altered expression of miR-24, miR-126 and miR-365 does not affect viability of childhood TCF3-rearranged leukemia cells.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(5):1008-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among the microRNAs (miRNAs) that control different cellular processes, miR-24, miR-126 and miR-365 were shown to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in various types of tumors. Interestingly, these three miRNAs were downregulated in pediatric TCF3-rearranged B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Here, we showed that individual or combined overexpression of miR-24, miR-126 and miR-365 can neither alter the cell cycle progression nor the amount of apoptosis in 697, KASUMI-2 or MHH-CALL-3 TCF3-rearranged leukemic cells. We further integrated the miRNA-mRNA expression data of 37 children with BCP-ALL to identify candidate target genes for these three miRNAs. However, the expression levels of selected candidate target genes (ELL, EBF3 and IRF4 for miR-24, PITPNC1 for miR-126 and ZAP-70 for miR-365) did not reduce upon miRNAs overexpression in MHH-CALL-3 TCF3-rearranged leukemic cells. Although the expression level of AURKB-a validated target for miR-24-was reduced upon miR-24 overexpression in hepatocarcinoma HEP-G2 cells, overexpression of miR-24 cannot alter AURKB expression levels in MHH-CALL-3 TCF3-rearranged leukemic cells. Taken together, our data suggest that miRNAs' function is highly tissue-dependent and that a defined biological target gene or function of one miRNA in a specific tissue cannot be extended as a generalized target/function for that miRNA in all types of cells/tissues.

Kalous O, Conklin D, Desai AJ, et al.
AMG 900, pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, preferentially inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines with dysfunctional p53.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 141(3):397-408 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aurora kinases play important roles in cell division and are frequently overexpressed in human cancer. AMG 900 is a novel pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor currently being tested in Phase I clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of AMG 900 in a panel of 44 human breast cancer and immortalized cell lines and identify predictors of response. AMG 900 inhibited proliferation at low nanomolar concentrations in all cell lines tested. Response was further classified based on the induction of lethality. 25 cell lines were classified as highly sensitive (lethality at 10 nM of AMG 900 >10 %), 19 cell lines as less sensitive to AMG 900 (lethality at 10 nM of AMG 900 <10 %). Traditional molecular subtypes of breast cancer did not predict for this differential response. There was a weak association between AURKA amplification and response to AMG 900 (response ratio = 2.53, p = 0.09). mRNA expression levels of AURKA, AURKB, and AURKC and baseline protein levels of Aurora kinases A and B did not significantly associate with response. Cell lines with TP53 loss of function mutations (RR = 1.86, p = 0.004) and low baseline p21 protein levels (RR = 2.28, p = 0.0004) were far more likely to be classified as highly sensitive to AMG 900. AMG 900 induced p53 and p21 protein expression in cell lines with wt TP53. AMG 900 caused the accumulation of cells with >4 N DNA content in a majority of cell lines independently of sensitivity and p53 status. AMG 900 induced more pronounced apoptosis in highly sensitive p53-dysfunctional cell lines. We have found that AMG 900 is highly active in breast cancer cell lines and that TP53 loss of function mutations as well as low baseline expression of p21 protein predict strongly for increased sensitivity to this compound in vitro.

Brait M, Maldonado L, Noordhuis MG, et al.
Association of promoter methylation of VGF and PGP9.5 with ovarian cancer progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e70878 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/10/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To elucidate the role of biological and clinical impact of aberrant promoter hypermethylation (PH) in ovarian cancer (OC).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PH of PGP9.5, HIC1, AIM1, APC, PAK3, MGMT, KIF1A, CCNA1, ESR1, SSBP2, GSTP1, FKBP4 and VGF were assessed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in a training set. We selected two genes (VGF and PGP9.5) for further QMSP analysis in a larger independent validation (IV) set with available clinical data. Biologic relevance of VGF gene was also evaluated.
RESULTS: PH frequency for PGP9.5 and VGF were 85% (316/372) and 43% (158/366) respectively in the IV set of samples while no PH was observed in controls. In 372 OC cases with available follow up, PGP9.5 and VGF PH were correlated with better patient survival [Hazard Ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were 0.59 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)  = 0.42-0.84, p = 0.004), and 0.73 (95%CI = 0.55-0.97, p = 0.028) respectively, and for disease specific survival (DSS) were 0.57 (95%CI 0.39-0.82, p = 0.003) and 0.72 (95%CI 0.54-0.96, p = 0.027). In multivariate analysis, VGF PH remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.86, p<0.005) and DSS (HR 0.58, 95%CI 0.41-0.83, p<0.003). Furthermore, PGP9.5 PH was significantly correlated with lower grade, early stage tumors, and with absence of residual disease. Forced expression of VGF in OC cell lines inhibited cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that VGF and PGP9.5 PH are potential biomarkers for ovarian carcinoma. Confirmatory cohorts with longitudinal follow-up are required in future studies to define the clinical impact of VGF and PGP9.5 PH before clinical application.

Cohen Y, Gutwein O, Garach-Jehoshua O, et al.
The proliferation arrest of primary tumor cells out-of-niche is associated with widespread downregulation of mitotic and transcriptional genes.
Hematology. 2014; 19(5):286-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recording the changes acquired in gene expression profile during culture of fresh bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma or acute myeloid leukemia, the most remarkable finding in both instances was widespread downregulation of mitotic and transcriptional genes (e.g. MKI67, CCNB1, ASPM, SGOL1, DLGAP5, CENPF, BUB1, KIF23, KIF18a, KIF11, KIF14, KIF4, NUF2, KIF1, AE2FB, TOP2A, NCAPG, TTK, CDC20, and AURKB), which could account for the ensuing proliferation arrest. Many of these genes were also underexpressed in leukemic cells from the blood or myeloma cells from an extramedullary site compared with their expression in the aspirates. Taken together, our results exhibited mitotic and transcriptional gene subsets where their expression appears to be coordinated and niche dependent. In addition, the genes induced during culture specified a variety of angiogenic factors (e.g. interleukin-8 and CXCL-5) and extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. osteopontin and fibronectin) probably released by the tumor cells while generating their favored microenvironment.

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