Research IndicatorsGraph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ZNF750 (cancer-related)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary but insufficient cause of a subset of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) that is increasing markedly in frequency. To identify contributory, secondary genetic alterations in these cancers, we used comprehensive genomics methods to compare 149 HPV-positive and 335 HPV-negative OSCC tumor/normal pairs. Different behavioral risk factors underlying the two OSCC types were reflected in distinctive genomic mutational signatures. In HPV-positive OSCCs, the signatures of APOBEC cytosine deaminase editing, associated with anti-viral immunity, were strongly linked to overall mutational burden. In contrast, in HPV-negative OSCCs, T>C substitutions in the sequence context 5'-ATN-3' correlated with tobacco exposure. Universal expression of HPV
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) is the fourth most lethal cancer in China. Previous studies reveal several highly conserved mutational processes in ESCC. However, it remains unclear what are the true regulators of the mutational processes.
RESULTS: We analyzed the somatic mutational signatures in 302 paired whole-exome sequencing data of ESCC in a Chinese population for potential regulators of the mutational processes. We identified three conserved subtypes based on the mutational signatures with significantly different clinical outcomes. Our results show that patients of different subpopulations of Chinese differ significantly in the activity of the "NpCpG" signature (FDR = 0.00188). In addition, we report ZNF750 and CDC27, of which the somatic statuses and the genetic burdens consistently influence the activities of specific mutational signatures in ESCC: the somatic ZNF750 status is associated with the AID/APOBEC-related mutational process (FDR = 0.0637); the somatic CDC27 copy-number is associated with the "NpCpG" (FDR = 0.00615) and the AID/APOBEC-related mutational processes (FDR = 8.69 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: We report multiple factors that influence the mutational processes in ESCC including: the subpopulations of Chinese; the germline and somatic statuses of ZNF750 and CDC27 and exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Our findings based on the evidences from both germline and somatic levels reveal potential genetic regulators of the somatic mutational processes and provide insights into the biology of esophageal carcinogenesis.
Pan L, Yang H, Xu C, et al.ZNF750 inhibited the malignant progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating tumor vascular microenvironment.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:566-572 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Squamous cell carcinoma is often associated with the deletion or mutation of zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750), its deletion or mutation is associated with squamous epithelial malignant biological characteristics. The present study is to explore the mechanism of ZNF750 to suppress the tumor malignant process by regulation tumor microenvironment.
METHODS: To evaluate the changes of tumor microenvironment in oral squamous cells carcinoma cell line CAL-27 cell, the expression of angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), G protein signal regulated protein 5 (RGS5), integrin A5 (ITGA5), integrin B1 (ITGB1) and CD44 were detected by Western-blot. The changes of platelet derived growth factor (PDGFB) and tumor vascular marker CD105 (Endoglin) mRNA were estimated by qPCR. The effect of over-expressed ZNF750 on cell viability and lateral migration capacity was investigated by CCK-8 and cell scratch assay in three oral squamous cells carcinoma.
RESULTS: ZNF750 could effectively inhibit the protein or mRNA expression of angiogenin, VEGF, RGS5 and CD105, repressed the cell adhesion molecules ITGA5, ITGB1 and CD44, but up-regulate the protein or mRNA expression of PHD2 and PDGFB. The cell viability and lateral migration ability of three oral squamous cells carcinoma were reduced by over-expression of ZNF750.
CONCLUSION: ZNF750 could modulate the tumor vascular microenvironment to inhibit the oral squamous cells carcinoma malignant progression.
Dai W, Ko JMY, Choi SSA, et al.Whole-exome sequencing reveals critical genes underlying metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2017; 242(4):500-510 [PubMed
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Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal cancers, owing to a high frequency of metastasis. However, little is known about the genomic landscape of metastatic ESCC. To identify the genetic alterations that underlie ESCC metastasis, whole-exome sequencing was performed for 41 primary tumours and 15 lymph nodes (LNs) with metastatic ESCCs. Eleven cases included matched primary tumours, synchronous LN metastases, and non-neoplastic mucosa. Approximately 50-76% of the mutations identified in primary tumours appeared in the synchronous LN metastases. Metastatic ESCCs harbour frequent mutations of TP53, KMT2D, ZNF750, and IRF5. Importantly, ZNF750 was recurrently mutated in metastatic ESCC. Combined analysis from current and previous genomic ESCC studies indicated more frequent ZNF750 mutation in diagnosed cases with LN metastasis than in those without metastasis (14% versus 3.4%, n = 629, P = 1.78 × 10
Otsuka R, Akutsu Y, Sakata H, et al.ZNF750 Expression as a Novel Candidate Biomarker of Chemoradiosensitivity in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Oncology. 2017; 93(3):197-203 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: ZNF750, an epidermal differentiation regulator, has been suggested to act as a tumor suppressor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Although a correlation between the epidermal differentiation gene and resistance to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been posited, no data regarding the ZNF750 status in ESCC have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between ZNF750 expression and response to CRT in ESCC.
METHODS: Eighty-seven patients who had been pathologically diagnosed with ESCC were evaluated in the present study. All patients underwent neoadjuvant CRT, followed by curative esophagectomy. The expression of ZNF750 in pretreatment biopsy samples was immunohistochemically investigated and compared to the histopathological effectiveness of CRT in surgical specimens.
RESULTS: High expression of ZNF750 was closely correlated with good sensitivity to CRT (p = 0.016). A univariate analysis showed that high/intermediate expression of ZNF750 was a significant predictive factor for good sensitivity to CRT (p = 0.006). High/intermediate expression of ZNF750 (30% or more) remained an independent predictive factor for sensitivity to CRT in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.033).
CONCLUSIONS: ZNF750 expression predicts sensitivity to CRT and can be a biomarker that reliably predicts the response of ESCC to CRT.
ZNF750 controls epithelial homeostasis by regulating epidermal-differentiation genes, a role underscored by its pathogenic mutations in esophageal squamous cell cancers (SCCs). However, the precise role of ZNF750 in SCC cell biology remains unclear. In this study, we report that ZNF750 is exclusively deleted, mutated and underexpressed in human SCCs, and low ZNF750 expression is associated with poor survival. Restoration of wildtype, but not mutant ZNF750 protein uniquely inhibited the malignant phenotypes of SCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, ZNF750 promoted the expression of a long non-coding RNA (TINCR), which mediated both cancer-inhibition and differentiation-induction effects of ZNF750. In addition, ZNF750 potently suppressed cell migration by directly inhibiting the transactivation of LAMC2. Together, our findings characterize ZNF750 as a crucial SCC-specific suppressor and uncover its novel anticancer-associated functions.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is among the most common malignancies, but little is known about its spatial intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and temporal clonal evolutionary processes. To address this, we performed multiregion whole-exome sequencing on 51 tumor regions from 13 ESCC cases and multiregion global methylation profiling for 3 of these 13 cases. We found an average of 35.8% heterogeneous somatic mutations with strong evidence of ITH. Half of the driver mutations located on the branches of tumor phylogenetic trees targeted oncogenes, including PIK3CA, NFE2L2 and MTOR, among others. By contrast, the majority of truncal and clonal driver mutations occurred in tumor-suppressor genes, including TP53, KMT2D and ZNF750, among others. Interestingly, phyloepigenetic trees robustly recapitulated the topological structures of the phylogenetic trees, indicating a possible relationship between genetic and epigenetic alterations. Our integrated investigations of spatial ITH and clonal evolution provide an important molecular foundation for enhanced understanding of tumorigenesis and progression in ESCC.
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sequencing analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) recently reported on gene fusions, however, few human papillomavirus (HPV) positive samples were included, and the functional relevance of identified fusions was not explored. We therefore performed an independent analysis of gene fusions in HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC (OPSCC). RNA sequencing was performed on 47 HPV-positive OPSCC primary tumors and 25 normal mucosal samples from cancer unaffected controls on an Illumina TruSeq platform. MapSplice2 was used for alignment and identification of fusion candidates. Putative fusions with less than five spanning reads, detected in normal tissues, or that mapped to the same gene were filtered out. Selected fusions were validated by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Within 47 HPV-positive OPSCC tumors, 282 gene fusions were identified. Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. Gene fusions were associated with significant up regulation of 16 genes (including EGFR and ERBB4) and down regulation of four genes (PTPRT, ZNF750, DLG2, SLCO5A1). Expression of these genes followed similar patterns of up regulation and down regulation in tumors without these fusions compared to normal tissue. Five of six gene fusions selected for validation were confirmed through RT-PCR and sequencing. This integrative analysis provides a method of prioritizing functionally relevant gene fusions that may be expanded to other tumor types. These results demonstrate that gene fusions may be one mechanism by which functionally relevant genes are altered in HPV-positive OPSCC.
Sawada G, Niida A, Uchi R, et al.Genomic Landscape of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Japanese Population.
Gastroenterology. 2016; 150(5):1171-1182 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant form of esophageal cancer in Japan. Smoking and drinking alcohol are environmental risk factors for ESCC, whereas single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADH1B and ALDH2, which increase harmful intermediates produced by drinking alcohol, are genetic risk factors. We conducted a large-scale genomic analysis of ESCCs from patients in Japan to determine the mutational landscape of this cancer.
METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequence analysis of tumor and nontumor esophageal tissues collected from 144 patients with ESCC who underwent surgery at 5 hospitals in Japan. We also performed single-nucleotide polymorphism array-based copy number profile and germline genotype analyses of polymorphisms in ADH1B and ALDH2. Polymorphisms in CYP2A6, which increase harmful effects of smoking, were analyzed. Functions of TET2 mutants were evaluated in KYSE410 and HEK293FT cells.
RESULTS: A high proportion of mutations in the 144 tumor samples were C to T substitution in CpG dinucleotides (called the CpG signature) and C to G/T substitutions with a flanking 5' thymine (called the APOBEC signature). Based on mutational signatures, patients were assigned to 3 groups, which associated with environmental (drinking and smoking) and genetic (polymorphisms in ALDH2 and CYP2A6) factors. Many tumors contained mutations in genes that regulate the cell cycle (TP53, CCND1, CDKN2A, FBXW7); epigenetic processes (MLL2, EP300, CREBBP, TET2); and the NOTCH (NOTCH1, NOTCH3), WNT (FAT1, YAP1, AJUBA) and receptor-tyrosine kinase-phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways (PIK3CA, EGFR, ERBB2). Mutations in EP300 and TET2 correlated with shorter survival times, and mutations in ZNF750 associated with an increased number of mutations of the APOBEC signature. Expression of mutant forms of TET2 did not increase cellular levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in HEK293FT cells, whereas knockdown of TET2 increased the invasive activity of KYSE410 ESCC cells. Computational analyses associated the mutations in NFE2L2 we identified with transcriptional activation of its target genes.
CONCLUSIONS: We associated environmental and genetic factors with base substitution patterns of somatic mutations and provide a registry of genes and pathways that are disrupted in ESCCs. These findings might be used to design specific treatments for patients with esophageal squamous cancers.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the fourth most lethal cancer in China. However, although genomic studies have identified some mutations associated with ESCC, we know little of the mutational processes responsible. To identify genome-wide mutational signatures, we performed either whole-genome sequencing (WGS) or whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 104 ESCC individuals and combined our data with those of 88 previously reported samples. An APOBEC-mediated mutational signature in 47% of 192 tumors suggests that APOBEC-catalyzed deamination provides a source of DNA damage in ESCC. Moreover, PIK3CA hotspot mutations (c.1624G>A [p.Glu542Lys] and c.1633G>A [p.Glu545Lys]) were enriched in APOBEC-signature tumors, and no smoking-associated signature was observed in ESCC. In the samples analyzed by WGS, we identified focal (<100 kb) amplifications of CBX4 and CBX8. In our combined cohort, we identified frequent inactivating mutations in AJUBA, ZNF750, and PTCH1 and the chromatin-remodeling genes CREBBP and BAP1, in addition to known mutations. Functional analyses suggest roles for several genes (CBX4, CBX8, AJUBA, and ZNF750) in ESCC. Notably, high activity of hedgehog signaling and the PI3K pathway in approximately 60% of 104 ESCC tumors indicates that therapies targeting these pathways might be particularly promising strategies for ESCC. Collectively, our data provide comprehensive insights into the mutational signatures of ESCC and identify markers for early diagnosis and potential therapeutic targets.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent worldwide and particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified previously uncharacterized mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to those already known (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Our approaches also uncovered many druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because it showed both gene mutation and protein overexpression. Our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets.