BACKGROUND: Tumor differentiation is an important process in the development of cancer. It is valuable to identify key differentiation related genes in the prognosis and therapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: The mRNA expression data were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Then, differentially expressed tumor differentiation related genes were identified. Additionally, Gene Ontology functional categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes biochemical pathway was used to explore the function. In addition, receiver operating characteristic and survival analysis were carried out to assess the diagnosis and prognosis value. Finally, the electronic validation of selected tumor differentiation related genes was performed.
RESULTS: A total of 932 genes were identified. Among which, 8 genes including JUB, ERLIN1, HMGA2, FAM110B, EGFR, MCM2, TCTA and SSTR1 were differentially expressed in all different tumor differentiation grades. Functional analysis revealed those genes between highly differentiated and other differentiation were remarkably enriched in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cell cycle pathway. Finally, ERLIN1, HMGA2, FAM110B, EGFR, MCM2, BCL2L1, E2F1 and RAC1 were associated with the survival time of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient. Among these genes, JUB, ERLIN1, FAM110B, MCM2 and BCL2L1 also had a diagnosis value for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, the expression trend of JUB, HMGA2 and MCM2 was increased along with the tumor differentiation grades. And the expression trend of FAM110B was decreased along with the tumor differentiation grades. The electronic validation result was consistent with the bioinformatics analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: 12 tumor differentiation related genes including JUB, ERLIN1, HMGA2, FAM110B, EGFR, MCM2, TCTA, SSTR1, BCL2L1, E2F1, RAC1 and STAT1 played crucial roles in the differentiation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Leeb T, Breen M, Brenig BGenomic structures and sequences of two closely linked genes (AMT, TCTA) on dog chromosome 20q15.1-->q15.2.
Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000; 89(1-2):98-100 [PubMed
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Analysis of genomic sequence from canine chromosome 20q15.1-->q15.2 revealed the presence of two closely linked genes. The two genes represent the corresponding canine orthologs of human aminomethyltransferase (AMT) and the human T-cell leukemia translocation associated (TCTA) gene. Aminomethyltransferase or glycine cleavage system T-protein is an important enzyme in glycine metabolism. The reported canine AMT gene spans 5 kb and consists of nine exons. It encodes a protein of 403 amino acids with 88% identity to human aminomethyltransferase. Human TCTA is located on 3p21 near the breakpoint of a t(1;3) translocation observed in some cancer cell lines. The 4-kb canine TCTA gene consists of three exons and probably represents a pseudogene. It is located adjacent to AMT and very close to DAG1 and BSN.
Aplan PD, Johnson BE, Russell E, et al.Cloning and characterization of TCTA, a gene located at the site of a t(1;3) translocation.
Cancer Res. 1995; 55(9):1917-21 [PubMed
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We have cloned and characterized a novel gene at the site of a t(1;3)(p34;p21) translocation breakpoint in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A cDNA for this gene, for which we propose the designation TCTA (T-cell leukemia translocation-associated gene), has been cloned. TCTA mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in normal tissues, with the highest levels of expression seen in the kidney. The TCTA gene is conserved throughout evolution in organisms ranging from Drosophila to humans. A short open reading frame encodes a predicted M(r) 12,000 protein without strong homology to any previously reported proteins. Of note, genomic Southern blots demonstrated a reduced TCTA signal in three of four small cell lung cancer cell lines tested, suggesting loss of one of the two copies of the gene.