Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ARHGDIB (cancer-related)
Xu J, Hua X, Jin H, et al.NFκB2 p52 stabilizes rhogdiβ mRNA by inhibiting AUF1 protein degradation via a miR-145/Sp1/USP8-dependent axis.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(5):777-793 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although overexpression of the non-canonical NFκB subunit p52 has been observed in several tumors, the function and mechanism of p52 in bladder cancer (BC) are less well understood. Here, we aimed at understanding the role and mechanism underlying p52 regulation of BC invasion. Human p52 was stably knockdown with shRNA targeting p52 in two bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and UMUC3). Two constitutively expressing constructs, p52 and p100, were stably transfected in to T24 or UMUC3, respectively. The stable transfectants were used to determine function and mechanisms responsible for p52 regulation of BC invasion. We demonstrate that p52 mediates human BC invasion. Knockdown of p52 impaired bladder cancer invasion by reduction of rhogdiβ mRNA stability and expression. Positively regulation of rhogdiβ mRNA stability was mediated by p52 promoting AUF1 protein degradation, consequently resulting in reduction of AUF1 binding to rhogdiβ mRNA. Further studies indicated that AUF1 protein degradation was mediated by upregulating USP8 transcription, which was modulated by its negative regulatory transcription factor Sp1. Moreover, we found that p52 upregulated miR-145, which directly bound to the 3'-UTR of sp1 mRNA, leading to downregulation of Sp1 protein translation. Our results reveal a comprehensive pathway that p52 acts as a positive regulator of BC invasion by initiating a novel miR-145/Sp1/USP8/AUF1/RhoGDIβ axis. These findings provide insight into the understanding of p52 in the pathology of human BC invasion and progression, which may be useful information in the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches for using p52 as a potential target.
Background/Aim: Homeobox D4 (HOXD4) belongs to the homeobox (HOX) family, which plays a crucial role in the early embryo development and cell differentiation. The role of HOXD4 in human gastric adenocarcinoma has not been elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to examine the expression levels of HOXD4 and dissect whether the HOXD4 expression is associated with aggressive clinicopathological outcomes of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.
Patients and Methods: Clinicopathological analyses were performed in 127 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Expression of HOXD4 was tested by immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative RT-PCR. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The prognostic role of HOXD4 in gastric adenocarcinoma patients was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The effects and mechanisms of HOXD4 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were explored through cellular experiments.
Results: HOXD4 expression was elevated in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues compared to non-tumorous gastric tissues (P = 0.018). High expression of HOXD4 was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.008), advanced tumor invasion depth (P = 0.014), and positive lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with high HOXD4 expression had poorer overall survival (P = 0.001), and HOXD4 was identified as an independent prognosis factor according to multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR) =2.253, 95% confident interval (CI) 1.028-4.979, P = 0.044]. Cellular results revealed that HOXD4 can promote tumor cell proliferation by upregulating c-Myc and cyclin D1.
Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that overexpression of HOXD4 was significantly correlated with poorer prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients, indicating the potential of HOXD4 as a novel clinical predictive biomarker and drug target.
Fukuoka K, Kanemura Y, Shofuda T, et al.Significance of molecular classification of ependymomas: C11orf95-RELA fusion-negative supratentorial ependymomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):134 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extensive molecular analyses of ependymal tumors have revealed that supratentorial and posterior fossa ependymomas have distinct molecular profiles and are likely to be different diseases. The presence of C11orf95-RELA fusion genes in a subset of supratentorial ependymomas (ST-EPN) indicated the existence of molecular subgroups. However, the pathogenesis of RELA fusion-negative ependymomas remains elusive. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and validate the molecular classification of ependymal tumors, we conducted thorough molecular analyses of 113 locally diagnosed ependymal tumors from 107 patients in the Japan Pediatric Molecular Neuro-Oncology Group. All tumors were histopathologically reviewed and 12 tumors were re-classified as non-ependymomas. A combination of RT-PCR, FISH, and RNA sequencing identified RELA fusion in 19 of 29 histologically verified ST-EPN cases, whereas another case was diagnosed as ependymoma RELA fusion-positive via the methylation classifier (68.9%). Among the 9 RELA fusion-negative ST-EPN cases, either the YAP1 fusion, BCOR tandem duplication, EP300-BCORL1 fusion, or FOXO1-STK24 fusion was detected in single cases. Methylation classification did not identify a consistent molecular class within this group. Genome-wide methylation profiling successfully sub-classified posterior fossa ependymoma (PF-EPN) into PF-EPN-A (PFA) and PF-EPN-B (PFB). A multivariate analysis using Cox regression confirmed that PFA was the sole molecular marker which was independently associated with patient survival. A clinically applicable pyrosequencing assay was developed to determine the PFB subgroup with 100% specificity using the methylation status of 3 genes, CRIP1, DRD4 and LBX2. Our results emphasized the significance of molecular classification in the diagnosis of ependymomas. RELA fusion-negative ST-EPN appear to be a heterogeneous group of tumors that do not fall into any of the existing molecular subgroups and are unlikely to form a single category.
Oncogenes derived from the neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase TrkA act as drivers in sub-populations of a wide-range of human cancers. This, combined with a recent report that both adult and childhood cancers driven by novel oncogenic TrkA chimeric-fusions exhibit profound, long-lived therapeutic responses to the Trk inhibitor Larotrectinib, highlights the need to improve clinical detection of TrkA oncogene-driven cancers in order to maximise this novel therapeutic potential. Cancers potentially driven by TrkA oncogenes include a proportion of paediatric neuroblastomas (NBs) that express the alternative TrkA splice variant TrkAIII, which exhibits exon 6, 7 and 9 skipping and oncogenic-activity that depends upon deletion of the extracellular D4 Ig-like domain. In contrast to fully spliced TrkA, which exhibits tumour suppressor activity in NB and associates with good prognosis, TrkAIII associates with advanced stage metastatic disease, post therapeutic relapse and worse prognosis, induces malignant transformation of NIH-3T3 cells and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. TrkAIII induction in NB cells is stress-regulated by conditions that mimic hypoxia or perturbate the ER with potential to change TrkA tumour-suppressing signals into oncogenic TrkAIII signals within the stressful tumour microenvironment. In contrast to cell surface TrkA, TrkAIII re-localises to intracellular pre-Golgi membranes, centrosomes and mitochondria, within which it exhibits spontaneous ligand-independent activation, triggering a variety of mechanisms that promote tumorigenicity and malignant behaviour, which impact the majority of cancer hallmarks. In this review, we present updates on TrkAIII detection and association with human malignancies, the multiple ways TrkAIII exerts oncogenic activity and potential therapeutic approaches for TrkAIII expressing cancers, with particular reference to NB.
Ji Y, Shao Z, Liu J, et al.The correlation between mammographic densities and molecular pathology in breast cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(3):523-531 [PubMed
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This study aimed to analyze the correlation between mammographic density obtained by density analysis software (DAS)/radiologists visual (RV) classification with molecular subtype, and the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki67 antigen (Ki-67), p53 gene (p53), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). A total of 688 breast cancer patients with digital mammography and complete molecular pathological results in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between February 2015 and February 2016 were collected. The DAS-density grade (DASD) and the radiologists visually classified density grade (RVD) were evaluated by 3 radiologists. The correlation between density grade and the expression levels of ER, PR, Ki-67, p53, HER2 and breast cancer molecular subtype (PMS) were analyzed. The agreement between DASD and RVD was explored. ER, PR and HER-2 positive rate were significantly different among patients with different RVD grades (P< 0.05). HER2 positive rates showed an increasing trend following RVD upgrading (P𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑑< 0.05). HER-2 positive rate in RVD D1 + D2 was 7.69%, which was higher than that in D3 + D4 (P< 0.05). The ER and Ki-67 expressions in patients were markedly different among DASD (P= 0.009 and 0.002) and RVD (P= 0.012 and 0.036) with different grades. The kappa value of each DASD to RVD was 0.31 (P< 0.01). The RVD 3 proportion was 14.58% (63/432) in HER2 Over-expressing subtype, which was apparently higher than RVD1 (2.43%, 1/41) (P< 0.05). Breast density may be partial correlated with molecular pathology in breast cancer.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a condition where the normal squamous epithelia is replaced by specialized intestinal metaplasia in response to chronic gastroesophageal acid reflux. In a minority of individuals, BE can progress to low- and high-grade dysplasia and eventually to intra-mucosal and then invasive carcinoma. BE provides researchers with a unique model to characterize the process by which a carcinoma arises from its precursor lesion. Molecular studies of BE have demonstrated that it is not simply a metaplastic tissue, but rather it harbors frequent alterations that are also present in dysplastic BE and in EAC. Both BE and EAC are characterized by loss of heterozygosity, aneuploidy, specific genetic mutations, and clonal diversity. Epigenetic abnormalities, primary alterations in DNA methylation, are also frequently seen in BE and EAC. Candidate gene and array-based approaches have demonstrated that numerous tumor suppressor genes exhibit aberrant promoter methylation, and some of these altered genes are associated with the neoplastic progression of BE. It has also been shown that the BE and EAC epigenomes are characterized by hypomethylation of intragenic and non-coding regions Recent studies have also provided new insight into the evolutionary forces underlying the molecular alterations seen in BE and EAC and into the molecular pathogenesis of EAC.
Fiorillo M, Peiris-Pagès M, Sanchez-Alvarez R, et al.Bergamot natural products eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs) by targeting mevalonate, Rho-GDI-signalling and mitochondrial metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2018; 1859(9):984-996 [PubMed
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Here, we show that a 2:1 mixture of Brutieridin and Melitidin, termed "BMF", has a statin-like properties, which blocks the action of the rate-limiting enzyme for mevalonate biosynthesis, namely HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA-reductase). Moreover, our results indicate that BMF functionally inhibits several key characteristics of CSCs. More specifically, BMF effectively i) reduced ALDH activity, ii) blocked mammosphere formation and iii) inhibited the activation of CSC-associated signalling pathways (STAT1/3, Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin) targeting Rho-GDI-signalling. In addition, BMF metabolically inhibited mitochondrial respiration (OXPHOS) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Importantly, BMF did not show the same toxic side-effects in normal fibroblasts that were observed with statins. Lastly, we show that high expression of the mRNA species encoding HMGR is associated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, providing a potential companion diagnostic for BMF-directed personalized therapy.
The transcription factor NF-κB is constitutively activated in many epithelial tumors but few NF-κB inhibitors are suitable for cancer therapy because of its broad biological effects. We previously reported that the d4-family proteins (DPF1, DPF2, DPF3a/b) function as adaptor proteins linking NF-κB with the SWI/SNF complex. Here, using epithelial tumor cell lines, A549 and HeLaS3, we demonstrate that exogenous expression of the highly-conserved N-terminal 84-amino acid region (designated "CT1") of either DPF2 or DPF3a/b has stronger inhibitory effects on anchorage-independent growth than the single knockdown of any d4-family protein. This indicates that CT1 can function as an efficient dominant-negative mutant of the entire d4-family proteins. By in situ proximity ligation assay, CT1 was found to retain full adaptor function, indicating that the C-terminal region of d4-family proteins lacking in CT1 would include essential domains for SWI/SNF-dependent NF-κB activation. Microarray analysis revealed that CT1 suppresses only a portion of the NF-κB target genes, including representative SWI/SNF-dependent genes. Among these genes, IL6 was shown to strongly contribute to anchorage-independent growth. Finally, exogenous CT1 expression efficiently suppressed tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model, suggesting that the d4-family proteins are promising cancer therapy targets.
Our most recent studies demonstrate that RhoGDIβ is able to promote human bladder cancer (BC) invasion and metastasis in an X-link inhibitor of apoptosis protein-dependent fashion accompanied by increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 protein expression. We also found that RhoGDIβ and MMP-2 protein expressions are consistently upregulated in both invasive BC tissues and cell lines. In the present study, we show that knockdown of RhoGDIβ inhibited MMP-2 protein expression accompanied by a reduction of invasion in human BC cells, whereas ectopic expression of RhoGDIβ upregulated MMP-2 protein expression and promoted invasion as well. The mechanistic studies indicated that MMP-2 was upregulated by RhoGDIβ at the transcriptional level by increased specific binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the mmp-2 promoter region. Further investigation revealed that RhoGDIβ overexpression led to downregulation of miR-200c, whereas miR-200c was able directly to target 3'-UTR of jnk2mRNA and attenuated JNK2 protein translation, which resulted in attenuation of Sp1mRNA and protein expression in turn, inhibiting Sp1-dependent mmp-2 transcription. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that RhoGDIβ overexpression inhibits miR-200c abundance, which consequently results in increases of JNK2 protein translation, Sp1 expression, mmp-2 transcription, and BC invasion. These findings, together with our previous results showing X-link inhibitor of apoptosis protein mediating mRNA stabilization of both RhoGDIβ and mmp-2, reveal the nature of the MMP-2 regulatory network, which leads to MMP-2 overexpression and BC invasion.
BACKGROUND: The importance of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling complex in tumor progression is becoming increasingly recognized. HER2-amplified breast cancers use Rictor/mTORC2 signaling to drive tumor formation, tumor cell survival and resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy. Cell motility, a key step in the metastatic process, can be activated by mTORC2 in luminal and triple negative breast cancer cell lines, but its role in promoting metastases from HER2-amplified breast cancers is not yet clear.
METHODS: Because Rictor is an obligate cofactor of mTORC2, we genetically engineered Rictor ablation or overexpression in mouse and human HER2-amplified breast cancer models for modulation of mTORC2 activity. Signaling through mTORC2-dependent pathways was also manipulated using pharmacological inhibitors of mTOR, Akt, and Rac. Signaling was assessed by western analysis and biochemical pull-down assays specific for Rac-GTP and for active Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Metastases were assessed from spontaneous tumors and from intravenously delivered tumor cells. Motility and invasion of cells was assessed using Matrigel-coated transwell assays.
RESULTS: We found that Rictor ablation potently impaired, while Rictor overexpression increased, metastasis in spontaneous and intravenously seeded models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers. Additionally, migration and invasion of HER2-amplified human breast cancer cells was diminished in the absence of Rictor, or upon pharmacological mTOR kinase inhibition. Active Rac1 was required for Rictor-dependent invasion and motility, which rescued invasion/motility in Rictor depleted cells. Rictor/mTORC2-dependent dampening of the endogenous Rac1 inhibitor RhoGDI2, a factor that correlated directly with increased overall survival in HER2-amplified breast cancer patients, promoted Rac1 activity and tumor cell invasion/migration. The mTORC2 substrate Akt did not affect RhoGDI2 dampening, but partially increased Rac1 activity through the Rac-GEF Tiam1, thus partially rescuing cell invasion/motility. The mTORC2 effector protein kinase C (PKC)α did rescue Rictor-mediated RhoGDI2 downregulation, partially rescuing Rac-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and migration/motility.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that mTORC2 uses two coordinated pathways to activate cell invasion/motility, both of which converge on Rac1. Akt signaling activates Rac1 through the Rac-GEF Tiam1, while PKC signaling dampens expression of the endogenous Rac1 inhibitor, RhoGDI2.
Piromkraipak P, Sangpairoj K, Tirakotai W, et al.Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Migration, Invasion, and Expression of MMP-2/9 in Human Glioblastoma.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2018; 38(2):559-573 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant and aggressive types of brain tumors. 5-lipoxygenase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1) play a role in human carcinogenesis. Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs), anti-asthmatic drugs with mild side effects, have anti-metastatic activity in epidermoid carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and colon cancers as well as neuroprotective effects. Herein, anti-migratory effects of two LTRAs, montelukast and zafirlukast, were investigated in glioblastoma cells. The level of CysLT1 in A172 cells was increased by 3.13 folds after IL-1β treatment. The median toxic concentration of LTRAs in A172, U373, and primary astrocytes ranged from 7.17 to 26.28 μM at 24-h post-exposure. Both LTRAs inhibited migration and invasion of glioma. Additionally, both drugs significantly inhibited the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in A172 and U373 glioblastoma cells and primary human astrocytes, suggesting that CysLT1 plays a role in migration and invasion of glioma, and LTRAs are potential drugs to reduce migration and invasion.
Glioma initiating cells (GICs) are thought to contribute to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence in glioblastoma, a lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Although the stem-like properties of GICs, such as self-renewal and tumorigenicity, are epigenetically regulated, the role of a major chromatin remodeling complex in human, the SWI/SNF complex, remains unknown in these cells. We here demonstrate that the SWI/SNF core complex, that is associated with a unique corepressor complex through the d4-family proteins, DPF1 or DPF3a, plays essential roles in stemness maintenance in GICs. The serum-induced differentiation of GICs downregulated the endogenous expression of DPF1 and DPF3a, and the shRNA-mediated knockdown of each gene reduced both sphere-forming ability and tumor-forming activity in a mouse xenograft model. Rescue experiments revealed that DPF1 has dominant effects over DPF3a. Notably, whereas we have previously reported that d4-family members can function as adaptor proteins between the SWI/SNF complex and NF-κB dimers, this does not significantly contribute to maintaining the stemness properties of GICs. Instead, these proteins were found to link a corepressor complex containing the nuclear receptor, TLX, and LSD1/RCOR2 with the SWI/SNF core complex. Collectively, our results indicate that DPF1 and DPF3a are potential therapeutic targets for glioblastoma.
Ling H, He J, Tan H, et al.Identification of potential targets for differentiation in human leukemia cells induced by diallyl disulfide.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(2):697-707 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a primary component of garlic, which has chemopreventive potential. We previously found that moderate doses (15-120 µM) of DADS induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. In this study, we observed the effect of low doses (8 µM) of DADS on human leukemia HL-60 cells. We found that DADS could inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion in HL-60 cells, and arrested cells at G0/G1 stage. Then, cell differentiation was displayed by morphologic observation, NBT reduction activity and CD11b evaluation of cytometric flow. It showed that DADS induced differentiation, reduced the ability of NBT and increased CD11b expression. Likewise, DADS inhibited xenograft tumor growth and induced differentiation in vivo. In order to make sure how DADS induced differentiation, we compared the protein expression profile of DADS-treated cells with that of untreated control. Using high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 18 differentially expressed proteins after treatment with DADS, including four upregulated and 14 downregulated proteins. RT-PCR and western blot assay showed that DJ-1, cofilin 1, RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2), Calreticulin (CTR) and PCNA were decreased by DADS. These data suggest that the effects of DADS on leukemia may be due to multiple targets for intervention.
A defining feature of the brain cancer glioblastoma is its highly invasive nature. When glioblastoma cells are isolated from patients using serum free conditions, they accurately recapitulate this invasive behaviour in animal models. The Rac subclass of Rho GTPases has been shown to promote invasive behaviour in glioblastoma cells isolated in this manner. However the guanine nucleotide exchange factors responsible for activating Rac in this context have not been characterized previously. PREX1 is a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is synergistically activated by binding of G protein αγ subunits and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate. This makes it of particular interest in glioblastoma, as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is aberrantly activated by mutation in almost all cases. We show that PREX1 is expressed in glioblastoma cells isolated under serum-free conditions and in patient biopsies. PREX1 promotes the motility and invasion of glioblastoma cells, promoting Rac-mediated activation of p21-associated kinases and atypical PKC, which have established roles in cell motility. Glioblastoma cell motility was inhibited by either inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase or inhibition of G protein βγ subunits. Motility was also inhibited by the generic dopamine receptor inhibitor haloperidol or a combination of the selective dopamine receptor D2 and D4 inhibitors L-741,626 and L-745,870. This establishes a role for dopamine receptor signaling via G protein βγ subunits in glioblastoma invasion and shows that phosphoinositide 3-kinase mutations in glioblastoma require a context of basal G protein-coupled receptor activity in order to promote this invasion.
Khademi F, Mostafaie A, Parvaneh S, et al.Construction and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 using DNA immunization method.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2017; 43:23-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To date, several new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed for potential efficacies compared with familiar mAb rituximab. Despite the recent advances in development of anti-CD20 mAbs for the treatment of B cell malignancies, the efforts should be continued to develop novel antibodies with improved properties. However, the development of mAbs against CD20 as a multi-transmembrane protein is challenging due to the difficulty of providing a lipid environment that can maintain native epitopes. To overcome this limitation, we describe a simple and efficient DNA immunization strategy for the construction of a novel anti-CD20 mAb with improved anti-tumour properties. Using a DNA immunization strategy that includes intradermal (i.d.) immunization with naked plasmid DNA encoding the CD20 gene, we generated the hybridoma cell line D4, which secretes functional mAbs against an extracellular epitope of CD20. Immunocytochemistry analysis and a cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line showed that D4 mAbs are capable of binding to native extracellular epitopes of CD20. Moreover, the binding specificity of D4 mAbs was determined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by the annexin V/propidium iodide staining and dye exclusion assay. The results showed that D4 anti-CD20 mAbs produced by DNA immunization exhibit potent growth inhibitory activity and have superior direct B-cell cytotoxicity compared to rituximab. We propose that antibody-induced apoptosis is one of the mechanisms of cell growth inhibition. Taken together, the data reported here open the path to DNA-based immunization for generating pharmacologically active monoclonal antibodies against CD20. In addition, the data support future in vivo animal testing and subsequent procedures to produce a potential therapeutic mAb.
Background: To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionate survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide); "GB outliers" were identified: long-term survivor of 33 months (LTS; n = 8) versus short-term survivor of 7 months (STS; n = 10).
Methods: We implemented exome, RNA, whole genome sequencing, and DNA methylation for collection of deep genomic data from STS and LTS GB patients.
Results: LTS GB showed frequent chromosomal gains in 4q12 (platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha and KIT) and 12q14.1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4), and deletion in 19q13.33 (BAX, branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, and cluster of differentiation 33). STS GB showed frequent deletion in 9p11.2 (forkhead box D4-like 2 and aquaporin 7 pseudogene 3) and 22q11.21 (Hypermethylated In Cancer 2). LTS GB showed 2-fold more frequent copy number deletions compared with STS GB. Gene expression differences showed the STS cohort with altered transcriptional regulators: activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5a/b, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and interferon-gamma (IFNG), and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and estrogen receptor (ESR)1. Expression-based biological concepts prominent in the STS cohort include metabolic processes, anaphase-promoting complex degradation, and immune processes associated with major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation; the LTS cohort features genes related to development, morphogenesis, and the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Whole genome methylation analyses showed that a methylation signature of 89 probes distinctly separates LTS from STS GB tumors.
Conclusion: We posit that genomic instability is associated with longer survival of GB (possibly with vulnerability to standard therapy); conversely, genomic and epigenetic signatures may identify patients where up-front entry into alternative, targeted regimens would be a preferred, more efficacious management.
de León-Bautista MP, Cardenas-Aguayo MD, Casique-Aguirre D, et al.Immunological and Functional Characterization of RhoGDI3 and Its Molecular Targets RhoG and RhoB in Human Pancreatic Cancerous and Normal Cells.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0166370 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RhoGDI proteins have been implicated in several human cancers; changes in their expression levels have shown pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a complex pathology, with poor prognosis, and most patients die shortly after diagnosis. Efforts have been focused on understanding the role of RhoGDI's in PDAC, specially, RhoGDI1 and RhoGDI2. However, the role of RhoGDI3 has not been studied in relation to cancer or to PDAC. Here, we characterized the expression and functionality of RhoGDI3 and its target GTPases, RhoG and RhoB in pancreatic cell lines from both normal pancreatic tissue and tissue in late stages of PDAC, and compared them to human biopsies. Through immunofluorescences, pulldown assays and subcellular fractionation, we found a reduction in RhoGDI3 expression in the late stages of PDAC, and this reduction correlates with tumor progression and aggressiveness. Despite the reduction in the expression of RhoGDI3 in PDAC, we found that RhoB was underexpressed while RhoG was overexpressed, suggesting that cancerous cells preserve their capacity to activate this pathway, thus these cells may be more eager to response to the stimuli needed to proliferate and become invasive unlike normal cells. Surprisingly, we found nuclear localization of RhoGDI3 in non-cancerous pancreatic cell line and normal pancreatic tissue biopsies, which could open the possibility of novel nuclear functions for this protein, impacting gene expression regulation and cellular homeostasis.
Cui J, Cai Y, Hu Y, et al.Epigenetic silencing of TPM2 contributes to colorectal cancer progression upon RhoA activation.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12477-12483 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Beta-tropomyosin (β-tropomyosin, TPM2) has been found to be downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) in previous studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms and potential biological consequences of the downregulation of TPM2 in colorectal cancer. TPM2 expression in colorectal cancer was assessed by qRT-PCR and immunostaining. The biological functions of TPM2 were assessed in cell lines either overexpressing or underexpressingTPM2. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter region is associated with suppression of TPM2 expression in primary colorectal cancer tissue samples. Treatment with the demethylation agent 5-AZA can induceTPM2 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines. Reconstitution of TPM2 suppresses cell proliferation and migration in colorectal cancer cell lines, whereas the loss of TPM2 expression is associated with increased tumor proliferation and migration in vitro, which was accompanied by RhoA activation. In summary, our findings indicate that TPM2 appears to be commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colon cancer. TPM2 loss is associated with RhoA activation and tumor proliferation.
MYC-nick is a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive member of the MYC oncoprotein family, generated by a proteolytic cleavage of full-length MYC. MYC-nick promotes migration and survival of cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents or withdrawal of glucose. Here we report that MYC-nick is abundant in colonic and intestinal tumors derived from mouse models with mutations in the Wnt, TGF-β, and PI3K pathways. Moreover, MYC-nick is elevated in colon cancer cells deleted for FBWX7, which encodes the major E3 ligase of full-length MYC frequently mutated in colorectal cancers. MYC-nick promotes the migration of colon cancer cells assayed in 3D cultures or grown as xenografts in a zebrafish metastasis model. MYC-nick accelerates migration by activating the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and inducing fascin expression. MYC-nick, fascin, and Cdc42 are frequently up-regulated in cells present at the invasive front of human colorectal tumors, suggesting a coordinated role for these proteins in tumor migration.
The wsb1 gene has been identified to be important in developmental biology and cancer. A complex transcriptional regulation of wsb1 yields at least three functional transcripts. The major expressed isoform, WSB1 protein, is a substrate recognition protein within an E3 ubiquitin ligase, with the capability to bind diverse targets and mediate ubiquitinylation and proteolytic degradation. Recent data suggests a new role for WSB1 as a component of a neuroprotective pathway which results in modification and aggregation of neurotoxic proteins such as LRRK2 in Parkinson's Disease, via an unusual mode of protein ubiquitinylation.WSB1 is also involved in thyroid hormone homeostasis, immune regulation and cellular metabolism, particularly glucose metabolism and hypoxia. In hypoxia, wsb1 is a HIF-1 target, and is a regulator of the degradation of diverse proteins associated with the cellular response to hypoxia, including HIPK2, RhoGDI2 and VHL. Major roles are to both protect HIF-1 function through degradation of VHL, and decrease apoptosis through degradation of HIPK2. These activities suggest a role for wsb1 in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. As well, recent work has identified a role for WSB1 in glucose metabolism, and perhaps in mediating the Warburg effect in cancer cells by maintaining the function of HIF1. Furthermore, studies of cancer specimens have identified dysregulation of wsb1 associated with several types of cancer, suggesting a biologically relevant role in cancer development and/or progression.Recent development of an inducible expression system for wsb1 could aid in the further understanding of the varied functions of this protein in the cell, and roles as a potential oncogene and neuroprotective protein.
Venerito M, Helmke C, Jechorek D, et al.Leukotriene receptor expression in esophageal squamous cell cancer and non-transformed esophageal epithelium: a matched case control study.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2016; 16(1):85 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4R and LTB4R2) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2) contribute to malignant cell transformation. We aimed to investigate the expression of LTB4R, LTB4R2, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-transformed squamous epithelium of the esophagus, as well as in control biopsy samples from esophageal squamous epithelium of patients with functional dyspepsia.
METHODS: Expression of LTB4R, LTB4R2, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in biopsy samples of 19 patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer and 9 sex- and age-matched patients with functional dyspepsia.
RESULTS: LTB4R, LTB4R2, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 were expressed in all biopsy samples. Major findings were: 1) protein levels of all leukotriene receptors were significantly increased in esophageal squamous cell cancer compared to control mucosa (p < 0.05); 2) CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 gene expression was decreased in cancer tissue compared to control at 0.26-fold and 0.23-fold respectively; 3) an up-regulation of LTB4R (mRNA and protein expression) and a down-regulation of CYSLTR2 (mRNA expression) in non-transformed epithelium of cancer patients compared to control (p < 0.05) was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of leukotriene receptors was deregulated in esophageal squamous cell cancer. Up-regulation of LTB4R and down-regulation of CYSLTR2 gene expression may occur already in normal squamous esophageal epithelium of patients with esophageal cancer suggesting a potential role of these receptors in early steps of esophageal carcinogenesis. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these observations.
Glioblastomas (GBM) grow in a rich neurochemical milieu, but the impact of neurochemicals on GBM growth is largely unexplored. We interrogated 680 neurochemical compounds in patient-derived GBM neural stem cells (GNS) to determine the effects on proliferation and survival. Compounds that modulate dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic signaling pathways selectively affected GNS growth. In particular, dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) antagonists selectively inhibited GNS growth and promoted differentiation of normal neural stem cells. DRD4 antagonists inhibited the downstream effectors PDGFRβ, ERK1/2, and mTOR and disrupted the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, leading to accumulation of autophagic vacuoles followed by G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. These results demonstrate a role for neurochemical pathways in governing GBM stem cell proliferation and suggest therapeutic approaches for GBM.
Bozdogan O, Vargel I, Cavusoglu T, et al.Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2016; 212(7):608-15 [PubMed
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Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research.
Fujiwara M, Okamoto M, Hori M, et al.Radiation-Induced RhoGDIβ Cleavage Leads to Perturbation of Cell Polarity: A Possible Link to Cancer Spreading.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(11):2493-505 [PubMed
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The equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis is tightly balanced to maintain tissue homeostasis in normal tissues and even in tumors. Achieving and maintaining such a balance is important for cancer regrowth and spreading after cytotoxic treatments. Caspase-3 activation and tumor cell death following anticancer therapy as well as accompanying cell death pathways are well characterized, but their association to homeostasis of cancerous tissue and tumor progression remains poorly understood. Here we proposed a novel mechanism of cancer spreading induced by caspase-3. RhoGDIβ, known as a direct cleavage substrate of caspase-3, is overexpressed in many epithelial cancers. The N-terminal-truncated RhoGDIβ (ΔN-RhoGDIβ) is accumulated in caspase-3-activated cells. Stable expression of ΔN-RhoGDIβ in HeLa cells did not induce apoptosis, but impaired directional cell migration in a wound-healing assay accompanied by a perturbed direction of cell division at the wound edge. Subcellular protein fractionation experiments revealed that ΔN-RhoGDIβ but not wild-type RhoGDIβ was present in the detergent-soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions and preferentially associated with Cdc42. Furthermore, Cdc42 activity was constitutively inhibited by stable expression of ΔN-RhoGDIβ, resulting in increased radiation-induced compensatory proliferation linking to RhoA activation. Thus, ΔN-RhoGDIβ dominant-negatively regulates Cdc42 activity and contributes to loss of polarity-related functions. The caspase-3-cleaved RhoGDIβ is a possible determinant to promote cancer spreading due to deregulation of directional organization of tumor cell population and inhibition of default equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis after cytotoxic damage. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2493-2505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bose RN, Moghaddas S, Belkacemi L, et al.Absence of Activation of DNA Repair Genes and Excellent Efficacy of Phosphaplatins against Human Ovarian Cancers: Implications To Treat Resistant Cancers.
J Med Chem. 2015; 58(21):8387-401 [PubMed
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Phosphaplatins, platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes coordinated to a pyrophosphate moiety, exhibit excellent antitumor activities against a variety of cancers. To determine whether phosphaplatins trigger resistance to treatment by engaging DNA damage repair genes, a yeast genome-wide fitness assay was used. Treatment of yeast cells with pyrodach-2 (D2) or pyrodach-4 (D4) revealed no particular sensitivity to nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination repair, or postreplication repair when compared with platin control compounds. Also, TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (FAS) protein was overexpressed in phosphaplatin-treated ovarian tumor cells, and platinum colocalized with FAS protein in lipid rafts. An overactivation of sphingomyelinase (ASMase) was noted in the treated cells, indicating participation of an extrinsic apoptotic mechanism due to increased ceramide release. Our results indicate that DNA is not the target of phosphaplatins and accordingly, that phosphaplatins might not cause resistance to treatment. Activation of ASMase and FAS along with the colocalization of platinum with FAS in lipid rafts support an extrinsic apoptotic signaling mechanism that is mediated by phosphaplatins.
Han H, Xue-Franzén Y, Miao X, et al.Early growth response gene (EGR)-1 regulates leukotriene D4-induced cytokine transcription in Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015; 121(Pt A):122-30 [PubMed
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Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has a unique pathological feature characterized by a minority of malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells surrounded by numerous inflammatory cells. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs) are produced by eosinophils, macrophages and mast cells in the HL tumor microenvironment. In the present study we have explored the signal transduction pathways leading to leukotriene (LT) D4 induced expression of cytokines in the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L1236 and KM-H2. Stimulation of L1236 and KM-H2 cells with LTD4 led to a concentration- and time-dependent increase at the transcriptional level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and CCL4. The expression of several transcription factors was induced upon stimulation of Hodgkin cell lines with LTD4. Among these, EGR-1 was required for cytokine production. Inhibition of EGR-1 expression using shEGR-1 transduced by lentivirus led to suppression of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. The effect of LTD4 on the expression of transcription factors and cytokines were also blocked by the specific CysLT1 receptor antagonist zafirlukast. These results demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in LTD4-induced cytokine transcription in Hodgkin cell lines.
The mechanisms of lung cancer are highly complex. Not only mRNA gene expression but also microRNAs, DNA methylation, and copy number variation (CNV) play roles in tumorigenesis. It is difficult to incorporate so much information into a single model that can comprehensively reflect all these lung cancer mechanisms. In this study, we analyzed the 129 TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) squamous cell lung carcinoma samples with gene expression, microRNA expression, DNA methylation, and CNV data. First, we used variance inflation factor (VIF) regression to build the whole genome integrative network. Then, we isolated the lung cancer subnetwork by identifying the known lung cancer genes and their direct regulators. This subnetwork was refined by the Bayesian method, and the directed regulations among mRNA genes, microRNAs, methylations, and CNVs were obtained. The novel candidate key drivers in this refined subnetwork, such as the methylation of ARHGDIB and HOXD3, microRNA let-7a and miR-31, and the CNV of AGAP2, were identified and analyzed. On three large public available lung cancer datasets, the key drivers ARHGDIB and HOXD3 demonstrated significant associations with the overall survival of lung cancer patients. Our results provide new insights into lung cancer mechanisms.
Niu H, Wu B, Jiang H, et al.Mechanisms of RhoGDI2 mediated lung cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition suppression.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 34(6):2007-16 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of RhoGDI2 in lung cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and to illustrate the underlying mechanisms that will lead to improvement of lung cancer treatment.
METHODS: The RhoGDI2 knock-down and overexpressing A549 cell lines were first constructed. The influence of RhoGDI2 on cytoskeleton in A549 cells was studied using two approaches: G-LISA-based Rac1 activity measurement and immunostaining-based F-actin distribution. The expression levels of key EMT genes were analyzed using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot and immunostaining in untreated and RhoGDI2 knock-down or overexpressing A549 cells in both in vivo and in vitro experimental settings.
RESULTS: Our study showed that the activity of Rac1, a key gene that is crucial for the initiation and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma, causing the redistribution of F-actin with partial loss of cell-cell adhesions and stress fibers, was significantly suppressed by RhoGDI2. RhoGDI2 promoted the expression of EMT marker gene E-cadherin and repressed EMT promoting genes Slug, Snail, α-SMA in both A549 cells and lung and liver organs derived from the mouse models. Knocking-down RhoGDI2 induced abnormal morphology for lung organs.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that RhoGDI2 repressed the activity of Rac1 and may be involved in the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in lung cancer cells. RhoGDI2 suppresses the metastasis of lung cancer mediated through EMT by regulating the expression of key genes such as E-cadherin, Slug, Snail and α-SMA in both in vivo and in vitro models.
Pornour M, Ahangari G, Hejazi SH, et al.Dopamine receptor gene (DRD1-DRD5) expression changes as stress factors associated with breast cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(23):10339-43 [PubMed
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and a most prevalent malignancy in Iranian women. Chronic stress may make an important contribution to cancer, especially in the breast. Numerous studies showed roles of neurotransmitters in the occurrence and progression of cancers which are mediated by their various types of receptors. This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in the expression profile of dopamine receptor genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as stress factors in breast cancer patients and the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 30 patients and 30 healthy individuals. Total mRNA was extracted from PBMC and MCF-7 cells and RT-PCR was performed to confirm the presence of five dopamine receptors (DRD1-DRD5). Expression changes of dopamine receptor genes were evaluated by real time PCR. We observed that DRD2-DRD4 in PBMCs of breast cancer patients were increased compared to healthy individuals. In addition, all dopamine receptor subtypes but DRD1 were expressed in MCF-7 cells. Therefore, alterations of these receptors as stress factorsshould be assessed for selecting appropriate drugs such as D2-like agonists for treatment of breast cancer after performing complimentary tests. Determining the expression profile of dopamine receptor genes thus seems promising.
UNLABELLED: RhoGDI2 (ARHGDIB) suppresses metastasis in a variety of cancers but the mechanism is unclear, thus hampering development of human therapeutics. RhoGDI2 is a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for the Rho family of GTPases thought to primarily bind to Rac1; however, Rac1 activation was not decreased by RhoGDI2 expression in bladder cancer cells. To better understand the GTPase-binding partners for RhoGDI2, a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach was used in bladder cancer cells. As expected, endogenous RhoGDI2 coimmunoprecipitates with Rac1 and unexpectedly also with RhoC. Further analysis demonstrated that RhoGDI2 negatively regulates RhoC, as knockdown of RhoGDI2 increased RhoC activation in response to serum stimulation. Conversely, overexpression of RhoGDI2 decreased RhoC activation. RhoC promoted bladder cancer cell growth and invasion, as knockdown increased cell doubling time, decreased invasion through Matrigel, and decreased colony formation in soft agar. Importantly, RhoC knockdown reduced in vivo lung colonization by bladder cancer cells following tail vein injection in immunocompromised mice. Finally, unbiased transcriptome analysis revealed a set of genes regulated by RhoGDI2 overexpression and RhoC knockdown in bladder cancer cells.
IMPLICATIONS: RhoGDI2 suppresses bladder cancer metastatic colonization via negative regulation of RhoC activity, providing a rationale for the development of therapeutics that target RhoC signaling.