ANXA2

Gene Summary

Gene:ANXA2; annexin A2
Aliases: P36, ANX2, LIP2, LPC2, CAL1H, LPC2D, ANX2L4, PAP-IV, HEL-S-270
Location:15q22.2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. This protein functions as an autocrine factor which heightens osteoclast formation and bone resorption. This gene has three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 4, 9 and 10, respectively. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:annexin A2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ANXA2 (cancer-related)

Zhang X, Pan J
A novel clonal t(1;4)(p36.1;q31) translocation in acute promyelocytic leukaemia.
J Clin Pathol. 2015; 68(5):391-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) carry the hallmark t(15;17)(q22;q21) translocation, involving the promyelocytic leukaemia/retinoic acid receptor-α (PML/RARα) fusion gene, and by sensitivity of blast cells to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and/or arsenic trioxide therapy. The incidence and prognostic significance of additional chromosomal abnormalities in APL are still obscure. We reported a patient with APL with PML/RARα and clonal t(1;4)(p36.1;q31) positive, but t(15;17)(q22;q21) negative. She was initially treated with ATRA and idarubicin and got complete remission. Our report supports the suggestion that there are no differences in the clinical outcome between APL cases with classical t(15;17)(q22;q21) and those with additional chromosomal abnormality t(1;4)(p36.1;q31). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with APL without classical t(15;17)(q22;q21), showing an additional clonal t(1;4)(p36.1;q31) and involving PML/RARα fusion gene. It will help us to understand the role of the clonal t(1;4)(p36.1;q31) translocation in the pathogenesis of APL when relevant genes involved in the clonal translocation have been identified.

Guan M, Chen X, Ma Y, et al.
MDA-9 and GRP78 as potential diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of melanoma metastasis.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2973-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic melanoma, the primary cause of skin cancer-related death, warrants new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that target the regulatory machinery at molecular level. The heterogeneity and complexity of melanoma result in the difficulty to find biomarkers and targets for early detection and treatment. Here, we investigated metastasis-associated proteins by comparing the proteomic profiles of primary cutaneous melanomas to their matched lymph node metastases, which minimizes heterogeneity among samples from different patients. Results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by proteomic analysis revealed eight differentially expressed proteins. Among them, seven proteins (α-enolase, cofilin-1, LDH, m-β-actin, Nm23, GRP78, and MDA-9) showed increased and one (annexin A2) showed decreased expression in metastatic lymph node tissues than in primary melanomas. MDA-9 and GRP78 were the most highly expressed proteins in lymph node metastases, which was validated by immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, exosomes from serum samples of metastatic melanoma patients contained higher levels of MDA-9 and GRP78 than those of patients without metastases, indicating the potential of MDA-9 and GRP78 to be biomarkers for early detection of metastasis. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown confirmed a functional role for MDA-9 and GRP78 to promote cell invasion in the A375 cells. Finally, we showed that GRP78 co-localized with MDA-9 in 293T cells. Taken together, our findings support MDA-9, co-expressed with GRP78, as a melanoma protein associated with lymph node metastasis. Investigating how MDA-9 and GRP78 interact to contribute to melanoma metastasis and disease progression could reveal new potential avenues of targeted therapy and/or useful biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

Wu PC, Lu JW, Yang JY, et al.
H3K9 histone methyltransferase, KMT1E/SETDB1, cooperates with the SMAD2/3 pathway to suppress lung cancer metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7333-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant histone methylation is a frequent event during tumor development and progression. KMT1E (also known as SETDB1) is a histone H3K9 methyltransferase that contributes to epigenetic silencing of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. In this report, we demonstrate that KMT1E acts as a metastasis suppressor that is strongly downregulated in highly metastatic lung cancer cells. Restoring KMT1E expression in this setting suppressed filopodia formation, migration, and invasive behavior. Conversely, loss of KMT1E in lung cancer cells with limited metastatic potential promoted migration in vitro and restored metastatic prowess in vivo. Mechanistic investigations indicated that KMT1E cooperates with the TGFβ-regulated complex SMAD2/3 to repress metastasis through ANXA2. Together, our findings defined an essential role for the KMT1E/SMAD2/3 repressor complex in TGFβ-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

Quabius ES, Görögh T, Fischer GS, et al.
The antileukoprotease secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and its role in the prevention of HPV-infections in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(1):339-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between HPV-infection and SLPI-expression suggesting that SLPI protects against HPV-infection of HNSCC. Here we analyzed in a single lab setting 307 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HNSCC cases (tonsillar n = 135; non-tonsillar: n = 172) from eight health care centers. Samples were analyzed for SLPI gene- and protein-expression. Annexin A2, its heterotetramer A2t, putatively facilitating HPV- and SLPI-cell entry, was measured to study the correlation between SLPI and annexin A2. Data were correlated with tobacco consumption and HPV-status. Overall, HPV-DNA prevalence was 23.5% (72/307); attributed to: 43.7% (59/135) tonsillar and 7.6% (13/172) non-tonsillar cases. Smoking resulted in 6.44-fold increased and HPV-infection in 3.46-fold decreased SLPI-gene expression in all HNSCC with similar significant results obtained in tonsillar and non-tonsillar SCC separately. Correlating annexin A2- and SLPI-gene expression showed a significant surplus of annexin A2 in HPV-positive tumors (4.21× more annexin A2) and 6.72× more annexin A2 than SLPI in nonsmokers in all HNSCCs and similar significant results for both tumor entities separately. The surplus of annexin A2 in non-smokers and HPV-positive patients supports our hypothesis that decreased SLPI levels facilitate HPV-infection i.e., increased SLPI-expression may protect against HPV-infection of tonsillar and non-tonsillar SCC.

Fan LQ, Li Y, Zhao Q, et al.
Comparative proteomics in gastric cancer cell line BGC823 after ZNF139 gene inhibited with RNA interference.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1822-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) gene is proved play an important role in gastric cancer. Aim of this study is to identify changes of proteins after ZNF139 gene was inhibited in gastric cancer cell line BGC823.
METHODS: siRNA-specific ZNF139 was synthesized and transfected into BGC823; 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were applied to screen, identify differentially expressed proteins, and function of these proteins was analyzed; Western blot method was applied to verify the identified proteins.
RESULTS: ZNF139 expression in siRNA transfected cancer cell BGC823 decreased significantly. Results of 2-D DIGE showed eight differential protein spots, of which seven were identified with LC-MS, including switches associated protein 70, far upstream element binding protein 1, heat shock protein 60, annexin A7, small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme, chaperonin-containing tail-less complex protein 1 and annexin A2. These proteins were found to be associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, adhesion of gastric cancer cells with bioinformatic analysis. Western blot analysis confirmed that expressions of these proteins in BGC823 were consistent with the proteomic results.
CONCLUSIONS: ZNF139 gene may influence the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells in many ways by regulating multiple proteins.

Zhuang H, Tan M, Liu J, et al.
The expression of annexin II and Lewis y antigen in ovarian epithelial tumors and the correlation between them.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2343-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main aim of this study was to explore the molecular structural relationship between annexin II (ANXA2) and Lewis y antigen by determining their expression patterns and clinical significance in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. The structural relationship between ANXA2 and Lewis y antigen was examined using immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy in two ovarian caner cell lines ES-2 and CaoV-3. We also constracted the stably transfected cell lines with low ANXA2 gene expression in order to detect the expression level between ANXA2 and Lewis y. ANXA2 and Lewis y were detected in tissues from malignant, borderline, benign, and normal ovarian tissues using immunohistochemical analysis. ANXA2 and Lewis y were present in both two ovarian cancer cells and ANXA2 contained Lewis y antigen. Moreover, expression of Lewis y antigen in ANXA2 from cell after transfection was higher than that before. Our immunohistochemistry data revealed significantly higher positive expression rates of ANXA2 in malignant ovarian tissues, compared to benign tumor and normal tissue, similar to Lewis y antigen levels in ovarian cancer. Notably, tissues displaying marked expression of ANXA2 simultaneously expressed high levels of Lewis y antigen. A linear correlation between the expression patterns of ANXA2 and Lewis y antigen was evident. Consistently, double-labeling immunofluorescence experiments illustrated co-localization of ANXA2 and Lewis y antigen within the same area. In conclusions, ANXA2 contains Lewis y antigen. Our results further demonstrate a close correlation between the expression levels of the two antigens, which are significantly high in ovarian cancer.

Didiasova M, Wujak L, Wygrecka M, Zakrzewicz D
From plasminogen to plasmin: role of plasminogen receptors in human cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11):21229-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell surface-associated proteolysis mediated by plasmin (PLA) is an essential feature of wound healing, angiogenesis and cell invasion, processes that are dysregulated in cancer development, progression and systemic spread. The generation of PLA, initiated by the binding of its precursor plasminogen (PLG) to the cell surface, is regulated by an array of activators, inhibitors and receptors. In this review, we will highlight the importance of the best-characterized components of the PLG/PLA cascade in the pathogenesis of cancer focusing on the role of the cell surface-PLG receptors (PLG-R). PLG-R overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients and resistance to chemotherapy. We will also discuss recent findings on the molecular mechanisms regulating cell surface expression and distribution of PLG-R.

Chao PZ, Hsieh MS, Cheng CW, et al.
Dendritic cells respond to nasopharygeal carcinoma cells through annexin A2-recognizing DC-SIGN.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(1):159-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor.

Zhuang H, Tan M, Liu J, et al.
Human epididymis protein 4 in association with Annexin II promotes invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to identify human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) interacting proteins and explore the mechanisms underlying their effect on ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
METHODS: HE4 interacting proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and validated by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. The scratch test, the Transwell assay and animal experiments were used to assess the invasive and metastatic abilities of ovarian cancer cells before and after transfection and HE4 protein treatment. HE4 and annexin II protein expression in epithelial ovarian tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relation between their expression levels was examined.
RESULTS: Annexin II was identified as an HE4 interacting protein. HE4 and annexin II binding interaction promoted ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. HE4 and annexin II expression levels were significantly higher in malignant epithelial ovarian tissues than in benign and normal epithelial ovarian tissues, and they were higher in tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without. HE4 gene interference downregulated the expression of MAPK and the FOCAL adhesion signaling pathway-associated molecules MKNK2 and LAMB2, and HE4 protein supplementation reversed this effect.
CONCLUSION: The binding interaction between HE4 and annexin II activates the MAPK and FOCAL adhesion signaling pathways, promoting ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

Zhang ZD, Li Y, Fan Q, et al.
Annexin A2 is implicated in multi-drug-resistance in gastric cancer through p38MAPK and AKT pathway.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(6):627-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have shown that Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is related with tumor proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion, migration, and drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and its mechanisms of ANXA2 in multi-drug-resistance (MDR) in gastric cancer. ANXA2 expression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. The cell proliferation was measured by SRB assay. The pool of siRNA against ANXA2 was designed and synthesized and then transfected into resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cells. ANXA2 expression was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Drug sensitivities of SGC7901/DDP cells to P-gp-related drug (doxorubicin) and P-gp-non-related drugs (5-FU and cisplatin) were measured by SRB assay. Expression of MDR-related genes and phosphorylation of AKT and MAPKs were also detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Results showed that ANXA2 expression was significantly higher in gastric specimens than that in normal tissues, and negatively correlated with the differentiation level of gastric cancer. In addition, ANXA2 expression level was higher in SGC7901/DDP cells than that in parent SGC7901 cells. After knock-down ANXA2 expression using ANXA2 small interfering RNA, the drug sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells to doxorubicin, 5-FU and DDP increased. Delivery of ANXA2 siRNA significantly downregulated the expression of P-gp, MRP1 and Bcl-2, while markedly upregulated Bax in SGC7901/DDP cells. However, several other MDR factors such as GST-π, TOPO-I and TOPO-II had no obvious changes. Additionally, phosphorylation of P38MAPK and AKT, but not ERK1/2 or JNKs was specifically decreased in SGC7901/DDP cells after ANXA2 siRNA delivery. Importantly, P38MAPK and AKT inhibitor increased the drug sensitivity of SGC701/DDP cells in a similar way as ANXA2 siRNAs does. ANXA2 is involved in gastric cancer MDR through regulating p38MAPK and AKT pathways as well as certain MDR factors.

Flucke U, Vogels RJ, de Saint Aubain Somerhausen N, et al.
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: clinicopathologic, immunhistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of 39 cases.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a malignant, often indolent vascular tumor which occurs at various anatomic sites. Based on a reciprocal translocation t (1;3)(p36;q25), a consistent WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion gene has been found. An alternate YAP1-TFE3 fusion has been detected in a small and distinct subset of cases.
METHODS: Thirty-nine tumors, from 24 females and 15 males with an age range 9-85 years, were located in soft tissue (head and neck [8], trunk [5], upper extremities [3], lower extremities [2], mediastinal [1], and paratesticular [1]), lymph node (1), breast (1), skin (2), bone (6), lung (7), and liver (2). The cases were investigated using a panel of immunohistochemical markers. The aforementioned fusion-genes were examined using RT-PCR and/or FISH in order to validate their diagnostic value.
RESULTS: Follow-up available for 17 patients ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median interval 1.5 years). Eleven patients were alive without disease, 2 patients were alive with disease after 1.5 and 2 years, respectively. Four patients died of disease after 4 months (n = 1), 5 months (n = 2), and 1.5 years (n = 1).The size, known for 30 lesions, was >3 cm in 9 of them. Histologically, all lesions had classical features, at least focally. Four tumors counted >3 mitoses/50 HPF. Immunohistochemically, all cases tested stained positive for ERG (21), FLI1 (5) and CD31 (39). CD34 and D2-40 positivity was seen in 81% and 71% of the examined cases, respectively. 11/35 cases expressed pan-keratin and 6/20 cases CK8.18. TFE3 showed a nuclear reaction in 21/24 cases, irrespective of TFE3 rearrangement.Molecular genetically, 35/35 cases revealed one of the fusion genes by FISH and/or RT-PCR with WWTR1-CAMTA1 in 33 cases and YAP1-TFE3 in 2 cases.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the high diagnostic value of FISH and RT-PCR in detecting the fusion genes of EHE. The immunohistochemical utility of TFE3 appears questionable in this study.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4010279141259481.

Oliveira MV, Fraga CA, Barros LO, et al.
High expression of S100A4 and endoglin is associated with metastatic disease in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(6):639-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of cervical metastasis is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in individuals with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). S100A4, a pleiotropic EF-hand calcium-binding protein, is expressed in various normal and cancer cell types. During cancer progression, molecular disturbances in S100A4 can modulate the activity and expression of pre-metastatic and metastatic genes. In this study, we investigated the association between S100A4 methylation status and protein expression as well as the expression of the S100A4 related-proteins annexin A2 (ANXA2), matrix metallopeptidase-9, and endoglin, for metastasis and other clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of metastatic and non-metastatic HNSCC and matched cervical lymph node (LN) samples (metastatic LN = mLN, non-metastatic = nmLN, and control LN (lymphadenitis) = cLN) were submitted for methylation specific-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that S100A4 methylation status failed to demonstrate association with cervical metastasis and other clinicopathological factors related to HNSCC. HNSCC samples from patients that presented with metastatic disease showed high S100A4 and endoglin expression (p < 0.05). In conclusion, molecular disturbances in S100A4 and endoglin expression might regulate the formation of cervical metastasis in HNSCC.

Iheagwara UK, Beatty PL, Van PT, et al.
Influenza virus infection elicits protective antibodies and T cells specific for host cell antigens also expressed as tumor-associated antigens: a new view of cancer immunosurveillance.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2014; 2(3):263-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are self-molecules that are abnormally expressed in cancer cells and become targets of antitumor immune responses. Antibodies and T cells specific for some TAAs have been found in healthy individuals and are associated with lowered lifetime risk for developing cancer. Lower risk for cancer has also been associated with a history of febrile viral diseases. We hypothesized that virus infections could lead to transient expression of abnormal forms of self-molecules, some of which are TAAs; facilitated by the adjuvant effects of infection and inflammation, these molecules could elicit specific antibodies, T cells, and lasting immune memory simultaneously with immunity against viral antigens. Such infection-induced immune memory for TAA would be expected to provide life-long immune surveillance of cancer. Using influenza virus infection in mice as a model system, we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that influenza-experienced mice control 3LL mouse lung tumor challenge better than infection-naive control mice. Using 2D-difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified numerous molecules, some of which are known TAAs, on the 3LL tumor cells recognized by antibodies elicited by two successive influenza infections. We studied in detail immune responses against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H4, HSP90, malate dehydrogenase 2, and annexin A2, all of which were overexpressed in influenza-infected lungs and in tumor cells. Finally, we show that immune responses generated through vaccination against peptides derived from these antigens correlated with improved tumor control.

Sakai Y, Souzaki R, Yamamoto H, et al.
Testicular sex cord-stromal tumor in a boy with 2q37 deletion syndrome.
BMC Med Genomics. 2014; 7:19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 2q37 deletion syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by facial dysmorphism, obesity, vascular and skeletal malformations, and a variable degree of intellectual disability. To date, common but variable phenotypes, such as skeletal or digit malformations and obesity, have been associated with the deleted size or affected genes at chromosome 2q37. However, it remains elusive whether 2q37 deletion per se or other genetic factors, such as copy number variations (CNVs), may confer the risk for the tumorigenic condition.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a two-year-old Japanese boy with 2q37 deletion syndrome who exhibited the typical facial appearance, coarctation of the aorta, and a global developmental delay, while lacking the symptoms of brachydactyly and obesity. He developed a sex cord-stromal tumor of the right testis at three months of age. The array comparative genome hybridization analysis identified an 8.2-Mb deletion at 2q37.1 (chr2:234,275,216-242,674,807) and it further revealed two additional CNVs: duplications at 1p36.33-p36.32 (chr1:834,101-2,567,832) and 20p12.3 (chr20:5,425,762-5,593,096). The quantitative PCRs confirmed the heterozygous deletion of HDAC4 at 2q37.3 and duplications of DVL1 at 1q36 and GPCPD1 at 20p12.3.
CONCLUSION: This study describes the unique phenotypes in a boy with 2q37 deletion and additional CNVs at 1p36.33-p36.32 and 20p12.3. The data provide evidence that the phenotypic variations and unusual complications of 2q37 deletion syndrome are not simply explained by the deleted size or genes located at 2q37, but that external CNVs may account at least in part for their variant phenotypes. Accumulating the CNV data for chromosomal disorders will be beneficial for understanding the genetic effects of concurrent CNVs on the syndromic phenotypes and rare complications.

Andey T, Marepally S, Patel A, et al.
Cationic lipid guided short-hairpin RNA interference of annexin A2 attenuates tumor growth and metastasis in a mouse lung cancer stem cell model.
J Control Release. 2014; 184:67-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of side populations (SP) or cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in promoting the resistance phenotype presents a viable anticancer target. Human-derived H1650 SP cells over-express annexin A2 (AnxA2) and SOX2, and are resistant to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. AnxA2 and SOX2 bind to proto-oncogenes, c-Myc and c-Src, and AnxA2 forms a functional heterotetramer with S100A10 to promote tumor motility. However, the combined role of AnxA2, S100A10 and SOX2 in promoting the resistant phenotype of SP cells has not been investigated. In the current studies, we examined for the first time a possible role of AnxA2 in regulating SA100A10 and SOX2 in promoting a resistant phenotype of lung tumors derived from H1650 SP cells. The resistance of H1650 SP cells to chemotherapy compared to H1650 MP cells was investigated by cell viability studies. A short hairpin RNA targeting AnxA2 (shAnxA2) was formulated in a liposomal (cationic ligand-guided, CLG) carrier and characterized for size, charge and entrapment and loading efficiencies; CLG carrier uptake by H1650 SP cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, and knockdown of AnxA2 confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Targeting of xenograft and orthotopic lung tumors was demonstrated with fluorescent (DiR) CLG carriers in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of CLG-AnxA2, compared to that of placebo, was investigated after 2 weeks of treatment in terms of tumor weights and tumor burden in vivo. Compared to mixed population cells, H1650 SP cells showed exponential resistance to docetaxel (15-fold), cisplatin (13-fold), 5-fluorouracil (31-fold), camptothecin (7-fold), and gemcitabine (16-fold). CLG carriers were nanoparticulate (199nm) with a slight positive charge (21.82mV); CLG-shAnx2 was of similar size (217nm) with decreased charge (12.11mV), and entrapment and loading efficiencies of 97% and 6.13% respectively. Fluorescence microscopy showed high uptake of CLG-shAnxA2 in H1650 SP cells after 2h resulting in a 6-fold reduction in AnxA2 mRNA expression and 92% decreased protein expression. Fluorescence imaging confirmed targeting of tumors and lungs by DiR-CLG carriers with sustained localization up to 4h in mice. CLG-shAnxA2 treatment of mice significantly reduced the weights of lung tumors derived from H1650 SP cells and tumor burden was reduced to only 19% of controls. The loss in tumor weights in response to CLG-shAnxA2 was associated with a significant loss in the relative levels of AnxA2, SOX2, total β-catenin and S100A10, both at the RNA and protein levels. These results suggest the intriguing possibility that AnxA2 may directly or indirectly regulate relative levels of β-catenin, S100A10 and SOX2, and that the combination of these factors may contribute to the resistant phenotype of H1650 SP cells. Thus down-regulating AnxA2 using RNAi methods may provide a useful method for targeting cancer stem cells and help advance therapeutic efficacy against lung cancers.

Ma RL, Shen LY, Chen KN
Coexpression of ANXA2, SOD2 and HOXA13 predicts poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2157-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the main type of esophageal cancer, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality among all types of cancers. Previously, we found that the homeobox A13 gene (HOXA13) plays a crucial role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC and both Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were its potential targets. Samples from 258 patients from two independent cohorts were collected. RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect the expression levels of HOXA13, ANXA2 and SOD2. Kaplan‑Meier survival curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were employed to determine their prognostic significance. Results showed that ESCC tissues had higher ANXA2 and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels than the non-cancerous tissues. ANXA2 and SOD2 were found to be positively correlated with HOXA13 expression not only at the mRNA level but also at the protein level. In both the study cohort and the validation cohort, the median overall survival time of patients with high expression of HOXA13, ANXA2 and SOD2 was shorter than the survival time of the patients with low expression. The Cox proportional hazards model revealed that both TNM stage and coexpression of HOXA13/ANXA2/SOD2 are independent predictors of overall survival of ESCC patients. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ANXA2 and SOD2 are potential target genes of HOXA13 and their coexpression predicts the poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

Lynn M, Shah N, Conroy J, et al.
A study of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma copy number alterations by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(3):213-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common pediatric soft tissue malignancy arises in 2 major histologic forms: embryonal and alveolar. Classically, the alveolar subtype is characterized by a chromosomal translocation t(2;13)(q35;q14) or t(1;13)(p36;q14) fusing the PAX3 or PAX7 gene, respectively, to the FOXO1 gene, although fusion-negative cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) occur; these share considerably more with the genomic profiles and biological behavior of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma than with fusion-positive ARMS. The current understanding of any additional genetic aberrations in fusion-positive ARMS is limited. In this study, we evaluated tumor-specific copy number alterations in a cohort of fusion-positive ARMSs using high-resolution technology. The results presented here include previously described changes as well as completely novel findings of copy number alterations in BCR and DICER. The study furthermore highlights associations between fusion type and genotype, as well as outcomes and genotype. Rearrangement of PAX7 is strongly associated with copy number alteration of Glypican 5 (GPC5) and moderately with amplification of IGF1R. There is a moderate association between death from/relapse of disease and, on the one hand, amplification of 12q13.3 (DDIT3; Gli1), and on the other hand, copy number alteration of Wnt6 or LRP1B. Gains of both LRP1B and Gli1 in turn are strongly associated with MycN amplification.

Panagopoulos I, Brandal P, Gorunova L, et al.
Novel CSF1-S100A10 fusion gene and CSF1 transcript identified by RNA sequencing in tenosynovial giant cell tumors.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1425-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RNA-sequencing was performed on three tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TSGCT) in an attempt to elicit more information on the mechanisms of CSF1 expression in this tumor type. A novel CSF1-S100A10 fusion gene was found in a TSGCT that carried the translocation t(1;1)(q21;p11) as the sole karyotypic abnormality. In this fusion gene, the part of CSF1 coding for the CSF1 protein (exons 1-8 in sequences with accession nos. NM_000757 and NM_172212) is fused to the 3'-part of S100A10. Since the stop codon TAG of CSF1 is present in it, the CSF1-S100A10 fusion gene's predominant consequence seems to be the replacement of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of CSF1 (exon 9; nt 2092-4234 in sequence with accession no. NM_000757 or nt 2092-2772 in NM_172212) by the 3'-end of S100A10 (exon 3; nt 641-1055 in sequence with accession no. NM_002966). In the other two TSGCT, a novel CSF1 transcript was detected, the same in both tumors. Similar to the occurrence in the CSF1-S100A10 fusion gene, the novel CSF1 transcript 3'-UTR is replaced by a new exon located ~48 kb downstream of CSF1 and 11 kb upstream of AHCYL1. Although only 3 TSGCT were available for study, the finding in all of them of a novel CSF1-S100A10 fusion gene or CSF1 transcript indicates the existence of a common pathogenetic theme in this tumor type: the replacement of the 3'-UTR of CSF1 with other sequences.

Wang CY, Lin CF
Annexin A2: its molecular regulation and cellular expression in cancer development.
Dis Markers. 2014; 2014:308976 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) orchestrates multiple biologic processes and clinical associations, especially in cancer progression. The structure of ANXA2 affects its cellular localization and function. However, posttranslational modification and protease-mediated N-terminal cleavage also play critical roles in regulating ANXA2. ANXA2 expression levels vary among different types of cancers. With some cancers, ANXA2 can be used for the detection and diagnosis of cancer and for monitoring cancer progression. ANXA2 is also required for drug-resistance. This review discusses the feasibility of ANXA2 which is active in cancer development and can be a therapeutic target in cancer management.

Cibiel A, Quang NN, Gombert K, et al.
From ugly duckling to swan: unexpected identification from cell-SELEX of an anti-Annexin A2 aptamer targeting tumors.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e87002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cell-SELEX is now widely used for the selection of aptamers against cell surface biomarkers. However, despite negative selection steps using mock cells, this method sometimes results in aptamers against undesirable targets that are expressed both on mock and targeted cells. Studying these junk aptamers might be useful for further applications than those originally envisaged.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell-SELEX was performed to identify aptamers against CHO-K1 cells expressing human Endothelin type B receptor (ETBR). CHO-K1 cells were used for negative selection of aptamers. Several aptamers were identified but no one could discriminate between both cell lines. We decided to study one of these aptamers, named ACE4, and we identified that it binds to the Annexin A2, a protein overexpressed in many cancers. Radioactive binding assays and flow cytometry demonstrated that the aptamer was able to bind several cancer cell lines from different origins, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed it could be completely internalized in cells in 2 hours. Finally, the tumor targeting of the aptamer was evaluated in vivo in nude mice xenograft with MCF-7 cells using fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) imaging. Three hours after intravenous injection, the aptamer demonstrated a significantly higher uptake in the tumor compared to a scramble sequence.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although aptamers could be selected during cell-SELEX against other targets than those initially intended, they represent a potential source of ligands for basic research, diagnoses and therapy. Here, studying such aptamers, we identify one with high affinity for Annexin A2 that could be a promising tool for biomedical application.

Win KT, Lee MY, Tan TD, et al.
Nasopharyngeal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma expressing CD56: a mimicker of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(1):451-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is remarkably rare in adults older than 45 years. Histologically, the tumor is composed of blue round cells with frequent expression of CD56 in addition to myogenic markers. Recent studies of ARMS have shown two specific recurrent translocations: PAX3-FKHR [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] or PAX7-FKHR [t(1;13)(p36;q14)]. Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) occurs most frequently in the upper aerodigestive tract with a male preference in East Asia and Central and South Americas with neoplastic cells frequently expressing CD56. We report a 53-year-old Taiwanese man presenting with a nasopharyngeal mass, cervical lymphadenopathy, and multiple bone metastases. Histologically, the nasopharyngeal biopsy revealed diffuse sheets of small blue round tumor cells without obvious alveolar pattern, angioinvasion or tumor necrosis. An initial erroneous diagnosis of ENKTL was made due to CD56 expression using fresh tumor tissue with flow cytometric analysis and the patient was treated accordingly. Retrospective study showed that the tumor cells expressed CD56, desmin, and myogenin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the tumor cells were positive for FKHR gene rearrangement, confirming the diagnosis of ARMS. Our case illustrates that a diagnosis of ENKTL based solely on CD56 expression can be misleading for a nasopharyngeal small blue round cell tumor. ARMS should be included as a differential diagnosis, and a correct diagnosis can be reached only after a high index of suspicion and a thorough histological examination with the aid of ancillary studies.

Bronisz A, Wang Y, Nowicki MO, et al.
Extracellular vesicles modulate the glioblastoma microenvironment via a tumor suppression signaling network directed by miR-1.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(3):738-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular vesicles have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in cancer, including by conveying tumor-promoting microRNAs between cells, but their regulation is poorly understood. In this study, we report the findings of a comparative microRNA profiling and functional analysis in human glioblastoma that identifies miR-1 as an orchestrator of extracellular vesicle function and glioblastoma growth and invasion. Ectopic expression of miR-1 in glioblastoma cells blocked in vivo growth, neovascularization, and invasiveness. These effects were associated with a role for miR-1 in intercellular communication in the microenvironment mediated by extracellular vesicles released by cancer stem-like glioblastoma cells. An extracellular vesicle-dependent phenotype defined by glioblastoma invasion, neurosphere growth, and endothelial tube formation was mitigated by loading miR-1 into glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles. Protein cargo in extracellular vesicles was characterized to learn how miR-1 directed extracellular vesicle function. The mRNA encoding Annexin A2 (ANXA2), one of the most abundant proteins in glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles, was found to be a direct target of miR-1 control. In addition, extracellular vesicle-derived miR-1 along with other ANXA2 extracellular vesicle networking partners targeted multiple pro-oncogenic signals in cells within the glioblastoma microenvironment. Together, our results showed how extracellular vesicle signaling promotes the malignant character of glioblastoma and how ectopic expression of miR-1 can mitigate this character, with possible implications for how to develop a unique miRNA-based therapy for glioblastoma management.

Sun MY, Xing RH, Gao XJ, et al.
ANXA2 regulates the behavior of SGC-7901 cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):6007-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
ANXA2, a member of the annexin family, is overexpressed and plays important roles in tumor development. However, the significance of ANXA2 expression in gastric carcinoma has not been clarified.To elucidate its roles in growth of gastric cancer, ANXA2 expression in SGC-7901 cells was inhibited with a designated siRNA, then cell proliferation, cell cycling, apoptosis and motility were determined by MTT assay, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 staining and wound healing assay, respectively. To further assess the behavior of ANXA2 deleted SGC- 7901 cells, changes of microstructures were observed under fluorescence microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. We found that inhibition of ANXA2 expression caused cell proliferation to decrease significantly with G1 arrest, motility to be reduced with changes in pseudopodia/filopodia structure and F-actin and β-tubulin expression, and apoptosis to be enhanced albeit without significance. At the same time, ANXA2 deletion resulted in fewer pseudopodia/filopodia, non-stained areas were increased, contact inhibition among cells reappeared, and expression of F-actin and β-tubulin was decreased, with induction of polymerized disassembled forms. Taken together, these data suggest that ANXA2 overexpression is important to maintain the malignancy of cancer cells, and this member of the annexin family has potential to be considered as a target for the gene therapy of gastric carcinoma.

Zhang F, Zhang H, Wang Z, et al.
P-glycoprotein associates with Anxa2 and promotes invasion in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2014; 87(2):292-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several recent studies have suggested that the acquisition of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is associated with elevated invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the major determinant in the generation of the MDR phenotype, was reported to be correlated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in many forms of malignancies. However, a clear understanding of the association is still lacking. We previously showed that Anxa2, a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, interacts with P-gp and contributes to the invasiveness of MDR breast cancer cells. In the present study, a strong positive correlation between MDR1 and Anxa2 mRNA expression in invasive breast cancer tissues during cancer progression was observed. In addition, exposure to adriamycin significantly enhanced motility in breast cancer cells and increased levels of P-gp and Anxa2. Moreover, inhibition of P-gp activity, using selective P-gp modulators, was found to significantly inhibit the invasive capacity of MCF-7/ADR cells without affecting the interaction and co-localization between P-gp and Anxa2. However, suppression of P-gp pump activity and knockdown of MDR1 expression both disrupted adriamycin-induced Anxa2 phosphorylation. Interestingly, P-gp was further demonstrated to interact with Src, a tyrosine kinase upstream of Anxa2. Taken together, our results indicate that P-gp may promote the invasion of MDR breast cancer cells by modulating the tyrosine phosphorylation of Anxa2. The interaction between Anxa2 and P-gp is possibly, at least in part, responsible for the association between MDR and invasive potential in breast cancer cells.

Phueaouan T, Chaiyawat P, Netsirisawan P, et al.
Aberrant O-GlcNAc-modified proteins expressed in primary colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2929-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues which is dynamically regulated by 2 enzymes; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyze the addition and removal of a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) molecule, respectively. This modification is thought to be a nutrient sensor in highly proliferating cells via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, a minor branch of glycolysis. Although emerging evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc modification is associated with many types of cancer, identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and their role in cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation is increased in primary colorectal cancer tissues, and that this augmentation is associated with an increased expression of OGT levels. Using 2-dimensional O-GlcNAc immunoblotting and LC-MS/MS analysis, 16 proteins were successfully identified and 8 proteins showed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation, including cytokeratin 18, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1), hnRNP H, annexin A2, annexin A7, laminin-binding protein, α-tubulin and protein DJ-1. Among these identified proteins, annexin A2 was further confirmed to show overexpression of O-GlcNAc in all cancer samples. The results, therefore, indicate that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation of proteins is associated with colorectal cancer and that identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins may provide novel biomarkers of cancer.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Zeller B, et al.
Cryptic FUS-ERG fusion identified by RNA-sequencing in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2587-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sequential combination of cytogenetics and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) has been shown to be an efficient approach to detect pathogenetically important fusion genes in neoplasms carrying only one or a few chromosomal rearrangements. We performed RNA-Seq on an acute myeloid leukemia in a 2-year-old girl with the karyotype 46,XX,add(1)(p36), der(2)t(2;3)(q21;q21),del(3)(q21),der(10)t(1;10)(q32;q24),der(16)(2qter-->2q21::16p11-->16q24::16p11-->16pter)[13]/46,XX[2] and identified a cryptic FUS/ERG fusion gene. PCR and direct sequencing verified the presence of the FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in which exon 7 of FUS from 16p11 (nt 904 in sequence with accession number NM_004960 version 3) was fused in frame to exon 8 of ERG from sub-band 21q22.2 (nt 967 in NM_004449 version 4). The FUS-ERG transcript found here has been reported in only two other cases of childhood leukemia, in a 1-year-old boy and an 8-month-old boy, both diagnosed with precursor B cell ALL. The fusion transcript codes for a 497 amino acid residues FUS-ERG protein and, similar to other AML-related FUS-ERG fusion proteins, contains both functional domains (TR1 and TR2) of the transactivation domain of FUS and the ETS domain of ERG. The clinical significance, if any, of the amino acid residues which are coded by the exons 8, 9 and 10 of ERG in the fusion FUS-ERG proteins, remains unclear.

Kimura M, Naito H, Tojo T, et al.
REG Iα gene expression is linked with the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients via discrete mechanisms.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2625-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the REG Iα and REG Iβ genes on lung cancer cell lines, and thereafter, the expression of REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP and REG IV) in lung cancer in relation to patient prognosis was evaluated. Lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines expressing REG Iα or REG Iβ (HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ and EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ) were established, and cell number, cell invasive activity, and anchorage-independent cell growth were compared with these variables in the control cells. The expression levels of REG family genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in surgically resected lung cancers, and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves were generated. The HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cell line showed significant increases in cell number and anchorage-independent cell growth compared with the control cells. EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cells showed significant increases in cell invasive activity and anchorage-independent cell growth as compared with the control cells. Except for the REG Iβ gene, expression of other REG family genes was observed in the surgically resected samples; however, DSS was significantly worse only in stage I patients who were positive for REG Iα expression than in patients who were negative for REG Iα expression. The effects of REG Iα on AD and SCC cells were different in the in vitro study, and a correlation between REG Iα expression and patient prognosis was noted in the in vivo study. Therefore, overexpression of REG Iα is a risk factor for poor prognosis caused by discrete mechanisms in AD and SCC patients.

Bouska A, McKeithan TW, Deffenbacher KE, et al.
Genome-wide copy-number analyses reveal genomic abnormalities involved in transformation of follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2014; 123(11):1681-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL), the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world, is characterized by the t(14;18) translocation, which is present in up to 90% of cases. We studied 277 lymphoma samples (198 FL and 79 transformed FL [tFL]) using a single-nucleotide polymorphism array to identify the secondary chromosomal abnormalities that drive the development of FL and its transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Common recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in FL included gains of 2, 5, 7, 6p, 8, 12, 17q, 18, 21, and X and losses on 6q and 17p. We also observed many frequent small abnormalities, including losses of 1p36.33-p36.31, 6q23.3-q24.1, and 10q23.1-q25.1 and gains of 2p16.1-p15, 8q24.13-q24.3, and 12q12-q13.13, and identified candidate genes that may be driving this selection. Recurrent abnormalities more frequent in tFL samples included gains of 3q27.3-q28 and chromosome 11 and losses of 9p21.3 and 15q. Four abnormalities, gain of X or Xp and losses of 6q23.2-24.1 or 6q13-15, predicted overall survival. Abnormalities associated with transformation of the disease likely impair immune surveillance, activate the nuclear factor-κB pathway, and deregulate p53 and B-cell transcription factors.

Quabius ES, Möller P, Haag J, et al.
The role of the antileukoprotease SLPI in smoking-induced human papillomavirus-independent head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(6):1323-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we showed that increased SLPI levels prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and metastasis in smoking-induced, non-HPV-driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we focus on the role of SLPI in non-HPV-driven HNSCC, investigating tumor tissue and non-neoplastic mucosa from the same patients and from non-HNSCC patients. Gene and protein expression of SLPI and gene expression of annexin 2 (a SLPI receptor), nicotine receptor (α7AChR) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were analyzed in HNSCC patients (20 smokers; 16 nonsmokers). SLPI-results were correlated with the patients' HPV status. Non-neoplastic mucosa of HNSCC patients and normal mucosa from non-HNSCC individuals (18 smokers; 20 nonsmokers) was analyzed for the same parameters. Tissue of the inferior turbinate (n = 10) was incubated with nicotine for analysis of the same genes. SLPI gene expression in tumor tissue was 109.26 ± 23.08 times higher in smokers versus nonsmokers. Non-neoplastic mucosa of smokers showed also higher SLPI gene expression (10.49 ± 1.89-fold non-HNSCC; 18.02 ± 3.93-fold HNSCC patients). Annexin 2 gene expression was also increased in smokers. SLPI data were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. A nicotine dependent correlation between SLPI and annexin 2 gene expression (r(2) = 0.15, p < 0.001) was shown ex vivo. Nicotine and smoking increased α7AChR and AhR gene expression. Five patients, showing no/low SLPI expression, were HPV16-positive. A significant correlation between smoking and SLPI expression in tumors and to our knowledge for the first time in mucosa of HNSCC and non-HNSCC patients was established. Together with the finding that all patients with HPV infection showed no/low SLPI expression, these data support our intriguing hypothesis that smoking induced upregulated SLPI prevents HPV infections.

Biniossek ML, Lechel A, Rudolph KL, et al.
Quantitative proteomic profiling of tumor cell response to telomere dysfunction using isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL) reveals interaction network of candidate senescence markers.
J Proteomics. 2013; 91:515-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Telomerase inhibition causes progressive telomere shortening and cellular senescence, which constitutes a universal barrier to tumor growth and therefore an attractive target for tumor therapy. To expand our previous studies, we investigated the global effects of telomere dysfunction on the proteome of tumor cells in order to find novel senescence biomarkers. Telomerase-deficient HCT-116 cell clones were analyzed by a quantitative proteomic approach using isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL) and nanoflow-HPLC-MS/MS. Stringent reduction of the extensive proteomic data from this tumor cell model revealed a list of 59 markers including proteins identified in our former studies and a number of novel proteins involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis such as SFN, S100A4, ANXA2, and LGALS1. A loss of the chromatin protein HMGB2 was demonstrated not only in various telomerase-inhibited clones of different tumor cell lines, but also in normal human fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence and in aging telomerase knockout mice. Impressively, a coherent and dense network of protein-protein interactions for the bulk of the markers and their implementation in signaling pathways involving key regulators for tumorigenesis were revealed. These results have an impact on the understanding of telomere- and senescence-related signal transduction in tumor cells in consideration of the general lack of senescence markers.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Induction of cellular senescence constitutes a potent concept for tumor therapy which interferes with immortalization and additional hallmarks of cancer. The application of a powerful quantitative proteomic approach using isotope-coded protein labeling to an approved model for senescence represented by telomerase inhibited tumor cells led to the identification of novel candidate biomarkers for telomere dysfunction and replicative senescence. Thereby, the identified markers not only fit in the context of the investigated processes with a relevance for additional hallmarks of cancer but are also involved in a strong interaction network and integrated in canonical pathways centered around key cancer-relevant proteins. These potential markers alone or in combination will significantly extend the view on telomere-associated signal transduction in tumor cells and contribute to the field of cellular senescence and aging in consideration of the general lack of biomarkers in this regard.

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