Gene Summary

Gene:TNFSF15; TNF superfamily member 15
Aliases: TL1, TL1A, VEGI, TNLG1B, VEGI192A
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, but is not expressed in either B or T cells. The expression of this protein is inducible by TNF and IL-1 alpha. This cytokine is a ligand for receptor TNFRSF25 and decoy receptor TNFRSF21/DR6. It can activate NF-kappaB and MAP kinases, and acts as an autocrine factor to induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. This cytokine is also found to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, and thus may function as an angiogenesis inhibitor. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFSF15 (cancer-related)

Gao H, Niu Z, Zhang Z, et al.
TNFSF15 promoter polymorphisms increase the susceptibility to small cell lung cancer: a case-control study.
BMC Med Genet. 2019; 20(1):29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) is closely related to tumorigenesis and development. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between TNFSF15 polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.
METHODS: This case-control study included 209 small cell lung cancer patients (SCLC), 340 non- small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) and 460 health controls. TNFSF15-638 A > G and - 358 T > C polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restrictive fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: Our results showed that subjects carrying the TNFSF15-638GG genotype or -358CC genotype were more likely to develop SCLC (-638GG, OR = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.13-2.99; -358CC, OR = 2.44, 95%CI = 1.46-4.06), but not NSCLC (P > 0.05). In stratified analysis, -638GG genotype was related to SCLC among males (OR = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.09-3.45, P = 0.023) and older patients (OR = 2.93, 95%CI = 1.44-8.68, P = 0.006). However, -358CC genotype was associated with SCLC among females (OR = 8.42, 95%CI = 2.22-31.89, P = 0.002) and older subjects with OR (95%CI) of 11.04 (3.57-34.15) (P < 0.001). Moreover, TNFSF15 -358CC was linked with a higher risk of SCLC among non-smokers (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 1.20-5.35, P = 0.015) but not among smokers (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 0.92-3.84, P = 0.086).
CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of TNFSF15 polymorphisms in the development of SCLC.

Zhao Q, Hong B, Liu T, et al.
VEGI174 protein and its functional domain peptides exert antitumour effects on renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):390-398 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) has been identified as an anti‑angiogenic cytokine. However, the effects of VEGI174 protein, and its functional domain peptides V7 and V8, on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain unknown. In the present study, the protein and peptides were biosynthesised as experimental agents. The A498 and 786‑O RCC cell lines, and an established mouse xenograft model, were separately treated with VEGI174, V7 or V8. Cellular functions, including proliferation, migration and invasion, were subsequently detected. Cell migration and invasion were monitored using the xCELLigence system. Furthermore, tumour growth and mouse behaviours, including mobility, appetite and body weight, were assessed. The results demonstrated that VEGI174, V7 and V8 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of A498 and 786‑O cell lines when administered at concentrations of 1 and 100 pM, 10 nM and 1 µM. The inhibitory effects exhibited dose‑ and time‑dependent antitumour activity. Furthermore, VEGI174, V7 and V8 inhibited tumour growth in A498 and 786‑O xenograft mice. In the A498 xenografts, the tumour growth inhibition (TGI) rates in the VEGI174‑, V7‑ and V8‑treated groups were 71, 20 and 31%, respectively. In the 786‑O xenografts, the TGI rates in the VEGI174‑, V7‑ and V8‑treated groups were 34, 26 and 31%, respectively. There was no significant loss in body weight and no cases of mortality were observed for all treated mice. In conclusion, VEGI174, V7 and V8 exhibited potential antitumour effects and were well tolerated in vivo. V7 and V8, as functional domain peptides of the VEGI174 protein, may be studied for the future treatment of RCC.

Guntuku L, Gangasani JK, Thummuri D, et al.
IITZ-01, a novel potent lysosomotropic autophagy inhibitor, has single-agent antitumor efficacy in triple-negative breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(4):581-595 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy is a homeostatic process that recycles damaged organelles and long-lived proteins by delivering them in double-membrane vesicles to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy has a prominent role in survival, proliferation, and resistance of tumors in metabolic and chemotherapeutic stress conditions. Clinical trials with chloroquine-a known autophagy inhibitor-were unable to achieve complete autophagy inhibition in vivo, warranting the search for more potent autophagy inhibitors. In a process of exploring the mechanism of action of previously identified cytotoxic s-triazine analogs, we discovered that both IITZ-01 and IITZ-02 act as potent autophagy inhibitors. Treatment with these compounds resulted in the vacuolated appearance of cells due to their specific accumulation in lysosomes. In addition, these basic compounds also deacidify lysosomes as evidenced by the decrease in lysotracker red staining and inhibit maturation of lysosomal enzymes leading to lysosomal dysfunction. IITZ-01 and IITZ-02 enhance autophagosome accumulation but inhibit autophagosomal degradation by impairing lysosomal function, finally resulting in the inhibition of autophagy. Interestingly, compound IITZ-01 exhibited more than 10-fold potent autophagy inhibition along with 12- to 20-fold better cytotoxic action than CQ. IITZ-01 and IITZ-02 also abolished mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway. Furthermore, IITZ-01 and IITZ-02 displayed potent antitumor action in vivo through autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model with IITZ-01 exhibiting superior anticancer efficacy. Overall, these data demonstrate that IITZ-01 is potent autophagy inhibitor with single-agent anticancer activity and awaits further preclinical development as potential anticancer therapeutic.

Qin T, Huang D, Liu Z, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 promotes lymphatic metastasis via upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in a mouse model of lung cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(8):2469-2478 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphatic metastasis is facilitated by lymphangiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGFC) that is secreted by some primary tumors. We previously identified tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15), a blood vascular endothelium-derived cytokine, in lymphatic endothelial cells, as a key molecular modulator during lymphangiogenesis. However, the effect of TNFSF15 on tumor lymphatic metastasis and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We report here that TNFSF15, which is known to inhibit primary tumor growth by suppressing angiogenesis, can promote lymphatic metastasis through facilitating lymphangiogenesis in tumors. Mice bearing tumors induced by A549 cells stably overexpressing TNFSF15 exhibited a significant increase in densities of lymphatic vessels and a marked enhancement of A549 tumor cells in newly formed lymphatic vessels in the primary tumors as well as in lymph nodes. Treatment of A549 cells with TNFSF15 results in upregulation of VEGFC expression, which can be inhibited by siRNA gene silencing of death domain-containing receptor-3 (DR3), a cell surface receptor for TNFSF15. In addition, TNFSF15/DR3 signaling pathways in A549 cells include activation of NF-κB during tumor lymphangiogenesis. Our data indicate that TNFSF15, a cytokine mainly produced by blood endothelial cells, facilitates tumor lymphangiogenesis by upregulating VEGFC expression in A549 cells, contributing to lymphatic metastasis in tumor-bearing mice. This finding also suggests that TNFSF15 may have potential as an indicator for prognosis evaluation.

Niu W, Wu Z, Wang J, et al.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand-Related Molecule 1A Regulates the Occurrence of Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2018; 63(9):2341-2350 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor ligand-related molecule 1 A (TLlA) is closely related to the occurrence and development of inflammatory bowel disease.
AIMS: We aimed to explore whether TLlA was involved in the occurrence of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC).
METHODS: Firstly, azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were used to construct the CAC mice model in wild-type (WT) and TL1A transgenic (Tg) mice with TL1A high expression. The histopathological analysis was used for the evaluation of inflammation level, and the immunohistochemistry staining analysis was used to test the expression and location of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin. Secondly, the HCT116 and HT29 cell lines were used for knockdown of TL1A gene for further assay including cell viability, cell clone, cell apoptosis and matrigel invasion. Western blot were used for quantitative protein expression of β-catenin and downstream oncogenes including c-myc and Cyclin D1 after knockdown of TL1A gene.
RESULTS: The evaluation of inflammation level showed that the disease activity index score and tumor formation rate were significantly higher in AOM + DSS/Tg group than that in AOM + DSS/WT group. The expression of PCNA, β-catenin, c-myc, and Cyclin D1 in AOM + DSS/Tg group was significantly higher than that in AOM + DSS/WT group. The cell experiment showed that TL1A knockdown inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Moreover, the expression of c-myc and Cyclin D1 was significantly decreased after TL1A knockdown.
CONCLUSIONS: TL1A can induce tumor cell proliferation and promote the occurrence of CAC by activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Jiang Y, Xu E, Zhang J, et al.
The Rbm38-p63 feedback loop is critical for tumor suppression and longevity.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(21):2863-2872 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The RNA-binding protein Rbm38 is a target of p63 tumor suppressor and can in-turn repress p63 expression via mRNA stability. Thus, Rbm38 and p63 form a negative feedback loop. To investigate the biological significance of the Rbm38-p63 loop in vivo, a cohort of WT, Rbm38

Spoletini M, Taurone S, Tombolini M, et al.
Trophic and neurotrophic factors in human pituitary adenomas (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(4):1014-1024 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that trophic and neurotrophic factors may be involved in pituitary function, thus suggesting a possible role of the trophic and neurotrophic factors in the normal development of pituitary gland and in the progression of pituitary adenomas. Additional studies might be necessary to better explain the biological role of these molecules in the development and progression of this type of tumor. In this review, in light of the available literature, data on the following neurotrophic factors are discussed: ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), transforming growth factors β (TGF‑β), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) which influence the proliferation and growth of pituitary adenomas.

Zhao Q, Kun D, Hong B, et al.
Identification of Novel Proteins Interacting with Vascular Endothelial Growth Inhibitor 174 in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4379-4388 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is a multipotential cytokine that plays a role in regulating immunity, anti-angiogenesis, and inhibiting tumor growth. However, the proteins that interact with it are still unknown. In the present study, we examined the proteins that interact with VEGI174 and their expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proteins that interact with VEGI174 were identified using western blot, pull-down assay, and mass spectrometry. The expressions of VEGI174 and the interacting proteins were examined in RCC and were compared to normal renal tissues using immunohistochemical staining and RNA-seq respectively.
RESULTS: The results of the mass spectrometric analysis showed that ACLY, ENO1, ZIK1, AKR1C3, and MYC may interact with VEGI174. When compared to the TCGA database, the expression level of VEGI174 in RCC was lower than that in normal kidney using RNAseq (p<0.001). The expression levels of ACLY, ENO1, ZIK1, AKR1C3 and MYC in RCC were higher than those in normal kidney (p<0.05, all of above factors). Moreover, immunochemical staining results also showed that the expression levels of AKR1C3 in RCC were significantly higher those that in normal kidney (p<0.001) and was also positively correlated with higher RCC stage and grade.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings showed that VEGI174 may interact with ACLY, ENO1, ZIK1, AKR1C3, and MYC. The expression of ACLY, ENO1, AKR1C3 and MYC is increased in RCC. AKR1C3 was a new factor that may correlate with the progression of RCC. The results indicated that VEGI174 has more functions than we currently know in the development and progression of RCC.

Zhao Q, Deng X, Hong B, et al.
Protein of Vascular Endothelial Growth Inhibitor 174 Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4269-4275 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, identified as an anti-angiogenic cytokine. However, the effect of VEGI on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, protein VEGI174 was designed and synthesized. Renal cell carcinoma A498 cells were implanted into immune-deficient mice to establish tumor models. Two groups were included: control group treated with saline, and VEGI174-treated group. Data of tumor growth were collected every 3 to 4 days. Two weeks later, the tumor specimens were harvested for immunohistochemical staining of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin).
RESULTS: Compared to the saline-treated group, the VEGI174-treated group showed significant inhibition of tumor growth (p<0.05). The expression of E-cadherin was significantly higher in the VEGI174-treated group compared to the saline-treated group (p<0.01). However, the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin were reduced in the VEGI174-treated group.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that VEGI174 prevents progression and tumor metastasis through inhibiting EMT in RCC in vivo. This may provide a new approach for the treatment of RCC.

Zhang N, Hong B, Lian W, et al.
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor 174 and its functional domains inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 40(2):569-575 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor 174 (VEGI174) and its functional domains (V7 and V8) on epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro. The RCC cell lines A498 and 786‑O were used in this study. Based on our preliminary study, we selected full‑length VEGI174 and its functional domains (V7 and V8) as the target genes in this study. Plasmids containing VEGI174, V7 or V8 transgenes were constructed and transfected into A498 and 786‑O cell lines. Cytological activity was tested during cell culture. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the expression levels of EMT markers (E‑cadherin, vimentin, β‑catenin and Slug). Overexpression of VEGI174, V7 or V8 did not have a significant influence on cell viability (P>0.05). The mRNA level of E‑cadherin was significantly upregulated, while that of vimentin was downregulated in A498VEGIexp, A498V7exp, A498V8exp, 786‑OVEGIexp, 786‑OV7exp and 786‑OV8exp cells compared with the cells containing the empty plasmid controls (P<0.05). The western blot results showed that changes in protein expression levels were consistent with the changes in mRNA expression. Both the mRNA and protein expression levels of β‑catenin and Slug were downregulated in the A498VEGIexp, A498V7exp, A498V8exp, 786‑OVEGIexp, 786‑OV7exp and 786‑OV8exp cells. In conclusion, overexpression of VEGI174, V7 or V8 inhibited EMT in A498 and 786‑O cells. Notably, V7 and V8 are two effective functional domains of VEGI174 that have the potential to be studied for peptide synthesis and the treatment of RCC.

Hsieh SL, Lin WW
Decoy receptor 3: an endogenous immunomodulator in cancer growth and inflammatory reactions.
J Biomed Sci. 2017; 24(1):39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily member 6b (TNFRSF6B), is a soluble decoy receptor which can neutralize the biological functions of three members of tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF): Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT, and TL1A. In addition to 'decoy' function, recombinant DcR3.Fc is able to modulate the activation and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages via 'non-decoy' action. DcR3-treated DCs skew T cell differentiation into Th2 phenotype, while DcR3-treated macrophages behave M2 phenotype. DcR3 is upregulated in various cancer cells and several inflammatory tissues, and is regarded as a potential biomarker to predict inflammatory disease progression and cancer metastasis. However, whether DcR3 is a pathogenic factor or a suppressor to attenuate inflammatory reactions, has not been discussed comprehensively yet. Because mouse genome does not have DcR3, it is not feasible to investigate its physiological functions by gene-knockout approach. However, DcR3-mediated effects in vitro are determined via overexpressing DcR3 or addition of recombinant DcR3.Fc fusion protein. Moreover, CD68-driven DcR3 transgenic mice are used to investigate DcR3-mediated systemic effects in vivo. Upregulation of DcR3 during inflammatory reactions exerts negative-feedback to suppress inflammation, while tumor cells hijack DcR3 to prevent apoptosis and promote tumor growth and invasion. Thus, 'switch-on' of DcR3 expression may be feasible for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and enhance tissue repairing, while 'switch-off' of DcR3 expression can enhance tumor apoptosis and suppress tumor growth in vivo.

Zhang H, Chen X, Li D, et al.
DcR3 promotes hepatoma cell migration by downregulating E-cadherin expression.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(1):377-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a decoy molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is a soluble receptor that can neutralize the biological effects of three other TNFSF members, namely, Fas ligand (FasL/TNFSF6/CD95L), LIGHT (TNFSF14) and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A/TNFSF15). DcR3 expression is increased in tumor cells. As such, DcR3 has been considered a potential biomarker to predict cancer invasion and progression of inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms of DcR3 in tumor progression and metastasis remain poorly described. In the present study, DcR3 induced cytoskeleton remodeling, inhibited E-cadherin expression, and promoted cancer cell migration. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry demonstrated that DcR3 expression was increased in hepatoma cells, whereas E-cadherin expression was significantly downregulated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that DcR3 and E-cadherin exhibited an opposite expression pattern between normal and cancerous liver tissues. Moreover, DcR3 treatment promoted IκBα degradation and p65 nuclear translocation. Therefore, the present study uncovered the mechanism underlying the function of DcR3 in cancer cell migration and provides evidence that DcR3 may be a potential target for cancer therapy.

Lee Y, Park S, Lee SH, Lee H
Characterization of genetic aberrations in a single case of metastatic thymic adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):330 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare subtype of thymic epithelial tumors. Due to its rarity, there is currently no sequencing approach for thymic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We performed whole exome and transcriptome sequencing on a case of thymic adenocarcinoma and performed subsequent validation using Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: The case of thymic adenocarcinoma showed aggressive behaviors with systemic bone metastases. We identified a high incidence of genetic aberrations, which included somatic mutations in RNASEL, PEG10, TNFSF15, TP53, TGFB2, and FAT1. Copy number analysis revealed a complex chromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 8, which resulted in gene fusion between MCM4 and SNTB1 and dramatic amplification of MYC and NDRG1. Focal deletion was detected at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, which was previously observed in thymic epithelial tumors. We further investigated fusion transcripts using RNA-seq data and found an intergenic splicing event between the CTBS and GNG5 transcript. Finally, enrichment analysis using all the variants represented the immune system dysfunction in thymic adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Thymic adenocarcinoma shows highly malignant characteristics with alterations in several cancer-related genes.

Panayotopoulou EG, Müller AK, Börries M, et al.
Targeting of apoptotic pathways by SMAC or BH3 mimetics distinctly sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant triple negative breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(28):45088-45104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Standard chemotherapy is the only systemic treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and despite the good initial response, resistance remains a major therapeutic obstacle. Here, we employed a High-Throughput Screen to identify targeted therapies that overcome chemoresistance in TNBC. We applied short-term paclitaxel treatment and screened 320 small-molecule inhibitors of known targets to identify drugs that preferentially and efficiently target paclitaxel-treated TNBC cells. Among these compounds the SMAC mimetics (BV6, Birinapant) and BH3-mimetics (ABT-737/263) were recognized as potent targeted therapy for multiple paclitaxel-residual TNBC cell lines. However, acquired paclitaxel resistance through repeated paclitaxel pulses result in desensitization to BV6, but not to ABT-263, suggesting that short- and long-term paclitaxel resistance are mediated by distinct mechanisms. Gene expression profiling of paclitaxel-residual, -resistant and naïve MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated that paclitaxel-residual, as opposed to -resistant cells, were characterized by an apoptotic signature, with downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC5), induction of apoptosis inducers (IL24, PDCD4), and enrichment of TNFα/NF-κB pathway, including upregulation of TNFSF15, coupled with cell-cycle arrest. BIRC5 and FOXM1 downregulation and IL24 induction was also evident in breast cancer patient datasets following taxane treatment. Exposure of naïve or paclitaxel-resistant cells to supernatants of paclitaxel-residual cells sensitized them to BV6, and treatment with TNFα enhanced BV6 potency, suggesting that sensitization to BV6 is mediated, at least partially, by secreted factor(s). Our results suggest that administration of SMAC or BH3 mimetics following short-term paclitaxel treatment could be an effective therapeutic strategy for TNBC, while only BH3-mimetics could effectively overcome long-term paclitaxel resistance.

Guggilapu SD, Lalita G, Reddy TS, et al.
Synthesis of C
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 128:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
A series of C

Gentner E, Vegi NM, Mulaw MA, et al.
VENTX induces expansion of primitive erythroid cells and contributes to the development of acute myeloid leukemia in mice.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(52):86889-86901 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homeobox genes are key regulators in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. The human Vent-like homeobox gene VENTX, a putative homolog of the Xenopus laevis Xvent-2 gene, was shown to be highly expressed in normal myeloid cells and in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. We now demonstrate that constitutive expression of VENTX suppresses expression of genes responsible for terminal erythroid differentiation in normal CD34+ stem and progenitor cells. Transplantation of bone marrow progenitor cells retrovirally engineered to express VENTX caused massive expansion of primitive erythroid cells and partly acute erythroleukemia in transplanted mice. The leukemogenic potential of VENTX was confirmed in the AML1-ETO transplantation model, as in contrast to AML1-ETO alone co-expression of AML1-ETO and VENTX induced acute myeloid leukemia, partly expressing erythroid markers, in all transplanted mice. VENTX was highly expressed in patients with primary human erythroleukemias and knockdown of VENTX in the erythroleukemic HEL cell line significantly blocked cell growth. In summary, these data indicate that VENTX is able to perturb erythroid differentiation and to contribute to myeloid leukemogenesis when co-expressed with appropriate AML oncogenes and point to its potential significance as a novel therapeutic target in AML.

Cusan M, Vegi NM, Mulaw MA, et al.
Controlled stem cell amplification by HOXB4 depends on its unique proline-rich region near the N terminus.
Blood. 2017; 129(3):319-323 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is high interest in understanding the mechanisms that drive self-renewal of stem cells. HOXB4 is one of the few transcription factors that can amplify long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells in a controlled way. Here we show in mice that this characteristic of HOXB4 depends on a proline-rich sequence near the N terminus, which is unique among HOX genes and highly conserved in higher mammals. Deletion of this domain substantially enhanced the oncogenicity of HOXB4, inducing acute leukemia in mice. Conversely, insertion of the domain into Hoxa9 impaired leukemogenicity of this homeobox gene. These results indicate that proline-rich stretches attenuate the potential of stem cell active homeobox genes to acquire oncogenic properties.

Zhao Y, Chu X, Chen J, et al.
Dectin-1-activated dendritic cells trigger potent antitumour immunity through the induction of Th9 cells.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:12368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dectin-1 signalling in dendritic cells (DCs) has an important role in triggering protective antifungal Th17 responses. However, whether dectin-1 directs DCs to prime antitumour Th9 cells remains unclear. Here, we show that DCs activated by dectin-1 agonists potently promote naive CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into Th9 cells. Abrogation of dectin-1 in DCs completely abolishes their Th9-polarizing capability in response to dectin-1 agonist curdlan. Notably, dectin-1 stimulation of DCs upregulates TNFSF15 and OX40L, which are essential for dectin-1-activated DC-induced Th9 cell priming. Mechanistically, dectin-1 activates Syk, Raf1 and NF-κB signalling pathways, resulting in increased p50 and RelB nuclear translocation and TNFSF15 and OX40L expression. Furthermore, immunization of tumour-bearing mice with dectin-1-activated DCs induces potent antitumour response that depends on Th9 cells and IL-9 induced by dectin-1-activated DCs in vivo. Our results identify dectin-1-activated DCs as a powerful inducer of Th9 cells and antitumour immunity and may have important clinical implications.

Vegi NM, Klappacher J, Oswald F, et al.
MEIS2 Is an Oncogenic Partner in AML1-ETO-Positive AML.
Cell Rep. 2016; 16(2):498-507 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox genes are known to be key factors in leukemogenesis. Although the TALE family homeodomain factor Meis1 has been linked to malignancy, a role for MEIS2 is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that MEIS2 is expressed at high levels in patients with AML1-ETO-positive acute myeloid leukemia and that growth of AML1-ETO-positive leukemia depends on MEIS2 expression. In mice, MEIS2 collaborates with AML1-ETO to induce acute myeloid leukemia. MEIS2 binds strongly to the Runt domain of AML1-ETO, indicating a direct interaction between these transcription factors. High expression of MEIS2 impairs repressive DNA binding of AML1-ETO, inducing increased expression of genes such as the druggable proto-oncogene YES1. Collectively, these data describe a pivotal role for MEIS2 in AML1-ETO-induced leukemia.

Ma W, Shao Y, Yang W, et al.
Evaluation of (188)Re-labeled NGR-VEGI protein for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9121-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an anti-angiogenic protein, which includes three isoforms: VEGI-174, VEGI-192, and VEGI-251. The NGR (asparagine-glycine-arginine)-containing peptides can specifically bind to CD13 (Aminopeptidase N) receptor which is overexpressed in angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. In this study, a novel NGR-VEGI fusion protein was prepared and labeled with (188)Re for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging results revealed that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI exhibits good tumor-to-background contrast in CD13-positive HT-1080 tumor xenografts. The CD13 specificity of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI was further verified by significant reduction of tumor uptake in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with co-injection of the non-radiolabeled NGR-VEGI protein. The biodistribution results demonstrated good tumor-to-muscle ratio (4.98 ± 0.25) of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI at 24 h, which is consistent with the results from SPECT imaging. For radiotherapy, 18.5 MBq of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI showed excellent tumor inhibition effect in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with no observable toxicity, which was confirmed by the tumor size change and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of major mouse organs. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI has the potential as a theranostic agent for CD13-targeted tumor imaging and therapy.

Abe A, Nagatsuma AK, Higuchi Y, et al.
Site-specific fibroblasts regulate site-specific inflammatory niche formation in gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2017; 20(1):92-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the commonest type of cancer stromal cells. Inflammation occurs in cancer tissue, and the inflammatory process has been suggested to be caused by interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. In this study, we clarified that site-specific fibroblasts regulate the formation of a site-specific inflammatory niche according to the depth of gastric cancer cell invasion.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed with paraffin-embedded tissues. The numbers of immune cells and the fibroblast area were calculated according to the cancer depth. The gene expression patterns of submucosal fibroblasts and subperitoneal fibroblasts stimulated with HSC44PE-conditioned medium were analyzed with a microarray. To examine the effects on the cancer microenvironment of differences in gene expressions between HSC44PE-stimulated submucosal fibroblasts and subperitoneal fibroblasts, assays of HSC44PE proliferation, T cell migration, and M2-like macrophage differentiation were performed.
RESULTS: The distributions of immune cells differed between the submucosal layer and the subserosal layer. The number of M2 macrophages was significantly higher and the fibroblast area was significantly larger in the subserosal layer compared with the submucosal layer. High expression levels of IL1B, TNFSF15, and CCL13 were observed in HSC44PE-stimulated submucosal fibroblasts, and higher expression levels of TGFB2, CSF1, CCL8, and CXCL5 were found in HSC44PE-stimulated subperitoneal fibroblasts. HSC44PE-stimulated subperitoneal fibroblast medium promoted the differentiation of monocytes into M2-like macrophages, whereas HSC44PE-stimulated submucosal fibroblasts significantly induced the migration of Jurkat cells and the growth of HSC44PE cells.
CONCLUSION: The dynamic states of immune cells differ between the submucosal and subserosal layers in cancer tissues. Site-specific fibroblasts regulate site-specific inflammatory niche formation according to the depth of cancer cell invasion.

Cavallini C, Lovato O, Bertolaso A, et al.
Expression and function of the TL1A/DR3 axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):32061-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) and its unique receptor death receptor 3 (DR3) acts as broad T-cell costimulator involved in regulatory mechanisms of adaptive immune response under physiological and pathological settings. Moreover, we have recently shown that TL1A negatively regulates B-cell proliferation. Despite increasing interest on the TL1A/DR3-axis functions, very little is known on its expression and role in leukemia. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of TL1A/DR3 axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). DR3 was differentially expressed in activated CLL cells and predominantly detected in patients with early clinical stage disease. Soluble TL1A has been revealed in the sera of CLL patients where higher TL1A levels were associated with early stage disease. T cells, monocytes and leukemic B cells have been identified as major sources of TL1A in CLL. The relevance of these findings has been sustained by functional data showing that exogenous TL1A reduces CLL proliferation induced by stimulation of the B cell receptor. Overall, these data document the expression of the TL1A/DR3 axis in early-stage CLL. They also identify a novel function for TL1A as a negative regulator of leukemic cell proliferation that may influence the CLL physiopathology and clinical outcome at an early-stage disease.

Broggini T, Wüstner M, Harms C, et al.
NDRG1 overexpressing gliomas are characterized by reduced tumor vascularization and resistance to antiangiogenic treatment.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 380(2):568-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-regulated molecules play an important role in vascular resistance to antiangiogenic treatment. N-myc downstream-regulated-gene 1 (NDRG1) is significantly upregulated during hypoxia in glioma. It was the aim of the present study to analyze the role of NDRG1 on glioma angiogenesis and on antiangiogenic treatment. Orthotopically implanted NDRG1 glioma showed reduced tumor growth and vessel density compared to controls. RT-PCR gene array analysis revealed a 30-fold TNFSF15 increase in NDRG1 tumors. Consequently, the supernatant from NDRG1 transfected U87MG glioma cells resulted in reduced HUVEC proliferation, migration and angiogenic response in tube formation assays in vitro. This effect was provoked by increased TNFSF15 promoter activity in NDRG1 cells. Mutations in NF-κB and AP-1 promoter response elements suppressed TNFSF15 promoter activity. Moreover, U87MG glioma NDRG1 knockdown supernatant contained multiple proangiogenic proteins and increased HUVEC spheroid sprouting. Sunitinib treatment of orhotopically implanted mice reduced tumor volume and vessel density in controls; in NDRG1 overexpressing cells no reduction of tumor volume or vessel density was observed. NDRG1 overexpression leads to reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis in experimental glioma via upregulation of TNFSF15. In NDRG1 overexpressing glioma antiangiogenic treatment does not yield a therapeutic response.

Daft PG, Yang Y, Napierala D, Zayzafoon M
The growth and aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma is regulated by a CaMKII-controlled autocrine VEGF signaling mechanism.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0121568 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a hyperproliferative malignant tumor that requires a high vascular density to maintain its large volume. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and acts as a paracrine and autocrine agent affecting both endothelial and tumor cells. The alpha-Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase two (α-CaMKII) protein is an important regulator of OS growth. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII-induced VEGF in the growth and tumorigenicity of OS. We show that the pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of α-CaMKII results in decreases in VEGF gene expression (50%) and protein secretion (55%), while α- CaMKII overexpression increases VEGF gene expression (250%) and protein secretion (1,200%). We show that aggressive OS cells (143B) express high levels of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and respond to exogenous VEGF (100nm) by increasing intracellular calcium (30%). This response is ameliorated by the VEGFR inhibitor CBO-P11, suggesting that secreted VEGF results in autocrine stimulated α-CaMKII activation. Furthermore, we show that VEGF and α-CaMKII inhibition decreases the transactivation of the HIF-1α and AP-1 reporter constructs. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay shows significantly decreased binding of HIF-1α and AP-1 to their responsive elements in the VEGF promoter. These data suggest that α-CaMKII regulates VEGF transcription by controlling HIF-1α and AP-1 transcriptional activities. Finally, CBO-P11, KN-93 (CaMKII inhibitor) and combination therapy significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo. Our results suggest that VEGF-induced OS tumor growth is controlled by CaMKII and dual therapy by CaMKII and VEGF inhibitors could be a promising therapy against this devastating adolescent disease.

Yamanegi K, Kawabe M, Futani H, et al.
Sodium valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates the vascular endothelial growth inhibitor-mediated cell death in human osteosarcoma and vascular endothelial cells.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(5):1994-2002 [PubMed] Related Publications
The level of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) has been reported to be negatively associated with neovascularization in malignant tumors. The soluble form of VEGI is a potent anti-angiogenic factor due to its effects in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. This inhibition is mediated by death receptor 3 (DR3), which contains a death domain in its cytoplasmic tail capable of inducing apoptosis that can be subsequently blocked by decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). We investigated the effects of sodium valproate (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), histone deacetylase inhibitors, on the expression of VEGI and its related receptors in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines and human microvascular endothelial (HMVE) cells. Consequently, treatment with VPA and TSA increased the VEGI and DR3 expression levels without inducing DcR3 production in the OS cell lines. In contrast, the effect on the HMVE cells was limited, with no evidence of growth inhibition or an increase in the DR3 and DcR3 expression. However, VPA-induced soluble VEGI in the OS cell culture medium markedly inhibited the vascular tube formation of HMVE cells, while VEGI overexpression resulted in enhanced OS cell death. Taken together, the HDAC inhibitor has anti-angiogenesis and antitumor activities that mediate soluble VEGI/DR3-induced apoptosis via both autocrine and paracrine pathways. This study indicates that the HDAC inhibitor may be exploited as a therapeutic strategy modulating the soluble VEGI/DR3 pathway in osteosarcoma patients.

Zhang Z, Yu D, Lu J, et al.
Functional genetic variants of TNFSF15 and their association with gastric adenocarcinoma: a case-control study.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108321 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to identify functional genetic variants in the promoter of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) and evaluate their effects on the risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma. Forty DNA samples from healthy volunteers were sequenced to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFSF15 promoter. Two TNFSF15 SNPs (-358 T > C and -638 A > G) were identified by direct sequencing. Next, genotypes and haplotypes of 470 gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 470 cancer-free controls were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Serologic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection were measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Subjects carrying the TNFSF15 -358 CC genotype were at an elevated risk for developing gastric adenocarcinoma, compared with those with the -358 TT genotype (OR 1.42, 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.03). H. pylori infection was a risk factor for developing gastric adenocarcinoma (OR 2.31, 95% CI, 1.76 to 3.04). In the H. pylori infected group, subjects with TNFSF15 -358 CC genotype were at higher risks for gastric adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying -358 TT genotype (OR: 2.01, 95%CI: 1.65 to 4.25), indicating that H. pylori infection further influenced gastric adenocarcinoma susceptibility. The -358 T>C polymorphism eliminates a nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) binding site and the -358 C containing haplotypes showed significantly decreased luciferase expression compared with -358 T containing haplotypes. Collectively these findings indicate that functional genetic variants in TNFSF15 may play a role in increasing susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma.

Ma W, Li G, Wang J, et al.
In vivo NIRF imaging-guided delivery of a novel NGR-VEGI fusion protein for targeting tumor vasculature.
Amino Acids. 2014; 46(12):2721-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pathological angiogenesis is crucial in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Previous studies demonstrated that the vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, can be used as a potent endogenous inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis. Molecular probes containing the asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) sequence can specifically bind to CD13 receptor which is overexpressed on neovasculature and several tumor cells. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging for targeting tumor vasculature offers a noninvasive method for early detection of tumor angiogenesis and efficient monitoring of response to anti-tumor vasculature therapy. The aim of this study was to develop a new NIRF imaging probe on the basis of an NGR-VEGI protein for the visualization of tumor vasculature. The NGR-VEGI fusion protein was prepared from prokaryotic expression, and its function was characterized in vitro. The NGR-VEGI protein was then labeled with a Cy5.5 fluorophore to afford Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI probe. Using the NIRF imaging technique, we visualized and quantified the specific delivery of Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI protein to subcutaneous HT-1080 fibrosarcoma tumors in mouse xenografts. The Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI probe exhibited rapid HT-1080 tumor targeting, and highest tumor-to-background contrast at 8 h post-injection (pi). Tumor specificity of Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI was confirmed by effective blocking of tumor uptake in the presence of unlabeled NGR-VEGI (20 mg/kg). Ex vivo NIRF imaging further confirmed in vivo imaging findings, demonstrating that Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI displayed an excellent tumor-to-muscle ratio (18.93 ± 2.88) at 8 h pi for the non-blocking group and significantly reduced ratio (4.92 ± 0.75) for the blocking group. In conclusion, Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI provided highly sensitive, target-specific, and longitudinal imaging of HT-1080 tumors. As a novel theranostic protein, Cy5.5-NGR-VEGI has the potential to improve cancer treatment by targeting tumor vasculature.

Gao Y, Ge Z, Zhang Z, et al.
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor affects the invasion, apoptosis and vascularisation in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2014; 127(10):1947-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant female diseases worldwide. It is a significant threat to every woman's health. Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is known to be abundant in endothelial cells. According to previous literature, overexpression of VEGI has been shown to inhibit tumor neovascularisation and progression in cellular and animal models, but there has been limited research on the significance of VEGI in the breast cancer.
METHODS: In our study, cell lines MDA-MB-231 were first constructed in which VEGI mediated by lentivirus over-expressed. The effects of VEGI over-expression on MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of VEGI in the MDA-MB-231 cells after infection of lentivirus was analyzed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. The effect of the biological characteristics of MDA-MB-231 cells was assessed by growth, invasion, adhesion, and migration assay with subcutaneous tumor-bearing nude mice models. Then the growth curves of the subcutaneous tumors were studied. Expressions of VEGI, CD31 and CD34 in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Infection of MDA-MB-231 cells within the lentivirus resulted in approximately a 1 000-fold increase in the expression of VEGI. As can be seen in the invasion, adhesion and migration assay, the over-expression of VEGI can inhibit the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells during migration, adhesion and invasion. The volume of the subcutaneous tumor in the over-expression group was distinctly and significantly less than that of the control groups. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the tumor biopsies clearly showed the expression of VEGI in the over-expression group increased while CD31 and CD34 decreased significantly. In vitro and in vivo, the early apoptosis rate and the apoptosis index were increased within the VEGI over-expression group as compared with the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, recombinant lentivirus that were successfully constructed, demonstrated up-regulated VEGI gene expression in breast cancer cells. Lentivirus-mediated over-expression of VEGI weakened the ability of the breast cancer cell migration, adhesion and invasion. Over-expression of VEGI diminished the tumorigenic capacity of breast cancer cells in vivo. Up-regulation of VEGI gene expression however inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell in the early apoptosis.

Stadler CR, Vegi N, Mulaw MA, et al.
The leukemogenicity of Hoxa9 depends on alternative splicing.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(9):1838-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the transforming potential of Hox genes is known for a long time, it is not precisely understood to which extent splicing is important for the leukemogenicity of this gene family. To test this for Hoxa9, we compared the leukemogenic potential of the wild-type Hoxa9, which undergoes natural splicing, with a full-length Hoxa9 construct, which was engineered to prevent natural splicing (Hoxa9FLim). Inability to undergo splicing significantly reduced in vivo leukemogenicity compared to Hoxa9-wild-typed. Importantly, Hoxa9FLim could compensate for the reduced oncogenicity by collaborating with the natural splice variant Hoxa9T, as co-expression of Hoxa9T and Hoxa9FLim induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after a comparable latency time as wild-type Hoxa9. Hoxa9T on its own induced AML after a similar latency as Hoxa9FLim, despite its inability to bind DNA. These data assign splicing a central task in Hox gene mediated leukemogenesis and suggest an important role of homeodomain-less splice variants in hematological neoplasms.

Wu L, Li X, Ye L, et al.
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor 174 is a negative regulator of aggressiveness and microvascular density in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(2):715-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To evaluate the role and expression of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor isoform 174 (VEGI 174) in the microvessels and its correlation with microvessel density (MVD) and prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 98 cases of renal cell carcinoma and paired normal kidney tissues for VEGI 174 and CD34. The clinical, pathological and follow-up (median follow-up: 54.5 months) information were recorded and analyzed against the VEGI174 and MVD expression.
RESULTS: There was an inverse correlation between VEGI 174 and MVD (r=-0.420, p<0.05) in normal human renal tissues and CCRCC specimens. Compared to normal kidney tissues, the expression of VEGI 174 was significantly lower in CCRCC (0.420±0.151 vs 0.107±0.063, p<0.01, respectively). On the contrary, MVD was higher in CCRCC specimens than in normal renal tissues (72.020±31.709 vs. 53.480±11.071, p<0.01, respectively). The expression of VEGI 174 in G1+G2 tumors was significantly higher than in G3 tumors (0.132±0.055 vs. 0.044±0.025, p<0.05, respectively). There was also a statistical significance in the expression of VEGI 174 in patients of different ages (<60y, 0.102±0.054 vs. ≥60 years, 0.117±0.083, p<0.01, respectively). However, between the staining of VEGI 174 and other pathological parameters (gender, tumour size and stage), there were no significant statistical differences (p>0.05). In addition, MVDs did not differ statistically by pathological grade, stage, gender, age or tumor size (p>0.05). Four patients died of CCRCC-related conditions during follow-up. However, no relationship between the expression of VEGI 174/MVD and overall survival was found in the study (p>0.05).
CONCLUSION: VEGI 174 has a significant role in angiogenesis in CCRCC, and appears to be a negative regulator of aggressiveness during the development and progression of CCRCC.

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