ADH1B

Gene Summary

Gene:ADH1B; alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide
Aliases: ADH2, HEL-S-117
Location:4q23
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This encoded protein, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 28 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADH1B (cancer-related)

Wang J, Wei J, Xu X, et al.
Replication study of ESCC susceptibility genetic polymorphisms locating in the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster identified by GWAS.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94096 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
China was one of the countries with highest esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence and mortality worldwide. Alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk-factor related to ESCC. The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C. Interestingly, ADH1B and ADH1C genes locate tandemly with ADH7 in a genomic segment as a gene cluster, and are all polymorphic. Several ESCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster have been identified previously through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the study, we examined the association between five ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs (rs1042026, rs17033, rs1614972, rs1789903 and rs17028973) and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that these ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs confer susceptibility to ESCC in these two case-control sets, which were consistent to results of the previous GWAS.

Tsai ST, Wong TY, Ou CY, et al.
The interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene, ALDH2 and ADH1B in the risk of head and neck cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(10):2424-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). The major carcinogen from alcohol is acetaldehyde, which may be produced by humans or by oral microorganisms through the metabolism of ethanol. To account for the different sources of acetaldehyde production, the current study examined the interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene (as a proxy measure for the growth of oral microorganisms), and alcohol-metabolizing genes (ADH1B and ALDH2) in the risk of HNC. We found that both the fast (*2/*2) and the slow (*1/*1+ *1/*2) ADH1B genotypes increased the risk of HNC due to alcohol consumption, and this association differed according to the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes (*1/*2+ *2/*2) or poor oral hygiene. In persons with the fast ADH1B genotype, the HNC risk associated with alcohol drinking was increased for those with the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes. For those with the slow ADH1B genotypes, oral hygiene appeared to play an important role; the highest magnitude of an increased HNC risk in alcohol drinkers occurred among those with the worst oral hygiene. This is the first study to show that the association between alcohol drinking and HNC risk may be modified by the interplay between genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B and ALDH2 and oral hygiene. Although it is important to promote abstinence from or reduction of alcohol drinking to decrease the occurrence of HNC, improving oral hygiene practices may provide additional benefit.

Ahrens W, Pohlabeln H, Foraita R, et al.
Oral health, dental care and mouthwash associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in Europe: the ARCAGE study.
Oral Oncol. 2014; 50(6):616-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and mouthwash with upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, and to examine the extent that enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol modify the effect of mouthwash.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 1963 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1993 controls. Subjects were interviewed about their oral health and dental care behaviors (which were converted to scores of OH and DC respectively), as well as smoking, alcohol drinking, diet, occupations, medical conditions and socio-economic status. Blood samples were taken for genetic analyses. Mouthwash use was analyzed in relation to the presence of polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing genes known to be associated with UADT. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [CI] were estimated with multiple logistic regression models adjusting for multiple confounders.
RESULTS: Fully adjusted ORs of low versus high scores of DC and OH were 2.36[CI=1.51-3.67] and 2.22[CI=1.45-3.41], respectively, for all UADT sites combined. The OR for frequent use of mouthwash use (3 or more times/day) was 3.23[CI=1.68-6.19]. The OR for the rare variant ADH7 (coding for fast ethanol metabolism) was lower in mouthwash-users (OR=0.53[CI=0.35-0.81]) as compared to never-users (OR=0.97[CI=0.73-1.29]) indicating effect modification (pheterogeneity=0.065) while no relevant differences were observed between users and non-users for the variant alleles of ADH1B, ADH1C or ALDH2.
CONCLUSIONS: Poor OH and DC seem to be independent risk factors for UADT because corresponding risk estimates remain substantially elevated after detailed adjustment for multiple confounders. Whether mouthwash use may entail some risk through the alcohol content in most formulations on the market remains to be fully clarified.

Wang HL, Zhou PY, Liu P, Zhang Y
ALDH2 and ADH1 genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e88779 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies to determine whether ALDH2, ADH1 and ADH2 genetic polymorphisms contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.
METHODS: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before November 1st, 2013 without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. We calculated crude odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to evaluate their relationships under five genetic models. Seven case-control studies with a total of 2,563 gastric cancer patients and 4,192 healthy controls met the inclusion criteria. Nine common polymorphisms were evaluated, including rs671, rs16941667 and rs886205 in the ALDH2 gene, rs1230025, rs13123099, rs698 and rs1693482 in the ADH1 gene, and rs1229984 and rs17033 in the ADH2 gene.
RESULTS: The results of our meta-analysis suggested that ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms might be strongly correlated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (allele model: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.11 ∼ 1.32, P<0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.09 ∼ 1.39, P = 0.001; respectively), especially for rs671 polymorphism. Furthermore, we observed significant associations between ADH1 genetic polymorphisms and an increased risk of gastric cancer (allele model: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.08 ∼ 1.36, P = 0.001; dominant model: OR = 10.52, 95%CI: 3.04 ∼ 36.41, P<0.001; respectively), especially for rs1230025 polymorphism. Nevertheless, no positive relationships were found between ADH2 genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk (all P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: The current meta-analysis suggests that ALDH2 and ADH1 genetic polymorphisms may play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. However, ADH2 genetic polymorphisms may not be important dominants of susceptibility to gastric cancer.

Kropotova ES, Zinovieva OL, Zyryanova AF, et al.
Altered expression of multiple genes involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human colorectal cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(3):707-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the oxidized form of vitamin A (retinol), regulates a wide variety of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Multiple alcohol, retinol and retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs, RDHs, RALDHs) as well as aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) catalyze atRA production. The reduced atRA biosynthesis has been observed in several human tumors, including colorectal cancer. However, subsets of atRA-synthesizing enzymes have not been determined in colorectal tumors. We investigated the expression patterns of genes involved in atRA biosynthesis in normal human colorectal tissues, primary carcinomas and cancer cell lines by RT-PCR. These genes were identified using transcriptomic data analysis (expressed sequence tags, RNA-sequencing, microarrays). Our results indicate that each step of the atRA biosynthesis pathway is dysregulated in colorectal cancer. Frequent and significant decreases in the mRNA levels of the ADH1B, ADH1C, RDHL, RDH5 and AKR1B10 genes were observed in a majority of colorectal carcinomas. The expression levels of the RALDH1 gene were reduced, and the expression levels of the cytochrome CYP26A1 gene increased. The human colon cancer cell lines showed a similar pattern of changes in the mRNA levels of these genes. A dramatic reduction in the expression of genes encoding the predominant retinol-oxidizing enzymes could impair atRA production. The most abundant of these genes, ADH1B and ADH1C, display decreased expression during progression from adenoma to early and more advanced stage of colorectal carcinomas. The diminished atRA biosynthesis may lead to alteration of cell growth and differentiation in the colon and rectum, thus contributing to the progression of colorectal cancer.

Chen C, Wang L, Liao Q, et al.
Association between six genetic polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(3):187-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether six genetic polymorphisms confer susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: A systematic search for candidate genes of CRC was performed among several online databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang online libraries. After a comprehensive filtering procedure, we harvested five genes, including MGMT (rs12917 and rs2308321), ADH1B (rs1229984), SOD2 (rs4880), XPC (rs2228001), and PPARG (rs1801282). Using the REVMAN and Stata software, six meta-analyses were conducted for associations between CRC and the just-mentioned genetic variants.
RESULTS: A total of 34 comparative studies among 17,289 cases and 54,927 controls were involved in our meta-analyses. Significant association was found between ADH1B rs1229984 polymorphism and CRC (p=0.03, odds ratio [OR]=1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.36). We also found significant association between PPARG rs1801282 polymorphism and CRC (p=0.004, OR=1.498, 95% CI=1.139-1.970), and this significant association is specific in Caucasians (p=0.004, OR=1.603, 95% CI=1.165-2.205).
CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis has established that ADH1B (rs1229984) and PPARG (rs1801282) are two risk variants of CRC.

Anantharaman D, Chabrier A, Gaborieau V, et al.
Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: a replication study in India.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88240 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology.
METHODS: We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2).
RESULTS: The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83- 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72- 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population.
CONCLUSION: The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco.

Zhang L, Jiang Y, Wu Q, et al.
Gene-environment interactions on the risk of esophageal cancer among Asian populations with the G48A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 gene: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4705-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to investigate the gene-environment interactions between the G48A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) gene and environmental factors in determining the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to indentify eligible studies published before November 1, 2013. We performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies with a total of 8,906 EC patients and 13,712 controls. The overall analysis suggested that individuals with the GG genotype were associated with a 2.77-fold increased risk of EC, compared with carriers of the GA and AA genotypes. In a stratified analysis by ethnic group, Japanese, Mainland Chinese, and Taiwan Chinese with the GG genotype had a significantly higher risk of EC, compared with Thai and Iranian populations, indicating ethnic variance in EC susceptibility. An analysis of combined effect indicated that GG genotype of ADH2 G48A was associated with the highest risk of EC in heavy drinkers and smokers. A striking difference was found to exist between males and females, showing gender variance for the association between ADH2 G48A and EC risk. This meta-analysis shows that the GG genotype of ADH2 G48A may be associated with an increased risk of EC in Asian populations. In addition, significant gene-environment interactions were found. Heavy drinkers, smokers, and males with the GG genotype may have a higher EC risk. Thus, our results shed new light on the complex gene-environment interactions that exist between environmental factors and ADH2 G48A polymorphism in EC risk.

Guo XF, Wang J, Yu SJ, et al.
Meta-analysis of the ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer in East Asians.
Intern Med. 2013; 52(24):2693-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genes have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations between the ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms and the risk of CRC.
METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI up to February, 2013. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed- or random-effects model.
RESULTS: A total of 11 case-controlled studies were selected. Of these, 11 studies included 2,893 cases and 3,817 controls concerning the ALDH2 Glu487Lys polymorphism and six studies included 1,864 cases and 3,502 controls concerning the ADH1B polymorphism. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant link between the ALDH2 polymorphism and the risk of CRC (Glu/Lys+Lys/Lys vs. Glu/Glu: OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.78-0.96, p=0.10; Glu/Lys vs. Glu/Glu: OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.77-0.97, p=0.38); however, no significant associations were observed between the ADH1B polymorphism and the risk of CRC win any of the genetic models.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the ALDH2 polymorphism, but not the ADH1B polymorphism, significantly increases the risk of CRC in East Asians.

Crous-Bou M, Rennert G, Cuadras D, et al.
Polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism genes ADH1B and ALDH2, alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80158 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants.

Hakenewerth AM, Millikan RC, Rusyn I, et al.
Effects of polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism and oxidative stress genes on survival from head and neck cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(4):479-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Alcohol metabolism to cytotoxic and mutagenic intermediates acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species is critical for alcohol-drinking-associated carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related and antioxidant genes influence SCCHN survival.
METHODS: Interview and genotyping data (64 polymorphisms in 12 genes) were obtained from 1227 white and African-American cases from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology study, a population-based case-control study of SCCHN conducted in North Carolina from 2002 to 2006. Vital status, date and cause of death through 2009 were obtained from the National Death Index. Kaplan-Meier log-rank tests and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to identify alleles associated with survival.
RESULTS: Most tested SNPs were not associated with survival, with the exception of the minor alleles of rs3813865 and rs8192772 in CYP2E1. These were associated with poorer cancer-specific survival (HRrs3813865, 95% CI=2.00, 1.33-3.01; HRrs8192772, 95% CI=1.62, 1.17-2.23). Hazard ratios for 8 additional SNPs in CYP2E1, GPx2, SOD1, and SOD2, though not statistically significant, were suggestive of differences in allele hazards for all-cause and/or cancer death. No consistent associations with survival were found for SNPs in ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH4, ADH7, ALDH2, GPx2, GPx4, and CAT.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified some polymorphisms in alcohol and oxidative stress metabolism genes that influence survival in subjects with SCCHN. Previously unreported associations of SNPs in CYP2E1 warrant further investigation.

Marttila E, Bowyer P, Sanglard D, et al.
Fermentative 2-carbon metabolism produces carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde in Candida albicans.
Mol Oral Microbiol. 2013; 28(4):281-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism in microbes associated with cancers of the upper digestive tract. In yeast acetaldehyde is a by-product of the pyruvate bypass that converts pyruvate into acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) during fermentation.
THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (i) to determine the levels of acetaldehyde produced by Candida albicans in the presence of glucose in low oxygen tension in vitro; (ii) to analyse the expression levels of genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass and acetaldehyde production; and (iii) to analyse whether any correlations exist between acetaldehyde levels, alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity or expression of the genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass. Candida albicans strains were isolated from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 5), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) patients with chronic oral candidosis (n = 5), and control patients (n = 5). The acetaldehyde and ethanol production by these isolates grown under low oxygen tension in the presence of glucose was determined, and the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1 and ADH2), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC11), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1 and ACS2) and Adh enzyme activity were analysed. The C. albicans isolates produced high levels of acetaldehyde from glucose under low oxygen tension. The acetaldehyde levels did not correlate with the expression of ADH1, ADH2 or PDC11 but correlated with the expression of down-stream genes ALD6 and ACS1. Significant differences in the gene expressions were measured between strains isolated from different patient groups. Under low oxygen tension ALD6 and ACS1, instead of ADH1 or ADH2, appear the most reliable indicators of candidal acetaldehyde production from glucose.

Mutka SC, Green LH, Verderber EL, et al.
ADH IB expression, but not ADH III, is decreased in human lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52995 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer.

Ferrari P, McKay JD, Jenab M, et al.
Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012; 66(12):1303-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populations.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: A nested case-control study (1269 cases matched to 2107 controls by sex, age, study centre and date of blood collection) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on CRC risk. Using the wild-type variant of each polymorphism as reference category, CRC risk estimates were calculated using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for matching factors.
RESULTS: Individuals carrying one copy of the rs1229984(A) (ADH1B) allele (fast metabolizers) showed an average daily alcohol intake of 4.3 g per day lower than subjects with two copies of the rs1229984(G) allele (slow metabolizers) (P(diff)<0.01). None of the polymorphisms was associated with risk of CRC or cancers of the colon or rectum. Heavy alcohol intake was more strongly associated with CRC risk among carriers of the rs1573496(C) allele, with odds ratio equal to 2.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.59) compared with wild-type subjects with low alcohol consumption (P(interaction)=0.07).
CONCLUSIONS: The rs1229984(A) (ADH1B) allele was associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption. The rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk overall in Western-European populations. However, the relationship between alcohol and CRC risk might be modulated by the rs1573496 (ADH7) polymorphism.

Wu C, Kraft P, Zhai K, et al.
Genome-wide association analyses of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese identify multiple susceptibility loci and gene-environment interactions.
Nat Genet. 2012; 44(10):1090-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) in 2,031 affected individuals (cases) and 2,044 controls with independent validation in 8,092 cases and 8,620 controls. We identified nine new ESCC susceptibility loci, of which seven, at chromosomes 4q23, 16q12.1, 17q21, 22q12, 3q27, 17p13 and 18p11, had a significant marginal effect (P=1.78×10(-39) to P=2.49×10(-11)) and two of which, at 2q22 and 13q33, had a significant association only in the gene-alcohol drinking interaction (gene-environment interaction P (PG×E)=4.39×10(-11) and PG×E=4.80×10(-8), respectively). Variants at the 4q23 locus, which includes the ADH cluster, each had a significant interaction with alcohol drinking in their association with ESCC risk (PG×E=2.54×10(-7) to PG×E=3.23×10(-2)). We confirmed the known association of the ALDH2 locus on 12q24 to ESCC, and a joint analysis showed that drinkers with both of the ADH1B and ALDH2 risk alleles had a fourfold increased risk for ESCC compared to drinkers without these risk alleles. Our results underscore the direct genetic contribution to ESCC risk, as well as the genetic contribution to ESCC through interaction with alcohol consumption.

Wu M, Chang SC, Kampman E, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: a population-based case-control study in China.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(8):1868-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case-control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54-1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.

Cadoni G, Boccia S, Petrelli L, et al.
A review of genetic epidemiology of head and neck cancer related to polymorphisms in metabolic genes, cell cycle control and alcohol metabolism.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2012; 32(1):1-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The purpose of this report is to review the relationship between genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen metabolism, alcohol metabolism and cell-cycle control with the risk of head and neck cancer. The review was performed on available studies on genetic polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (HNC) published in PubMed up to September 2011. 246 primary articles and 7 meta-analyses were published. Among these, a statistically significant association was reported for glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1) and human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes. An increased risk for HNC was also associated reported for P53 codon 72 Pro/Pro, ALDH2 and three variants of the ADH gene: ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH7 (rs1573496) and ADH1C (rs698).

McCarty CA, Reding DJ, Commins J, et al.
Alcohol, genetics and risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(2):785-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Subjects were women aged 55-74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers, and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3, and CYP2E1. The study included 1,041 incident breast cancer cases and 1,070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR > 1.34 and all lower CI > 1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction.

Zhou D, Xiao L, Zhang Y, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of ALDH2 and ADH2 are not associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among East Asians.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):841-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) genes have been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the associations between polymorphisms of ALDH2 and ADH2 genes and HCC. Published literatures from PubMed and Embase were retrieved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Ten studies including 1,231 HCC cases and 1,849 controls were included in the meta-analysis of the association between ALDH2 polymorphism and HCC risk. The results indicated that ALDH2 polymorphism was not significantly associated with risk of HCC (homogeneous co-dominant model: OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.72-1.34; heterogeneous co-dominant model: OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.75-1.08; dominant model: OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.70-1.18; recessive model: OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.66-1.87). In addition, four studies including 518 cases and 607 controls were included in the meta-analysis of the association between ADH2 polymorphism and HCC risk. There was no association between ADH2 polymorphism and HCC risk (homogeneous co-dominant model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.58-1.51; heterogeneous co-dominant model: OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.87-2.23; dominant model: OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.76-1.88; recessive model: OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.54-1.54). Further analysis suggested that the ALDH2 polymorphism-alcohol interaction was marginally associated with HCC risk under the dominant model (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.01-4.17). However, the result was not robust by sensitivity analysis. The results from the present meta-analysis indicated that there was no significant association between ALDH2 polymorphism, ADH2 polymorphism, or ALDH2 polymorphism-alcohol intake interaction and HCC risk in the East Asians.

Duell EJ, Sala N, Travier N, et al.
Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH7) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(2):361-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies that have examined the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer (GC) risk have been inconsistent. We conducted an investigation of 29 genetic variants in alcohol metabolism loci (alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH1 gene cluster: ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH1C; ADH7 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH2), alcohol intake and GC risk. We analyzed data from a nested case-control study (364 cases and 1272 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a customized array. We observed a statistically significant association between a common 3'-flanking SNP near ADH1A (rs1230025) and GC risk [allelic odds ratio (OR)(A v T) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.59]. Two intronic variants, one in ADH1C (rs283411) and one in ALDH2 (rs16941667), also were associated with GC risk (OR(T v C) = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.38-0.91 and OR(T v C) = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.00-1.79, respectively). Individuals carrying variant alleles at both ADH1 (rs1230025) and ALDH2 (rs16941667) were twice as likely to develop GC (OR(A+T) = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.25-3.20) as those not carrying variant alleles. The association between rs1230025 and GC was modified by alcohol intake (<5 g/day: OR(A) = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.57-1.39; ≥5 g/day: OR(A) = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.08-1.94, P-value = 0.05). The association was also modified by ethanol intake from beer. A known functional SNP in ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with alcohol intake (P-value = 0.04) but not GC risk. Variants in ADH7 were not associated with alcohol intake or GC risk. In conclusion, genetic variants at ADH1 and ALDH2 loci may influence GC risk, and alcohol intake may further modify the effect of ADH1 rs1230025. Additional population-based studies are needed to confirm our results.

Liang C, Marsit CJ, Houseman EA, et al.
Gene-environment interactions of novel variants associated with head and neck cancer.
Head Neck. 2012; 34(8):1111-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A genome-wide association study for upper aerodigestive tract cancers identified 19 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used these SNPs to investigate the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) risk.
METHODS: The 19 variants were genotyped using Taqman assays among 575 cases and 676 controls in our population-based case-control study.
RESULTS: A restricted cubic spline model suggested both ADH1B and HEL308 modified the association between smoking pack-years and HNSCC. Classification and regression tree analysis demonstrated a higher-order interaction between smoking status, ADH1B, FLJ13089, and FLJ35784 in HNSCC risk. Compared with ever smokers carrying ADH1B T/C+T/T genotypes, smokers carrying ADH1B C/C genotype and FLJ13089 A/G+A/A genotypes had the highest risk of HNSCC (odds ratio = 1.84).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the risk associated with these variants may be specifically important among specific exposure groups.

Chang JS, Straif K, Guha N
The role of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of ADH1B and ADH1C.
Mutagenesis. 2012; 27(3):275-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This risk may be modified by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, particularly ADH1B and ADH1C, that oxidise ethanol to its carcinogenic metabolite, acetaldehyde. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between ADH1B and ADH1C and HNC risk. Twenty-nine studies from 28 articles identified from a literature search were included. Summary odds ratios (meta-ORs) were generated using random effect models. A reduced risk for HNC was associated with carrying the ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1 alleles that confer faster metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde [meta-OR ADH1B, 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-0.68, 13 studies; meta-OR ADH1C, 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, 22 studies]. ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1 alleles appear to be protective for HNC, possibly due to: (i) decreasing the opportunity for oral microflora to produce acetaldehyde locally from a prolonged systemic circulation of ethanol, (ii) preventing ethanol from acting as a solvent for other carcinogens, and (iii) decreasing the amount of ethanol a person consumes since a consequent peak in systemic acetaldehyde could cause discomfort. These results underscore the importance of ADH1B and ADH1C in the association between alcohol consumption and the risk for HNC.

Hakenewerth AM, Millikan RC, Rusyn I, et al.
Joint effects of alcohol consumption and polymorphisms in alcohol and oxidative stress metabolism genes on risk of head and neck cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(11):2438-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in alcohol metabolism genes are associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and may influence cancer risk in conjunction with alcohol. Genetic variation in the oxidative stress pathway may impact the carcinogenic effect of reactive oxygen species produced by ethanol metabolism. We hypothesized that alcohol interacts with these pathways to affect SCCHN incidence.
METHODS: Interview and genotyping data for 64 SNPs were obtained from 2,552 European- and African-American subjects (1,227 cases and 1,325 controls) from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study, a population-based case-control study of SCCHN conducted in North Carolina from 2002 to 2006. We estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SNPs and haplotypes, adjusting for age, sex, race, and duration of cigarette smoking. P values were adjusted for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction.
RESULTS: Two SNPs were associated with SCCHN risk: ADH1B rs1229984 A allele (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9) and ALDH2 rs2238151 C allele (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4). Three were associated with subsite tumors: ADH1B rs17028834 C allele (larynx, OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0), SOD2 rs4342445 A allele (oral cavity, OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6), and SOD2 rs5746134 T allele (hypopharynx, OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.7). Four SNPs in alcohol metabolism genes interacted additively with alcohol consumption: ALDH2 rs2238151, ADH1B rs1159918, ADH7 rs1154460, and CYP2E1 rs2249695. No alcohol interactions were found for oxidative stress SNPs.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT: Previously unreported associations of SNPs in ALDH2, CYP2E1, GPX2, SOD1, and SOD2 with SCCHN and subsite tumors provide evidence that alterations in alcohol and oxidative stress pathways influence SCCHN carcinogenesis and warrant further investigation.

Chiang CP, Jao SW, Lee SP, et al.
Expression pattern, ethanol-metabolizing activities, and cellular localization of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human large bowel: association of the functional polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH genes with hemorrhoids and colorectal cancer.
Alcohol. 2012; 46(1):37-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Functional polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes occur among racial populations. The goal of this study was to systematically determine the functional expressions and cellular localization of ADHs and ALDHs in human rectal mucosa, the lesions of adenocarcinoma and hemorrhoid, and the genetic association of allelic variations of ADH and ALDH with large bowel disorders. Twenty-one surgical specimens of rectal adenocarcinoma and the adjacent normal mucosa, including 16 paired tissues of rectal tumor, normal mucosae of rectum and sigmoid colon from the same individuals, and 18 surgical mixed hemorrhoid specimens and leukocyte DNA samples from 103 colorectal cancer patients, 67 hemorrhoid patients, and 545 control subjects recruited in previous study, were investigated. The isozyme/allozyme expression patterns of ADH and ALDH were identified by isoelectric focusing and the activities were assayed spectrophotometrically. The protein contents of ADH/ALDH isozymes were determined by immunoblotting using the corresponding purified class-specific antibodies; the cellular activity and protein localizations were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry, respectively. Genotypes of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. At 33mM ethanol, pH 7.5, the activity of ADH1C*1/1 phenotypes exhibited 87% higher than that of the ADH1C*1/*2 phenotypes in normal rectal mucosa. The activity of ALDH2-active phenotypes of rectal mucosa was 33% greater than ALDH2-inactive phenotypes at 200μM acetaldehyde. The protein contents in normal rectal mucosa were in the following order: ADH1>ALDH2>ADH3≈ALDH1A1, whereas those of ADH2, ADH4, and ALDH3A1 were fairly low. Both activity and content of ADH1 were significantly decreased in rectal tumors, whereas the ALDH activity remained unchanged. The ADH activity was also significantly reduced in hemorrhoids. ADH4 and ALDH3A1 were uniquely expressed in the squamous epithelium of anus at anorectal junctions. The allele frequencies of ADH1C*1 and ALDH2*2 were significantly higher in colorectal cancer and that of ALDH2*2 also significantly greater in hemorrhoids. In conclusion, ADH and ALDH isozymes are differentially expressed in mucosal cells of rectum and anus. The results suggest that acetaldehyde, an immediate metabolite of ethanol, may play an etiological role in pathogenesis of large bowel diseases.

Bye H, Prescott NJ, Matejcic M, et al.
Population-specific genetic associations with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in South Africa.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(12):1855-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Genetic variants in multiple cellular pathways have been associated with an altered risk of oesophageal cancer. In this study, eight genes previously associated with an altered risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in European or Asian populations were investigated in two South African populations. We genotyped 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and one insertion/deletion variant in 1463 individuals from the Black and Mixed Ancestry populations. No polymorphisms were associated with OSCC in the Black population. In the Mixed Ancestry population, ALDH2 +82 G > A (rs886205) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of OSCC (odds ratio = 0.70, 95% confidence interval = 0.55-0.89; P = 0.0038). Several other polymorphisms showed a suggestive association (P < 0.05), including ADH1B Arg48His (rs1229984), COX-2 -1195G > A (rs689466), CASP8 Asp302His (rs1045485) and MGMT Leu84Phe (rs12917). Haplotype analysis indicated that the FAS polymorphisms -670 A > G (rs1800682) and -1377 G > A (rs2234767) were both associated with OSCC in the Mixed Ancestry population (P = 0.006 and P = 0.004, respectively), as well as the CASP8 (-652 6Ndel:302His) haplotype (P = 0.0013). This study indicates several instances of population-specific differences in the genetic etiology of OSCC between these two South African populations and between them and other high-risk populations, which may reflect differences in their ancestry and environmental exposures.

Guo H, Zhang G, Mai R
Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B Arg47His polymorphism and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk: a meta-analysis including 24,252 subjects.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012; 36(2):272-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus, account for approximately 4% of all new cancers in world. Alcohol drinking is an established risk factor for UADT cancers, and the rate of alcohol metabolism could significantly been influenced by genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) His47Arg (rs1229984). To evaluate whether combined evidence shows ADH1B His47Arg as a common genetic variant that influenced the risk of UADT cancers, we considered all available studies in a meta-analysis.
METHODS: Eighteen studies were combined representing data of 8,539 cases and 15,713 controls for meta-analysis. Stratified analyses were carried out to determine the gene-environment interaction between ADH1B His47Arg and alcohol drinking and gene-gene interaction between ADH1B His47Arg and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Glu/Lys related to UADT cancer risk. Potential sources of heterogeneity between studies were explored; sensitivity analysis and publication bias was also evaluated.
RESULTS: The ADH1B 47Arg allele was found to be associated with increased risk of UADT cancers, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) being 1.66 (95% CI: 1.54 to 1.79) and 3.47 (95% CI: 2.76 to 4.36) for the His/Arg and Arg/Arg genotypes compared with the His/His genotype, respectively. An 18.48-fold increase in OR (95% CI: 12.95 to 26.40) for UADT cancers among alcohol drinkers with Arg/Arg genotype was found, when compared among nondrinkers with the His/His genotype. Significant interaction between carriers with ADH1B 47Arg and ALDH2 487Lys allele related to risk for UADT cancers was more evident, compared with noncarriers (OR = 10.31, 95% CI: 5.45 to 18.85).
CONCLUSIONS: ADH1B 47Arg allele is a common genetic variant that increased the risk of UADT cancers; furthermore, it modulates the susceptibility to UADT cancers coupled with alcohol drinking and interaction with the ALDH2 487Lys allele.

Yin G, Hamajima N, Morita M, et al.
Lack of influence of the ADH1B Arg47His genetic polymorphism on risk of colorectal adenoma in middle-aged Japanese men.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12(1):297-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol consumption is one of the risk factors for colorectal cancers and adenomas. Since alcohol dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism, it may thus play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study was conducted to assess the association of a functional ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism with colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of male officials in the Self-Defense Forces who received a pre-retirement health examination at two Self-Defense Forces hospitals. The study subjects comprised 455 with colorectal adenomas and 1,052 controls without polyps, all of whom underwent total colonoscopy. Statistical adjustment was made for age, hospital, Self-Defense Forces rank, body mass index, cigarette-years, and alcohol consumption. There was no measurable association between the ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism and colorectal adenoma development. The adjusted odds ratio for individuals with the 47His/His genotype compared to those with individuals with 47Arg alleles was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 0.94-1.49). There was no influence of the level of alcohol consumption (interaction P = 0.84). In addition, there were no clear interactions of the ADH1B with ALDH2 Glu487Lys and MTHFR C677T with regard to the risk of colorectal adenoma. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism does not contribute to the risk of colorectal adenoma in any subgroup of middle-aged Japanese men defined by alcohol drinking, as well as the ALDH2 Glu487Lys and MTHFR C677T genotypes.

McKay JD, Truong T, Gaborieau V, et al.
A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.
PLoS Genet. 2011; 7(3):e1001333 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

Leclerc J, Courcot-Ngoubo Ngangue E, Cauffiez C, et al.
Xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human lung: transcript profiling in non-tumoral and tumoral tissues.
Biochimie. 2011; 93(6):1012-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The lung is directly exposed to a wide variety of inhaled toxicants and carcinogens. In order to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these compounds in the respiratory tract, we investigated the mRNA expression level of 380 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME), transporters, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, in pulmonary parenchyma (PP), bronchial mucosa (BM) and tumoral lung tissues from 12 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a high throughput quantitative real-time RT-PCR method, we found that ADH1B, CYP4B1, CES1 and GSTP1 are the major XME genes expressed both in BM and PP. Our results also documented the predominant role played by the xenosensor AhR in human lung. The gene expression profiles were different for BM and PP, with a tendency toward increased mRNA levels of phase I and phase II XME genes in BM, suggesting major differences in the initial stages of xenobiotic metabolism. Some of the significantly overexpressed genes in BM (i.e. CYP2F1, CYP2A13, CYP2W1, NQO1…) encode proteins involved in the bioactivation of procarcinogens, pointing out distinct susceptibility to xenobiotics and their toxic effects between these two tissue types. Additionally, interindividual differences in transcript levels observed for some genes may be of genetic origin and may contribute to the variability in response to environmental exposure and, consequently, in the risk of developing lung diseases. A global decrease in gene expression was observed in tumoral specimens. Some of the proteins are involved in the metabolism or transport of anti-cancer drugs and their influence in the response of tumors to chemotherapy should be considered. In conclusion, the present study provides an overview of the cellular response to toxicants and drugs in healthy and cancerous human lung tissues, and thus improves our understanding of the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis as well as cellular resistance to chemotherapy.

Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, et al.
Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011; 35(1):28-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes.
METHODS: The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes.
RESULTS: The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs was constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2.
CONCLUSION: The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady-state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism.

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