Gene Summary

Gene:ACCS; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase homolog (Arabidopsis)(non-functional)
Aliases: ACS, PHACS
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase-like protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • p53 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • DNA Methylation
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
  • Carcinoma, Acinar Cell
  • Cancer DNA
  • TP53
  • Salivary Glands
  • Signal Transduction
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Adrenocortical Adenoma
  • Adrenocortical Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chromosome 11
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • MicroRNAs
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Adolescents
  • Staging
  • ras Proteins
  • Infant
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Adenoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cohort Studies
  • Angiogenesis
  • FISH
  • Tumor Markers
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • Carcinoma
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ACCS (cancer-related)

Chen CK, Lee MY, Lin WL, et al.
A qualitative study comparing the assay performance characteristics between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 scoring methods in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(27):e171 [PubMed] Related Publications
The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). After excluding equivocal cases, the specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were unchanged under either the 2007 or the 2013 criteria. The sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (100%), and accuracy (100%) of HER2 IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection rates of HER2 positivity in mucinous EOC.

Fu YP, Kohaar I, Moore LE, et al.
The 19q12 bladder cancer GWAS signal: association with cyclin E function and aggressive disease.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(20):5808-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell-cycle protein. We performed genetic fine-mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r(2) ≥ 0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group, we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWASs, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele OR = 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.27, P = 4.67 × 10(-5)] versus OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.10, P = 0.79) for nonaggressive disease, with P = 0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (P = 0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (P(trend) = 0.024). Overexpression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E overexpression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models.

Skibola CF, Berndt SI, Vijai J, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for follicular lymphoma outside the HLA region.
Am J Hum Genet. 2014; 95(4):462-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/04/2015 Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DRβ1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [OR(per-allele)] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (OR(per-allele) = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.

Li WQ, Pfeiffer RM, Hyland PL, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in the 9p21 region associated with risk of multiple cancers.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(12):2698-705 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The chromosome 9p21 region has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. We analyzed 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with data deposited in dbGaP, including studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cancer (GC), pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), lung cancer (LC), breast cancer (BrC), bladder cancer (BC) and prostate cancer (PrC). The number of subjects ranged from 2252 (PrC) to 7619 (LC). SNP-level analyses for each cancer were conducted by logistic regression or random-effects meta-analysis. A subset-based statistical approach (ASSET) was performed to combine SNP-level P values across multiple cancers. We calculated gene-level P values using the adaptive rank truncated product method. We identified that rs1063192 and rs2157719 in the CDKN2A/2B region were significantly associated with ESCC and rs2764736 (3' of TUSC1) was associated with BC (P ≤ 2.59 × 10(-6)). ASSET analyses identified four SNPs significantly associated with multiple cancers: rs3731239 (CDKN2A intronic) with ESCC, GC and BC (P = 3.96 × 10(-) (4)); rs10811474 (3' of IFNW1) with RCC and BrC (P = 0.001); rs12683422 (LINGO2 intronic) with RCC and BC (P = 5.93 × 10(-) (4)) and rs10511729 (3' of ELAVL2) with LC and BrC (P = 8.63 × 10(-) (4)). At gene level, CDKN2B, CDKN2A and CDKN2B-AS1 were significantly associated with ESCC (P ≤ 4.70 × 10(-) (5)). Rs10511729 and rs10811474 were associated with cis-expression of 9p21 genes in corresponding cancer tissues in the expression quantitative trait loci analysis. In conclusion, we identified several genetic variants in the 9p21 region associated with the risk of multiple cancers, suggesting that this region may contribute to a shared susceptibility across different cancer types.

Al Olama AA, Kote-Jarai Z, Berndt SI, et al.
A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(10):1103-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.

D'Alfonso TM, Mosquera JM, MacDonald TY, et al.
MYB-NFIB gene fusion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast with special focus paid to the solid variant with basaloid features.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(11):2270-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) from various anatomical sites harbor a translocation t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24), resulting in MYB-NFIB gene fusion. This gene fusion is not well studied in mammary ACCs, and there are no studies examining this abnormality in solid variant of ACC with basaloid features (SBACC), a high-grade variant thought to behave more aggressively than ACCs with conventional histologic growth. Our aim was to investigate the frequency of MYB-NFIB gene fusion in mammary ACCs with a focus paid to SBACC. MYB rearrangement and MYB-NFIB fusion were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Histologic features and the presence of MYB rearrangement were correlated with clinical outcome. MYB rearrangement was present in 7 (22.6%) of 31 mammary ACCs (5/15 [33.3%] ACCs with conventional growth; 2/16 [12.5%] SBACCs). One patient with conventional ACC developed distant metastasis, and no patients had axillary lymph node involvement by ACC (mean follow-up, 34 months; range, 12-84 months). Two patients with SBACC had axillary lymph node involvement at initial surgery, and 2 additional patients experienced disease recurrence (1 local, 1 distant; mean follow-up, 50 months; range, 9-192 months). MYB-NFIB fusion status did not correlate with clinical outcome in studied patients. We confirm that MYB-NFIB gene fusion is observed in mammary ACCs and that a subset lacks this abnormality. This study is the first to confirm the presence of MYB rearrangement in SBACC. Additional validation with long-term follow-up is needed to determine the relationship, if any, between MYB-NFIB gene fusion and clinical outcome.

Prat A, Carey LA, Adamo B, et al.
Molecular features and survival outcomes of the intrinsic subtypes within HER2-positive breast cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(8) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of the biological heterogeneity within HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer is not fully understood. Here, we evaluated the molecular features and survival outcomes of the intrinsic subtypes within HER2+ breast cancer.
METHODS: We interrogated The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 495) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) datasets (n = 1730) of primary breast cancers for molecular data derived from DNA, RNA and protein, and determined intrinsic subtype. Clinical HER2 status was defined according to American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines or DNA copy-number aberration by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Cox models tested the prognostic significance of each variable in patients not treated with trastuzumab (n = 1711).
RESULTS: Compared with clinically HER2 (cHER2)-negative breast cancer, cHER2+ breast cancer had a higher frequency of the HER2-enriched (HER2E) subtype (47.0% vs 7.1%) and a lower frequency of Luminal A (10.7% vs 39.0%) and Basal-like (14.1% vs 23.4%) subtypes. The likelihood of cHER2-positivity in HER2E, Luminal B, Basal-like and Luminal A subtypes was 64.6%, 20.0%, 14.4% and 7.3%, respectively. Within each subtype, only 0.3% to 3.9% of genes were found differentially expressed between cHER2+ and cHER2-negative tumors. Within cHER2+ tumors, HER2 gene and protein expression was statistically significantly higher in the HER2E and Basal-like subtypes than either luminal subtype. Neither cHER2 status nor the new 10-subtype copy number-based classification system (IntClust) added independent prognostic value to intrinsic subtype.
CONCLUSIONS: When the intrinsic subtypes are taken into account, cHER2-positivity does not translate into large changes in the expression of downstream signaling pathways, nor does it affect patient survival in the absence of HER2 targeting.

Chao WR, Lee MY, Lin WL, et al.
Assessing the HER2 status in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer on the basis of the 2013 ASCO/CAP guideline update.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(9):1227-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Her2 gene amplification and protein overexpression are important factors in predicting clinical sensitivity to anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy in breast, gastric, or gastro-esophageal junction cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HER2 status in the mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Adopting the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists guideline update for HER2 testing, 49 tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests. The prevalence of HER2 positivity in Asian mucinous EOC was 9 of 49 Asian women (18.37%). The overall concordance was 100% between IHC and FISH results. Her2 gene copies before chromosome-17 correction increased significantly in a stepwise order through the negative, equivocal, and positive IHC result categories (P<0.001), as did the Her2 gene copies after chromosome-17 correction (P<0.001). Of the Taiwanese cohort (n=21), HER2 heterogeneity was 4.76% (1/21) in all but 14.26% (1/7) in HER2-positive cancer. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the prevalence of HER2 positivity in both Asian and white women was comparable; complete HER2 concordance existed between IHC and FISH tests for the Her2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction of chromosome-17, and this can be applied as a potentially valuable tool to analyze the HER2 status. Polysomy-17 was absent under the CEP17 cutoff ≥3. The existence of HER2 heterogeneity can be discerned in certain HER2-expressed primary mucinous EOC in Taiwanese women.

Iida Y, Kazuki Y, Hayashi M, et al.
Bi-HAC vector system toward gene and cell therapy.
ACS Synth Biol. 2014; 3(2):83-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Genetic manipulations with mammalian cells often require introduction of two or more genes that have to be in trans-configuration. However, conventional gene delivery vectors have several limitations, including a limited cloning capacity and a risk of insertional mutagenesis. In this paper, we describe a novel gene expression system that consists of two differently marked HAC vectors containing unique gene loading sites. One HAC, 21HAC, is stably propagated during cell divisions; therefore, it is suitable for complementation of a gene deficiency. The other HAC, tet-O HAC, can be eliminated, providing a unique opportunity for transient gene expression (e.g., for cell reprogramming). Efficiency and accuracy of a novel bi-HAC vector system have been evaluated after loading of two different transgenes into these HACs. Based on analysis of transgenes expression and HACs stability in the proof of principle experiments, the combination of two HAC vectors may provide a powerful tool toward gene and cell therapy.

Yanagawa N, Shiono S, Abiko M, et al.
The correlation of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification with prognosis and EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2014; 98(2):453-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to validate the prognostic effect and the frequency of mutations in the gene expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung adenocarcinoma of Japanese patients, on the basis of the new adenocarcinoma classification proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society.
METHODS: The new classification was used to reclassify 486 adenocarcinomas. The percentage of each histopathologic subtype and the predominant pattern were determined. EGFR mutation was also investigated. The relationship between these results and clinicopathologic backgrounds was investigated statistically.
RESULTS: No patients with adenocarcinoma in situ or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma died within the follow-up periods, followed by patients with lepidic predominant. Patients with papillary or acinar predominant, or invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, showed almost similar overall survival (OS). The patients with solid predominant and micropapillary predominant showed the worst OS. Multivariate analysis showed that the new classification was an independent predictor of OS. The frequency of EGFR mutation was adenocarcinoma in situ (62%), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (60%), lepidic (77%), acinar (49%), papillary (50%), solid (28%), micropapillary (43%), and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (0%).
CONCLUSIONS: This new adenocarcinoma classification is a very useful predictive marker to plan and determine a therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma.

Papathomas TG, Oudijk L, Zwarthoff EC, et al.
Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(4):653-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hotspot mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been recently reported in human cancers and proposed as a novel mechanism of telomerase activation. To explore TERT promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia, a set of 253 tumors (38 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), 127 pheochromocytomas (PCCs), 18 extra-adrenal paragangliomas (ea PGLs), 37 head and neck PGLs (HN PGLs), and 33 peripheral neuroblastic tumors) was selected along with 16 human neuroblastoma (NBL) and two ACC cell lines to assess TERT promoter mutations by the Sanger sequencing method. All mutations detected were confirmed by a SNaPshot assay. Additionally, 36 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were added to explore an association between TERT promoter mutations and SDH deficiency. TERT promoter mutations were found in seven out of 289 tumors and in three out of 18 human cell lines; four C228T mutations in 38 ACCs (10.5%), two C228T mutations in 18 ea PGLs (11.1%), one C250T mutation in 36 GISTs (2.8%), and three C228T mutations in 16 human NBL cell lines (18.75%). No mutation was detected in PCCs, HN PGLs, neuroblastic tumors as well as ACC cell lines. TERT promoter mutations preferentially occurred in a SDH-deficient setting (P=0.01) being present in three out of 47 (6.4%) SDH-deficient tumors vs zero out of 171 (0%) SDH-intact tumors. We conclude that TERT promoter mutations occur in ACCs and ea PGLs. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates a potential association with the acquisition of TERT promoter mutations in SDH-deficient tumors.

Mihai R
Rare adrenal tumors in children.
Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014; 23(2):71-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apart from neuroblastomas, adrenal tumors are exceedingly rare in children and young adults. In this age group, the vast majority of patients present with clinical signs associated with excess hormone production. The most common tumor to arise from the adrenal cortex is an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Similar to the situation in adults, this tumor is frequently diagnosed at a late stage and carries a very poor prognosis. ACCs require extensive/aggressive local resection followed by mitotane chemotherapy. A multidisciplinary approach is essential, and these children should be referred to units that have previous experience in managing ACCs. International registries are an invaluable source for evidence-based care, and such collaborations should be further developed in the future. Pheochromocytomas are derived from the adrenal medulla and present with symptoms caused by high secretion of catecholamines. At least one-third of these children will be found to carry genetic mutations, most commonly the RET gene (MEN2 syndrome) or the VHL gene. Open radical adrenalectomy should be offered to children with adrenocortical cancers. For all other cases, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice. It is possible that the retroperitoneoscopic approach will gain increasing favor. The role of robotic adrenalectomy remains controversial.

von Holstein SL
Tumours of the lacrimal gland. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic characteristics.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2013; 91 Thesis 6:1-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumours of the lacrimal gland are rare, but the prognosis may be grave. To date, no population-based incidence and distribution data on lacrimal gland tumours exist. In addition, almost nothing is known about the genetic profile of epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland. We collected specimens and clinical files on all biopsied lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark over a 34-year period and re-evaluated the diagnosis to provide updated population-based incidence rates and epidemiological characteristics. Clinical data regarding symptoms, clinical examinations, treatment and follow-up were collected for patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), pleomorphic adenoma (PA), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). Using RT-PCR, FISH, immunohistochemistry, Q-PCR and high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) we explored the genetic characteristics including copy number alterations (CNA) in ACC, PA, Ca-ex-PA and MEC. The incidence of biopsied lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1,000,000/year, and ~50% were neoplastic lesions. Of these, 55% were malignant tumours with epithelial tumours as the most frequent. The overall incidence was increasing, and this was caused by an increase in biopsied non-neoplastic lesions. We found that 10/14 ACCs either expressed the MYB-NFIB fusion gene and/or had rearrangements of MYB. All ACCs expressed the MYB protein. ACC was characterized by recurrent copy number losses involving 6q, 12q and 17q and gains involving 19q, 8q and 11q. ArrayCGH revealed an apparently normal genomic profile in 11/19 PAs. The remaining 8 PAs had recurrent copy number losses involving 1p, 6q, 8q and 13q and gain involving 9p. PA expressed PLAG1 in all tumours whereas only 2/29 tumours expressed HMGA2. Ca-ex-PA was characterized by recurrent copy number gain involving 22q. PLAG1 was expressed in 3/5 Ca-ex-PA whereas none of these tumours expressed HMGA2. MEC expressed the CRTC1-MAML2, and this fusion was found to be tumour-specific for lacrimal gland MEC. In conclusion, lacrimal gland lesions that require pathological evaluation are rare in the Danish population, and the incidence rate of biopsied benign lesions is increasing. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland are molecularly very similar to their salivary gland counterparts in the expression of the tumour-specific fusion genes and in their genomic imbalances as demonstrated by arrayCGH. MYB-NFIB is a useful biomarker for ACC and MYB, and its downstream target genes may be potential therapeutic targets for these tumours.

Duregon E, Rapa I, Votta A, et al.
MicroRNA expression patterns in adrenocortical carcinoma variants and clinical pathologic correlations.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(8):1555-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be deregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) as compared with adenoma, but a detailed assessment of their expression in its histologic variants and correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been performed, so far. Our aim was to assess the expression of 5 selected miRNAs (IGF2 gene-related miR-483-3p and 5p and hypoxia-induced miR-210, miR-195, and miR-1974) in a series of 51 ACCs (35 classical, 6 myxoid, and 10 oncocytic) as compared with clinical and pathologic features and immunohistochemical expression of prognostic markers, including steroidogenic factor 1, p53, β-catenin, and glucose transporter 1. Oncocytic carcinomas had a reduced expression of miR-483-3p (P = .0325), miR-483-5p (P = .0175), and miR-210 (P = .0366), as compared with other histotypes. Overexpression of miR-210 was associated with the presence of necrosis (P = .0035), high Ki-67 index (P = .0013), and high glucose transporter 1 expression (P = .0043), whereas an inverse correlation with mitotic rate was observed in cases with high miR-493-3p (P = .0191) and miR-1974 (P = .0017) expression. High miR-1974 was also associated with low Ki-67 (P = .0312) and European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors stage (P = .0082) and negative p53 (P = .0013). At univariate analysis myxoid/classic histotype (P = .026), high miR-210 (P = .0465), high steroidogenic factor 1 protein (P = .0017), high Ki-67 (P = .0066), and high mitotic index (P = .0006) were significantly associated the shorter overall survival, the latter being the sole independent prognostic factor at multivariate analysis (P = .017). In conclusion, (a) miR-483-3p, miR-483-5p, and miR-210 are differentially expressed in ACC variants, and (b) high miR-210 is associated with clinicopathologic parameters of aggressiveness and a poor prognosis.

Liu T, Brown TC, Juhlin CC, et al.
The activating TERT promoter mutation C228T is recurrent in subsets of adrenal tumors.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(3):427-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) encodes the reverse transcriptase component of the telomerase complex, which is essential for telomere stabilization and cell immortalization. Recent studies have demonstrated a transcriptional activation role for the TERT promoter mutations C228T and C250T in many human cancers, as well as a role in aggressive disease with potential clinical applications. Although telomerase activation is known in adrenal tumors, the underlying mechanisms are not established. We assessed C228T and C250T TERT mutations by direct Sanger sequencing in tumors of the adrenal gland, and further evaluated potential associations with clinical parameters and telomerase activation. A total of 199 tumors were evaluated, including 34 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), 47 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), 105 pheochromocytomas (PCC; ten malignant and 95 benign), and 13 abdominal paragangliomas (PGL; nine malignant and four benign). TERT expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The C228T mutation was detected in 4/34 ACCs (12%), but not in any ACA (P=0.028). C228T was also observed in one benign PCC and in one metastatic PGL. The C250T mutation was not observed in any case. In the ACC and PGL groups, TERT mutation-positive cases exhibited TERT expression, indicating telomerase activation; however, since expression was also revealed in TERT WT cases, this could denote additional mechanisms of TERT activation. To conclude, the TERT promoter mutation C228T is a recurrent event associated with TERT expression in ACCs, but rarely occurs in PGL and PCC. The involvement of the TERT gene in ACC represents a novel mutated gene in this entity.

Charbonneau B, Moysich KB, Kalli KR, et al.
Large-scale evaluation of common variation in regulatory T cell-related genes and ovarian cancer outcome.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2014; 2(4):332-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The presence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.64; P = 5.7 × 10(-6)], rs791587 (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 6.2 × 10(-5)), rs2476491 (HR, = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64; P = 5.6 × 10(-5)), and rs10795763 (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 7.9 × 10(-5)), and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.82; P = 9.3 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs seem to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer.

Assié G, Letouzé E, Fassnacht M, et al.
Integrated genomic characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(6):607-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are aggressive cancers originating in the cortex of the adrenal gland. Despite overall poor prognosis, ACC outcome is heterogeneous. We performed exome sequencing and SNP array analysis of 45 ACCs and identified recurrent alterations in known driver genes (CTNNB1, TP53, CDKN2A, RB1 and MEN1) and in genes not previously reported in ACC (ZNRF3, DAXX, TERT and MED12), which we validated in an independent cohort of 77 ACCs. ZNRF3, encoding a cell surface E3 ubiquitin ligase, was the most frequently altered gene (21%) and is a potential new tumor suppressor gene related to the β-catenin pathway. Our integrated genomic analyses further identified two distinct molecular subgroups with opposite outcome. The C1A group of ACCs with poor outcome displayed numerous mutations and DNA methylation alterations, whereas the C1B group of ACCs with good prognosis displayed specific deregulation of two microRNA clusters. Thus, aggressive and indolent ACCs correspond to two distinct molecular entities driven by different oncogenic alterations.

Figueiredo JC, Hsu L, Hutter CM, et al.
Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(4):e1004228 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.

Wang CX, Liu B, Wang YF, et al.
Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma: a study of the clinicopathologic and molecular status of nine cases.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(3):1266-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma (PEAC), a extremely rare variant of primary invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung, was recognized by the international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma which was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) published in early 2011. Histologically, PEAC is considered to be mainly composed of tall columnar cells arranged in an irregular glandular cavity or cribriform pattern with extensive central necrosis which show high resemblance to that of intestinal epithelia and colorectal carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, PEAC can not only expresses typical proteins common to lung primaries but is positive for at least one intestinal markers, such as CDX2, cytokeratin (CK) 20, MUC2, therefore, the differentiation of primary PEACs from metastatic colorectal cancers can be challenging. In this study, we report 9 cases of PEAC and a panel of immunohistochemical protein markers of CK7, CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, MUC2 and villin was analyzed with the comparison of 20 metastatic colorectal carcinomas (MCRs), and 20 typical primary adenocarcinomas (tPACs). As was expected, CK7 expression was documented in all 9 PEACs and 20 tPCAs while CK20 was significantly more prevalent in adenocarcinoma that originated from colorectal. Additionally, we evaluate the classical mutations of EGFR, KRAS in the 9 cases of PEACs, it turned out that all tumors were EGFR-wild and KRAS-wild types, which confirmed that PEAC has a separate phenotype from usual pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Figueroa JD, Han SS, Garcia-Closas M, et al.
Genome-wide interaction study of smoking and bladder cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(8):1737-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a complex disease with known environmental and genetic risk factors. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWAS) of smoking and bladder cancer risk based on primary scan data from 3002 cases and 4411 controls from the National Cancer Institute Bladder Cancer GWAS. Alternative methods were used to evaluate both additive and multiplicative interactions between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking exposure. SNPs with interaction P values < 5 × 10(-) (5) were evaluated further in an independent dataset of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls. We identified 10 SNPs that showed association in a consistent manner with the initial dataset and in the combined dataset, providing evidence of interaction with tobacco use. Further, two of these novel SNPs showed strong evidence of association with bladder cancer in tobacco use subgroups that approached genome-wide significance. Specifically, rs1711973 (FOXF2) on 6p25.3 was a susceptibility SNP for never smokers [combined odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-1.50, P value = 5.18 × 10(-) (7)]; and rs12216499 (RSPH3-TAGAP-EZR) on 6q25.3 was a susceptibility SNP for ever smokers (combined OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.67-0.84, P value = 6.35 × 10(-) (7)). In our analysis of smoking and bladder cancer, the tests for multiplicative interaction seemed to more commonly identify susceptibility loci with associations in never smokers, whereas the additive interaction analysis identified more loci with associations among smokers-including the known smoking and NAT2 acetylation interaction. Our findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for tobacco and bladder cancer.

Huang W, Dong Z, Wang F, et al.
A small molecule compound targeting STAT3 DNA-binding domain inhibits cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
ACS Chem Biol. 2014; 9(5):1188-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/03/2015 Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays important roles in multiple aspects of cancer aggressiveness including migration, invasion, survival, self-renewal, angiogenesis, and tumor cell immune evasion by regulating the expression of multiple downstream target genes. STAT3 is constitutively activated in many malignant tumors and its activation is associated with high histological grade and advanced cancer stages. Thus, inhibiting STAT3 promises an attracting strategy for treatment of advanced and metastatic cancers. Herein, we identified a STAT3 inhibitor, inS3-54, by targeting the DNA-binding domain of STAT3 using an improved virtual screening strategy. InS3-54 preferentially suppresses proliferation of cancer over non-cancer cells and inhibits migration and invasion of malignant cells. Biochemical analyses show that inS3-54 selectively inhibits STAT3 binding to DNA without affecting the activation and dimerization of STAT3. Furthermore, inS3-54 inhibits expression of STAT3 downstream target genes and STAT3 binding to chromatin in situ. Thus, inS3-54 represents a novel probe for development of specific inhibitors targeting the DNA-binding domain of STAT3 and a potential therapeutic for cancer treatments.

Da Pozzo E, La Pietra V, Cosimelli B, et al.
p53 functional inhibitors behaving like pifithrin-β counteract the Alzheimer peptide non-β-amyloid component effects in human SH-SY5Y cells.
ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014; 5(5):390-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2015 Related Publications
Alzheimer's disease (AD) develops from a complex setting of genetic and biochemical alterations, including an increased level of p53 in the brain. Here, the robust and specific activation of p53 by the fibrillar non-β-amyloid component (NAC) of AD was demonstrated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. For the first time, the increase in the level of p53 target gene transcription, the cell cycle arrest, and the induction of apoptosis elicited by NAC were evidenced. These effects were counterbalanced by pifithrin-β, a small molecule interfering with the p53 functions. Using the structure of a pifithrin-β analogue as a reference, a pharmacophore-based virtual screening of the ZINC database was performed. Among the resulting hits, 20 druglike heterocyclic compounds were selected and evaluated for their neuroprotective activity against fibrillar NAC in the human SH-SY5Y cellular model. Three compounds exhibited neuroprotective effects. In particular, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-methyl-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine resulted in a promising lead compound for further development of anti-AD agents in terms of neuroprotection, reducing the rate of NAC-induced cell death with an activity higher than that of pifithrin-β, as a result of a more effective functional inhibition of p53 target gene transcription.

Furlan D, Sahnane N, Bernasconi B, et al.
APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(5):553-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are poorly characterized, including the frequency and role of gene-specific hypermethylation, chromosome aberrations, and copy number alterations (CNAs). A subset of ACCs is known to show alterations in the APC/β-catenin pathway which includes mutations of APC gene. However, it is not known whether, in addition to mutation, loss of APC gene function can occur through alternative genetic and epigenetic mechanisms such as gene loss or promoter methylation. We investigated the global methylation profile of 34 tumor suppressor genes, CNAs of 52 chromosomal regions, and APC gene alterations (mutation, methylation, and loss) together with APC mRNA level in 45 ACCs and related peritumoral pancreatic tissues using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), mutation analysis, and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR. ACCs did not show an extensive global gene hypermethylation profile. RASSF1 and APC were the only two genes frequently methylated. APC mutations were found in only 7 % of cases, while APC loss and methylation were more frequently observed (48 and 56 % of ACCs, respectively). APC mRNA low levels were found in 58 % of cases and correlated with CNAs. In conclusion, ACCs do not show extensive global gene hypermethylation. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of ACCs mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation, along with reduction of APC mRNA levels.

Villa C, Cagle PT, Johnson M, et al.
Correlation of EGFR mutation status with predominant histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma according to the new lung adenocarcinoma classification of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(10):1353-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been identified as predictors of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of EGFR mutation status to the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification.
DESIGN: We screened EGFR mutation in 200 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma resection specimens diagnosed between 2008 and 2011.
RESULTS: Among 200 lung adenocarcinomas, EGFR mutations were identified in 41 tumors (20.5%). The mean age in the EGFR-mutant group was 64.8 years and this group consisted of 78% females and 22% males. Most patients with EGFR-positive lung cancers were never-smokers (51%) as compared to 8% with EGFR-negative cancers (P < .001). The most common mutations identified in our population were deletions in exon 19 (22 patients) and L858R in exon 21 (12 patients). Five patients had double mutations. The predominant pattern of adenocarcinoma was lepidic (44%) in EGFR-mutant lung cancers as compared to 69% with acinar pattern in EGFR wild-type lung cancers (P < .001). Of 22 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, 8 (36%) had EGFR mutations, accounting for 20% of adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification, the predominant subtype of adenocarcinoma was lepidic (44%) in EGFR-mutant lung cancers (P < .001). However, histologic subtype should not be used to exclude patients from tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, since EGFR mutations are found in lung adenocarcinomas of other subtypes.

Saunders EJ, Dadaev T, Leongamornlert DA, et al.
Fine-mapping the HOXB region detects common variants tagging a rare coding allele: evidence for synthetic association in prostate cancer.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(2):e1004129 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2015 Related Publications
The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS) followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10(-14)). Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197), which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.

Toffalorio F, Belloni E, Barberis M, et al.
Gene expression profiling reveals GC and CEACAM1 as new tools in the diagnosis of lung carcinoids.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(5):1244-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Classification of lung carcinoids into typical and atypical is a diagnostic challenge since no immunohistochemical tools are available to support pathologists in distinguishing between the two subtypes. A differential diagnosis is essential for clinicians to correctly discuss therapy, prognosis and follow-up with patients. Indeed, the distinction between the two typical and atypical subtypes on biopsies/cytological specimens is still unfeasible and sometimes limited also after radical surgeries. By comparing the gene expression profile of typical (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC), we intended to find genes specifically expressed in one of the two subtypes that could be used as diagnostic markers.
METHODS: Expression profiling, with Affymetrix arrays, was performed on six typical and seven atypical samples. Data were validated on an independent cohort of 29 tumours, by means of quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
RESULTS: High-throughput gene expression profiling was successfully used to identify a gene signature specific for atypical lung carcinoids. Among the 273 upregulated genes in the atypical vs typical subtype, GC (vitamin D-binding protein) and CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen family member) emerged as potent diagnostic markers. Quantitative PCR and IHC on a validation set of 17 ACs and 12 TCs confirmed their reproducibility and feasibility.
CONCLUSIONS: GC and CEACAM1 can distinguish between TC and AC, defining an IHC assay potentially useful for routine cytological and histochemical diagnostic procedures. The high sensitivity and reproducibility of this new diagnostic algorithm strongly support a further validation on a wider sample size.

Kobayashi Y, Sugiura T, Imajyo I, et al.
Knockdown of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury increases sensitivity of adenoid cystic carcinoma cells to chemotherapy and radiation in vitro: implications for a new therapeutic principle.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1107-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, we reported that the T-box transcription factor Brachyury is a potential regulator of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Specifically, growth of CSCs was found to be controlled by Brachyury knockdown in AdCC. Since CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, this finding provides a new principle for therapies targeting CSCs. In the present study, we established that Brachyury knockdown suppresses chemoresistance and radioresistance in vitro. Brachyury was knocked down by transfecting Brachyury short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into the AdCC CSC cell line ACCS-M GFP. Brachyury knockdown significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion and suppressed chemoresistance. A quantitative PCR array of drug transporter genes revealed that knockdown of Brachyury caused down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes. Furthermore, ACCS-M GFP radioresistance was significantly suppressed by Brachyury knockdown. Knockdown of Brachyury significantly sensitized ACCS-M GFP cells to chemoradiotherapy. This study demonstrates that Brachyury knockdown reduces invasiveness and chemoresistance and radioresistance of CSCs in vivo. Therefore, Brachyury knockdown may be a useful therapeutic tool for sensitizing CSCs to conventional chemoradiotherapy.

Zhang J, Wang C, Gao J, et al.
Adrenal cortical neoplasms: a study of clinicopathological features related to epidermal growth factor receptor gene status.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but highly malignant neoplasm with limited treatment options.
METHODS: In this study, the clinicopathological features of 22 ACCs and 22 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) were analyzed, and the EGFR protein expression, EGFR gene mutation status and EGFR gene copy number alteration of all tumors were examined using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the Scorpion Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS), respectively.
RESULTS: EGFR protein expression was detected in 63.6% of the ACC samples, and EGFR FISH was positive in 50% of the ACC samples (all were high polysomy on chromosome 7). In contrast, 27.3% of the ACA samples demonstrated EGFR expression, and none of the ACA samples tested positive by FISH. There were significant differences between the ACC and ACA in terms of protein expression (P = 0.035) and gene copy number alterations (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: EGFR protein expression and high polysomy on chromosome 7 are frequent abnormalities in ACC than in ACA.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Liu Y, Ma L, Liu D, et al.
Impact of polysomy 17 on HER2 testing of invasive breast cancer patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(1):163-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines define HER2-positive tumors as those with >6 HER2 genes per nucleus or those with HER2/CEP17 (chromosome 17) ratio>2.2. These guidelines are potentially contradictory in tumors with polysomy of chromosome 17. The current study was performed to determine the impact of polysomy 17 on the interpretation of HER2 testing of invasive breast carcinomas.
METHODS: Chromosome 17 copies and HER2 gene status were identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization in 384 cases with invasive breast cancer, and the corresponding HER2 expression was obtained by immunohistochemistry stain.
RESULTS: The average CEP17 copy number for the group was 2.1 (range, 1.0-12.4). Forty-eight cases (13.8%, 48/348) were identified as chromosome 17 polysomy with CEP 17 copy number≥3. Ninety-two (26.4%) cases had >6 copies of HER2 per nucleus, and 92 cases (26.4%) qualified as HER2 gene amplified using the HER2/CEP17 ratio (>2.2) guideline. Polysomy 17 showed poorly positive correlations with both HER2 gene copy number and HER2 overexpression (P<0.01, r=0.338 and 0.271, respectively). The distribution of clinicopathologic parameters of Polysomy 17 tumors was more similar to HER2 negative than HER2 positive tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Polysomy 17 is a crucial cause of equivocal HER2 testing results by FISH, depending on which criterion (ratio vs. absolute number) is used for interpretation. Polysomy 17 cannot be an independent predictive factor for HER2 gene amplification or protein overexpression.

Shui IM, Lindström S, Kibel AS, et al.
Prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants and risk of fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Eur Urol. 2014; 65(6):1069-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM).
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p<0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p<0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only.
CONCLUSIONS: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction.

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