ADAR; adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific (1q21.3)

Gene Summary

Gene:ADAR; adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific
Aliases: DSH, AGS6, G1P1, IFI4, P136, ADAR1, DRADA, DSRAD, IFI-4, K88DSRBP
Summary:This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for RNA editing by site-specific deamination of adenosines. This enzyme destabilizes double-stranded RNA through conversion of adenosine to inosine. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase
Updated:12 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (27)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- RNA polymerase III transcription BIOCARTA
- Atrazine degradation KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 12 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Adenosine
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair None
  • Inosine
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • Blast Crisis
  • Base Sequence
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Up-Regulation
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Spinal Curvatures
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cancer RNA
  • Genetic Markers
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Adenosine Deaminase
  • Transcription
  • Brain, Astrocytoma, Childhood
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Wnt1 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Stochastic Processes
  • RNA Editing
  • Brain Tumours
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Liver Cancer
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Tag cloud generated 12 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (4)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Liver CancerADAR and Liver Cancer View Publications4
Prostate CancerADAR and Prostate Cancer View Publications3
Brain Tumours, ChildhoodADAR and Brain Tumours View Publications2
Astrocytoma, ChildhoodADAR and Brain, Astrocytoma, Childhood View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: ADAR (cancer-related)

Goksel G, Bilir A, Uslu R, et al.
WNT1 gene expression alters in heterogeneous population of prostate cancer cells; decreased expression pattern observed in CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cell spheroids.
J BUON. 2014 Jan-Mar; 19(1):207-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Established cancer cell lines contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) which can propagate to form three dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids in vitro. Aberrant activation of WNT signaling is strongly implicated in the progression of cancer and controls CSCs properties. In this study we hypothesized that when cells were maintained as spheroids, the structure of CSCs could show differentiation between CSCs and non- CSCs.
METHODS: CD133+/CD44+ cancer-initiating cells were isolated from DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line monolayer cultures, propagated as tumor spheroids and compared with the remaining heterogeneous cancer cells bulk population. The expression levels of WNT1, FZD1, ADAR, APC, AXIN, BTRC, FRAT1 and PPARD genes were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array assay and the protein expression levels of WNT1, FZD and AXIN by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The expression levels of WNT pathway-related molecules were found to increase in both CSCs and non- CSCs when CSCs were maintained as spheroids. However, different expression profiles were observed when CSCs and non-CSCs were compared. In spheroids, the expression levels of FZD1, APC, ADAR, WNT1, PPARD genes in CSCs decreased when compared to non-CSCs. Interestingly, when CSCs from spheroids were compared with CSCs from monolayers the most significant decrease was observed in FZD1 and increase in APC genes.
CONCLUSION: It is possible to assume that intracellular signaling of WNT-related molecules in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm might play an important role but it is independent from increased ligand expression and this expression strongly differentiate CSCs and non-CSCs population. This unexpected expression could be important for CSCs behavior and targeting this pathway could have therapeutic implications in cancer.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Qi L, Chan TH, Tenen DG, Chen L
RNA editome imbalance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(5):1301-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenosine-to-inosine conversion (A-to-I editing), a posttranscriptional modification on RNA, contributes to extensive transcriptome diversity. A-to-I editing is a hydrolytic deamination process, catalyzed by adenosine deAminase acting on double-stranded RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. ADARs are essential for normal mammalian development, and disturbance in RNA editing has been implicated in various pathologic disorders, including cancer. Thanks to next-generation sequencing, rich databases of transcriptome evolution for cancer development at the resolution of single nucleotide have been generated. Extensive bioinformatic analysis revealed a complex picture of RNA editing change during transformation. Cancer displayed global hypoediting of Alu-repetitive elements with gene-specific editing pattern. In particular, hepatocellular carcinoma editome is severely disrupted and characterized by hyper- and hypoediting of different genes, such as hyperedited AZIN1 (antizyme inhibitor 1) and FLNB (filamin B, β) and hypoedited COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit α). In hepatocellular carcinoma, not only the recoding editing in exons, but also the editing in noncoding regions (e.g., Alu-repetitive elements and microRNA) displays such complex editing pattern with site-specific editing trend. In this review, we will discuss current research progress on the involvement of abnormal A-to-I editing in cancer development, more specifically on hepatocellular carcinoma.

Related: Liver Cancer

Liu WH, Chen CH, Yeh KH, et al.
ADAR2-mediated editing of miR-214 and miR-122 precursor and antisense RNA transcripts in liver cancers.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81922 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A growing list of microRNAs (miRNAs) show aberrant expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulatory mechanisms largely remain unclear. RNA editing catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) family could target the miRNA precursors and affect the biogenesis process. Therefore, we investigate whether RNA editing could be one mechanism contributing to the deregulation of specific miRNAs in HCC. By overexpression of individual ADARs in hepatoma cells, RNA editing on the precursors of 16 miRNAs frequently deregulated in HCC was screened by a sensitive high-resolution melting platform. The results identified RNA precursors of miR-214 and miR-122 as potential targets edited by ADAR2. A subset of HCC showing elevated ADAR2 verified the major editings identified in ARAR2 overexpressed hepatoma cells, either with A-to-I or U-to-C changes. The unusual U-to-C editing at specific residues was demonstrated as being attributed to the A-to-I editing on the RNA transcripts complementary to the pri-miRNAs. The editing event caused a decrease of the RNA transcript complementary to pri-miR-214, which led to the decrease of pri-miR-214 and miR-214 and resulted in the increased protein level of its novel target gene Rab15. In conclusion, the current study discovered ADAR2-mediated editing of the complementary antisense transcripts as a novel mechanism for regulating the biogenesis of specific miRNAs during hepatocarcinogenesis.

Related: Liver Cancer

Mahmoud AM, Yang W, Bosland MC
Soy isoflavones and prostate cancer: a review of molecular mechanisms.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 140:116-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Soy isoflavones are dietary components for which an association has been demonstrated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in Asian populations. However, the exact mechanism by which these isoflavones may prevent the development or progression of PCa is not completely understood. There are a growing number of animal and in vitro studies that have attempted to elucidate these mechanisms. The predominant and most biologically active isoflavones in soy products, genistein, daidzein, equol, and glycetin, inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in some animal models. Cell-based studies show that soy isoflavones regulate genes that control cell cycle and apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the literature relevant to the molecular events that may account for the benefit of soy isoflavones in PCa prevention or treatment. These reports show that although soy isoflavone-induced growth arrest and apoptosis of PCa cells are plausible mechanisms, other chemo protective mechanisms are also worthy of consideration. These possible mechanisms include antioxidant defense, DNA repair, inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis, potentiation of radio- and chemotherapeutic agents, and antagonism of estrogen- and androgen-mediated signaling pathways. Moreover, other cells in the cancer milieu, such as the fibroblastic stromal cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells, may be targeted by soy isoflavones, which may contribute to soy-mediated prostate cancer prevention. In this review, these mechanisms are discussed along with considerations about the doses and the preclinical models that have been used.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Apoptosis IGF1 Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Qin YR, Qiao JJ, Chan TH, et al.
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing mediated by ADARs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(3):840-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the major histologic form of esophageal cancer, is a heterogeneous tumor displaying a complex variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Aberrant RNA editing of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I), as it is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR), represents a common posttranscriptional modification in certain human diseases. In this study, we investigated the status and role of ADARs and altered A-to-I RNA editing in ESCC tumorigenesis. Among the three ADAR enzymes expressed in human cells, only ADAR1 was overexpressed in primary ESCC tumors. ADAR1 overexpression was due to gene amplification. Patients with ESCC with tumoral overexpression of ADAR1 displayed a poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo functional assays established that ADAR1 functions as an oncogene during ESCC progression. Differential expression of ADAR1 resulted in altered gene-specific editing activities, as reflected by hyperediting of FLNB and AZIN1 messages in primary ESCC. Notably, the edited form of AZIN1 conferred a gain-of-function phenotype associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Our findings reveal that altered gene-specific A-to-I editing events mediated by ADAR1 drive the development of ESCC, with potential implications in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Wang Q, Hui H, Guo Z, et al.
ADAR1 regulates ARHGAP26 gene expression through RNA editing by disrupting miR-30b-3p and miR-573 binding.
RNA. 2013; 19(11):1525-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) is a negative regulator of the Rho family that converts the small G proteins RhoA and Cdc42 to their inactive GDP-bound forms. It is essential for the CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway, cell spreading, and muscle development. The present study shows that ARHGAP26 mRNA undergoes extensive A-to-I RNA editing in the 3' UTR that is specifically catalyzed by ADAR1. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of ARHGAP26 were decreased in cells in which ADAR1 was knocked down. Conversely, ADAR1 overexpression increased the abundance of ARHGAP26 mRNA and protein. In addition, we found that both miR-30b-3p and miR-573 target the ARHGAP26 gene and that RNA editing of ARHGAP26 mediated by ADAR1 abolished the repression of its expression by miR-30b-3p or miR-573. When ADAR1 was overexpressed, the reduced abundance of ARHGAP26 protein mediated by miR-30b-3p or miR-573 was rescued. Importantly, we also found that knocking down ADAR1 elevated RhoA activity, which was consistent with the reduced level of ARHGAP26. Conversely, when ADAR1 was overexpressed, the amount of RhoA-GTP decreased. The similar expression patterns of ARHGAP26 and ADAR1 in human tissue samples further confirmed our findings. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAR1 regulates the expression of ARHGAP26 through A-to-I RNA editing by disrupting the binding of miR-30b-3p and miR-573 within the 3' UTR of ARHGAP26. This study provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which ADAR1 and its RNA editing function regulate microRNA-mediated modulation of target genes.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction RHOA

Chan TH, Lin CH, Qi L, et al.
A disrupted RNA editing balance mediated by ADARs (Adenosine DeAminases that act on RNA) in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gut. 2014; 63(5):832-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous tumour displaying a complex variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. In human cancers, aberrant post-transcriptional modifications, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, may lead to tumour specific transcriptome diversity.
DESIGN: By utilising large scale transcriptome sequencing of three paired HCC clinical specimens and their adjacent non-tumour (NT) tissue counterparts at depth, we discovered an average of 20 007 inferred A to I (adenosine to inosine) RNA editing events in transcripts. The roles of the double stranded RNA specific ADAR (Adenosine DeAminase that act on RNA) family members (ADARs) and the altered gene specific editing patterns were investigated in clinical specimens, cell models and mice.
RESULTS: HCC displays a severely disrupted A to I RNA editing balance. ADAR1 and ADAR2 manipulate the A to I imbalance of HCC via their differential expression in HCC compared with NT liver tissues. Patients with ADAR1 overexpression and ADAR2 downregulation in tumours demonstrated an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and postoperative recurrence and had poor prognoses. Due to the differentially expressed ADAR1 and ADAR2 in tumours, the altered gene specific editing activities, which was reflected by the hyper-editing of FLNB (filamin B, β) and the hypo-editing of COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit α), are closely associated with HCC pathogenesis. In vitro and in vivo functional assays prove that ADAR1 functions as an oncogene while ADAR2 has tumour suppressive ability in HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the fact that the differentially expressed ADARs in tumours, which are responsible for an A to I editing imbalance, has great prognostic value and diagnostic potential for HCC.

Related: Liver Cancer

Nemlich Y, Greenberg E, Ortenberg R, et al.
MicroRNA-mediated loss of ADAR1 in metastatic melanoma promotes tumor growth.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(6):2703-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Some solid tumors have reduced posttranscriptional RNA editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, but the functional significance of this alteration has been unclear. Here, we found the primary RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is frequently reduced in metastatic melanomas. In situ analysis of melanoma samples using progression tissue microarrays indicated a substantial downregulation of ADAR1 during the metastatic transition. Further, ADAR1 knockdown altered cell morphology, promoted in vitro proliferation, and markedly enhanced the tumorigenicity in vivo. A comparative whole genome expression microarray analysis revealed that ADAR1 controls the expression of more than 100 microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate many genes associated with the observed phenotypes. Importantly, we discovered that ADAR1 fundamentally regulates miRNA processing in an RNA binding–dependent, yet RNA editing–independent manner by regulating Dicer expression at the translational level via let-7. In addition, ADAR1 formed a complex with DGCR8 that was mutually exclusive with the DGCR8-Drosha complex that processes pri-miRNAs in the nucleus. We found that cancer cells silence ADAR1 by overexpressing miR-17 and miR-432, which both directly target the ADAR1 transcript. We further demonstrated that the genes encoding miR-17 and miR-432 are frequently amplified in melanoma and that aberrant hypomethylation of the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region in chromosome 14 can also drive miR-432 overexpression.

Related: DICER1

Gylfe AE, Kondelin J, Turunen M, et al.
Identification of candidate oncogenes in human colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 145(3):540-3.e22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsatellite instability can be found in approximately 15% of all colorectal cancers. To detect new oncogenes we sequenced the exomes of 25 colorectal tumors and respective healthy colon tissue. Potential mutation hot spots were confirmed in 15 genes; ADAR, DCAF12L2, GLT1D1, ITGA7, MAP1B, MRGPRX4, PSRC1, RANBP2, RPS6KL1, SNCAIP, TCEAL6, TUBB6, WBP5, VEGFB, and ZBTB2; these were validated in 86 tumors with microsatellite instability. ZBTB2, RANBP2, and PSRC1 also were found to contain hot spot mutations in the validation set. The form of ZBTB2 associated with colorectal cancer increased cell proliferation. The mutation hot spots might be used to develop personalized tumor profiling and therapy.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Liu W, Xie CC, Thomas CY, et al.
Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy.
Cancer. 2013; 119(13):2405-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), by evaluating chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlating these with clinicopathologic features and outcome.
METHODS: CNAs in tumor DNA samples from 125 patients in the discovery cohort who underwent prostatectomy were assayed with high-resolution Affymetrix 6.0 single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm.
RESULTS: The assays revealed 20 significant regions of CNAs, 4 of them novel, and identified the target genes of 4 of the alterations. By univariate analysis, 7 CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and MYC (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial prostate-specific antigen level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (odds ratio = 53; 95% CI = 6.92-405, P = 1 × 10(-4)). Analyses of 333 tumors from 3 additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Shimokawa T, Rahman MF, Tostar U, et al.
RNA editing of the GLI1 transcription factor modulates the output of Hedgehog signaling.
RNA Biol. 2013; 10(2):321-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway has important roles in tumorigenesis and in embryonal patterning. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) is a key molecule in HH signaling, acting as a transcriptional effector and, moreover, is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for several types of cancer. To extend our previous focus on the implications of alternative splicing for HH signal transduction, we now report on an additional post-transcriptional mechanism with an impact on GLI1 activity, namely RNA editing. The GLI1 mRNA is highly edited at nucleotide 2179 by adenosine deamination in normal cerebellum, but the extent of this modification is reduced in cell lines from the cerebellar tumor medulloblastoma. Additionally, basal cell carcinoma tumor samples exhibit decreased GLI1 editing compared with normal skin. Interestingly, knocking down of either ADAR1 or ADAR2 reduces RNA editing of GLI1. This adenosine to inosine substitution leads to a change from Arginine to Glycine at position 701 that influences not only GLI1 transcriptional activity, but also GLI1-dependent cellular proliferation. Specifically, the edited GLI1, GLI1-701G, has a higher capacity to activate most of the transcriptional targets tested and is less susceptible to inhibition by the negative regulator of HH signaling suppressor of fused. However, the Dyrk1a kinase, implicated in cellular proliferation, is more effective in increasing the transcriptional activity of the non-edited GLI1. Finally, introduction of GLI1-701G into medulloblastoma cells confers a smaller increase in cellular growth relative to GLI1. In conclusion, our findings indicate that RNA editing of GLI1 is a regulatory mechanism that modulates the output of the HH signaling pathway.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET Signal Transduction GLI

Jiang Q, Crews LA, Barrett CL, et al.
ADAR1 promotes malignant progenitor reprogramming in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(3):1041-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The molecular etiology of human progenitor reprogramming into self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSC) has remained elusive. Although DNA sequencing has uncovered spliceosome gene mutations that promote alternative splicing and portend leukemic transformation, isoform diversity also may be generated by RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes that regulate stem cell maintenance. In this study, whole-transcriptome sequencing of normal, chronic phase, and serially transplantable blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitors revealed increased IFN-γ pathway gene expression in concert with BCR-ABL amplification, enhanced expression of the IFN-responsive ADAR1 p150 isoform, and a propensity for increased adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing during CML progression. Lentiviral overexpression experiments demonstrate that ADAR1 p150 promotes expression of the myeloid transcription factor PU.1 and induces malignant reprogramming of myeloid progenitors. Moreover, enforced ADAR1 p150 expression was associated with production of a misspliced form of GSK3β implicated in LSC self-renewal. Finally, functional serial transplantation and shRNA studies demonstrate that ADAR1 knockdown impaired in vivo self-renewal capacity of blast crisis CML progenitors. Together these data provide a compelling rationale for developing ADAR1-based LSC detection and eradication strategies.

Related: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) CML - Molecular Biology

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.
Nature. 2012; 489(7414):57-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Chen CP, Lin SP, Chen M, et al.
Mosaic supernumerary r(1)(p13.2q23.3) in a 10-year-old girl with epilepsy facial asymmetry psychomotor retardation kyphoscoliosis dermatofibrosarcoma and multiple exostoses.
Genet Couns. 2011; 22(3):273-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaic supernumerary r(1)(p13.2q23.3) in a 10-year-old girl with epilepsy, facial asymmetry, psychomotor retardation, kyphoscoliosis, dermatofibrosarcoma and multiple exostoses. The supernumerary r(1) is associated with gene dosage increase of CHRNB2, ADAR and KCNJ10 in the pericentromeric area of 1q, and a breakpoint within CTTNBP2NL at 1p13.2. We speculate that the gene dosage increase of CHRNB2, ADAR and KCNJ10 is most likely responsible for epilepsy, and the breakpoint at 1p13.2 in the supernumerary r(1) is most likely responsible for the development of multiple exostoses and osteochondroma in this patient.

Related: Chromosome 1 Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Multiple Hereditary Exostoses Skin Cancer

Dominissini D, Moshitch-Moshkovitz S, Amariglio N, Rechavi G
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing meets cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(11):1569-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of epigenetics in tumor onset and progression has been extensively addressed. Discoveries in the last decade completely changed our view on RNA. We now realize that its diversity lies at the base of biological complexity. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing emerges a central generator of transcriptome diversity and regulation in higher eukaryotes. It is the posttranscriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA catalyzed by enzymes of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family. Thought at first to be restricted to coding regions of only a few genes, recent bioinformatic analyses fueled by high-throughput sequencing revealed that it is a widespread modification affecting mostly non-coding repetitive elements in thousands of genes. The rise in scope is accompanied by discovery of a growing repertoire of functions based on differential decoding of inosine by the various cellular machineries: when recognized as guanosine, it can lead to protein recoding, alternative splicing or altered microRNA specificity; when recognized by inosine-binding proteins, it can result in nuclear retention of the transcript or its degradation. An imbalance in expression of ADAR enzymes with consequent editing dysregulation is a characteristic of human cancers. These alterations may be responsible for activating proto-oncogenes or inactivating tumor suppressors. While unlikely to be an early initiating 'hit', editing dysregulation seems to contribute to tumor progression and thus should be considered a 'driver mutation'. In this review, we examine the contribution of A-to-I RNA editing to carcinogenesis.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Gallo A, Locatelli F
ADARs: allies or enemies? The importance of A-to-I RNA editing in human disease: from cancer to HIV-1.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2012; 87(1):95-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in nuclear-encoded RNAs and viral RNAs. The activity of ADARs has been demonstrated to be essential in mammals and serves to fine-tune different proteins and modulate many molecular pathways. Recent findings have shown that ADAR activity is altered in many pathological tissues. Moreover, it has been shown that modulation of RNA editing is important for cell proliferation and migration, and has a protective effect on ischaemic insults. This review summarises available recent knowledge on A-to-I RNA editing and ADAR enzymes, with particular attention given to the emerging role played by these enzymes in cancer, some infectious diseases and immune-mediated disorders.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Guo J, Cagatay T, Zhou G, et al.
Mutations in the human naked cuticle homolog NKD1 found in colorectal cancer alter Wnt/Dvl/beta-catenin signaling.
PLoS One. 2009; 4(11):e7982 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutation of Wnt signal antagonists Apc or Axin activates beta-catenin signaling in many cancers including the majority of human colorectal adenocarcinomas. The phenotype of apc or axin mutation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is strikingly similar to that caused by mutation in the segment-polarity gene, naked cuticle (nkd). Nkd inhibits Wnt signaling by binding to the Dishevelled (Dsh/Dvl) family of scaffold proteins that link Wnt receptor activation to beta-catenin accumulation and TCF-dependent transcription, but human NKD genes have yet to be directly implicated in cancer.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identify for the first time mutations in NKD1--one of two human nkd homologs--in a subset of DNA mismatch repair-deficient colorectal tumors that are not known to harbor mutations in other Wnt-pathway genes. The mutant Nkd1 proteins are defective at inhibiting Wnt signaling; in addition, the mutant Nkd1 proteins stabilize beta-catenin and promote cell proliferation, in part due to a reduced ability of each mutant Nkd1 protein to bind and destabilize Dvl proteins.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data raise the hypothesis that specific NKD1 mutations promote Wnt-dependent tumorigenesis in a subset of DNA mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal adenocarcinomas and possibly other Wnt-signal driven human cancers.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Signal Transduction CTNNB1 gene

Galeano F, Leroy A, Rossetti C, et al.
Human BLCAP transcript: new editing events in normal and cancerous tissues.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(1):127-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP) is a highly conserved protein among species, and it is considered a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene originally identified from human bladder carcinoma. However, little is known about the regulation or the function of this protein. Here, we show that the human BLCAP transcript undergoes multiple A-to-I editing events. Some of the new editing events alter the highly conserved amino terminus of the protein creating alternative protein isoforms by changing the genetically coded amino acids. We found that both ADAR1 and ADAR2-editing enzymes cooperate to edit this transcript and that different tissues displayed distinctive ratios of edited and unedited BLCAP transcripts. Moreover, we observed a general decrease in BLCAP-editing level in astrocytomas, bladder cancer and colorectal cancer when compared with the related normal tissues. The newly identified editing events, found to be downregulated in cancers, could be useful for future studies as a diagnostic tool to distinguish malignancies or epigenetic changes in different tumors.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Skarda J, Amariglio N, Rechavi G
RNA editing in human cancer: review.
APMIS. 2009; 117(8):551-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts are extensively processed by different post-transcriptional events such as alternative splicing and RNA editing in order to generate many different mRNAs from the same gene, increasing the transcriptome and then the proteome diversity. The most frequent RNA editing mechanism in mammals involves the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines by the ADAR family of enzymes. This editing event can alter the sequence and the secondary structure of RNA molecules, with consequences for final proteins and regulatory RNAs. Alteration in RNA editing has been connected to tumor progression and many other important human diseases. Analysis of many editing sites in various cancer types is expected to provide new diagnostic and prognostic markers and might contribute to early detection of cancer, the monitoring of response to therapy, and to the detection of minimal residual disease.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Gallo A, Galardi S
A-to-I RNA editing and cancer: from pathology to basic science.
RNA Biol. 2008 Jul-Sep; 5(3):135-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts are extensively processed by different post-transcriptional events such as alternative splicing and RNA editing in order to generate many different mRNAs from the same gene, increasing the transcriptome and then the proteome. The most frequent RNA editing mechanism in mammals involves the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines by the ADAR family of enzymes. This editing event can change both the sequence and the secondary structure of RNA molecules, with important consequences on both the final proteins and regulatory RNAs. Alteration in RNA editing has been connected to numerous human pathologies and recent studies have demonstrated its importance in tumor progression.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Martinez HD, Jasavala RJ, Hinkson I, et al.
RNA editing of androgen receptor gene transcripts in prostate cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(44):29938-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway represents a critical step in the growth and survival of androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (CaP). In this study we show the DU145 and PC3 AI human CaP cell lines respond to androgens and require AR expression for optimal proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, AR gene transcripts in DU145 and PC3 cells harbored a large number of single base pair nucleotide transitions that resulted in missense mutations in selected AR codons. The most notable lesion detected in AR gene transcripts included the oncogenic codon 877T-->A gain-of-function mutation. Surprisingly, AR gene transcript nucleotide transitions were not genome-encoded substitutions, but instead the mutations co-localized to putative A-to-I, U-to-C, C-to-U, and G-to-A RNA editing sites, suggesting the lesions were mediated through RNA editing mechanisms. Higher levels of mRNA encoding the A-to-I RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADARB1 were observed in DU145 and PC3 cells relative to the androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 human CaP cell lines, which correlated with higher levels of AR gene transcript A-to-I editing detected in DU145 and PC3 cells. Our results suggest that AR gene transcripts are targeted by different RNA editing enzymes in DU145 and PC3 cells. Thus RNA editing of AR gene transcripts may contribute to the etiology of hormone-refractory phenotypes in advanced stage AI CaP.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Rosner M, Hanneder M, Siegel N, et al.
The tuberous sclerosis gene products hamartin and tuberin are multifunctional proteins with a wide spectrum of interacting partners.
Mutat Res. 2008 Mar-Apr; 658(3):234-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2, encoding hamartin and tuberin, respectively, cause the tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis with similar phenotypes. Until now, over 50 proteins have been demonstrated to interact with hamartin and/or tuberin. Besides tuberin, the proteins DOCK7, ezrin/radixin/moesin, FIP200, IKKbeta, Melted, Merlin, NADE(p75NTR), NF-L, Plk1 and TBC7 have been found to interact with hamartin. Whereas Plk1 and TBC7 have been demonstrated not to bind to tuberin, for all the other hamartin-interacting proteins the question, whether they can also bind to tuberin, has not been studied. Tuberin interacts with 14-3-3 beta,epsilon,gamma,eta,sigma,tau,zeta, Akt, AMPK, CaM, CRB3/PATJ, cyclin A, cyclins D1, D2, D3, Dsh, ERalpha, Erk, FoxO1, HERC1, HPV16 E6, HSCP-70, HSP70-1, MK2, NEK1, p27KIP1, Pam, PC1, PP2Ac, Rabaptin-5, Rheb, RxRalpha/VDR and SMAD2/3. 14-3-3 beta,epsilon,gamma,eta,sigma,tau,zeta, Akt, Dsh, FoxO1, HERC1, p27KIP1 and PP2Ac are known not to bind to hamartin. For the other tuberin-interacting proteins this question remains elusive. The proteins axin, Cdk1, cyclin B1, GADD34, GSK3, mTOR and RSK1 have been found to co-immunoprecipitate with both, hamartin and tuberin. The kinases Cdk1 and IKKbeta phosphorylate hamartin, Erk, Akt, MK2, AMPK and RSK1 phosphorylate tuberin, and GSK3 phosphorylates both, hamartin and tuberin. This detailed summary of protein interactions allows new insights into their relevance for the wide variety of different functions of hamartin and tuberin.

Cenci C, Barzotti R, Galeano F, et al.
Down-regulation of RNA editing in pediatric astrocytomas: ADAR2 editing activity inhibits cell migration and proliferation.
J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(11):7251-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since alterations in post-transcriptional events can contribute to the appearance and/or progression of cancer, we investigated whether RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) enzymes, is altered in pediatric astrocytomas. We find a decrease in ADAR2 editing activity that seems to correlate with the grade of malignancy in children. Despite the loss of ADAR2 editing activity in tumor tissues, the high grade astrocytomas do not exhibit alterations in ADAR2 expression when compared with their specific control tissues. However, high expression levels of ADAR1 and ADAR3 were found in tumors when compared with normal tissues dissected in the same area of the brain. We reintroduced either ADAR2 or the inactive version of ADAR2 in three astrocytoma cell lines (U118, A172, U87). The "reverted" editing status is necessary and sufficient for a significant decrease in cell malignant behavior as measured by proliferation, cell cycle, and migration assays. We show that elevated levels of ADAR1, as found in astrocytomas, do indeed interfere with ADAR2 specific editing activity. Furthermore, we show that the endogenous ADAR1 can form heterodimers with ADAR2 in astrocytes.

Related: Childhood Astrocytoma

Gandy SZ, Linnstaedt SD, Muralidhar S, et al.
RNA editing of the human herpesvirus 8 kaposin transcript eliminates its transforming activity and is induced during lytic replication.
J Virol. 2007; 81(24):13544-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Human herpesvirus 8 is the etiologic agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The K12 RNA, which produces as many as three variants of the kaposin protein, as well as a microRNA, is the most abundant transcript expressed in latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection, and yet it is also induced during lytic replication. The portion of the transcript that includes the microRNA and the kaposin A sequence has been shown to have tumorigenic potential. Genome coordinate 117990, which is within this transcript, has been found to be heterogeneous, primarily in RNAs but also among viral DNA sequences. This sequence heterogeneity affects an amino acid in kaposins A and C and the microRNA. The functional effects of this sequence heterogeneity have not been studied, and its origin has not been definitively settled; both RNA editing and heterogeneity at the level of the viral genome have been proposed. Here, we show that transcripts containing A at position 117990 are tumorigenic, while those with G at this position are not. Using a highly sensitive quantitative assay, we observed that, in PEL cells under conditions where more than 60% of cDNAs derived from K12 RNA transcripts have G at coordinate 117990, there is no detectable G in the viral DNA sequence at this position, only A. This result is consistent with RNA editing by one of the host RNA adenosine deaminases (ADARs). Indeed, we observed that purified human ADAR1 efficiently edits K12 RNA in vitro. Remarkably, the amount of editing correlated with the replicative state of the virus; editing levels were nearly 10-fold higher in cells treated to induce lytic viral replication. These results suggest that RNA editing controls the function of one segment of the kaposin transcript, such that it has transforming activity during latent replication and possibly another, as-yet-undetermined, function during lytic replication.

Paz N, Levanon EY, Amariglio N, et al.
Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer.
Genome Res. 2007; 17(11):1586-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes. Employing a bioinformatic approach, we identified significant global hypoediting of Alu repetitive elements in brain, prostate, lung, kidney, and testis tumors. Experimental validation confirmed this finding, showing significantly reduced editing in Alu sequences within MED13 transcripts in brain tissues. Looking at editing of specific recoding and noncoding sites, including in cancer-related genes, a more complex picture emerged, with a gene-specific editing pattern in tumors vs. normal tissues. Additionally, we found reduced RNA levels of all three editing mediating enzymes, ADAR, ADARB1, and ADARB2, in brain tumors. The reduction of ADARB2 correlated with the grade of malignancy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive of brain tumors, displaying a 99% decrease in ADARB2 RNA levels. Consistently, overexpression of ADAR and ADARB1 in the U87 glioblastoma multiforme cell line resulted in decreased proliferation rate, suggesting that reduced A-to-I editing in brain tumors is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Altered epigenetic control was recently shown to play a central role in oncogenesis. We suggest that A-to-I RNA editing may serve as an additional epigenetic mechanism relevant to cancer development and progression.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Hartwig D, Schütte C, Warnecke J, et al.
The large form of ADAR 1 is responsible for enhanced hepatitis delta virus RNA editing in interferon-alpha-stimulated host cells.
J Viral Hepat. 2006; 13(3):150-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA editing controls the formation of hepatitis-delta-antigen-S and -L and therefore indirectly regulates HDV replication. Editing is thought to be catalysed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1) of which two different forms exist, interferon (IFN)-alpha-inducible ADAR1-L and constitutively expressed ADAR1-S. ADAR1-L is hypothesized to be a part of the innate cellular immune system, responsible for deaminating adenosines in viral dsRNAs. We examined the influence of both forms on HDV RNA editing in IFN-alpha-stimulated and unstimulated hepatoma cells. For gene silencing, an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide against a common sequence of both forms of ADAR1 and another one specific for ADAR1-L alone were used. IFN-alpha treatment of host cells led to approximately twofold increase of RNA editing compared with unstimulated controls. If ADAR1-L expression was inhibited, this substantial increase in editing could no longer be observed. In unstimulated cells, ADAR1-L suppression had only minor effects on editing. Inhibition of both forms of ADAR1 simultaneously led to a substantial decrease of edited RNA independently of IFN-alpha-stimulation. In conclusion, the two forms of ADAR1 are responsible almost alone for HDV editing. In unstimulated cells, ADAR1-S is the main editing activity. The increase of edited RNA under IFN-alpha-stimulation is because of induction of ADAR1-L, showing for the first time that this IFN-inducible protein is involved in the base modification of replicating HDV RNA. Thus, induction of ADAR1-L may at least partially cause the antiviral effect of IFN-alpha in natural immune response to HDV as well as in case of therapeutic administration of IFN.

Benenson Y, Gil B, Ben-Dor U, et al.
An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression.
Nature. 2004; 429(6990):423-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Early biomolecular computer research focused on laboratory-scale, human-operated computers for complex computational problems. Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. Such computers, using biological molecules as input data and biologically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for 'logical' control of biological processes. Here we describe an autonomous biomolecular computer that, at least in vitro, logically analyses the levels of messenger RNA species, and in response produces a molecule capable of affecting levels of gene expression. The computer operates at a concentration of close to a trillion computers per microlitre and consists of three programmable modules: a computation module, that is, a stochastic molecular automaton; an input module, by which specific mRNA levels or point mutations regulate software molecule concentrations, and hence automaton transition probabilities; and an output module, capable of controlled release of a short single-stranded DNA molecule. This approach might be applied in vivo to biochemical sensing, genetic engineering and even medical diagnosis and treatment. As a proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule modelled after an anticancer drug.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Yang W, Wang Q, Kanes SJ, et al.
Altered RNA editing of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor induced by interferon: implications for depression associated with cytokine therapy.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004; 124(1):70-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) gene family are involved in one type of RNA editing that converts adenosine residues to inosine. The A-to-I editing of serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT(2C)R) mRNA leads to replacement of three amino acid residues located within the intracellular loop II domain, resulting in dramatic alterations in G-protein coupling functions of the receptor. It has been speculated that RNA editing may play a role in several pharmacological and behavioral processes where the serotonergic plasticity is mediated through 5-HT(2C)R. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) often causes severe depression in patients treated for chronic viral hepatitis and certain malignancies. In this study, we examined the effects of IFN-alpha on RNA editing in human glioblastoma cell lines, which express 5-HT(2C)R mRNAs. ADAR1 expression and the pattern of the 5-HT(2C)R mRNA editing rapidly changed in response to IFN-alpha, leading to the dominant expression of the 5-HT(2C)R-VSI isoform predicted to have reduced G-protein coupling functions. Our results support the hypothesis that 5-HT(2C)R mRNA editing has causative relevance in the pathophysiology of depression associated with cytokine therapy.

Related: Cytokines

Barbon A, Vallini I, La Via L, et al.
Glutamate receptor RNA editing: a molecular analysis of GluR2, GluR5 and GluR6 in human brain tissues and in NT2 cells following in vitro neural differentiation.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003; 117(2):168-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
The properties of some glutamate receptors are modified by RNA editing. This post-transcriptional mechanism involves the enzymatic deamination of specific adenosines in the pre-mRNA of the glutamate receptors, performed by specific RNA adenosine deaminases (ADARs). This event gives rise to the substitution of a gene-encoded amino acid with a different one that modifies the physiological properties of the ion channel. Here we report an analysis of the editing levels of AMPA GluR2, and kainate GluR5 and GluR6 in a human teratocarcinoma cell line (NT2) during in vitro neural differentiation, in conjunction with an analysis of the expression levels of GluR and ADAR genes. The editing levels were analysed using a specific standardised assay based on sequence analysis. This assay can be performed on all editing sites with a high level of sensitivity and reproducibility. Whereas GluR gene expression increased during NT2 neural differentiation, the expression of ADAR genes may be detected at comparable levels even in undifferentiated NT2 cells, remaining relatively stable during the differentiation process. Furthermore, most of the glutamate receptor editing sites increased their editing levels during NT2 neural differentiation, suggesting that the level of ADAR mRNAs is not closely related to the variable editing levels detected in the GluRs analysed. In human brain tissues, the editing levels appeared finely modulated in the different areas, indicating the possible formation of ion channels with different functional properties, thus generating a complex tissue-specific regulation of receptors and modulation of excitatory stimuli.

Related: Testicular Cancer

Xing QH, Wang MT, Chen XD, et al.
A gene locus responsible for dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH) maps to chromosome 6q24.2-q25.2.
Am J Hum Genet. 2003; 73(2):377-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH) is a hereditary skin disease characterized by the presence of hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules on extremities and face. The gene, or even its chromosomal location, for DSH has not yet been identified. In this study, two Chinese families with DSH were identified and subjected to a genomewide screen for linkage analysis. Two-point linkage analysis for pedigree A (maximum LOD score [Z(max)] = 7.28 at recombination fraction [theta] = 0.00) and pedigree B (Z(max) = 2.41 at theta = 0.00) mapped the locus for DSH in the two families to chromosome 6q. Subsequent multipoint analysis of the two families also provided additional support for the DSH gene being located within the region 6q24.2-q25.2, with Z(max) = 10.64. Haplotype analysis confined the locus within an interval of 10.2 Mbp, flanked by markers D6S1703 and D6S1708. The two families had no identical haplotype within the defined region, which suggests that the two families were different in origin. Further work on identification of the gene for DSH will open new avenues to exploration of the genetics of pigmentation.

Related: Chromosome 6


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ADAR, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ADAR.htm Accessed: date

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