Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (6)
Clicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.
|BRCA1 ||17q21.31 ||IRIS, PSCP, BRCAI, BRCC1, FANCS, PNCA4, RNF53, BROVCA1, PPP1R53 || ||-BRCA1 mutations in Fallopian Tube Cancer || 140|
|BRCA2 ||13q13.1 ||FAD, FACD, FAD1, GLM3, BRCC2, FANCD, PNCA2, FANCD1, XRCC11, BROVCA2 || ||-BRCA2 and Fallopian Tube Cancer || 117|
|TP53 ||17p13.1 ||P53, BCC7, LFS1, TRP53 || ||-TP53 and Fallopian Tube Cancer || 27|
|MKI67 ||10q26.2 ||KIA, MIB-, MIB-1, PPP1R105 || ||-Ki-67 Antigen and Fallopian Tube Cancer || 20|
|PAX2 ||10q24.31 ||FSGS7, PAPRS || ||-PAX2 and Fallopian tube cancer || 8|
|ERBB2 ||17q12 ||NEU, NGL, HER2, TKR1, CD340, HER-2, MLN 19, HER-2/neu || ||-ERRB2 and Fallopian Tube Cancer || 3|
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
Soong TR, Howitt BE, Horowitz N, et al.The fallopian tube, "precursor escape" and narrowing the knowledge gap to the origins of high-grade serous carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(2):426-433 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Most ovarian carcinomas are high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) that contain TP53 mutations, present at advanced stage, and eventually become resistant to chemotherapy. The rapid evolution of this disease has been attributed to an origin in the distal fallopian tube, in the form of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs). This has led to a disease model where malignancy develops first in the tube and spreads to the peritoneum or regional lymph nodes. However, although most early or incidentally discovered HGSCs manifest in the tube with STICs, many advanced HGSCs are not accompanied by a malignancy in the fimbria. To resolve this paradox, the focus has shifted to earlier, premalignant serous proliferations (ESPs) in the tubes, which lack the cytomorphologic features of malignancy but contain TP53 mutations. These have been termed p53 signatures or serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs). Although they have not been presumed to have cancer-causing potential by themselves, some ESPs have recently been shown to share identical TP53 mutations with concurrent HGSCs, indicating a shared lineage between these early mucosal changes and metastatic malignancy. This discovery supports a paradigm by which HGSCs can emerge not only from STICs but also from exfoliated precursor cells (precursor escape) that eventually undergo malignant transformation within the peritoneal cavity. This paradigm unifies both localized and widespread HGSCs to a visible pre-existing cellular alteration in the tubal epithelium, and highlights a consistent and necessary biologic event (TP53 mutation) rarely encountered in the ovary or secondary Mullerian system. This dual pathway to HGSCs underscores the subtle nature of many serous cancer origins in the tube, explains contrasting clinico-pathologic presentations, and explains why, until recently, the fallopian tube was unappreciated as the principal origin of HGSCs. Moreover, it highlights additional challenges faced in preventing or intercepting HGSCs at a curable stage.
Sakurada S, Watanabe Y, Tokunaga H, et al.Clinicopathologic features and BRCA mutations in primary fallopian tube cancer in Japanese women.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2018; 48(9):794-798 [PubMed
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Objective: The present study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological features, including the level of p53 protein expression and BRCA mutations, of primary fallopian tube cancer (PFTC) in Japanese women.
Methods: A multicenter clinical survey was conducted at three Japanese institutions. Clinical data in patients with PFTC between 1998 and 2016 were collected. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 and BRCA mutation analysis by exome sequence using paraffin-embedded surgical resected specimens were performed.
Results: A total of 40 patients with PFTC were enrolled in the study. The median age was 58 years (range: 38-78 years); 31 patients were menopausal. Thirty-four (85.0%) patients were diagnosed with serous adenocarcinoma (high grade, 33; low grade, 1). PFTC was classified into ampulla type, fimbriae type and undeterminable type by tumor-occupying lesion; ampulla type and fimbriae type occurred with the same frequency. Among 30 patients with high-grade serous adenocarcinoma, 6 patients showed germline mutations of BRCA1 (stop-gain 4 and frameshift deletion 2) and 2 patients showed germline mutation of BRCA2 (stop-gain 1 and frameshift deletion 1). However, only 1 patient had familial history of breast or ovarian cancer. Patients with BRCA mutations in the germline were frequently observed in ampulla type and FIGO stage I/II cancers, but no significant difference in the frequency of p53 overexpression and overall survival was observed.
Conclusions: Among Japanese patients with PFTC, 26.7% presented with BRCA mutations in the germline. Additionally, p53 was important for the carcinogenesis in fallopian tubes, independent of the specific BRCA mutation.
The initial molecular events that lead to malignant transformation of the fimbria of the fallopian tube (FT) through high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that increased expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (
Many high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) of the pelvis are thought to originate in the distal portion of the fallopian tube. Serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions are the putative precursor to HGSC and identifiable in ~ 50% of advanced stage cases. To better understand the molecular etiology of HGSCs, we report a multi-center integrated genomic analysis of advanced stage tumors with and without STIC lesions and normal tissues. The most significant focal DNA SCNAs were shared between cases with and without STIC lesions. The RNA sequence and the miRNA data did not identify any clear separation between cases with and without STIC lesions. HGSCs had molecular profiles more similar to normal fallopian tube epithelium than ovarian surface epithelium or peritoneum. The data suggest that the molecular features of HGSCs with and without associated STIC lesions are mostly shared, indicating a common biologic origin, likely to be the distal fallopian tube among all cases.High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) are associated with precursor lesions (STICs) in the fallopian epithelium in only half of the cases. Here the authors report the molecular analysis of HGSCs with and without associated STICs and show similar profiles supporting a common origin for all HGSCs.
Qiu C, Lu N, Wang X, et al.Gene expression profiles of ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma resemble those of fallopian tube epithelium.
Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 147(3):634-641 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: The cell of origin of ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) remains unclarified. Our recent morphologic and immunophenotypic study suggests that most LGSCs may be derived from the fallopian tube. The purpose of the current study was to gain further insight into the origin of LGSC at the molecular level.
METHODS: RNA-seq analysis was performed on a total of 31 tissue samples including LGSC (n=6), serous borderline tumors (SBT, n=6), fallopian tube epithelia (FTE, n=5), ovarian surface epithelia (OSE, n=4), and human peritoneal mesothelia (HPM, n=4). HGSC cases (n=6) served as a positive control. Gene expression profiles were compared and analyzed. To validate the findings from the gene expression array study, we selected the highly differentially expressed genes (PAX8, CDH1, FOXA2, and ARX) as well as those corresponding proteins and examined their expression levels in tissue samples of ovarian serous tumors, fallopian tube, ovarian surface epithelia, and peritoneal mesothelia.
RESULTS: Dendrograms revealed that OSE samples clustered with HPM, while ovarian serous tumors, including LGSC, SBT and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), clustered with FTE. Furthermore, LGSC showed a significantly closer relationship with FTE than with OSE and HPM samples. PAX8, CDH1, and FOXA2 were highly and specifically expressed in serous tumors and FTE samples but not in OSE samples. In contrast, ARX was mainly expressed in OSE samples but not in FTE and serous tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study provide further evidence at a molecular level that the fallopian tube is likely the cellular source of LGSC. This finding may enable new prevention strategies, improve early detection, and allow novel therapies to be tested.
BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is highly dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), but its clinical response to treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been disappointing. This has driven exploration of alternate approaches to target the UPS in ovarian cancer. Recently, proteasome inhibitors targeting the 19S regulatory particle-associated RPN13 protein have been described, such as RA190. RPN13, which is encoded by ADRM1, facilitates the recognition by the proteasome of its polyubiquinated substrates. Inhibition of RPN13 produces a rapid, toxic accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in ovarian and other cancer cells, triggering apoptosis. Here, we sought to determine if RPN13 is available as a target in precursors of ovarian/fallopian tube cancer as well as all advanced cases, and the impact of increased ADRM1 gene copy number on sensitivity of ovarian cancer to RA190.
METHODS: ADRM1 mRNA was quantified by RNAscope in situ hybridization and RPN13 protein detected by immunohistochemistry in high grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) of the ovary and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC). Amplification of ADRM1 and sensitivity to RA190 were determined in ovarian cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate that expression of ADRM1mRNA is significantly elevated in STIC and HGSC as compared to normal fallopian tube epithelium. ADRM1 mRNA and RPN13 were ubiquitously and robustly expressed in ovarian carcinoma tissue and cell lines. No correlation was found between ADRM1 amplification and sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to RA190, but all were susceptible.
CONCLUSIONS: RPN13 can potentially be targeted by RA190 in both in situ and metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Ovarian cancer cell lines are sensitive to RA190 regardless of whether the ADRM1 gene is amplified.
Schoolmeester JK, Moyer AM, Goodenberger ML, et al.Pathologic findings in breast, fallopian tube, and ovary specimens in non-BRCA hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer syndromes: a study of 18 patients with deleterious germline mutations in RAD51C, BARD1, BRIP1, PALB2, MUTYH, or CHEK2.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 70:14-26 [PubMed
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Germline BRCA mutations account for a significant proportion of genetic/familial risk of breast and ovarian cancer (GBOC) susceptibility, but a broader spectrum of GBOC susceptibility genes has emerged in recent years. Genotype-to-phenotype correlations are known for some established forms of GBOC; however, whether such correlations exist for less common GBOC variants is unclear. We reviewed our institution's experience with non-BRCA GBOC, looking specifically for trends in pathologic and clinical features. Eighteen women with deleterious germline mutations in RAD51C (5 patients), BARD1 (1 patient), BRIP1 (2 patients), PALB2 (3 patients), MUTYH (2 patients), or CHEK2 (5 patients) were identified between January 2011 and December 2016. Thirteen (72%) of 18 patients developed carcinoma of the breast, fallopian tube, or ovary, with 1 patient developing 2 separate primary neoplasms. Twelve (86%) of 14 tumors occurred in the breast. One (7%) arose in the fallopian tube and another (7%) arose in the ovary. Evidence of genotype-phenotype correlation was not identified. However, some data suggest that the type of alteration in select genes may influence tumor behavior and patient outcome. In our PALB2 mutation cohort, 2 patients with frameshift mutations led to early onset and rapid progression to stage IV breast cancer in contrast to stage IA breast cancer in 1 patient with a nonsense mutation. Despite no apparent genotype-phenotype trends, our data indicate that some loss-of-function variants in PALB2 may lead to differences in tumor behavior and patient outcome.
Recent studies have suggested that the most common and lethal type of 'ovarian' cancer, i.e. high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), usually arises from epithelium on the fallopian tube fimbriae, and not from the ovarian surface epithelium. We have developed Ovgp1-iCreER
BACKGROUND: Survival benefit from surgical debulking of ovarian cancer (OC) is well established, but some women, despite total macroscopic clearance of disease, still have poor prognosis. We aimed to identify biomarkers to predict benefit from conventional surgery.
METHODS: Clinical data from women debulked for high-stage OC were analysed (Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK; 2001-2014). Infinium's HumanMethylation27 array interrogated tumour DNA for differentially methylated CpG sites, correlated to survival, in patients with the least residual disease (RD; Hammersmith Array). Validation was performed using bisulphite pyrosequencing (Charité Hospital, Berlin, Germany cohort) and The Cancer Genome Atlas' (TCGA) methylation data set. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models tested survival.
RESULTS: Altogether 803 women with serous OC were studied. No RD was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS; hazard ratio (HR) 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.47; P=0.0076) and progression-free survival (PFS; HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.43; P=0.012; Hammersmith database n=430). Differentially methylated loci within FGF4, FGF21, MYLK2, MYLK3, MYL7, and ITGAE associated with survival. Patients with the least RD had significantly better OS with higher methylation of MYLK3 (Hammersmith (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.84; P=0.01), Charité (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.21-1.01; P=0.05), and TCGA (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.93; P=0.02)).
CONCLUSIONS: MYLK3 methylation is associated with improved OS in patients with the least RD, which could potentially be used to determine response to surgery.
Mittapalli RK, Nuthalapati S, Shepherd SP, Xiong HPopulation pharmacokinetics of ABT-767 in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with advanced solid tumors or in subjects with high grade serous ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 79(3):587-594 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The objective of the manuscript is to describe the development of a population pharmacokinetic model for ABT-767, a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme, and to evaluate the potential influence of patient demographics and baseline covariates on the pharmacokinetics of ABT-767.
METHODS: A total of 1809 plasma ABT-767 concentrations from 90 subjects were used for population pharmacokinetic modeling. Covariates screened for influence on pharmacokinetic parameters were body weight, lean body weight, body surface area, albumin, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, liver function tests, and age. The effect of food on absorption and bioavailability were also evaluated. Model validation was performed using bootstrap analysis and visual predictive check.
RESULTS: A two-compartment model with firstorder absorption adequately described the pharmacokinetics of ABT-767. The population estimates of apparent clearance from central compartment (CL/F), volume of central compartment (V
CONCLUSIONS: Albumin on CL/F was the only statistically significant baseline covariate affecting ABT-767 pharmacokinetics, but it only explained a fraction of the pharmacokinetic variability. Dosage adjustments based on body size, age, or mild renal impairment are not needed for ABT-767. The developed model will be used to evaluate ABT-767 exposure-response analyses and to perform simulations for different dose and dosing regimens.
Factors that stimulate the migration of fallopian tube epithelial (FTE)-derived high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) to the ovary are poorly elucidated. This study characterized the effect of the ovarian hormone, activin A, on normal FTE and HGSOC. Activin A and TGFβ1 induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) cells, but only activin A increased migration. The migratory effect of activin A was independent of Smad2/3 and required phospho-AKT, phospho-ERK, and Rac1. Exogenous activin A stimulated migration of the HGSOC cell line OVCAR3 through a similar mechanism. Activin A signaling inhibitors, SB431542 and follistatin, reduced migration in OVCAR4 cells, which expressed activin A subunits (encoded by INHBA). Murine superovulation increased phospho-Smad2/3 immunostaining in the FTE. In Oncomine, transcripts for the activin A receptors (ACVR1B and ACVR2A) were higher in serous tumors relative to the normal ovary, while inhibitors of activin A signaling (INHA and TGFB3) were lower. High expression of both INHBA and ACVR2A, but not TGFβ receptors or co-receptors, was associated with shorter disease-free survival in serous cancer patients. These results suggest activin A stimulates migration of FTE-derived tumors to the ovary.
Corzo C, Iniesta MD, Patrono MG, et al.Role of Fallopian Tubes in the Development of Ovarian Cancer.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2017; 24(2):230-234 [PubMed
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Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in women in the United States. The most common and lethal histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer is high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), which generally presents at an advanced stage. HGSC may be associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Historically, HGSC was believed to originate from the ovarian epithelial cells. However, more recent evidence supports the idea that most ovarian cancers originate in the fallopian tube epithelium in both high-risk women and in the general population. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas may ultimately evolve into ovarian or peritoneal cancer. As a result, prophylactic salpingectomy with conservation of the ovaries has become an increasingly more common practice for premenopausal women undergoing risk-reducing surgery. Because the fallopian tube is now recognized as the most common potential site of origin of ovarian carcinoma, there is ongoing research to explore molecular and genetic factors that may be critical in the development of this disease. Further research is needed to identify novel opportunities for early detection and screening of ovarian cancer with the ultimate goal of increasing overall survival.
Auer K, Bachmayr-Heyda A, Aust S, et al.Comparative transcriptome analysis links distinct peritoneal tumor spread types, miliary and non-miliary, with putative origin, tubes and ovaries, in high grade serous ovarian cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 388:158-166 [PubMed
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High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is characterized by extensive local, i.e. peritoneal, tumor spread, manifested in two different clinical presentations, miliary (many millet sized peritoneal implants) and non-miliary (few large exophytically growing peritoneal nodes), and an overall unfavorable outcome. HGSOC is thought to arise from fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells, via so called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) but an ovarian origin was never ruled out for at least some cases. Comparative transcriptome analyses of isolated tumor cells from fresh HGSOC tissues and (immortalized) ovarian surface epithelial and fallopian tube secretory epithelial cell lines revealed a close relation between putative origin and tumor spread characteristic, i.e. miliary from tubes and non-miliary from ovaries. The latter were characterized by more mesenchymal cell characteristics, more adaptive tumor immune infiltration, and a favorable overall survival. Several molecular sub-classification systems (Crijns' overall survival signature, Yoshihara's subclasses, and a collagen-remodeling signature) seem to already indicate origin. Putative origin alone is a significant independent predictor for HGSOC outcome, validated in independent patient cohorts. Characteristics of both spread types could guide development of new targeted therapeutics, which are urgently needed.
Škapa P, Dundr P[Oncopathological aspects of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes inactivation in tumors of ovary, fallopian tube and pelvic peritoneum].
Cesk Patol. Fall 2016; 52(4):199-204 [PubMed
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Ovarian carcinoma represents a heterogeneous group of malignant epithelial tumors which could be divided into two fundamental groups: Type I (endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, low grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma and more rare seromucinous carcinoma and malignant Brenner tumor) and type II (high grade serous carcinoma - HGSC). HGSC is the most frequent ovarian carcinoma which may be etiologically linked to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1/2 and TP53 and differs from type I carcinomas by higher aggressiveness, tendency to peritoneal spread and worse prognosis. A precursor lesion of HGSC was described as a serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) which is usually localized in fimbria of the fallopian tube from where tumor cells are capable to implant on ovary and pelvic peritoneum. Therefore, HGSC may present itself not only as a tuboovarian tumor but also as a primary peritoneal carcinoma. HGSC constitutes a dominant group within hereditary ovarian carcinomas as a manifestation of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or site-specific ovarian cancer syndromes which are associated with germinal mutations of BRCA1/2 genes. BRCA1 deficient HGSC show characteristic histological appearance which encompasses SET features (Solid-pseudoEndometrioid-Transitional), significant nuclear atypia and mitotic activity, geographic necrosis, marked lymphocytic infiltration and abnormalities in TP53 expression. Use of immunohistochemistry as a screening method for BRCA1/2 inactivation is questionable at this time. Bilateral adnexectomy is considered to be a standard prophylactic treatment of women affected by germinal BRCA1/2 mutation. In that case, fallopian tubes should be submitted completely for the histological evaluation according to the SEE-FIM protocol (Sectioning and Extensively Examining the FIMbria) due to the risk of STIC or occult HGSC. Tumors with BRCA1/2 inactivation show a better therapeutic response to platinum-based chemotherapeutic compounds and a more favorable prognosis. Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) are the next generation of antitumor agents comprising olaparib which is implemented in clinical practice currently. Germinal or somatic inactivation of BRCA1/2 serves as a predictor for targeted oncologic therapy by PARP inhibitors, therefore evaluation of these genes in ovarian carcinoma patients will be carried out by departments of pathology and clinical genetics. Next generation sequencing seems to be an ideal method for the reduction of the time factor and optimization of BRCA1/2 analysis. Unfortunately, a routine test for the evaluation of homologous recombination functionality and detection of "BRCAness" in sporadic tumors is still not available.
Eckert MA, Pan S, Hernandez KM, et al.Genomics of Ovarian Cancer Progression Reveals Diverse Metastatic Trajectories Including Intraepithelial Metastasis to the Fallopian Tube.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(12):1342-1351 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has supported the fallopian tube rather than the ovary as the origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). To understand the relationship between putative precursor lesions and metastatic tumors, we performed whole-exome sequencing on specimens from eight HGSOC patient progression series consisting of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), invasive fallopian tube lesions, invasive ovarian lesions, and omental metastases. Integration of copy number and somatic mutations revealed patient-specific patterns with similar mutational signatures and copy-number variation profiles across all anatomic sites, suggesting that genomic instability is an early event in HGSOC. Phylogenetic analyses supported STIC as precursor lesions in half of our patient cohort, but also identified STIC as metastases in 2 patients. Ex vivo assays revealed that HGSOC spheroids can implant in the fallopian tube epithelium and mimic STIC lesions. That STIC may represent metastases calls into question the assumption that STIC are always indicative of primary fallopian tube cancers.
SIGNIFICANCE: We find that the putative precursor lesions for HGSOC, STIC, possess most of the genomic aberrations present in advanced cancers. In addition, a proportion of STIC represent intraepithelial metastases to the fallopian tube rather than the origin of HGSOC. Cancer Discov; 6(12); 1342-51. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Swisher et al., p. 1309This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1293.
Kuhn E, Wang TL, Doberstein K, et al.CCNE1 amplification and centrosome number abnormality in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: further evidence supporting its role as a precursor of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(10):1254-61 [PubMed
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Aberration in chromosomal structure characterizes almost all cancers and has profound biological significance in tumor development. It can be facilitated by various mechanisms including overexpression of cyclin E1 and centrosome amplification. As ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma has pronounced chromosomal instability, in this study we sought to determine whether increased copy number of CCNE1 which encodes cyclin E1 and centrosome amplification (>2 copies) occurs in its putative precursor, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. We found CCNE1 copy number gain/amplification in 8 (22%) of 37 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and 12 (28%) of 43 high-grade serous carcinomas. There was a correlation in CCNE1 copy number between serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and high-grade serous carcinoma in the same patients (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of CCNE1 gain/amplification between serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and high-grade serous carcinoma (P=0.61). Centrosome amplification was recorded in only 5 (14%) of 37 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas, and in 10 (40%) of 25 high-grade serous carcinomas. The percentage of cells with centrosome amplification was higher in high-grade serous carcinoma than in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (P<0.001). Induced expression of cyclin E1 increased the percentage of fallopian tube epithelial cells showing centrosome amplification. Our findings suggest that gain/amplification of CCNE1 copy number occurs early in tumor progression and precedes centrosome amplification. The more prevalent centrosome amplification in high-grade serous carcinoma than in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma supports the view that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma precedes the development of many high-grade serous carcinomas.
Watson CH, Ulm M, Blackburn P, et al.Video-assisted genetic counseling in patients with ovarian, fallopian and peritoneal carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 143(1):109-112 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: To compare the proportion of patients with ovarian, fallopian or peritoneal carcinoma who receive genetic testing after observing a genetic counseling video versus after traditional referral for genetic counseling and testing at physician discretion.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients seen at the West Cancer Center for evaluation of ovarian, fallopian or peritoneal carcinoma from 7/2014 to 8/2015. Patients seen between 7/2014 and 12/2014 were offered standard genetic counseling. We adopted a new standard of care from 3/2015 to 8/2015 involving the use of a genetic counseling video on a digital tablet. The video was shown to patients with ovarian, fallopian or peritoneal cancer, who were then given the option to undergo genetic testing at the end of the viewing. We compared the number and proportion of patients who received genetic testing in both groups.
RESULTS: The initial group of 267 patients received referral and te\sting at the physician's discretion between 8/2014 and 12/2014. 77/267 (29%) of these patients underwent genetic testing. 295 patients viewed the condensed genetic counseling video with the option to receive testing the same day between 3/2015 and 8/2015. 162/295 (55%) of these patients received testing. The transition from a referral method to the video counseling method resulted in a significant increase of patients tested (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Using a genetic counseling video and providing an immediate option for testing significantly increased the proportion of patients with ovarian, fallopian or peritoneal carcinoma who received genetic testing.
Ritterhouse LL, Nowak JA, Strickland KC, et al.Morphologic correlates of molecular alterations in extrauterine Müllerian carcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(8):893-903 [PubMed
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Extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas can exhibit various histologic patterns including (1) classic architecture that is papillary, micropapillary and infiltrative and (2) solid, endometrioid, and transitional (ie, SET) patterns. Although the SET pattern has been associated with germline BRCA mutations, potential molecular underpinnings have not been fully investigated. DNA was isolated from 174 carcinomas of the fallopian tube, ovary, or peritoneum. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed and single-nucleotide and copy number variants were correlated with morphologic subtype. Overall, 79% of tumors were classified as high-grade serous carcinoma (n=138), and the most common mutations in high-grade serous carcinomas were TP53 (94%), BRCA1 (25%), BRCA2 (11%), and ATM (7%). Among chemotherapy-naive high-grade serous carcinomas, 40 cases exhibited classic morphology and 40 cases had non-classic morphology (SET or ambiguous features). Mutations in homologous recombination pathways were seen across all tumor histotypes. High-grade serous carcinomas with homologous recombination mutations were six times more likely to be associated with non-classic histology (P=0.002) and were significantly more likely to be platinum sensitive and have improved progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.007 and P=0.004, respectively). In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, homologous recombination mutation status and increased copy number variants were independently associated with improved PFS (P=0.008 and P=0.005, respectively). These findings underscore the potential significance of variant morphologic patterns and comprehensive genomic analysis in high-grade serous carcinomas with potential implications for pathogenesis, as well as response to targeted therapies.
Ren Y, Zhou Y, Liu M, Zhang SAssociations of Promoter Methylations and mRNA Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 with Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma.
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2016; 81(4):367-74 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2), MMP-7 and MMP-9 methylations and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions with primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) development and prognosis.
METHODS: We recruited 48 patients with PFTC into the case group and 48 healthy individuals into the control group; PFTC tissues and normal fallopian tube tissues were obtained from subjects in both groups. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription PCR and the immunohistochemical method were used to examine methylation, mRNA expressions and protein expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9, respectively.
RESULTS: The methylation rates of MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 in the case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (all p < 0.05); MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 protein and mRNA expressions of PFTC tissues were enormously higher than those of normal tissues (all p < 0.05); univariate survival analysis indicated that MMP-2 and MMP-9 methylations and their protein expressions were associated with PFTC prognosis (all p < 0.05), which was further confirmed by the Cox regression model (all p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The protein and mRNA expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9 might be related to PFTC, while the methylations and protein expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 might be associated with PFTC progression and prognosis.
Blok F, Roes EM, van Leenders GJ, van Beekhuizen HJThe lack of clinical value of peritoneal washing cytology in high risk patients undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy: a retrospective study and review.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:18 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical value of peritoneal washing cytology (PWC) in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and women from a family with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in detecting primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) or occult ovarian/fallopian tube cancer.
METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation or HBOC who underwent RRSO at the Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands between January 2000-2014. Patients with an elevated risk of malignancy prior to the procedure were excluded from primary analysis (elevated CA-125, an ovarian mass, abdominal pain or another gynecological malignancy). A review of the literature was conducted.
RESULTS: Of the 471 patients who underwent RRSO, a total of 267 cytology samples were available for analysis. Four samples showed malignant cells, all four patients were diagnosed with ovarian and/or fallopian tube cancer at histologic examination. A fifth patient, of whom no cytology sample was obtained during RRSO, developed primary peritoneal cancer 80 months post RRSO.
CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to show that cytology is of value during RRSO in detecting primary peritoneal cancer, however 36% of patients with concomitant ovarian or fallopian tube cancer had positive cytology. Therefore, the routine sampling of peritoneal washings during RRSO is not found to be useful to detect subsequent PPC.
Harter P, Johnson T, Berton-Rigaud D, et al.BRCA1/2 mutations associated with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients in the AGO-OVAR 16 study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(3):443-9 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: AGO-OVAR 16 demonstrated that pazopanib maintenance therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ovarian cancer whose disease had not progressed after first-line therapy. In a sub-study, we evaluated the effect of clinically important germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations on PFS.
METHODS: Of 940 AGO-OVAR 16 participants, 664 had BRCA1/2 exon sequencing data (pazopanib, n=335; placebo, n=329). A Cox model was used to test the association between genetic variants and PFS.
RESULTS: Ninety-seven of 664 patients (15%) carried clinically important BRCA1/2 mutations (BRCA1/2 carriers: pazopanib 14%, placebo 16%). Median PFS was longer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1/2 non-carriers in the placebo arm (30.3 vs 14.1 months, hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.78; P=0.0031); a similar non-significant trend was noted with pazopanib (30.2 vs 17.7 months, hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.40-1.03; P=0.069). Among BRCA1/2 non-carriers, PFS was longer for pazopanib-treated patients than placebo-treated patients (17.7 vs 14.1 months, hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62-0.97; P=0.024). Among BRCA1/2 carriers, there was no significant PFS difference between treatments, although numbers were small (pazopanib, 46; placebo, 51), resulting in a wide CI (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI: 0.66-2.82).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinically important BRCA1/2 mutations had better prognosis. BRCA1/2 mutation status might be added as strata in future trials in primary ovarian cancer.
Sakamoto I, Hirotsu Y, Nakagomi H, et al.BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Japanese patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer.
Cancer. 2016; 122(1):84-90 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to ovarian cancer in Japanese patients is still unclear. This study investigated the frequency of germline mutations in BRCA1/2 in Japanese patients with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer, regardless of their family histories, which were suggestive of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Ninety-five unselected women with ovarian cancer who were seen from 2013 to 2015 at Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital were enrolled. Analyses of BRCA1/2 gene mutations were performed with next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: Twelve of the 95 patients (12.6%), including 5 in the BRCA1 (5.3%) and 7 in the BRCA2 (7.4%), had deleterious mutations. Among the 36 cases with a family history, 6 (16.7%) were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Notably, 6 of the 59 cases (10.2%) without a family history also had BRCA1/2 germline mutations. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P = .36). The presence of mutations and their clinical relevance were studied. Mutation carriers were diagnosed at advanced stages (100% of positive cases among stage III or IV cases) and had poor prognostic histological subtypes (100% of positive cases had high-grade serous adenocarcinomas).
CONCLUSIONS: In this unselected Japanese population, approximately 13% of the cases with ovarian cancer appeared to be associated with an inherited risk, regardless of a family history. This finding indicates that BRCA1/2 genetic testing should be performed for all patients with ovarian cancers.
Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In this study, we found that the Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway has a critical role in the initiation and progression of fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine-positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSEC-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGF receptors (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC.
Mahdi H, Gockley A, Esselen K, et al.Outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in BRCA1/2 mutation positive women with advanced-stage Müllerian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(3):407-12 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for advanced-stage Müllerian cancer (MC) have an improved outcome compared to patients who did not undergo genetic testing.
METHODS: Three hundred and two patients who received NAC for stage III-IV MC were identified from a multi-institutional study involving Cleveland Clinic and Brigham and Women's Hospital for 2000-2014 and 2010-2014 respectively. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts: patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations (BRCA_mut+; N=30), patients with no genetic testing (BRCA_mut_unk; N=166) and patients with negative genetic testing (BRCA_mut-, N=106).
RESULTS: There were no differences in the clinical characteristics and rates of complete cytoreduction and bowel resection between the three groups. BRCA_mut+ had longer PFS compared to BRCA_mut_unk and BRCA_mut- (19.1 vs. 15.1 vs. 15.7months respectively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.48). Patients with BRCA2 mutation had non-significant trend toward longer PFS compared to patients with unknown BRCA or BRCA1 mutation (20.2 vs. 15.1 vs. 14.8months respectively, p=0.58). BRCA_mut+ and BRCA_mut- had longer overall survivals (OS) compared to BRCA_mut_unk patients (50.5 vs. 54.1 vs. 36.5months respectively, p=0.009). In multivariable analyses, controlling for age, stage and complete cytoreduction, BRCA_mut_unk was associated with worse PFS (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.05, p=0.045) and OS (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.33-5.36, p=0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with germline BRCA mutations had improved outcomes with NAC compared to patients with unknown BRCA status. These outcomes were more favorable compared to the outcome of NAC in prior studies.
IMPORTANCE: High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most prevalent and lethal form of ovarian cancer. HGSCs frequently arise in the distal fallopian tubes rather than the ovary, developing from small precursor lesions called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (TICs, or more specifically, STICs). While STICs have been reported to harbor TP53 mutations, detailed molecular characterizations of these lesions are lacking.
OBSERVATIONS: We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 4 women, 2 with HGSC and 2 with uterine endometrioid carcinoma (UEC) who were diagnosed as having synchronous STICs. We detected concordant mutations in both HGSCs with synchronous STICs, including TP53 mutations as well as assumed germline BRCA1/2 alterations, confirming a clonal association between these lesions. Next-generation sequencing confirmed the presence of a STIC clonally unrelated to 1 case of UEC, and NGS of the other tubal lesion diagnosed as a STIC unexpectedly supported the lesion as a micrometastasis from the associated UEC.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We demonstrate that targeted NGS can identify genetic alterations in minute lesions, such as TICs, and confirm TP53 mutations as early driving events for HGSC. Next-generation sequencing also demonstrated unexpected associations between presumed STICs and synchronous carcinomas, providing evidence that some TICs are actually metastases rather than HGSC precursors.
Howitt BE, Hanamornroongruang S, Lin DI, et al.Evidence for a dualistic model of high-grade serous carcinoma: BRCA mutation status, histology, and tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):287-93 [PubMed
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Most early adnexal carcinomas detected in asymptomatic women with germline BRCA mutations (BRCA) present as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC). However, STICs are found in only ∼40% of symptomatic high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) and less frequently in pseudoendometrioid variants of HGSC. Consecutive cases of untreated HGSC from BRCA and BRCA women with detailed fallopian tube examination (SEE-FIM protocol) were compared. STIC status (+/-) was determined, and tumors were classified morphologically as SET ("SET", >50% solid, pseudoendometrioid, or transitional) or classic predominate ("Classic"). SET tumors trended toward a higher frequency in BRCA versus BRCA women (50% vs. 28%, P=0.11), had a significantly younger mean age than those with classic HGSC in BRCA women (mean 56.2 vs. 64.8 y, P=0.04), and displayed a better clinical outcome in both groups combined (P=0.024). STIC was significantly more frequent in tumors from the BRCA cohort (66% vs. 31%, P=0.017) and specifically the BRCA tumors with classic morphology (83%) versus those with SET morphology (22%, P=0.003). Overall, several covariables-histology, BRCA status, age, coexisting STIC, and response to therapy-define 2 categories of HGSC with differences in precursor (STIC) frequency, morphology, and outcome. We introduce a dualistic HGSC model that could shed light on the differences in frequency of STIC between symptomatic and asymptomatic women with HGSC. This model emphasizes the need for further study of HGSC precursors to determine their relevance to the prevention of this lethal malignancy.
The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are γ-H2AX(p) - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2(n) ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7(p) /PAX2(n) /EZH2(p) and underwent ciliated (PAX2(n) /EZH2(n) /FOXJ1(p) ) and basal (Krt7(n) /EZH2(n) /Krt5(p) ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2(p) but became PAX2(n) in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2(n) SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1(n) and β-catenin(mem) (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2(p) , ALDH1(p) , β-catenin(nc) (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathmin(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and RUNX2(p) expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2(n) , ALDH1(n) , β-catenin(mem) , but highly expressed EZH2(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and stathmin(p) . This study, for the first time, links PAX2(n) with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention.
Cass I, Walts AE, Barbuto D, et al.A cautious view of putative precursors of serous carcinomas in the fallopian tubes of BRCA mutation carriers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 134(3):492-7 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency and distribution of candidate precursors of serous carcinoma in the fallopian tubes of BRCA mutation carriers to BRCA non-mutation carriers (controls) at risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO).
METHODS: 78 BRCA carriers (52 BRCA1, 26 BRCA2) and 23 controls underwent RRSO. Fallopian tubes were serially cross-sectioned, and adnexa were entirely submitted and examined by two gynecologic pathologists blinded to BRCA mutation status. The presence and location of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), p53 overexpression (≥ 6 consecutively stained nuclei), Ki67 overexpression, atypia/low grade dysplasia and epithelial hyperplasia were compared between BRCA carriers and controls. Patient age was dichotomized: ≤ 50 and >50 years.
RESULTS: 9 (12%) BRCA carriers had occult carcinoma: 8 STIC and 1 stage IC tubal carcinoma with STIC. No occult carcinomas or STIC was seen in controls. STIC involved the distal tube in all cases and was multifocal in three cases. STIC was more common in women >50 (p=0.06). P53 overexpression was common in BRCA carriers (30%) and controls (43%) (p=0.5) and did not correlate with age. Only 5/9 (55%) of STIC exhibited p53 overexpression. 2 patients had Ki67 overexpression: both BRCA1 carriers with STIC. No difference in the frequency of atypia/low grade dysplasia or hyperplasia was observed between BRCA carriers and controls.
CONCLUSIONS: STIC is the dominant precursor of serous fallopian tube carcinoma in BRCA carriers. There is insufficient evidence to support p53 overexpression alone as a putative precursor. Atypia/low grade dysplasia and epithelial hyperplasia are not pre-neoplastic lesions of serous fallopian tube carcinoma.
Hunter SM, Ryland GL, Moss P, et al.Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(6):1871-6 [PubMed
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Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection.
Ishikawa H, Kiyokawa T, Utsuno E, et al.Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in a Japanese woman with a deleterious BRCA1 mutation.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(6):597-601 [PubMed
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Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for reducing future cancer risk in women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is rarely performed in Japan; therefore, the cancer preventive effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome among the Japanese population remains unclear. Here, we report the first case of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma identified through a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in a Japanese woman with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and who had a deleterious germline mutation of E1214X in BRCA1, but not a BRCA2 mutation. A pre-operative examination revealed multiple uterine leiomyomas but no adnexal mass. Robotic-assisted bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy together with hysterectomy was performed. A pathological examination identified serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in the right fallopian tube with no dissemination. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is implicated as an origin of invasive cancer of the fallopian tube with peritoneal dissemination; prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is currently the only method to identify this occult cancer. Our case demonstrated that risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy can detect occult cancers, including serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, thereby preventing future cancer development in the Japanese hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome population.