Gene Summary

Gene:BMPR1B; bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IB
Aliases: ALK6, ALK-6, CDw293
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (30)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Chromosome 4
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Signal Transduction
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Adolescents
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I
  • MicroRNAs
  • Epigenetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II
  • Activin Receptors, Type I
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Testicular Hormones
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Trans-Activators
  • Sequence Homology
  • Tumor Markers
  • Young Adult
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transfection
  • Base Sequence
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Glioblastoma
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BMPR1B (cancer-related)

Wang L, Park P, La Marca F, et al.
Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in human osteosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(4):1095-102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies demonstrated that BMP-2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells identified as cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(br) cells) from the human osteosarcoma cell line OS99-1. We further investigated whether BMP-2 is capable of inducing bone formation in OS99-1 cells. Flow cytometry sorting was used to isolate tumorigenic ALDH(br) and non-tumorigenic ALDH(lo) cells. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the gene expression. A xenograft model was used to verify the bone formation in vivo. There was significantly higher mRNA expression of BMPR1B and BMPR2 in ALDH(lo) cells compared with that in ALDH(br) cells and the BMPR1B expression in ALDH(lo) cells was ~8-fold higher compared to that in ALDHbr cells. BMP-2 was also found to induce higher transcription of osteogenic markers Runx-2, Osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I in ALDH(lo) cells compared to ALDH(br) cells, which were mediated by the canonical Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, BMP-2 was identified to induce bone formation in both ALDH(br) and ALDH(lo) cells. All animals receiving 1 x 10()4 ALDH(lo) cells treated with 30 µg of BMP-2 per animal showed bone formation within 1-2 weeks after injection in mice. Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in ALDH(lo) cells showed significantly more bone mineral content compared to that in ALDH(br) cells. BMP-2 induces bone formation in heterogeneous osteosarcoma cells and BMP-2 may have a promising therapeutic role for treating human osteosarcoma by inducing differentiation along an osteogenic pathway.

Langenfeld E, Hong CC, Lanke G, Langenfeld J
Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor antagonists decrease growth and induce cell death of lung cancer cell lines.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61256 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved morphogens that are essential for normal development. BMP-2 is highly expressed in the majority of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) but not in normal lung tissue or benign lung tumors. The effects of the BMP signaling cascade on the growth and survival of cancer cells is poorly understood. We show that BMP signaling is basally active in lung cancer cell lines, which can be effectively inhibited with selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors. Lung cancer cell lines express alk2, alk3, and alk6 and inhibition of a single BMP receptor was not sufficient to decrease signaling. Inhibition of more than one type I receptor was required to decrease BMP signaling in lung cancer cell lines. BMP receptor antagonists and silencing of BMP type I receptors with siRNA induced cell death, inhibited cell growth, and caused a significant decrease in the expression of inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, and Id3) family members, which are known to regulate cell growth and survival in many types of cancers. BMP receptor antagonists also decreased clonogenic cell growth. Knockdown of Id3 significantly decreased cell growth and induced cell death of lung cancer cells. H1299 cells stably overexpressing Id3 were resistant to growth suppression and induction of cell death induced by the BMP antagonist DMH2. These studies suggest that BMP signaling promotes cell growth and survival of lung cancer cells, which is mediated through its regulation of Id family members. Selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors represents a potential means to pharmacologically treat NSCLC and other carcinomas with an activated BMP signaling cascade.

Khalaf M, Morera J, Bourret A, et al.
BMP system expression in GCs from polycystic ovary syndrome women and the in vitro effects of BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 on GC steroidogenesis.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 168(3):437-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors involved in the folliculogenesis. Alteration in their expression may compromise the reproductive process in disease such as the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated the expression and role of granulosa cell (GC) BMP from normal cycling and PCOS women.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study was performed in GCs obtained from 14 patients undergoing IVF: i) six women with normal ovulatory cycles and tubal or male infertility and ii) eight women with PCOS. BMP2, BMP4, BMP5, BMP6, BMP7, and BMP8A and their receptors BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 were identified by RT-PCR in GCs from normally cycling and PCOS women. BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 expressions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative transcript analysis showed the predominant expression of BMP6. In GCs from PCOS women, an overexpression of BMP6 (P<0.01) and BMPR1A mRNA (P<0.05) was observed. GC culture experiments demonstrated that basal estradiol (E₂) production was threefold higher but FSH-induced E₂ increment was twofold lower in PCOS compared with controls. In PCOS, BMP6 and BMP7 exerted a stimulatory effect on basal E₂ production while BMP4 and BMP6 inhibited FSH-induced E₂ production. FSH receptor and aromatase expression were not different between both groups.
CONCLUSION: The BMP system is expressed in human GCs from normal cycling and PCOS women. The BMP may be involved in reproductive abnormalities found in PCOS.

Slattery ML, John EM, Torres-Mejia G, et al.
Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic proteins and breast cancer risk in hispanic and non-hispanic white women: The breast cancer health disparities study.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(12):2928-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are thought to be important in breast cancer promotion and progression. We evaluated genetic variation in BMP-related genes and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) (1,481 cases, 1,586 controls) women who participated in the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study, the Mexico Breast Cancer Study and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. BMP genes and their receptors evaluated include ACVR1, AVCR2A, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, BMP1, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, MSTN and GDF10. Additionally, 104 ancestral informative markers were assessed to discriminate between European and native American ancestry. The importance of estrogen on BMP-related associations was suggested through unique associations by menopausal status and estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status of tumors. After adjustment for multiple comparisons ACVR1 (8 SNPs) was modestly associated with ER+PR+ tumors [odds ratios (ORs) between 1.18 and 1.39 padj < 0.05]. ACVR1 (3 SNPs) and BMP4 (3 SNPs) were associated with ER+PR- tumors (ORs 0.59-2.07; padj < 0.05). BMPR2 was associated with ER-PR+ tumors (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.62, 10.91; padj < 0.05) as was GDF10 (2 SNPs; ORs 3.62 and 3.85; padj < 0.05). After adjustment for multiple comparisons several SNPs remained associated with ER-PR- tumors (padj < 0.05) including ACVR1 BMP4 and GDF10 (ORs between 0.53 and 2.12). Differences in association also were observed by percentage of native ancestry and menopausal status. Results support the hypothesis that genetic variation in BMPs is associated with breast cancer in this admixed population.

Giroux Leprieur E, Antoine M, Vieira T, et al.
Clinical and molecular features in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma refractory to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
Lung Cancer. 2013; 79(2):167-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most of the cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage and are treated with platinum-doublet chemotherapy. However, some patients are refractory to this treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients with refractory disease. All consecutive patients between 2003 and 2006, who received a platinum-doublet chemotherapy as first-line treatment for stage IIIb-IV NSCLC, were included. Refractory patients were defined as early progressive disease (PD) at the first evaluation of chemotherapy according to WHO criteria. The clinical, histo-pathological, and molecular characteristics (EGFR: exon 19, 20, 21 and KRAS: exon 2 by PCR sequencing; ALK by immunohistochemistry) and survival of refractory patients with initial PD (r-patients) and controlled disease (c-patients) were compared by univariate analyses. Factors that differed between the two groups (p-value <0.25 in univariate analyses) were entered into multivariate analysis. In this study, 178 patients were included. The first tumor assessment was carried out after a median of three cycles (range 1-4). Forty-six (25.8%) patients were refractory. Clinical presentation was similar between r- and c-patients. The sarcomatoid histological subtype was more common in r-patients than c-patients (10.9% vs. 1.5%, respectively; p=0.057). The proportion of EGFR (5.2% vs. 9.6%, p=0.224) and KRAS mutations (11.1% vs. 5.7%, p=0.357), and the expression of ALK (6.3% vs. 2.5%, p=0.327) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, sarcomatoid histological subtype was the only factor associated with early PD (OR=7.50; 95%CI: 1.02-55.45; p=0.048). r-Patients had significantly shorter survival than c-patients (median 5 months (IQR 3.2-9.9) vs. 15.4 months (IQR 9.9-22.5), respectively; p<0.0001). In conclusion, patients with early PD under platinum-doublet chemotherapy had shorter survival than c-patients. Sarcomatoid histological subtype was the only independent factor associated with early PD.

Ziebarth JD, Bhattacharya A, Cui Y
Integrative analysis of somatic mutations altering microRNA targeting in cancer genomes.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Determining the functional impact of somatic mutations is crucial to understanding tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent sequences of several cancers have provided comprehensive lists of somatic mutations across entire genomes, enabling investigation of the functional impact of somatic mutations in non-coding regions. Here, we study somatic mutations in 3'UTRs of genes that have been identified in four cancers and computationally predict how they may alter miRNA targeting, potentially resulting in dysregulation of the expression of the genes harboring these mutations. We find that somatic mutations create or disrupt putative miRNA target sites in the 3'UTRs of many genes, including several genes, such as MITF, EPHA3, TAL1, SCG3, and GSDMA, which have been previously associated with cancer. We also integrate the somatic mutations with germline mutations and results of association studies. Specifically, we identify putative miRNA target sites in the 3'UTRs of BMPR1B, KLK3, and SPRY4 that are disrupted by both somatic and germline mutations and, also, are in linkage disequilibrium blocks with high scoring markers from cancer association studies. The somatic mutation in BMPR1B is located in a target site of miR-125b; germline mutations in this target site have previously been both shown to disrupt regulation of BMPR1B by miR-125b and linked with cancer.

Liu S, Yin F, Fan W, et al.
Over-expression of BMPR-IB reduces the malignancy of glioblastoma cells by upregulation of p21 and p27Kip1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, we detected decreased expression of phospho-Smad1/5/8 and its upstream signaling molecule, bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB subunit (BMPR-IB), in certain glioblastoma tissues, unlike normal brain tissues. In order to clarify the functional roles and mechanism of BMPR-IB in the development of glioblastoma, we studied the effects of BMPR-IB overexpression on glioblastoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: We selected glioblastoma cell lines U251, U87, SF763, which have different expression of BMPR-IB to be the research subjects. Colony formation analysis and FACS were used to detect the effects of BMPR-IB on the growth and proliferation of glioblastoma cells in vivo. Immunofluresence was used to detect the differentiation changes after BMPR-IB overexpression or knocking-down. Then we used subcutaneous and intracranial tumor models to study the effect of BMPR-IB on the growth and differentiation of glioblastoma cells in vivo. The genetic alterations involved in this process were examined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis.ed.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Forced BMPR-IB expression in malignant human glioma cells, which exhibit lower expression of BMPR-IB, induced the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of smad1/5/8 and arrested the cell cycle in G1. Additionally, BMPR-IB overexpression could suppress anchorage-independent growth and promote differentiation of theses glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, overexpression of BMPR-IB inhibited the growth of subcutaneous and intracranial tumor xenografts and prolonged the survival of mice injected intracranially with BMPR-IB-overexpressing glioblastoma cells. Conversely, inhibition of BMPR-IB caused SF763 malignant glioma cells, a line known to exhibit high BMPR-IB expression that does not form tumors when used for xenografts, to show increased growth and regain tumorigenicity in a nude mouse model system, ultimately shortening the survival of these mice. We also observed significant accumulation of p21 and p27kip1 proteins in response to BMPR-IB overexpression. Our study suggests that overexpression of BMPR-IB may arrest and induce the differentiation of glioblastoma cells due to upregulation of p21 and p27kip1 in vitro and that in vivo and decreased expression of BMPR-IB in human glioblastoma cells contributes to glioma tumorigenicity. BMPR-IB could represent a new potential therapeutic target for malignant human gliomas.

Heiliger KJ, Hess J, Vitagliano D, et al.
Novel candidate genes of thyroid tumourigenesis identified in Trk-T1 transgenic mice.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(3):409-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
For an identification of novel candidate genes in thyroid tumourigenesis, we have investigated gene copy number changes in a Trk-T1 transgenic mouse model of thyroid neoplasia. For this aim, 30 thyroid tumours from Trk-T1 transgenics were investigated by comparative genomic hybridisation. Recurrent gene copy number alterations were identified and genes located in the altered chromosomal regions were analysed by Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis in order to reveal gene functions potentially associated with thyroid tumourigenesis. In thyroid neoplasms from Trk-T1 mice, a recurrent gain on chromosomal bands 1C4-E2.3 (10.0% of cases), and losses on 3H1-H3 (13.3%), 4D2.3-E2 (43.3%) and 14E4-E5 (6.7%) were identified. The genes Twist2, Ptma, Pde6d, Bmpr1b, Pdlim5, Unc5c, Srm, Trp73, Ythdf2, Taf12 and Slitrk5 are located in these chromosomal bands. Copy number changes of these genes were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridisation on 30 human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples and altered gene expression was studied by qRT-PCR analyses in 67 human PTC. Copy number gains were detected in 83% of cases for TWIST2 and in 100% of cases for PTMA and PDE6D. DNA losses of SLITRK1 and SLITRK5 were observed in 21% of cases and of SLITRK6 in 16% of cases. Gene expression was significantly up-regulated for UNC5C and TP73 and significantly down-regulated for SLITRK5 in tumours compared with normal tissue. In conclusion, a global genomic copy number analysis of thyroid tumours from Trk-T1 transgenic mice revealed a number of novel gene alterations in thyroid tumourigenesis that are also prevalent in human PTCs.

Toulouse A, Collins GC, Sullivan AM
Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line.
Neurotox Res. 2012; 21(3):256-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on neurones. In an attempt to establish an useful model to study the direct neuronal influence of GDF5, we have characterised the effects of GDF5 on a human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that GDF5 has the capability to promote neuronal but not dopaminergic differentiation. We also show that it promotes neuronal survival in vitro following a 6-hydroxydopamine insult. Our results show that application of GDF5 to SH-SY5Y cultures induces the SMAD pathway which could potentially be implicated in the intracellular transmission of GDF5's neurotrophic effects. Overall, our study shows that the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line provides an excellent neuronal model to study the neurotrophic effects of GDF5.

Bhushan L, Kandpal RP
EphB6 receptor modulates micro RNA profile of breast carcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast carcinoma cells have a specific pattern of expression for Eph receptors and ephrin ligands. EphB6 has previously been characterized as a signature molecule for invasive breast carcinoma cells. The transcription of EphB6 is silenced in breast carcinoma cells and its re-expression leads to decreased invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. Such differences in phenotypes of native and EphB6 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells relate to an altered profile of micro RNAs. Comparative hybridization of total RNA to slides containing all known miRNAs by using locked nucleic acid (LNA) miRCURY platform yielded a significantly altered profile of miRNAs in MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with EphB6. After applying a threshold of change and a p-value of <0.001, the list of significantly altered miRNAs included miR-16, miR-23a, miR-24, miR-26a, miR-29a, miR-100, miRPlus-E1172 and miRPlus-E1258. The array-based changes were validated by real-time qPCR of miR-16, miR-23a, miR-24 and miR-100. Except miRPlus-E1172 and miRPlus-E1258, the remaining six miRNAs have been observed in a variety of cancers. The biological relevance of target mRNAs was predicted by using a common-target selection approach that allowed the identification of SMARCA5, SMARCC1, eIF2C2, eIF2C4, eIF4EBP2, FKABP5, FKBP1A, TRIB1, TRIB2, TRIB3, BMPR2, BMPR1A and BMPR1B as important targets of a subset of significantly altered miRNAs. Quantitative PCR revealed that the levels of SMARCC1, eIFC4, eIF4EB2, FKBP1a, FKBP5, TRIB1, TRIB3, BMPR1a and BMPR2 transcripts were significantly decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with EphB6. These observations confirm targeting of specific mRNAs by miR-100, miR-23a, miR-16 and miR-24, and suggest that the kinase-deficient EphB6 receptor is capable of initiating signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus resulting in the altered expression of a variety of genes involved in tumorigenesis and invasion. The alterations in miRNAs and their target mRNAs also suggest indirect involvement of EphB6 in PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

Feng N, Xu B, Tao J, et al.
A miR-125b binding site polymorphism in bone morphogenetic protein membrane receptor type IB gene and prostate cancer risk in China.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(1):369-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, a C>T polymorphism (rs1434536) in a miR-125b binding site in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of bone morphogenetic protein membrane receptor type IB gene (BMPR1B) has been found to contribute to cancer susceptibility. To investigate whether it plays an important role in the development of prostate cancer in southern Chinese Han population, we performed a case-control study. 247 prostate cancer and 278 control subjects were included in the cancer association study and dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to test the binding ability of miR-125b to BMPR1B-C or -T vectors. The effect of CT/TT genotype on prostate cancer risk was found to be significant for localized disease (OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.01-2.53, P=0.044) and among subgroups of aged>70 years (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.15-3.15, P=0.015) compared with CC genotype. Moreover, C-allele gave a reduced luciferase activity relative to T-allele in dual-luciferase reporter assay. Our findings show that rs1434536 in the 3'UTR of BMPR1B gene affects the binding ability of miR-125b to BMPR1B mRNA and contributes to the genetic predisposition to localized prostate cancer and patients aged>70 years.

Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Herrick JS, et al.
Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein and colon and rectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(3):653-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs) and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n = 1,574 cases, 1,970 controls; rectal cancer n = 791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2 and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR = 2.49 95% CI = 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2 and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI = 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4 and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway.

Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Herrick JS, et al.
Genetic variation in the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway and survival after diagnosis with colon and rectal cancer.
Cancer. 2011; 117(18):4175-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is involved in many aspects of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis and metastasis. The authors evaluated this pathway in association with survival after a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer.
METHODS: The study included 1553 patients with colon cancer and 754 patients with rectal cancer who had incident first primary disease and were followed for a minimum of 7 years after diagnosis. Genetic variations were evaluated in the genes TGF-β1 (2 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]), TGF-β receptor 1 (TGF-βR1) (3 SNPs), smooth muscle actin/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1 (Smad1) (5 SNPs), Smad2 (4 SNPs), Smad3 (37 SNPs), Smad4 (2 SNPs), Smad7 (11 SNPs), bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) (11 SNPs), BMP2 (5 SNPs), BMP4 (3 SNPs), bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A (BMPR1A) (9 SNPs), BMPR1B (21 SNPs), BMPR2 (11 SNPs), growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) (7 SNPs), Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) (40 SNPs), RUNX2 (19 SNPs), RUNX3 (9 SNPs), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eiF4E) (3 SNPs), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 3 (eiF4EBP2) (2 SNPs), eiF4EBP3 (2 SNPs), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) (6 SNPs).
RESULTS: After adjusting for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and tumor molecular phenotype, 12 genes and 18 SNPs were associated with survival in patients with colon cancer, and 7 genes and 15 tagSNPs were associated with survival after a diagnosis of rectal cancer. A summary score based on "at-risk" genotypes revealed a hazard rate ratio of 5.10 (95% confidence interval, 2.56-10.15) for the group with the greatest number of "at-risk" genotypes; for rectal cancer, the hazard rate ratio was 6.03 (95% confidence interval, 2.83-12.75).
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the presence of several higher risk alleles in the TGF-β signaling pathway increase the likelihood of dying after a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer.

Harvey RC, Mullighan CG, Wang X, et al.
Identification of novel cluster groups in pediatric high-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with gene expression profiling: correlation with genome-wide DNA copy number alterations, clinical characteristics, and outcome.
Blood. 2010; 116(23):4874-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To resolve the genetic heterogeneity within pediatric high-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a clinically defined poor-risk group with few known recurring cytogenetic abnormalities, we performed gene expression profiling in a cohort of 207 uniformly treated children with high-risk ALL. Expression profiles were correlated with genome-wide DNA copy number abnormalities and clinical and outcome features. Unsupervised clustering of gene expression profiling data revealed 8 unique cluster groups within these high-risk ALL patients, 2 of which were associated with known chromosomal translocations (t(1;19)(TCF3-PBX1) or MLL), and 6 of which lacked any previously known cytogenetic lesion. One unique cluster was characterized by high expression of distinct outlier genes AGAP1, CCNJ, CHST2/7, CLEC12A/B, and PTPRM; ERG DNA deletions; and 4-year relapse-free survival of 94.7% ± 5.1%, compared with 63.5% ± 3.7% for the cohort (P = .01). A second cluster, characterized by high expression of BMPR1B, CRLF2, GPR110, and MUC4; frequent deletion of EBF1, IKZF1, RAG1-2, and IL3RA-CSF2RA; JAK mutations and CRLF2 rearrangements (P < .0001); and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .001) had a very poor 4-year relapse-free survival (21.0% ± 9.5%; P < .001). These studies reveal striking clinical and genetic heterogeneity in high-risk ALL and point to novel genes that may serve as new targets for diagnosis, risk classification, and therapy.

Suzuki Y, Ohga N, Morishita Y, et al.
BMP-9 induces proliferation of multiple types of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo.
J Cell Sci. 2010; 123(Pt 10):1684-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family have been implicated in the development and maintenance of vascular systems. Whereas members of the BMP-2/4 and osteogenic protein-1 groups signal via activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2, ALK-3 and ALK-6, BMP-9 and BMP-10 have been reported to bind to ALK-1 in endothelial cells. However, the roles of BMP-9-ALK-1 signaling in the regulation of endothelial cells have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, using various systems, we examined the effects of BMP-9 on the proliferation of endothelial cells. Vascular-tube formation from ex vivo allantoic explants of mouse embryos was promoted by BMP-9. BMP-9, as well as BMP-4 and BMP-6, also induced the proliferation of in-vitro-cultured mouse embryonic-stem-cell-derived endothelial cells (MESECs) by inducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and Tie2, a receptor for angiopoietin-1. A decrease in ALK-1 expression or expression of constitutively active ALK-1 in MESECs abrogated and mimicked the effects of BMP-9 on the proliferation of MESECs, respectively, suggesting that BMP-9 promotes the proliferation of these cells via ALK-1. Furthermore, in vivo angiogenesis was promoted by BMP-9 in a Matrigel plug assay and in a BxPC3 xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer. Consistent with these in vivo findings, BMP-9 enhanced the proliferation of in-vitro-cultured normal endothelial cells from dermal tissues of adult mice and of tumor-associated endothelial cells isolated from tumor xenografts in host mice. These findings suggest that BMP-9 signaling activates the endothelium tested in the present study via ALK-1.

Saetrom P, Biesinger J, Li SM, et al.
A risk variant in an miR-125b binding site in BMPR1B is associated with breast cancer pathogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(18):7459-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs regulate diverse cellular processes and play an integral role in cancer pathogenesis. Genomic variation within miRNA target sites may therefore be important sources for genetic differences in cancer risk. To investigate this possibility, we mapped HapMap single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to putative miRNA recognition sites within genes dysregulated in estrogen receptor-stratified breast tumors and used local linkage disequilibrium patterns to identify high-ranking SNPs in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) breast cancer genome-wide association study for further testing. Two SNPs, rs1970801 and rs11097457, scoring in the top 100 from the CGEMS study, were in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs1434536, an SNP that resides within a miR-125b target site in the 3' untranslated region of the bone morphogenic receptor type 1B (BMPR1B) gene encoding a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase. We validated the CGEMS association findings for rs1970801 in an independent cohort of admixture-corrected cases identified from families with multiple case histories. Subsequent association testing of rs1434536 for these cases and CGEMS controls with imputed genotypes supported the association. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays and overexpression of miR-125b-mimics combined with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that BMPR1B transcript is a direct target of miR-125b and that miR-125b differentially regulates the C and T alleles of rs1434536. These results suggest that allele-specific regulation of BMPR1B by miR-125b explains the observed disease risk. Our approach is general and can help identify and explain the mechanisms behind disease association for alleles that affect miRNA regulation.

Lee NY, Kirkbride KC, Sheu RD, Blobe GC
The transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor mediates distinct subcellular trafficking and downstream signaling of activin-like kinase (ALK)3 and ALK6 receptors.
Mol Biol Cell. 2009; 20(20):4362-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signal through the BMP type I and type II receptors to regulate cellular processes, including embryonic development. The type I BMP receptors activin-like kinase (ALK)3 and ALK6 share a high degree of homology, yet possess distinct signaling roles. Here, we report that although the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type III receptor (TbetaRIII) enhanced both ALK3 and ALK6 signaling, TbetaRIII more potently enhanced ALK6-mediated stimulation of the BMP-responsive promoters XVent2 and 3GC2, and up-regulation of the early response gene Smad6. In contrast, TbetaRIII specifically enhanced ALK3-mediated up-regulation of the early response gene ID-1. TbetaRIII associated with ALK3 primarily through their extracellular domains, whereas its interaction with ALK6 required both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. TbetaRIII, along with its interacting scaffolding protein beta-arrestin2, induced the internalization of ALK6. In contrast, TbetaRIII colocalized with and resulted in the cell surface retention of ALK3, independently of beta-arrestin2. Although complex formation between TbetaRIII, ALK6, and beta-arrestin2 and TbetaRIII/ALK6 internalization resulted in maximal BMP signaling, the TbetaRIII mutant unable to interact with beta-arrestin2, TbetaRIII-T841A, was unable to do so. These studies support a novel role for TbetaRIII in mediating differential ALK3 and ALK6 subcellular trafficking resulting in distinct signaling downstream of ALK3 and ALK6.

Aarhus M, Bruland O, Bredholt G, et al.
Microarray analysis reveals down-regulation of the tumour suppressor gene WWOX and up-regulation of the oncogene TYMS in intracranial sporadic meningiomas.
J Neurooncol. 2008; 88(3):251-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In order to investigate pathways that may influence on tumour development in meningiomas, we performed high throughput microarray analysis of the RNA expression and DNA copy number of 22 WHO grade I and five WHO grade II meningiomas. Since meningiomas derive from arachnoid cap cells, we used samples from four patients operated for arachnoid cysts as control tissue.
RESULTS: The expression of the tumour suppressor gene WW containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) was down-regulated, and the thymidylate synthase (TYMS) oncogene was up-regulated in all meningiomas as compared to arachnoid cysts. Unsupervised RNA cluster analysis showed that fibrous meningiomas gathered in two clusters, and thus were more homogeneous than the other meningiomas. The other histological subgroups could not be linked to any uniform gene expression signatures. Rearrangements were most abundant on chromosomes 1 and 22, but were identified on all except chromosome 16. The fibrous and mixed meningiomas generally had chromosomal deletions. Duplications were more frequent in the meningothelial meningiomas. WHO grade II meningiomas had increased chromosomal instability.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of the WWOX tumour suppressor gene and increased expression of the TYMS oncogene may be of importance for the development of human intracranial meningiomas. We have identified several genes (BMPR1B, DMD, RAMP1) with expression signatures specific for fibrous meningiomas. CGH analysis revealed distinct chromosomal patterns in relation to the histological subtypes of the meningiomas.

Xia Y, Babitt JL, Sidis Y, et al.
Hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression via a selective subset of BMP ligands and receptors independently of neogenin.
Blood. 2008; 111(10):5195-204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hemojuvelin (HJV) is a coreceptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling that regulates hepcidin expression and iron metabolism. However, the precise combinations of BMP ligands and receptors used by HJV remain unknown. HJV has also been demonstrated to bind to neogenin, but it is not known whether this interaction has a role in regulating hepcidin expression. In the present study, we show that BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-6 are endogenous ligands for HJV in hepatoma-derived cell lines, and that all 3 of these ligands are expressed in human liver. We demonstrate in vitro that HJV selectively uses the BMP type II receptors ActRIIA and BMPRII, but not ActRIIB, and HJV enhances utilization of ActRIIA by BMP-2 and BMP-4. Interestingly, ActRIIA is the predominant BMP type II receptor expressed in human liver. While HJV can use all 3 BMP type I receptors (ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6) in vitro, only ALK2 and ALK3 are detected in human liver. Finally, we show that HJV-induced BMP signaling and hepcidin expression are not altered by neogenin overexpression or by inhibition of endogenous neogenin expression. Thus, HJV-mediated BMP signaling and hepcidin regulation occur via a distinct subset of BMP ligands and BMP receptors, independently of neogenin.

Lee J, Son MJ, Woolard K, et al.
Epigenetic-mediated dysfunction of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway inhibits differentiation of glioblastoma-initiating cells.
Cancer Cell. 2008; 13(1):69-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite similarities between tumor-initiating cells with stem-like properties (TICs) and normal neural stem cells, we hypothesized that there may be differences in their differentiation potentials. We now demonstrate that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak/STAT-dependent astroglial differentiation is impaired due to EZH2-dependent epigenetic silencing of BMP receptor 1B (BMPR1B) in a subset of glioblastoma TICs. Forced expression of BMPR1B either by transgene expression or demethylation of the promoter restores their differentiation capabilities and induces loss of their tumorigenicity. We propose that deregulation of the BMP developmental pathway in a subset of glioblastoma TICs contributes to their tumorigenicity both by desensitizing TICs to normal differentiation cues and by converting otherwise cytostatic signals to proproliferative signals.

Helms MW, Packeisen J, August C, et al.
First evidence supporting a potential role for the BMP/SMAD pathway in the progression of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
J Pathol. 2005; 206(3):366-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oestrogen receptor expression is generally a sign of better tumour differentiation and comparatively good clinical outcome in invasive breast cancer. However, oestrogen receptor-positive, poorly differentiated carcinomas with a poor clinical outcome exist. The underlying genetic mechanisms and the genes involved remain obscure, even though chromosome 7p gains seem to be associated with these uncommon tumours. In this study, we compared two subsets of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, which differed in tumour grade, cytogenetic instability, and tumour proliferation, for their differential gene expression in order to identify proteins involved in the progression of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. We were able to show by means of subtractive suppression hybridization, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, and tissue microarray analysis that expression of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) is a major hallmark of the progression and dedifferentiation of breast cancer. Strong expression of BMPR-IB was associated with high tumour grade, high tumour proliferation, cytogenetic instability, and a poor prognosis in oestrogen receptor-positive carcinomas. Western blot analysis revealed that downstream signalling of this receptor is mainly mediated via phosphorylation of SMAD 1 in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Even though BMPR-IB was expressed in oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancers, an impact on tumour grade, proliferation, and cytogenetic instability, as parameters of tumour progression, could only be demonstrated in oestrogen receptor-positive carcinomas. This pro-proliferative effect was complemented by significant anti-apoptotic activity, indicated by XIAP and IAP-2 expression in BMPR-IB-positive carcinomas. These results show that the BMP/SMAD pathway is activated in breast cancer and may contribute to breast cancer progression and dedifferentiation in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The definition of this pathway characterizes a new potential target in the molecular treatment of invasive breast cancer.

Howe JR, Sayed MG, Ahmed AF, et al.
The prevalence of MADH4 and BMPR1A mutations in juvenile polyposis and absence of BMPR2, BMPR1B, and ACVR1 mutations.
J Med Genet. 2004; 41(7):484-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyposis (JP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to colorectal and gastric cancer. We have identified mutations in two genes causing JP, MADH4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A (BMPR1A): both are involved in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) mediated signalling and are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. This study determined the prevalence of mutations in MADH4 and BMPR1A, as well as three other BMP/activin pathway candidate genes in a large number of JP patients.
METHODS: DNA was extracted from the blood of JP patients and used for PCR amplification of each exon of these five genes, using primers flanking each intron-exon boundary. Mutations were determined by comparison to wild type sequences using sequence analysis software. A total of 77 JP cases were sequenced for mutations in the MADH4, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, and/or ACVR1 (activin A receptor) genes. The latter three genes were analysed when MADH4 and BMPR1A sequencing found no mutations.
RESULTS: Germline MADH4 mutations were found in 14 cases (18.2%) and BMPR1A mutations in 16 cases (20.8%). No mutations were found in BMPR1B, BMPR2, or ACVR1 in 32 MADH4 and BMPR1A mutation negative cases.
DISCUSSION: In the largest series of JP patients reported to date, the prevalence of germline MADH4 and BMPR1A mutations is approximately 20% for each gene. Since mutations were not found in more than half the JP patients, either additional genes predisposing to JP remain to be discovered, or alternate means of inactivation of the two known genes are responsible for these JP cases.

Donahoe PK, Clarke T, Teixeira J, et al.
Enhanced purification and production of Müllerian inhibiting substance for therapeutic applications.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003; 211(1-2):37-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is almost 60 years since Prof. Alfred Jost reported the seminal observations regarding Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS). His experiments clearly showed that a testicular product other than testosterone, a Müllerian inhibitor, was responsible for Müllerian duct regression. Twenty-five years later Dr. Picon established an organ culture assay which paved the way for the initial studies into the biochemistry and biology of Müllerian inhibiting substance, also known as Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), undertaken first in Dr. Nathalie Josso's Laboratory in Paris then in our own laboratory in Boston. Purification of MIS led to cloning the human gene and production of recombinant human (rhMIS). MIS is a 140 kDa glycoprotein homodimer which is activated by a biosynthetic protease, cleaving MIS into an aminoterminus (110 kDa) and a carboxyterminus (25 kDa). The latter domain is sufficient for biological activities. MIS functions by interacting with two receptors; a type II binds the hormone and at type I that initiates downstream signaling. The MIS type II receptor has been cloned and functionally confirmed as distinct from that of other members of the TGFbeta superfamily. MIS can employ a number of type I receptors (ALK2, ALK3, ALK6) and BMP receptor specific SMADS 1, 5, and 8 in various tissue specific contexts. Cell lines derived from human ovarian, breast, and prostate tumors, and from rodent Leydig cell tumors, which respond to MIS in growth inhibition assays, all express the MIS type II receptor. A variety of signal transduction pathways are associated with the grown inhibition mediated by MIS. For example, breast and prostate cancer cell lines use a MIS-mediated NFkappaB pathway leading to G1 arrest and apoptosis. The ovarian cancer cell lines employ a pathway which enhances p16, modulates the E2Fs, and induces apoptosis. These signal transduction events can establish new rational treatment strategies to complement the growth inhibitory effects mediated by MIS. These combination strategies are being tested in vitro, and where appropriate will be tested in vivo using the highly purified MIS preparations, prior to use in early human clinical trials.

Bluteau O, Beaudoin JC, Pasturaud P, et al.
Specific association between alcohol intake, high grade of differentiation and 4q34-q35 deletions in hepatocellular carcinomas identified by high resolution allelotyping.
Oncogene. 2002; 21(8):1225-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the most frequent deletions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is that involving the long arm of chromosome 4 (30 to 70% of the cases). These chromosomal deletions are closely related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A tumor suppressor gene (TSG) located on 4q has been proposed in liver carcinogenesis, but has not been identified as yet. Despite previous LOH studies focused on 4q in HCC, a clear minimal common region of deletion (MCRD) could not be delimited. To further investigate the role of chromosome 4q LOH in the pathogenesis of HCC, 85 microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 4q were systematically analysed in a series of 154 well-characterized primary liver tumors. In 59 tumors (38%), LOHs were observed for at least two adjacent markers. Analysis of 31 tumors demonstrating a partial or interstitial 4q deletion allowed to define three MCRDs of 15, 9 and 8 Mb at the 4q22, 4q34 and 4q35 regions, respectively. Seven putative candidate genes located in 4q22, DAPP1, BMPR1B, PKD2, HERC3, SMARCAD1, CEB1 and ENH were screened for mutations but no somatic alterations were identified. Search for relationships between the specific regions of deletion and clinical parameters showed a significant association between loss of the 4q34-35 region with alcohol intake (P=0.005) and with high grade of differentiation (P=0.02). These results are in contrast with the close association between HBV infection and the whole 4q LOH and reveal heterogeneity of 4q LOH in relation to different risk factors. In the light of these new findings, which link different 4q LOH regions to different etiologic factors, the molecular mechanisms underlying 4q deletions in HCC and the targeted gene(s) remain to be identified.

Goggins M, Shekher M, Turnacioglu K, et al.
Genetic alterations of the transforming growth factor beta receptor genes in pancreatic and biliary adenocarcinomas.
Cancer Res. 1998; 58(23):5329-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is an extracellular ligand that binds to a heterodimeric receptor, initiating signals that regulate growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, harbor defects in TGF-beta signaling and are resistant to TGF-beta-mediated growth suppression. Genetic alterations of DPC4, which encodes a DNA binding protein that is a downstream component of the pathway, most frequently occur in pancreatic and biliary carcinomas. We searched for other targets of mutation of the TGF-beta pathway in these cancers. We report somatic alterations of the TGF-beta type I receptor gene ALK-5. Homozygous deletions of ALK-5 were identified in 1 of 97 pancreatic and 1 of 12 biliary adenocarcinomas. A germ-line variant of ALK-5, presumably a polymorphism, was identified, but no somatic intragenic mutations were identified upon sequencing of all coding regions of ALK-5. Somatic alterations of the TGF-beta type II receptor gene (TGFBR2) were identified in 4 of 97 (4.1%) pancreas cancers, including a homozygous deletion in a replication error-negative cancer and three homozygous frameshift mutations of the poly(A) tract of the TGF-beta type II receptor in replication error-positive cancers. We also studied other related type I receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily. In a panel of pancreas cancers preselected for loss of heterozygosity at the ALK-1 locus, sequencing of all coding exons of the ALK-1 gene revealed no alterations. No homozygous deletions were detected in the ALK-1, ALK-2, ALK-3, or ALK-6 genes in a panel of 86 pancreatic cancer xenografts and 11 pancreatic cancer and 22 breast cancer cell lines. The rate of genetic inactivation of TGF-beta pathway members was determined in 45 pancreatic cancers. Eighty-two % of these pancreatic cancers had genetic inactivation of the DPC4, p15, ALK-5, or TGFBR2 genes. Our results indicate that the TGF-beta type I and type II receptor genes are selective targets of genetic inactivation in pancreatic and biliary cancers.

Ide H, Katoh M, Sasaki H, et al.
Cloning of human bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor (BMPR-IB) and its expression in prostate cancer in comparison with other BMPRs.
Oncogene. 1997; 14(11):1377-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone metastasis is a common event in prostate cancer, and it is known that some of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are expressed in prostate cancer cells, while no study on the expression of their receptors, BMPRs, has been reported. Here we report cloning and sequence analysis of the human BMPR-IB cDNA. We also analysed the expression of transcripts of three types of the BMPR genes in human tissues and prostate cancer cell lines. The BMPR-IB mRNA was present in various organs, but the highest level was found in the prostate. Moreover, the amount of BMPR-IB mRNA was significantly low in prostate cancer tissues after androgen withdrawal and was also low in prostate cancer cell lines. RT-PCR analysis showed that the BMPR-IB message was upregulated by androgen stimulation in the LNCaP cell line which expresses the androgen receptor. By contrast, the mRNA levels of BMPR-IA and BMPR-II were not significantly different among non-cancerous and cancerous prostate tissues. It was also suggested that human BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB might have different biological functions in the prostate, although their sequences were 85.3% identical in the serine-threonine kinase domain.

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