Gene Summary

Gene:ANXA7; annexin A7
Summary:Annexin VII is a member of the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins.The Annexin VII gene contains 14 exons and spans approximately 34 kb of DNA. An alternatively spliced cassette exon results in two mRNA transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb which are predicted to generate two protein isoforms differing in their N-terminal domain. The alternative splicing event is tissue specific and the mRNA containing the cassette exon is prevalent in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. The transcripts also differ in their 3'-non coding regions by the use of two alternative poly(A) signals. Annexin VII encodes a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa with a unique, highly hydrophobic N-terminal domain of 167 amino acids and a conserved C-terminal region of 299 amino acids. The latter domain is composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Structural analysis of the protein suggests that Annexin VII is a membrane binding protein with diverse properties, including voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, ion selectivity and membrane fusion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:annexin A7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ANXA7 (cancer-related)

Zhao Y, Yang Q, Wang X, et al.
AnnexinA7 down-regulation might suppress the proliferation and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via MAPK/ ERK pathway.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(4):527-537 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies worldwide with high lethality. However, the exact mechanism of liver tumorigenesis is still unclear. AnnexinA7 (ANXA7) is a Ca2+-binding protein which is involved in membrane organization and dynamics and indicated a role of ANXA7 in cancer. However, the action of ANXA7 in hepatocellular carcinoma and the relative mechanism is still indistinct.
OBJECTIVE: To gain more insight into the biological function of ANXA7 and assess its possible influence on proliferation and metastasis capacity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with the relative mechanism.
METHODS: ANXA7 was down-regulated by RNA interference in both HepG2 and smmc-7721 cells. The decreased cell proliferation was detected by MTT method and colony formation assay. To confirm the result of cell proliferation, Ki-67 and cyclinD1 expression was examined by Western Blot. The increased apoptosis capacity of the cells was detected with cell cytometry and PI staining respectively. Bcl-2 and Bax expression was further investigated by Western blot and the decreased ration of Bcl-2/Bax might explain the increased apoptosis.
RESULTS: Cell metastasis showed significantly limited ability which was tested by wound healing assay and Transwell assay. Meanwhile, the key biomarkers of cell metastasis E-cadherin expression increased while MMP-9 decreased. Furthermore, we found that ANXA7 played its role via MAPK/ERK pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA7 might involve in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and act as an oncogene which might be a potential therapeutic target for treatment.

Hayashi M, Kuroda K, Ihara K, et al.
Suppressive effect of an analog of the antimicrobial peptide of LL‑37 on colon cancer cells via exosome‑encapsulated miRNAs.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(6):3009-3016 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are multifunctional factors with an important role in the innate immune system. Our previous studies revealed that the human cathelicidin LL‑37 and its analog, FF/CAP18, limit the proliferation of colon cancer cell lines. In the present study, the exosomes released by HCT116 cells treated with FF/CAP18 were analyzed. After the treatment, exosomes were isolated from the culture supernatant by ultrafiltration and using the miRCURY™ Exosome Isolation Kit. Membrane vesicles 40‑100‑nm expressing CD63 and CD81 were identified before and after FF/CAP18 treatment. Exosome concentration in the culture supernatant was increased after treatment with FF/CAP18. Exosomes formed in HCT116 cells treated with FF/CAP18 induced growth suppression of the cells in a dose‑dependent manner. By contrast, the exosomes formed in non‑treated HCT116 cells did not affect cell viability. Microarray analysis of miRNA expression indicated that FF/CAP18 treatment induced increases in the expression of three miRNAs (miR‑584‑5p, miR‑1202 and miR‑3162‑5p) in both HCT116 cells and exosomes. These results suggest that FF/CAP18 treatment increases exosome formation, and that exosome‑encapsulated miRNAs suppress HCT116 cell proliferation. Exosomal miRNAs are considered to be involved in the dissemination of cell signals to control local cellular microenvironments. The present findings suggest that FF/CAP18 regulates cancer growth by modulating cell‑to‑cell communication. AMPs localize in the cytoplasm of cancer cells and enhance the expression of growth‑suppressing miRNAs. These miRNAs are also transported to other cancer cells via exosomes. Therefore, transportation of these miRNAs has the potential to suppress cancer growth. AMPs exert their effects directly by targeting cancer cells and indirectly via exosomes.

Leighton X, Bera A, Eidelman O, et al.
High ANXA7 Potentiates Eucalyptol Toxicity in Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(7):3831-3842 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Our studies showed that ANXA7 is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is lost in various aggressive forms of prostate cancer. However, little is known about the role of ANXA7 in the anticancer drug treatment towards different cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of ANXA7 was measured in the 60 cancer cell lines of the NCI-60 ADS project and correlated with the enhanced sensitivity to over 30,000 natural and synthetic compounds.
RESULTS: Eucalyptol showed a high positive correlation with ANXA7 expression and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell death occurred very effectively in response to the combination of eucalyptol and overexpressed wt-ANXA7 than either agent alone. The synergistic effects of ANXA7 and eucalyptol resulted in concordant changes in gene expression profiles particularly of Ras family members, MDM4, NF-ĸB and VEGF.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of ANXA7 enhances eucalyptol cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cell lines.

Ye W, Li Y, Fan L, et al.
Effect of annexin A7 suppression on the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 429(1-2):33-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the molecular mechanism of gastric cancer cell apoptosis is pivotal for the development of precise therapies targeting this disease. In the present study, we examined the effects of annexin A7 inhibition on the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells and the growth of tumour xenografts in vivo. Expression of annexin A7 in BGC823 cells was suppressed by small interference RNA, and cells apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The mechanism by which annexin A7 mediates apoptosis in BGC823 cells was explored by determining the expression of key apoptosis regulators. In addition, by suppressing annexin A7 in BGC823 cells with small hairpin RNA, we studied the effects of annexin A7 inhibition on in vivo tumour growth. Our results showed that inhibiting annexin A7 expression induced more than fivefold increase in BGC823 cell apoptosis in vitro. This was in concord with a significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression and increases of Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9. The activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased by 2.95 ± 0.18 and 3.70 ± 0.33 times, respectively, upon the annexin A7 downregulation in BGC823 cells. Importantly, suppressing annexin A7 showed the same apoptotic mechanism in vivo and significantly inhibited the growth of BGC823 xenografts in mice. These data suggest that annexin A7 likely protects gastric cells from apoptosis and targeting it may represent a valuable strategy in future therapeutic development.

Hago AM, Gamallat Y, Mahmoud SA, et al.
Ezrin expression is altered in mice lymphatic metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and subcellular fractions upon Annexin 7 modulation in-vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:209-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ezrin and Annexin seven (A7) have been suggested to be involved in several roles in cancers metastasis. However, the role of Ezrin and the effect of A7 on Ezrin expression in lymphatic metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (LNM-HCC) have not been extensively explored yet. This study reports expression of Ezrin in high lymphatic metastasis (Hca-F >70%) and low metastatic metastasis (Hca-P <30%) HCC cell lines, and the effect of A7 on Ezrin expression. Real-Time PCR, Western blot, Subcellular fractionation, Immunocytochemistry and Immunofluorescence were used to investigate Ezrin expression in addition to migration and invasion behaviors of A7 up-regulated Hca-F cells, A7 down-regulated Hca-P and in their respective negative control (NC) cells. Ezrin expression was higher in high LNM-HCC than low LNM-HCC (p=0.0046). Cell fractionation analysis reveals that Ezrin was highly present in the cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoskeleton of NC-Hca-F cells. However, Ezrin was highly observed in the cell membrane, nucleus and cytoskeleton of NC-Hca-P cells. A7 up-regulation in Hca-F suppressed Ezrin expression (p=0.0248), but increase the migration and invasion, whereas Ezrin was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus fractions. Down-regulation of A7 in Hca-P cells, enhanced Ezrin expression (p<0.0001) in the cytoplasm and nucleus fractions, and suppressed migration and invasion. In conclusion, Ezrin may play a role in LNM-HCC and might be inversely associated with A7 expression. The subcellular localization of Ezrin and A7 was varied according to the metastatic levels. Ezrin may thus be a potential diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for HCC.

Leighton X, Eidelman O, Jozwik C, et al.
ANXA7-GTPase as Tumor Suppressor: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities.
Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1513:23-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal abnormalities, including homozygous deletions and loss of heterozygosity at 10q, are commonly observed in most human tumors, including prostate, breast, and kidney cancers. The ANXA7-GTPase is a tumor suppressor, which is frequently inactivated by genomic alterations at 10q21. In the last few years, considerable amounts of data have accumulated describing inactivation of ANXA7-GTPase in a variety of human malignancies and demonstrating the tumor suppressor potential of ANXA7-GTPase. ANXA7-GTPase contains a calcium binding domain that classifies it as a member of the annexin family. The cancer-specific expression of ANXA7-GTPase, coupled with its importance in regulating cell death, cell motility, and invasion, makes it a useful diagnostic marker of cancer and a potential target for cancer treatment. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that ANXA7-GTPase is a critical factor associated with the metastatic state of several cancers and can be used as a risk biomarker for HER2 negative breast cancer patients. Cross talk between ANXA7, PTEN, and EGFR leads to constitutive activation of PI3K-AKT signaling, a central pathway of tumor cell survival and proliferation. This review focuses on the recent progress in understanding the tumor suppressor functions of ANXA7-GTPase emphasizing the role of this gene in Ca

Tu CC, Huang CY, Cheng WL, et al.
Silencing A7-nAChR levels increases the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to ixabepilone treatment.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9493-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is an important health issue worldwide. Currently, improving the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy drugs is an important goal of cancer research. Alpha-7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (A7-nAChR) is the key molecule that mediates gastric cancer progression, metastasis, and therapy responses; however, the role of A7-nAChR in the therapeutic efficacy of ixabepilone remains unclear. A7-nAChR expression was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology. The cytotoxicity of ixabepilone was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and ixabepilone-induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptotic assay. The expression patterns of anti-apoptotic proteins (AKT, phospho-AKT, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad and Bax) were determined by western blot. Our study found that A7-nAChR knockdown (A7-nAChR-KD) AGS cells were more sensitive to ixabepilone administration than scrambled control AGS cells. We found that A7-nAChR knockdown enhanced ixabepilone-induced cell death as evidenced by the increased number of annexin V-positive (apoptotic) cells. After scrambled control and A7-nAChR-KD cells were treated with ixabepilone, we found that pAKT and AKT levels were significantly reduced in both groups of cells. The levels of Bcl-2 and the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 isoform increased dramatically after ixabepilone treatment in scrambled control cells but not in A7-nAChR-KD cells. Bad and Bax levels did not change between the treatment group and vehicle group in both A7-nAChR-KD and scrambled control cells, whereas cleaved PARP levels dramatically increased in ixabepilone-treated A7-nAChR-KD cells. Our results demonstrated that knockdown of A7-nAChR enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to ixabepilone administration. Thus, the A7-nAChR expression level in patients with gastric cancer may be a good indicator of ixabepilone sensitivity.

Pan SJ, Zhan SK, Ji WZ, et al.
Ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C promotes glioma progression by mediating the ubiquitination and degrading of Annexin A7.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:11066 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) belongs to the E3 ligase enzyme family and implicates in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus regulates physiological and cancer-related processes. Here, we investigated the expression and roles of UBE3C in glioma. We demonstrated that UBE3C was overexpressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of UBE3C expression in glioma cells significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro. Mechanistically, we disclosed that UBE3C physically interacted with and ubiquitinated tumor suppressor gene annexin A7 (ANXA7), resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7. Our results also revealed that increased UBE3C expression was accompanied by a reduction in ANXA7 protein expression in glioma tissues, but not ANXA7 mRNA. Importantly, the inhibition of ANXA7 expression in gliomas cells with UBE3C interference could rescue the cell invasion. Clinically, UBE3C overexpression significantly correlated with high-grade tumors (p < 0.05), poor overall survival, and early tumor recurrence. Thus, our data reveal that high UBE3C expression contributes to glioma progression by ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7, and thus presents a novel and promising target for glioma therapy.

Zhang J, Li M, Song M, et al.
Clic1 plays a role in mouse hepatocarcinoma via modulating Annexin A7 and Gelsolin in vitro and in vivo.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 69:416-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clic1 is a member of the family of chloride intracellular ion channels. Previous studies suggest that Clic1 is involved in migration and invasion of the lymphatic metastasis in hepatocarcinoma, however, the mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we observed Clic1 is abundant in cytoplasm, higher expression in Hca-F cell than Hca-P cell, and we showed that downregulation of Clic1 by RNA interference was able to markedly enhance the expression of tumor metastasis genes Annexin A7 and Gelsolin in vitro, and downregulation of Annexin A7 and Gelsolin also enhanced the expression of Clic1 in vitro and in vivo. Our results provide novel insight that Clic1 have a role in migration and invasion in hepatocarcinoma maybe via modulating the expression of Annexin A7 and Gelsolin, and provide novel insight into the mechanisms of Clic1 for hepatocarcinoma treatment.

Fan LQ, Li Y, Zhao Q, et al.
Comparative proteomics in gastric cancer cell line BGC823 after ZNF139 gene inhibited with RNA interference.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1822-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) gene is proved play an important role in gastric cancer. Aim of this study is to identify changes of proteins after ZNF139 gene was inhibited in gastric cancer cell line BGC823.
METHODS: siRNA-specific ZNF139 was synthesized and transfected into BGC823; 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were applied to screen, identify differentially expressed proteins, and function of these proteins was analyzed; Western blot method was applied to verify the identified proteins.
RESULTS: ZNF139 expression in siRNA transfected cancer cell BGC823 decreased significantly. Results of 2-D DIGE showed eight differential protein spots, of which seven were identified with LC-MS, including switches associated protein 70, far upstream element binding protein 1, heat shock protein 60, annexin A7, small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme, chaperonin-containing tail-less complex protein 1 and annexin A2. These proteins were found to be associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, adhesion of gastric cancer cells with bioinformatic analysis. Western blot analysis confirmed that expressions of these proteins in BGC823 were consistent with the proteomic results.
CONCLUSIONS: ZNF139 gene may influence the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells in many ways by regulating multiple proteins.

Cai ZK, Chen Q, Chen YB, et al.
microRNA-155 promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by targeting annexin 7.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):533-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Micro (mi)RNAs are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. The relevance of microRNAs in the development, progression and prognosis of prostate cancer is not fully understood. miR-155 has been implicated in the induction of breast, lung and liver cancer, but its role in prostate cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, the biological function of miR-155 was investigated in prostate cancer for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It was demonstrated that the expression of miR-155 was upregulated in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines as determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-155 promoted cell proliferation, as indicated by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that inhibition of miR-155 induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that annexin (ANX)7 was significantly downregulated in prostate cancer tissues and cells. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that ANX7 was a target of miR-155, which suggested that miRNA-155 promoted the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by regulating ANX7 expression levels.

Huang Y, Wang Q, Du Y, et al.
Inhibition of annexin A7 gene and protein induces the apotosis and decreases the invasion, migration of the hepatocarcinoma cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(7):819-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that annexin A7 (ANXA7) gives different expressions in the mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines with low or high lymphatic metastatic potential in both gene and protein levels. In this study, whether by using RNA interference (RNAi) technique downregulating ANXA7 in the gene level or by using antibody against ANXA7 in the protein level, the depressed expression of ANXA7 could induce apotosis and decrease the invasion, migration capacities of the Hca-P cell, a hepatocarcinoma cell line with low lymphatic metastatic potential in vitro. The results indicate that ANXA7 is an important factor in tumors with the lymphatic metastasis.

Ferrarese R, Harsh GR, Yadav AK, et al.
Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(7):2861-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones.

Srivastava M, Leighton X, Starr J, et al.
Diverse effects of ANXA7 and p53 on LNCaP prostate cancer cells are associated with regulation of SGK1 transcription and phosphorylation of the SGK1 target FOXO3A.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:193635 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor suppressor function of the calcium/phospholipid-binding Annexin-A7 (ANXA7) has been shown in Anxa7-deficient mice and validated in human cancers. In the androgen-resistant prostate cancer cells, ANXA7 and p53 showed similar cytotoxicity levels. However, in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP, ANXA7 greatly exceeded the p53-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that the p53 underperformance in LNCaP could be due to the involvement of p53-responsive SGK1 and FOXO3A. In this study, we show that p53 failed to match programmed cell death (PCD) and G1-arrest that were induced by ANXA7 in LNCaP. WT-ANXA7 preserved total FOXO3A expression with no hyperphosphorylation that could enable FOXO3A nuclear translocation and proapoptotic transcription. In contrast, in the p53-transfected LNCaP cells with maintained cell proliferation, the phosphorylated (but not total) FOXO3A fraction was increased implying a predominantly cytoplasmic localization and, subsequently, a lack of FOXO3A proapoptotic transcription. In addition, p53 reduced the expression of aberrant SGK1 protein form in LNCaP. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and p53-signature genes, we elucidated the role of distinct SGK1/FOXO3A-associated regulation in p53 versus ANXA7 responses and proposed that aberrant SGK1 could affect reciprocal SGK1-FOXO3A-Akt regulation. Thus, the failure of the cell growth regulator p53 versus the phospholipid-binding ANXA7 could be potentially attributed to its diverse effects on SGK1-FOXO3A-Akt pathway in the PTEN-deficient LNCaP.

Wang X, Yuegao, Bai L, et al.
Evaluation of Annexin A7, Galectin-3 and Gelsolin as possible biomarkers of hepatocarcinoma lymphatic metastasis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(3):259-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that Annexin A7 is involved in the lymphatic metastasis of hepatocarcinoma in vitro. The expression of Galectin-3 and Gelsolin, which were also relevant to tumor lymphatic metastasis, had shown the same tendency concordantly with the expression of Annexin A7 alteration by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Here, we gain an insight into the role that Annexin A7 is playing in Hca-P, PAnxa7-upregulated and PAnxa7-downregulated cells in vivo. Then, Hca-P, PAnxa7-upregulated and PAnxa7-downregulated cells were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary tumors in mice. On the fourth week after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection the expression of Annexin A7, Galectin-3 and Gelsolin in primary tumors and in serum. Our work indicates that Annexin A7 and Gelsolin are both valuable in tumors and in serum evaluating lymph node metastasis in mice with hepatocarcinoma; Galectin-3 in tumors is significant but no much contribution in serum.

Du Y, Meng J, Huang Y, et al.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1, a new Annexin A7 interacting protein.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):58-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report for the first time that Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1 (RACK1) formed a complex with Annexin A7. Hca-F and Hca-P are a pair of syngeneic mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines established and maintained in our laboratory. Our previous study showed that both Annexin A7 and RACK1 were expressed higher in Hca-F (lymph node metastasis >70%) than Hca-P (lymph node metastasis <30%). Suppression of Annexin A7 expression in Hca-F cells induced decreased migration and invasion ability. In this study, knockdown of RACK1 by RNA interference (RNAi) had the same impact on metastasis potential of Hca-F cells as Annexin A7 down-regulation. Furthermore, by co-immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescence confocal imaging, we found that RACK1 was in complex with Annexin A7 in control cells, but not in the RACK1-down-regulated cells, indicating the abolishment of RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction in Hca-F cells by RACK1 RNAi. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction may be one of the means by which RACK1 and Annexin A7 influence the metastasis potential of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro.

Jin Y, Wang S, Chen W, et al.
Annexin A7 suppresses lymph node metastasis of hepatocarcinoma cells in a mouse model.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in China. This study investigated the effects of Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on the inhibition of HCC lymph node metastasis in a mouse model.
METHODS: The stable knockup and knockdown of Annexin A7-expressing HCC cells using Annexin A7 cDNA and shRNA vectors, respectively, were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary and metastatic tumors in mice. On the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection of primary and secondary tumors and immunohistochemistry of Annexin A7 expression.
RESULTS: The lymph node metastasis rate of the FANXA7-control group was 77%, and the lymph node metastasis rate of the FANXA7-down group was 100% (p<0.05). In contrast, the lymph node metastasis rate of the PANXA7-up group was 0% and that of the PANXA7-control group was 36% (p<0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that the subcellular localization of Annexin A7 protein in both primary and lymph node-metastasized tumors was mainly in the cytosol. In addition, the expression of the 47 kDa and 51 kDa isoforms of Annexin A7 protein changed during tumor progression.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that Annexin A7 expression was able to inhibit HCC lymph node metastasis, whereas knockdown of Annexin A7 expression significantly induced HCC metastasis to local lymph nodes.

Phueaouan T, Chaiyawat P, Netsirisawan P, et al.
Aberrant O-GlcNAc-modified proteins expressed in primary colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2929-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues which is dynamically regulated by 2 enzymes; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyze the addition and removal of a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) molecule, respectively. This modification is thought to be a nutrient sensor in highly proliferating cells via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, a minor branch of glycolysis. Although emerging evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc modification is associated with many types of cancer, identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and their role in cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation is increased in primary colorectal cancer tissues, and that this augmentation is associated with an increased expression of OGT levels. Using 2-dimensional O-GlcNAc immunoblotting and LC-MS/MS analysis, 16 proteins were successfully identified and 8 proteins showed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation, including cytokeratin 18, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1), hnRNP H, annexin A2, annexin A7, laminin-binding protein, α-tubulin and protein DJ-1. Among these identified proteins, annexin A2 was further confirmed to show overexpression of O-GlcNAc in all cancer samples. The results, therefore, indicate that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation of proteins is associated with colorectal cancer and that identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins may provide novel biomarkers of cancer.

Guo C, Liu S, Greenaway F, Sun MZ
Potential role of annexin A7 in cancers.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 423:83-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Annexin A7 (Anxa7) is a member of the multigene annexin superfamily of Ca(2+)-regulated and phospholipid-binding proteins. Accumulated evidence indicates that the deregulation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and subcellular localization of Anxa7 are associated with the occurrence, invasion, metastasis and progression of a variety of cancers. Anxa7 appears to have a tumor-suppression role in glioblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), melanoma and prostate cancer (CaP) but, controversially and interestingly, Anxa7 also appears to promote the development and malignancies of liver cancer, gastric cancer (GC), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC). The associations between Anxa7 and malignant tumors as well as potential mechanisms of action are summarized and discussed in current review. Anxa7 has potential for use as a biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain tumors.

Ibrahim MM, Sun MZ, Huang Y, et al.
Down-regulation of ANXA7 decreases metastatic potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(4):285-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report for the first time the influence of ANXA7 gene on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). We down-regulated ANXA7 in human HCC cell line (HepG2) using siRNA method. By Western Blot analysis, we confirmed about 70% down-regulation of the gene in the shRNA-ANXA7 transfected cells (shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2) compared to the non-specific sequence shRNA transfected cells (control-shRNA-HepG2) and the un-manipulated-HepG2 cells. We used CCK-8 cell proliferation kit and observed about 65% reduction in the shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cells where the two controls exhibited comparable cell proliferation rates. Also, by using PI staining followed by flow cytometry, we noticed a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 with more than one fold reduction of shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cell population in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Also of particular note was a significant aneuploidy in the controls compared to zero aneuploidy in the ANXA7 down-regulated cells. Migration of the cells was detected using Boyden's transwell chamber and scratch wound healing assay which showed 50% and 30% respective reductions in shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cells migration. Furthermore, the control-shRNA-HepG2 cells and the un-manipulated-HepG2 cells invaded through the ECM-coated transwell plates two times more than the shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cells. We have found ANXA7 to be functioning like a tumour promoter in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and could have a potential as a therapeutic window into the management of liver cancer.

Jin Y, Mao J, Wang H, et al.
Enhanced tumorigenesis and lymphatic metastasis of CD133+ hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines mediated by JNK signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(4):337-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), stem-like cells, or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) may initiate tumorigenesis and metastasis, but neither the basic cell biology of CSCs nor the mechanisms of CSC-mediated tumor growth and lymphoid node metastasis are understood. Evidence suggests that CSC phenotype is maintained, at least in part, by altered JNK signaling. In this study, factors influencing the growth and metastatic potential of CSCs were examined by comparing CD133 surface antigen expression, proliferation, clonogenicity, invasive capacity, tumorigenicity, and expression of JNK-associated signaling molecules between the highly metastatic mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell line Hca-F and the low metastasis potential line Hca-P. The Hca-F line exhibited higher clonogenic, proliferative, and invasive capacities than Hca-P cells, and a greater proportion of Hca-F cells were CD133 positive. In both cell lines, the CD133+ subpopulation showed significantly enhanced tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. An in vivo tumorigenicity assay in nude mice indicated that Hca-F cells possessed significantly higher tumorigenicity than Hca-P cells as indicated by larger tumors after inoculation. Expression levels of E-cadherin (CDH1), annexin VII, and JNK1 proteins were inversely correlated with CD133 expression in both Hca-F and Hca-P cells. These results demonstrate that CD133+ subpopulations of both Hca-F and Hca-P lines show CSC-like properties. However, Hca-F cells showed greater tumorigenicity and invasiveness, consistent with greater lymphatic metastasis capacity. We propose that tumorigenesis and lymphatic metastasis are regulated by JNK/P53/annexin VII and JNK/ATF-2/CDH1/annexin VII signal transduction pathways.

Jin YL, Wang ZQ, Qu H, et al.
Annexin A7 gene is an important factor in the lymphatic metastasis of tumors.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(4):251-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the tumor malignancy progression, lymph node metastasis (LNM) is recognized as an important factor. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to down-regulate ANXA7 gene in Hca-F cells, a hepatocarcinoma cell line with high LNM rate. There was no significant effect on cell proliferation ability, but cell division, motility, and invasion abilities were markedly inhibited. By contrast, up-regulating the expression of ANXA7 gene in Hca-P cells with lower LNM rate, cell migration ability was improved and the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased in vitro. Here, we reported that the expression of Ech1, GSN and JNK1 genes, which were relevant to tumor lymphatic metastasis, had been inhibited due to down-regulation ANXA7 gene and promoted due to up-regulation ANXA7 gene by western blot analysis. These results indicated that ANXA7 is a critical factor in the development of lymphatic metastasis in hepatocarcinoma progression.

Taniuchi K, Yokotani K, Saibara T
BART inhibits pancreatic cancer cell invasion by PKCα inactivation through binding to ANX7.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35674 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A novel function for the binder of Arl two (BART) molecule in pancreatic cancer cells is reported. BART inhibits invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through binding to a Ca(2+)-dependent, phosphorylated, guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) membrane fusion protein, annexin7 (ANX7). A tumor suppressor function for ANX7 was previously reported based on its prognostic role in human cancers and the cancer-prone mouse phenotype ANX7(+/-). Further investigation demonstrated that the BART-ANX7 complex is transported toward cell protrusions in migrating cells when BART supports the binding of ANX7 to the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCα. Recent evidence has suggested that phosphorylation of ANX7 by PKC significantly potentiates ANX7-induced fusion of phospholipid vesicles; however, the current data suggest that the BART-ANX7 complex reduces PKCα activity. Knocking down endogenous BART and ANX7 increases activity of PKCα, and specific inhibitors of PKCα significantly abrogate invasiveness induced by BART and ANX7 knockdown. These results imply that BART contributes to regulating PKCα activity through binding to ANX7, thereby affecting the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, it is possible that BART and ANX7 can distinctly regulate the downstream signaling of PKCα that is potentially relevant to cell invasion by acting as anti-invasive molecules.

Torosyan Y, Dobi A, Glasman M, et al.
Role of multi-hnRNP nuclear complex in regulation of tumor suppressor ANXA7 in prostate cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(17):2457-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Annexin-A7 (ANXA7) tumor suppressor role has been shown in various tumors, and ANXA7 expression has been particularly lost in androgen-resistant prostate cancers. In this study, we studied ANXA7 regulation in normal prostate versus androgen-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer cells. Deletion mapping analysis showed lowest ANXA7-promoter activities in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Genomatix analysis of ANXA7 promoter identified a cluster of steroid nuclear hormone receptor elements, including V$GREF (V$GRE.02/ARE.02). Gelshift analysis clearly indicated distinct nuclear protein occupancy at this ANXA7-promoter site (-1086/-890) in prostate cancer (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3) versus normal prostate (PrEC) cells. In matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based search for ANXA7 nuclear regulators, we identified several heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) (A1, A2/B1 and K) attached to the steroid-associated ANXA7-promoter site in the androgen-resistant PC3 prostate cancer cells with high ANXA7 gene copy number, but not in PrEC. The hnPNP role in ANXA7 regulation (that was validated by hnRNPA2/B1 antibody interference) resulted in multiple ANXA7 cDNA and protein products in PC3, but not in PrEC. Ingenuity pathways analysis showed plausible molecular paths between ANXA7 and the hnRNP-associated network in prostate cancer progression. Thus, a multi-hnRNP complex can be responsible for aberrant ANXA7 transcription and splicing, thereby affecting ANXA7 expression pattern and tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer.

Torosyan Y, Simakova O, Naga S, et al.
Annexin-A7 protects normal prostate cells and induces distinct patterns of RB-associated cytotoxicity in androgen-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 125(11):2528-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor role of annexin-A7 (ANXA7) was previously demonstrated by cancer susceptibility in Anxa7(+/-)-mice and by ANXA7 loss in human cancers, especially in hormone-resistant prostate tumors. To gain mechanistic insights into ANXA7 tumor suppression, we undertook an in vitro study in which we compared wild-type (WT)-ANXA7 and dominant-negative (DN)-ANXA7 effects to a conventional tumor suppressor p53 in prostate cancer cells with different androgen sensitivity. Unlike p53 (which caused cell growth arrest and apoptosis to a noticeable extent in benign PrEC), WT-ANXA7 demonstrated profound cytotoxicityin androgen-sensitive LNCaP as well as in the androgen-resistant DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells, but not in PrEC. In androgen-sensitive LNCaP, WT-ANXA7 decreased low-molecular-weight (LMW) AR protein forms and maintained higher retinoblastoma 1 (RB1)/phospho-RB1 ratio. In contrast, DN-ANXA7 (which lacks phosphatidylserine liposome aggregation properties) increased LMW-AR forms and hyperphosphorylated RB1 that was consistent with the lack of DN-ANXA7 cytotoxicity. According to the microarray-based Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, a major WT-ANXA7 effect in androgen-sensitive LNCaP constituted of upregulation of the RB1-binding transcription factor E2F1 along with its downstream proapoptotic targets such as ASK1 and ASPP2. These results suggested a reversal of the RBdependent repression of the proapoptotic E2F-mediated transcription. However, DN-ANXA7 increased RB1/2 (but not E2F1) expression and induced the proliferation-promoting ERK5, thereby maintaining the RB-dependent repression of E2F-mediated apoptosis in LNcaP. On the other hand, in androgen-resistant cells, WT-ANXA7 tumor suppressor effects involved PTEN and NFkB pathways. Thus, ANXA7 revived the RB-associated cell survival control and overcame androgen resistance and dysfunctional status of major tumor suppressors commonly mutated in prostate cancer. Published 2009 UICC.

Yadav AK, Renfrow JJ, Scholtens DM, et al.
Monosomy of chromosome 10 associated with dysregulation of epidermal growth factor signaling in glioblastomas.
JAMA. 2009; 302(3):276-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Glioblastomas--uniformly fatal brain tumors--often have both monosomy of chromosome 10 and gains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene locus on chromosome 7, an association for which the mechanism is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether coselection of EGFR gains on 7p12 and monosomy 10 in glioblastomas promotes tumorigenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling through loss of the annexin A7 (ANXA7) gene on 10q21.1-q21.2 and whether ANXA7 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating EGFR in glioblastomas.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multidimensional analysis of gene, coding sequence, promoter methylation, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript, protein data for ANXA7 (and EGFR), and clinical patient data profiles of 543 high-grade gliomas from US medical centers and The Cancer Genome Atlas pilot project (made public 2006-2008; and unpublished, tumors collected 2001-2008). Functional analyses using LN229 and U87 glioblastoma cells.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations among ANXA7 gene dosage, coding sequence, promoter methylation, mRNA transcript, and protein expression. Effect of ANXA7 haploinsufficiency on EGFR signaling and patient survival. Joint effects of loss of ANXA7 and gain of EGFR expression on tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: Heterozygous ANXA7 gene deletion is associated with significant loss of ANXA7 mRNA transcript expression (P = 1 x 10(-15); linear regression) and a reduction (mean [SEM]) of 91.5% (2.3%) of ANXA7 protein expression compared with ANXA7 wild-type glioblastomas (P = .004; unpaired t test). ANXA7 loss of function stabilizes the EGFR protein (72%-744% increase in EGFR protein abundance) and augments EGFR transforming signaling in glioblastoma cells. ANXA7 haploinsufficiency doubles tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma cells, and combined ANXA7 knockdown and EGFR overexpression promotes tumorigenicity synergistically. The heterozygous loss of ANXA7 in approximately 75% of glioblastomas in the The Cancer Genome Atlas plus infrequency of ANXA7 mutation (approximately 6% of tumors) indicates its role as a haploinsufficiency gene. ANXA7 mRNA transcript expression, dichotomized at the median, associates with patient survival in 191 glioblastomas (log-rank P = .008; hazard ratio [HR], 0.667; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.493-0.902; 46.9 vs 74.8 deaths/100 person-years for high vs low ANXA7 mRNA expression) and with a separate group of 180 high-grade gliomas (log-rank P = .00003; HR, 0.476; 95% CI, 0.333-0.680; 21.8 vs 50.0 deaths/100 person-years for high vs low ANXA7 mRNA expression). Deletion of the ANXA7 gene associates with poor patient survival in 189 glioblastomas (log-rank P = .042; HR, 0.686; 95% CI, 0.476-0.989; 54.0 vs 80.1 deaths/100 person-years for wild-type ANXA7 vs ANXA7 deletion).
CONCLUSION: Haploinsufficiency of the tumor suppressor ANXA7 due to monosomy of chromosome 10 provides a clinically relevant mechanism to augment EGFR signaling in glioblastomas beyond that resulting from amplification of the EGFR gene.

Bredel M, Scholtens DM, Harsh GR, et al.
A network model of a cooperative genetic landscape in brain tumors.
JAMA. 2009; 302(3):261-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Gliomas, particularly glioblastomas, are among the deadliest of human tumors. Gliomas emerge through the accumulation of recurrent chromosomal alterations, some of which target yet-to-be-discovered cancer genes. A persistent question concerns the biological basis for the coselection of these alterations during gliomagenesis.
OBJECTIVES: To describe a network model of a cooperative genetic landscape in gliomas and to evaluate its clinical relevance.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multidimensional genomic profiles and clinical profiles of 501 patients with gliomas (45 tumors in an initial discovery set collected between 2001 and 2004 and 456 tumors in validation sets made public between 2006 and 2008) from multiple academic centers in the United States and The Cancer Genome Atlas Pilot Project (TCGA).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Identification of genes with coincident genetic alterations, correlated gene dosage and gene expression, and multiple functional interactions; association between those genes and patient survival.
RESULTS: Gliomas select for a nonrandom genetic landscape-a consistent pattern of chromosomal alterations-that involves altered regions ("territories") on chromosomes 1p, 7, 8q, 9p, 10, 12q, 13q, 19q, 20, and 22q (false-discovery rate-corrected P<.05). A network model shows that these territories harbor genes with putative synergistic, tumor-promoting relationships. The coalteration of the most interactive of these genes in glioblastoma is associated with unfavorable patient survival. A multigene risk scoring model based on 7 landscape genes (POLD2, CYCS, MYC, AKR1C3, YME1L1, ANXA7, and PDCD4) is associated with the duration of overall survival in 189 glioblastoma samples from TCGA (global log-rank P = .02 comparing 3 survival curves for patients with 0-2, 3-4, and 5-7 dosage-altered genes). Groups of patients with 0 to 2 (low-risk group) and 5 to 7 (high-risk group) dosage-altered genes experienced 49.24 and 79.56 deaths per 100 person-years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.40; Cox regression model P = .02), respectively. These associations with survival are validated using gene expression data in 3 independent glioma studies, comprising 76 (global log-rank P = .003; 47.89 vs 15.13 deaths per 100 person-years for high risk vs low risk; Cox model HR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.49-6.20; P = .002) and 70 (global log-rank P = .008; 83.43 vs 16.14 deaths per 100 person-years for high risk vs low risk; HR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.59-9.35; P = .003) high-grade gliomas and 191 glioblastomas (global log-rank P = .002; 83.23 vs 34.16 deaths per 100 person-years for high risk vs low risk; HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.44-3.58; P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The alteration of multiple networking genes by recurrent chromosomal aberrations in gliomas deregulates critical signaling pathways through multiple, cooperative mechanisms. These mutations, which are likely due to nonrandom selection of a distinct genetic landscape during gliomagenesis, are associated with patient prognosis.

Sun MZ, Liu S, Tang J, et al.
Proteomics analysis of two mice hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high and low lymph node metastasis rates provide potential protein markers for tumor malignancy attributes to lymphatic metastasis.
Proteomics. 2009; 9(12):3285-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is recognized as an important factor involved in the tumor malignancy progression. Our previous study has indicated that the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 75% of LNM (Hca-F)-cell-induced neoplasia and the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 25% of LNM-induced neoplasia are accompanied with high (75%) and low (25%) incidences of LNM. In the current study, 62 and 54 protein spots were observed up-regulated and down-regulated in Hca-F cell relative to the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 25% of LNM by 2-D DIGE. Totally, 113 unique proteins were identified by HPLC-nano ESI-MS/MS analysis. The expression levels of Annexin A7, Ulch3, and ER protein 29 were validated by Western blotting analyses. The abnormally regulated proteins were categorized and annotated by protein analysis through evolutionary relationships analysis with the aid of the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery tool. Seventeen gene candidates concordantly expressed both at mRNA and protein levels. By making a challenge, we detected expression levels of Annexin A7 in primary gastric cancer (GC) and primary GC cancer tissues with LNMs by immunohistochemisty. Higher ratio of positive and strong expressions Annexin A7 in GC might correlate with the tumor progression. The repression of Annexin A7 inhibits the mobility and invasion abilities of Hca-F cell, increases the apoptosis rate of Hca-F cell. Current study narrows and provides certain specific protein candidates potentially playing important roles in LNM-associated cancers.

Eisenhofer G, Huynh TT, Elkahloun A, et al.
Differential expression of the regulated catecholamine secretory pathway in different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 295(5):E1223-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) differ in the types and amounts of catecholamines produced and the resulting signs and symptoms. We hypothesized the presence of different processes of catecholamine release reflecting differential expression of components of the regulated secretory pathway among the two types of hereditary tumors. Differences in catecholamine secretion from tumors in patients with VHL syndrome (n = 47) and MEN 2 (n = 32) were examined using measurements of catecholamines in tumor tissue, urine, and plasma, the last of which was under baseline conditions in all subjects and in a subgroup of patients who received intravenous glucagon to provoke catecholamine release. Microarray and proteomics analyses, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting were used to assess expression of tumor tissue secretory pathway components. The rate constant for baseline catecholamine secretion was 20-fold higher in VHL than in MEN 2 tumors (0.359 +/- 0.094 vs. 0.018 +/- 0.009 day(-1)), but catecholamine release was responsive only to glucagon in MEN 2 tumors. Compared with tumors from MEN 2 patients, those from VHL patients were characterized by reduced expression of numerous components of the regulated secretory pathway (e.g., SNAP25, syntaxin, rabphilin 3A, annexin A7, calcium-dependent secretion activator). The mutation-dependent differences in expression of secretory pathway components indicate a more mature regulated secretory pathway in MEN 2 than VHL tumors. These data provide a unique mechanistic link to explain how variations in the molecular machinery governing exocytosis may contribute to clinical differences in the secretion of neurotransmitters or hormones and the subsequent presentation of a disease.

Rozanov DV, Savinov AY, Williams R, et al.
Molecular signature of MT1-MMP: transactivation of the downstream universal gene network in cancer.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(11):4086-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Invasion-promoting MT1-MMP is directly linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our studies led us to identify those genes, the expression of which is universally linked to MT1-MMP in multiple tumor types. Genome-wide expression profiling of MT1-MMP-overexpressing versus MT1-MMP-silenced cancer cells and a further data mining analysis of the preexisting expression database of 190 human tumors of 14 cancer types led us to identify 11 genes, the expression of which correlated firmly and universally with that of MT1-MMP (P < 0.00001). These genes included regulators of energy metabolism (NNT), trafficking and membrane fusion (SLCO2A1 and ANXA7), signaling and transcription (NR3C1, JAG1, PI3K delta, and CK2 alpha), chromatin rearrangement (SMARCA1), cell division (STK38/NDR1), apoptosis (DAPK1), and mRNA splicing (SNRPB2). Our subsequent extensive analysis of cultured cells, tumor xenografts, and cancer patient biopsies supported our data mining. Our results suggest that transcriptional reprogramming of the specific downstream genes, which themselves are associated with tumorigenesis, represents a distinctive "molecular signature" of the proteolytically active MT1-MMP. We suggest that the transactivation activity of MT1-MMP contributes to the promigratory cell phenotype, which is induced by this tumorigenic proteinase. The activated downstream gene network then begins functioning in unison with MT1-MMP to rework the signaling, transport, cell division, energy metabolism, and other critical cell functions and to commit the cell to migration, invasion, and, consequently, tumorigenesis.

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