Gene Summary

Gene:VIPR2; vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2
Aliases: VPAC2, VPAC2R, VIP-R-2, VPCAP2R, PACAP-R3, DUP7q36.3, PACAP-R-3, C16DUPq36.3
Summary:This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (9)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lung Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Oncogenes
  • Base Sequence
  • Transcription
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type I
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Consensus Sequence
  • Sleep
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II
  • VIPR2
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Chromosome 7
  • VIPR1
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptors
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • VIP
  • Survival Rate
  • Esophagectomy
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Synaptophysin
  • Messenger RNA
  • Pituitary Hormone Receptors
  • Telomere
  • Adenylyl Cyclases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • FISH
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Spain
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Neuropeptides
  • tau Proteins
  • Genomics
  • Gene Expression
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: VIPR2 (cancer-related)

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

Um SW, Kim HK, Kim Y, et al.
Bronchial biopsy specimen as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in inoperable lung cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: This study was aimed at understanding whether bronchial biopsy specimen can be used as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in surgically resected lung cancer.
Methods: A genome-wide methylation was analyzed in 42 surgically resected tumor tissues, 136 bronchial washing, 12 sputum, and 8 bronchial biopsy specimens using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and models for prediction of lung cancer were evaluated using TCGA lung cancer data.
Results: Four thousand seven hundred and twenty-six CpGs (
Conclusions: The present study suggests that bronchial biopsy specimen may be used as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in patient with inoperable lung cancer.

Cuppens T, Moisse M, Depreeuw J, et al.
Integrated genome analysis of uterine leiomyosarcoma to identify novel driver genes and targetable pathways.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(6):1230-1243 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyosarcomas (uLMS) are rare, aggressive malignancies for which limited treatment options are available. To gain novel molecular insights into uLMS and identify potential novel therapeutic targets, we characterized 84 uLMS samples for genome-wide somatic copy number alterations, mutations, gene fusions and gene expression and performed a data integration analysis. We found that alterations affecting TP53, RB1, PTEN, MED12, YWHAE and VIPR2 were present in the majority of uLMS. Pathway analyses additionally revealed that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, estrogen-mediated S-phase entry and DNA damage response signaling pathways, for which inhibitors have already been developed and approved, frequently harbored genetic changes. Furthermore, a significant proportion of uLMS was characterized by amplifications and overexpression of known oncogenes (CCNE1, TDO2), as well as deletions and reduced expression of tumor suppressor genes (PTEN, PRDM16). Overall, it emerged that the most frequently affected gene in our uLMS samples was VIPR2 (96%). Interestingly, VIPR2 deletion also correlated with unfavorable survival in uLMS patients (multivariate analysis; HR = 4.5, CI = 1.4-14.3, p = 1.2E-02), while VIPR2 protein expression was reduced in uLMS vs. normal myometrium. Moreover, stimulation of VIPR2 with its natural agonist VIP decreased SK-UT-1 uLMS cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that VIPR2, which is a negative regulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation, might be a novel tumor suppressor gene in uLMS. Our work further highlights the importance of integrative molecular analyses, through which we were able to uncover the genes and pathways most frequently affected by somatic alterations in uLMS.

Trabulsi EJ, Tripathi SK, Gomella L, et al.
Development of a voided urine assay for detecting prostate cancer non-invasively: a pilot study.
BJU Int. 2017; 119(6):885-895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To validate a hypothesis that prostate cancer can be detected non-invasively by a simple and reliable assay by targeting genomic VPAC receptors expressed on malignant prostate cancer cells shed in voided urine.
PATIENTS/SUBJECTS AND METHODS: VPAC receptors were targeted with a specific biomolecule, TP4303, developed in our laboratory. With an Institutional Review Board exempt approval of use of de-identified discarded samples, an aliquot of urine collected as a standard of care, from patients presenting to the urology clinic (207 patients, 176 men and 31 women, aged ≥21 years) was cytospun. The cells were fixed and treated with TP4303 and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The cells were then observed under a microscope and cells with TP4303 orange fluorescence around the blue (DAPI) nucleus were considered 'malignant' and those only with a blue nucleus were regarded as 'normal'. VPAC presence was validated using receptor blocking assay and cell malignancy was confirmed by prostate cancer gene profile examination.
RESULTS: The urine specimens were labelled only with gender and presenting diagnosis, with no personal health identifiers or other clinical data. The assay detected VPAC positive cells in 98.6% of the men with a prostate cancer diagnosis (141), and none of the 10 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Of the 56 'normal' patients, 62.5% (35 patients, 10 men and 25 women) were negative for VPAC cells; 19.6% (11, 11 men and no women) had VPAC positive cells; and 17.8% (10, four men and six women) were uninterpretable due to excessive crystals in the urine. Although data are limited, the sensitivity of the assay was 99.3% with a confidence interval (CI) of 96.1-100% and the specificity was 100% with a CI of 69.2-100%. Receptor blocking assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses demonstrated the presence of VPAC receptors and gene profiling examinations confirmed that the cells expressing VPAC receptors were malignant prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: These preliminary data are highly encouraging and warrant further evaluation of the assay to serve as a simple and reliable tool to detect prostate cancer non-invasively.

Shi ZZ, Shang L, Jiang YY, et al.
Identification of genomic biomarkers associated with the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2015; 15(6):755-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: At present no objective prognostic biomarkers have been established in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
OBJECTIVE: To identify the genomic biomarkers associated with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of ESCCs.
METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to analyze the copy number change and mRNA expression of genes. The survival curves were plotted according to Kaplan-Meier method and checked by log-rank test.
RESULTS: We revealed the copy number increase of CACNA1C (12p13.33) and MRPL21 (11q13.2) as well as decrease of VIPR2 (7q36.3) and MAP3K7 (6q15) in ESCC by Real-time PCR, and also found that MRPL21 was significantly overexpressed and VIPR2 was underexpressed in ESCC. Gain of CACNA1C was significantly associated with differentiation (P = 0.043), and loss of VIPR2 was significantly linked with good prognosis (P = 0.016). Most importantly, we revealed that loss of MAP3K7 was significantly correlated with good prognosis in ESCC patients (n = 159, P = 0.004), especially in Grade II and pN0 patients (n = 76, P = 0.005 and n = 74, P = 0.024). Multivariate analysis confirmed that MAP3K7 loss provided prognostic information in ESCC (HR, 0.454; 95% CI: 0.208-0.995; P = 0.048).
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of MAP3K7 may be a candidate prognostic factor in ESCC.

Light KC, Agarwal N, Iacob E, et al.
Differing leukocyte gene expression profiles associated with fatigue in patients with prostate cancer versus chronic fatigue syndrome.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013; 38(12):2983-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often worsens fatigue in patients with prostate cancer, producing symptoms similar to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Comparing expression (mRNA) of many fatigue-related genes in patients with ADT-treated prostate cancer versus with CFS versus healthy controls, and correlating mRNA with fatigue severity may clarify the differing pathways underlying fatigue in these conditions.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on leukocytes from 30 fatigued, ADT-treated prostate cancer patients (PCF), 39 patients with CFS and 22 controls aged 40-79, together with ratings of fatigue and pain severity. 46 genes from these pathways were included: (1) adrenergic/monoamine/neuropeptides, (2) immune, (3) metabolite-detecting, (4) mitochondrial/energy, (5) transcription factors.
RESULTS: PCF patients showed higher expression than controls or CFS of 2 immune transcription genes (NR3C1 and TLR4), chemokine CXCR4, and mitochondrial gene SOD2. They showed lower expression of 2 vasodilation-related genes (ADRB2 and VIPR2), 2 cytokines (TNF and LTA), and 2 metabolite-detecting receptors (ASIC3 and P2RX7). CFS patients showed higher P2RX7 and lower HSPA2 versus controls and PCF. Correlations with fatigue severity were similar in PCF and CFS for only DBI, the GABA-A receptor modulator (r=-0.50, p<0.005 and r=-0.34, p<0.05). Purinergic P2RY1 was correlated only with PCF fatigue and pain severity (r=+0.43 and +0.59, p=0.025 and p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: PCF patients differed from controls and CFS in mean expression of 10 genes from all 5 pathways. Correlations with fatigue severity implicated DBI for both patient groups and P2RY1 for PCF only. These pathways may provide new targets for interventions to reduce fatigue.

Luciani P, Deledda C, Benvenuti S, et al.
Exendin-4 induces cell adhesion and differentiation and counteracts the invasive potential of human neuroblastoma cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exendin-4 is a molecule currently used, in its synthetic form exenatide, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exendin-4 binds and activates the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R), thus inducing insulin release. More recently, additional biological properties have been associated to molecules that belong to the GLP-1 family. For instance, Peptide YY and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide have been found to affect cell adhesion and migration and our previous data have shown a considerable actin cytoskeleton rearrangement after exendin-4 treatment. However, no data are currently available on the effects of exendin-4 on tumor cell motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this molecule on cell adhesion, differentiation and migration in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS. We first demonstrated, by Extra Cellular Matrix cell adhesion arrays, that exendin-4 increased cell adhesion, in particular on a vitronectin substrate. Subsequently, we found that this molecule induced a more differentiated phenotype, as assessed by i) the evaluation of neurite-like protrusions in 3D cell cultures, ii) the analysis of the expression of neuronal markers and iii) electrophysiological studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exendin-4 reduced cell migration and counteracted anchorage-independent growth in neuroblastoma cells. Overall, these data indicate for the first time that exendin-4 may have anti-tumoral properties.

Fernández-Martínez AB, Carmena MJ, Arenas MI, et al.
Overexpression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate cancer. Analysis of potential prognostic relevance.
Histol Histopathol. 2012; 27(8):1093-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent inductor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human prostate cancer cell lines. There are conflicting data regarding the role of COX-2 in the progression of this disease. Here we examined the expression of VIP receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2) and COX-2 in prostate cancer specimens. Correlations among protein levels and various clinicopathological factors and prognosis of patients were statistically analyzed. For these purposes, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens from 63 patients with prostate cancer and 9 control samples were used. The expression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 was analyzed at mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. The corresponding expression at protein level was studied by immunohistochemistry, scored as negative, weak, moderate, or strong, and correlated with different clinicopathological factors by means of multivariate analysis. 88% of prostate cancer tissues overexpressed VPAC1-receptor at mRNA level, 72% VPAC2-receptor and 77% COX-2. Simultaneous overexpression of the three genes was seen in 52% of patients. Similar overexpression patterns were observed at protein level. The correlation between VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptor protein levels was statistically significant. However, no significant correlations existed among protein levels of VPAC receptors and COX-2 with patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, tumor stage, Gleason score and survival time. The overexpression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 in cancer tissue gives them a potential role as targets for diagnosis of prostate cancer but results do not support a clear value as biomarkers for the clinical prognosis of this disease.

Szilasi M, Buglyo A, Treszl A, et al.
Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in human lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 39(4):1019-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of various human carcinomas, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains below 20%. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important neuropeptide in the control of lung physiology, and exerts its functions mainly through two receptor subtypes, VPAC1 and VPAC2. Receptors for VPAC1 and VPAC2 are present in human lung cancer cells, but very limited information exists about the mRNA expression of these VIP receptor subtypes in lung cancer specimens. The aim of the present study was to investigate by RT-PCR the mRNA expression of the VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors in surgical specimens of 43 human lung cancer specimens and 7 normal lung samples. mRNA expression of the VPAC1 receptor was detected in 51% of the tumor specimens, while the incidence of mRNA expression for VPAC2 was 46%. Twenty-one percent of the tumor samples expressed only the VPAC1 receptor and 16% displayed only the VPAC2 receptor, while 13 samples (30%) expressed neither subtype. Thirteen cancer tissue specimens (30%), expressed both of these VIP receptor subtypes. Three normal lung tissue specimens also displayed gene expression for VPAC1 and/or VPAC2 receptors. Our results support the additional investigation of the role of VIP and its receptors in human lung cancer and suggest a further development of VIP analogs for therapeutic and imaging purposes in this malignancy.

Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J
Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Neuropeptides. 2009; 43(5):387-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and approximately 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, respectively, abolished and did not affect the PACAP-induced VIP mRNA expression, respectively. A pivotal role of PKA was implicated in addition to partial involvement of PKC and ERK1/2 in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression as H-89, Bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS), Gö6976 and U0126 attenuated the VIP mRNA expression by 93%, 58%, 58% and 40%, respectively. PACAP modulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and CREB/ATF-1 (pCREB/ATF-1) concomitant with a translocation of PKA to the nucleus. Inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms and MEK1/2 completely abolished pERK1/2 without affecting PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. In contrast, inhibiting PKA attenuated PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. PACAP also enhanced the FOS gene expression and individual presence of H-89, BIS, Gö6976 and U0126 partially attenuated the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Combining the kinase inhibitors completely suppressed the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Immunoblotting confirmed expression of FOS protein upon addition of PACAP, which was diminished by impairment of PKC, ERK1/2 and PKA activities. The resemblance of the signaling pathways involving concomitant activities of PKC, ERK1/2 and PKA in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells.

Falktoft B, Georg B, Fahrenkrug J
Calmodulin interacts with PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and regulates PACAP-induced FOS expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Neuropeptides. 2009; 43(2):53-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates its physiological functions through activation of PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and the ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensor calmodulin has been implicated in PACAP-induced signaling. The immediate early response gene FOS is a well-known marker of neuronal activation, so we used a human neuroblastoma cell line NB-1 to explore the role of calmodulin in PACAP-induced FOS gene expression. We observed both short-term and prolonged altered PACAP-mediated activation of the FOS gene in the presence of the calmodulin-antagonist W-7. NB-1 cells were shown to express PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and immunoprecipitation of both receptors displayed a co-association with calmodulin in the absence of Ca(2+). Our findings indicate a novel mechanism of calmodulin in regulating PACAP signaling by possible interaction with the inactive state of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors.

Bartsch O, Vlcková Z, Erdogan F, et al.
Two independent chromosomal rearrangements, a very small (550 kb) duplication of the 7q subtelomeric region and an atypical 17q11.2 (NF1) microdeletion, in a girl with neurofibromatosis.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007; 119(1-2):158-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most patients with neurofibromatosis (NF1) are endowed with heterozygous mutations in the NF1 gene. Approximately 5% show an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17q11.2 (including NF1) and in most cases also a more severe phenotype. Here we report on a 7-year-old girl with classical NF1 signs, and in addition mild overgrowth (97th percentile), relatively low OFC (10th-25th percentile), facial dysmorphy, hoarse voice, and developmental delay. FISH analysis revealed a 17q11.2 microdeletion as well as an unbalanced 7p;13q translocation leading to trisomy of the 7q36.3 subtelomeric region. The patient's mother and grandmother who were phenotypically normal carried the same unbalanced translocation. The 17q11.2 microdeletion had arisen de novo. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated gain of a 550-kb segment from 7qter and loss of 2.5 Mb from 17q11.2 (an atypical NF1 microdeletion). We conclude that the patient's phenotype is caused by the atypical NF1 deletion, whereas 7q36.3 trisomy represents a subtelomeric copy number variation without phenotypic consequences. To our knowledge this is the first report that a duplication of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 7q containing functional genes (FAM62B, WDR60, and VIPR2) can be tolerated without phenotypic consequences. The 17q11.2 microdeletion (containing nine more genes than the common NF1 microdeletions) and the 7qter duplication were not accompanied by unexpected clinical features. Most likely the 7qter trisomy and the 17q11.2 microdeletion coincide by chance in our patient.

Lutz EM, Ronaldson E, Shaw P, et al.
Characterization of novel splice variants of the PAC1 receptor in human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for signaling by VIP and PACAP.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006; 31(2):193-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of VPAC and PAC1 receptor isoforms was determined in six neuroblastoma cell lines as well as in human embryonic and adult brain using reverse transcriptase PCR and quantitative PCR. PAC1 receptor splice variants missing a 21 amino acid sequence in the amino terminal domain were found to be the major receptor variants in the neuroblastoma cell lines and also were highly expressed in embryonic brain compared to adult brain. In four of the neuroblastoma cell lines, VIP and PACAP stimulated cyclic AMP production with different potencies and levels of maximal stimulation. High potency and greatest maximal stimulation of cyclic AMP for each peptide were recorded in SH-SY5Y cells, indicating the presence of high affinity VIP and PACAP receptors. Further characterization of specific VPAC and PAC1 receptor isoforms was carried out in the SH-SY5Y cell line, where along with known PAC1 receptor splice variants and the VPAC2 receptor, a number of novel PAC1 receptor splice variants were identified. The comparatively low level expression of the VPAC2 receptor along with the poor responsiveness of SH-SY5Y cells to the VPAC2 receptor-specific agonist Ro 25-1553 indicated that this receptor did not contribute significantly to the observed VIP responses. When the individual PAC1 receptor isoforms were expressed in COS 7 cells, the ability of VIP to activate cyclic AMP production was increased more than 50-fold at the majority of the PAC1 receptor variants lacking the 21 amino acid amino terminal domain sequence compared to those with the complete domain. Smaller changes were seen in the potency of PACAP-38. Similar trends were seen with inositol phosphate responses, where in each case agonist potencies were lower than for cyclic AMP production. The results of this study show that the combination of different amino terminal and intracellular loop 3 splicing variants in the PAC1 receptor dictates the ability of agonists, particularly VIP, to activate signaling pathways. VIP has considerably greater potency at most PAC1 receptors with the short amino terminal domain, and these therefore may mediate physiological effects of both VIP and PACAP. Furthermore, there may be a phenotypic switch in the expression of different PAC1 receptor amino terminal splice variants between embryonic and mature nervous system, indicating that regulation of this event may have an important role in VIP/PACAP function, particularly in the developing nervous system.

Nagakawa O, Junicho A, Akashi T, et al.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide stimulate interleukin-6 production in prostate cancer cells and prostatic epithelial cells.
Oncol Rep. 2005; 13(6):1217-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the effect of the vasoactive intestinal (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptides (PACAP) on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells and prostate cancer cells. We performed RT-PCR analysis to assess the expression of VIP receptor (VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1) mRNA in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells and prostate cancer cells, and investigated the effect of VIP and PACAP on the production of IL-6. VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptor mRNAs were expressed in LNCaP and DU-145/AR prostate cancer cells and PrEC cells (prostate epithelial cells). VIP stimulated the production of IL-6 in DU-145/AR prostate cancer and PrEC cells. PACAP showed a similar effect on IL-6 production in PrEC cells. VIP stimulated IL-6 promoter transcriptional activity in DU-145/AR cells. These results indicate that VIP and PACAP may modulate the IL-6 production of normal prostate epithelial and prostate cancer cells.

Goursaud S, Pineau N, Becq-Giraudon L, et al.
Human H9 cells proliferation is differently controlled by vasoactive intestinal peptide or peptide histidine methionine: implication of a GTP-insensitive form of VPAC1 receptor.
J Neuroimmunol. 2005; 158(1-2):94-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proliferation of human lymphoblastoma cell line (H9) was differently stimulated by Peptide Histidine Methionine (PHM) and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). PHM induced a cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, abolished by Adenylate Cyclase (AC) inhibitors leading to a loss of proliferative effect. VIP mitogenic activity was Pertussis toxin (PTX) sensitive and AC inhibitors insensitive. Pharmacological experiments performed on H9 membranes with or without a GTP analogue indicated expression of both GTP-insensitive and -sensitive PHM/VIP high-affinity binding sites (HA). H9 cells expressed only the VPAC1 receptor. VIP(10-28), known as a VPAC1 antagonist, bond to all GTP-insensitive PHM sites and inhibited evenly the PHM and VIP mitogenic actions. These data strongly suggested different mechanisms initiated by VIP and PHM and highlighted the key role of GTP-insensitive binding sites in the control of cell proliferation.

Isobe K, Kaneko M, Kaneko S, et al.
Expression of mRNAs for PACAP and its receptor in human neuroblastomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis.
Regul Pept. 2004; 123(1-3):29-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells. In addition, PACAP and its receptor have been detected in human neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines, though it is not yet known whether PACAP enhances the expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. To address this question, we analyzed PACAP, PACAP receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs in neuroblastomas.
METHODS: The levels of mRNA for PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), as well as their receptors and the mRNA for TH were measured by RT-PCR or real-time PCR analysis.
RESULTS: VPAC1R mRNA was detected in all of 16 tissues and 3 cell lines that were examined, while VPAC2R mRNA was detected in 5 of 16 (31%) tissue and 2 of 3 cell lines. PAC1R mRNA was detected in 6 out of 16 (38%) tissues and none of 3 cell lines. mRNA expression of PACAP and TH were detected in many tissues (10/16 and 16/16, respectively). However, neither in tissues nor cell lines did PACAP mRNA expression correlate with TH mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PACAP is not involved in the regulation of expression of TH in neuroblastomas.

Isobe K, Tatsuno I, Yashiro T, et al.
Expression of mRNA for PACAP and its receptors in intra- and extra-adrenal human pheochromocytomas and their relationship to catecholamine synthesis.
Regul Pept. 2003; 110(3):213-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/glucagons/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, induces the expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medullary cells. In addition, PACAP and its receptor have been detected in human pheochromocytoma tissues, though it is not yet known whether PACAP enhances the expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. To address this question, we analyzed PACAP, PACAP receptor, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNAs in pheochromocytomas.
METHODS: The levels of the mRNA for PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and their receptors, and for TH and PNMT were measured by RT-PCR or real-time PCR analysis, and the concentrations of catecholamines were measured by HPLC in 24 intra-adrenal and six extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
RESULTS: mRNA expression of PACAP and its receptor VPAC1R were detected in many pheochromocytomas (24/30 and 29/30, respectively), but mRNA expression of the PAC1R and VPAC2R receptor subtypes were detected in only one of six extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. PACAP mRNA expression correlated with TH (p=0.0018) and PNMT (p=0.05) mRNA expression, as well as epinephrine (p=0.0342) levels in 16 intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
CONCLUSION: Our findings support a possible role for PACAP in the regulation of expression of genes encoding catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.

Moody TW, Walters J, Casibang M, et al.
VPAC1 receptors and lung cancer.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 921:26-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
VIP/PACAP are autocrine growth factors for lung cancer. VIP and/or PACAP mRNA is present in most lung cancer cell lines examined. Although mRNA for VPAC2-R is not common, VPAC1-R and PAC1-R mRNA is present in many lung cancer cell lines. 125I-VIP binds with high affinity to lung cancer cells and specific 125I-VIP binding is inhibited with high affinity by (Lys15, Arg16, Leu27)VIP1-7 GRF8-27, the VPAC1-R specific agonist, but not by Ro25-1553(18), the VPAC2-R specific agonist. VIP elevates cAMP and increases c-fos gene expression. The increase in cAMP and c-fos mRNA caused by VIP is inhibited by SN(VH). (SH)VH inhibited the proliferation of NCIH1299 cells in the MTT assay, which is based on cytotoxicity. In a recent cell line screen, (SN)VH inhibited the growth of 51 of 56 cancer cell lines including leukemia, lung cancer, colon cancer, CNS cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer, renal cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer (T. Moody, unpublished). It remains to be determined if (SN)VH will be useful for treatment of a wide variety of cancers.

Frühwald MC, O'Dorisio MS, Fleitz J, et al.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP receptors: gene expression and growth modulation in medulloblastoma and other central primitive neuroectodermal tumors of childhood.
Int J Cancer. 1999; 81(2):165-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuromodulator and growth regulator in the developing nervous system. We analyzed 10 primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) cell lines, 29 central PNET (cPNET) and 17 tumors of the Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral PNET family (ESFT) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern hybridization. Each of the 10 cell lines and 86.2% of cPNET expressed mRNA for VIP receptor 1 (VIPR1) compared to 52.9% of ESFT. VIPR2 was expressed in 75.8% of cPNET, in 28.6% of ESFT and in all 10 cell lines. cPNET demonstrated high-affinity binding of 125I-VIP on quantitative autoradiography and in competitive binding assays. VIP inhibited tumor cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in 5 of 7 PNET cell lines. We conclude that VIPR1 and VIPR2 are highly expressed in cPNET and demonstrate that VIP is a growth modulator in these tumors.

Waschek JA, Lelievre V, Bravo DT, et al.
Retinoic acid regulation of the VIP and PACAP autocrine ligand and receptor system in human neuroblastoma cell lines.
Peptides. 1997; 18(6):835-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine tumors, neuroblastoma in particular, commonly express the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and their receptors. Retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to induce differentiation of neuroblastoma cell lines, possibly by augmenting or interfering with neuropeptide autocrine loops. We sought to determine which receptor gene subtypes are expressed in selected human neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y, IMR-32, and LA-N-5), and the effect of RA on the VIP/PACAP ligand/receptor system. Expression of both PACAP1 and VIP1/PACAP2 receptor genes was detected by Northern analysis, which characteristically encode Type I (PACAP-preferring), and Type II (bivalent VIP/PACAP) receptors, respectively. Binding experiments carried out on IMR-32 cells, using 125I VIP and 125I PACAP-27 as tracers, corroborated that both receptor subtypes were expressed. In contrast to RA upregulation of VIP binding (confirmed here in IMR-32 cells), levels of both receptor mRNAs were reduced after RA treatment. VIP mRNA in each cell line was increased by RA, whereas PACAP mRNA, detected in IMR-32 cells only, was reduced. The studies indicate that several components of the VIP/PACAP autocrine system are regulated in neuroblastoma cell lines during RA differentiation.

Volz A, Göke R, Lankat-Buttgereit B, et al.
Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signal transduction of the GIP-receptor cloned from a human insulinoma.
FEBS Lett. 1995; 373(1):23-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) plays an important role in the regulation of postprandial insulin secretion and proinsulin gene expression of pancreatic beta-cells. This study demonstrates the molecular cloning of a cDNA for the GIP-receptor from a human insulinoma lambda gt11 cDNA library. The cloned cDNA encoded a seven transmembrane domain protein of 466 amino acids which showed high homology (41%) to the human glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor. Homology to the GIP receptor from rat or hamster was 79% and 81%, respectively. When transfected stably into fibroblast CHL-cells a high affinity receptor was expressed which coupled to the adenylate cyclase with normal basal cAMP and increasing intracellular cAMP levels under stimulation with human GIP-1-42 (EC50 = 1.29 x 10(-13) M). The receptor accepted only human GIP 1-42 (Kd = 1.93 +/- 0.2 x 10(-8) M) and porcine truncated GIP 1-30 (Kd = 1.13 +/- 0.1 x 10(-8) M) as high affinity ligands. At 1 microM, exendin-4 and (9-39)amide weakly reduced GIP-binding (25%) whereas secretin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, peptide histidine-isoleucine, and pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide were without effect. In transfected CHL cells, GIP-1-42 did not increase intracellular calcium. Northern analysis revealed one transcript of human GIP receptor mRNA with an apparent size of 5.5 kb. The exact understanding of GIP receptor regulation and signal transduction will aid in the understanding of the incretin hormone's failure to exert its biological action at the pancreatic B-cell in type II diabetes mellitus.

Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ
Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995; 92(7):2939-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and other members of the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and secretin neuroendocrine peptide family are recognized with specificity by related G protein-coupled receptors. We report here the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal location of the gene encoding the human type I VIP receptor (HVR1), also termed the type II PACAP receptor. The gene spans approximately 22 kb and is composed of 13 exons ranging from 42 to 1400 bp and 12 introns ranging from 0.3 to 6.1 kb. Primer extension analysis with poly(A)+ RNA from human HT29 colonic adenocarcinoma cells indicated that the transcription initiation site is located at position -110 upstream of the first nucleotide (+1) of the translation start codon, and 75 nt downstream of a consensus CCAAT-box motif. The G+C-rich 5' flanking region contains potential binding sites for several nuclear factors, including Sp1, AP2, ATF, interferon regulatory factor 1, NF-IL6, acute-phase response factor, and NF-kappa B. The HVR1 gene is expressed selectively in human tissues with a relative prevalence of lung > prostate > peripheral blood leukocytes, liver, brain, small intestine > colon, heart, spleen > placenta, kidney, thymus, testis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the HVR1 gene to the short arm of human chromosome 3 (3p22), in a region associated with small-cell lung cancer.

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