Gene Summary

Gene:SPRED1; sprouty related EVH1 domain containing 1
Aliases: LGSS, NFLS, hSpred1, spred-1, PPP1R147
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Sprouty family of proteins and is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase in response to several growth factors. The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with SPRED2 to regulate activation of the MAP kinase cascade. Defects in this gene are a cause of neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome (NFLS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Signal Transduction
  • Membrane Proteins
  • SPRED1 protein, human
  • Exons
  • Risk Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Cafe-au-Lait Spots
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Cohort Studies
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Gene Deletion
  • NF1
  • Neurofibromin 1
  • Phenotype
  • RNA
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Breast Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Knockout Mice
  • Transcription Factors
  • ras Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • ras GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Neurofibromatosis 1
  • Chromosome 15
  • Pedigree
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Infant
  • Genetic Testing
  • Adolescents
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SPRED1 (cancer-related)

Sun J, Zhang J, Wang Y, et al.
A Pilot Study of Aberrant CpG Island Hypermethylation of
Int J Med Sci. 2019; 16(2):324-330 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Ablain J, Xu M, Rothschild H, et al.
Human tumor genomics and zebrafish modeling identify
Science. 2018; 362(6418):1055-1060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanomas originating from mucosal surfaces have low mutation burden, genomic instability, and poor prognosis. To identify potential driver genes, we sequenced hundreds of cancer-related genes in 43 human mucosal melanomas, cataloging point mutations, amplifications, and deletions. The

Wu-Chou YH, Hung TC, Lin YT, et al.
Genetic diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1: targeted next- generation sequencing with Multiple Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification analysis.
J Biomed Sci. 2018; 25(1):72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome that targets the peripheral nervous system. It is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene which serve as a negative regulator of the cellular Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) signaling pathway. Owing to the complexity in some parts of clinical diagnoses and the need for better understanding of its molecular relationships, a genetic characterization of this disorder will be helpful in the clinical setting.
METHODS: In this study, we present a customized targeted gene panel of NF1/KRAS/BRAF/p53 and SPRED1 genes combined with Multiple Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification analysis for the NF1 mutation screening in a cohort of patients clinically suspected as NF1.
RESULTS: In this study, we identified 73 NF1 mutations and two BRAF novel variants from 100 NF1 patients who were suspected as having NF1. These genetic alterations are heterogeneous and distribute in a complicated way without clustering in either cysteine-serine-rich domain or within the GAP-related domain. We also detected fifteen multi-exon deletions within the NF1 gene by MLPA Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that a genetic screening using a NGS panel with high coverage of Ras-signaling components combined with Multiple Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification analysis will enable differential diagnosis of patients with overlapping clinical features.

Palma Milla C, Lezana Rosales JM, López Montiel J, et al.
Neurofibromatosis type I: mutation spectrum of NF1 in spanish patients.
Ann Hum Genet. 2018; 82(6):425-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders in humans. NF1, a tumor predisposition syndrome, is caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the NF1 gene. Molecular genetic testing of NF1 is complex, especially because of the presence of a high number of partial pseudogenes, some of them with a high percentage of sequence identity. In this study, we have analyzed the largest cohort of NF1 Spanish patients (150 unrelated individuals suspected of having NF1 and 53 relatives, making a total of 203 individuals). Mutation analysis of the entire coding region was performed in all unrelated index patients. Additionally, the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) test of the NF1 gene and SPRED1 gene analysis (sequencing and MLPA test) was performed in some of the negative patients for NF1 point mutations. When fulfilling the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criterion for the clinical diagnosis of NF1, the detection rate was 79%. Among the 80 genetically confirmed NF1 probands, we detected 69 different pathogenic variants. Two mutations (3%) were gross deletions of the whole gene, the remaining 78 mutations (97%) were small changes spread among all NF1 exons. Among these 69 different mutations detected, 42 mutations were described elsewhere, and 27 mutations were novel mutations. When segregation was studied, 67% of mutations resulted de novo variants. No genetic mosaicism was detected on patients' parents.

Sharma P, Sharma R
miR-144 functions as an oncomiR in KYSE-410 human esophageal carcinoma cell line in vitro and targets PURA.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(4):542-551 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer (EC) is a highly complex disease with high incidence and mortality rates. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs play critical roles in diverse biological processes including oncogenesis, and we previously reported significantly increased expression of tissue and circulating miR-144 in EC. This study evaluates the functional significance of miR-144 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein, we analysed the role of miR-144 in ESCC by silencing it in KYSE-410 cells, and followed this with cell cycle analysis and the following assays; MTT, annexin, colony formation, scratch and matrigel invasion assay. The miR-144 knockdown significantly suppressed ESCC cell proliferation at 72 hours post transfection (p=0.029). Silencing of miR-144 significantly decreased the migration, invasion and colony formation potential of KYSE-410 cells compared to cells treated with negative control (NC). Potential targets of miR-144 were predicted by the in silico approach followed by in vitro validation in real time PCR and luciferase reporter assay. The PURA and Spred1 in silico predicted miR-144 targets were validated by qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter assay. Over-expression of miR-144 significantly decreased PURA mRNA expression by 58.85% at 24 hours post transfection (p=0.009). Further validation by dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed it is a direct targets of miR-144. Our overall study suggests the oncogenic role of miR-144 in EC by promoting proliferation and migration of ESCC cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing PURA as a direct miR-144 downstream target and suggests its potential as a novel therapeutic target for this disease.

Jiang CF, Shi ZM, Li DM, et al.
Estrogen-induced miR-196a elevation promotes tumor growth and metastasis via targeting SPRED1 in breast cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen plays a critical role in breast cancer (BC) progression through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene regulation. Emerging studies suggest that the malignant progress of BC cells is influenced by the cross talk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and ER-α signaling. However, the mechanism and functional linkage between estrogen and miRNAs remain unclear.
METHODS: The expression levels of miR-196a and SPRED1 in BC were tested by qRT-PCR in 46 paired BC and adjacent tissues and by the GEO datasets. The role of miR-196a in estrogen-induced BC development was examined by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay, Matrigel invasion assay and tumorigenicity assay in nude mice. The binding site of ER-α in miR-196a promoter region was analyzed by ChIP-seq, ChIP assay and luciferase reporter assay. The potential targets of miR-196a in BC cells were explored using the luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis, and the correlation between miR-196a and SPRED1 was analyzed by Spearman's correlation analysis in BC specimens and GEO dataset. TCGA BRCA data was used to characterize the ESR1 signatures according to MSigDB gene set.
RESULTS: The expression levels of miR-196a were higher in ER-positive (ER+) breast tumors compared to ER-negative (ER-) tumor tissue samples. Besides, miR-196a was involved in estrogen-induced BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Notably, the up-regulation of miR-196a was mediated by a direct interaction with estrogen receptor α (ER-α) but not estrogen receptor β (ER-β) in its promoter region, and miR-196a expression levels were positively correlated to ER-α signature scores. Furthermore, SPRED1 was a new direct target of miR-196a which participated in miR-196a-promoted BC development and was suppressed by ligand-activated ER-α signal pathway. Finally, forced expression of miR-196a induced tumor growth of MCF7 cells, while inhibition of miR-196a significantly suppressed the tumor progress in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the identification of estrogen/miR-196a/SPRED1 cascade will shed light on new molecular mechanism of estrogen signaling in BC development and therapy.

Zhang B, Nguyen LXT, Li L, et al.
Bone marrow niche trafficking of miR-126 controls the self-renewal of leukemia stem cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(4):450-462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in individuals with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (hereafter referred to as CML LSCs) are responsible for initiating and maintaining clonal hematopoiesis. These cells persist in the bone marrow (BM) despite effective inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase activity by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here we show that although the microRNA (miRNA) miR-126 supported the quiescence, self-renewal and engraftment capacity of CML LSCs, miR-126 levels were lower in CML LSCs than in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) from healthy individuals. Downregulation of miR-126 levels in CML LSCs was due to phosphorylation of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing 1 (SPRED1) by BCR-ABL, which led to inhibition of the RAN-exportin-5-RCC1 complex that mediates miRNA maturation. Endothelial cells (ECs) in the BM supply miR-126 to CML LSCs to support quiescence and leukemia growth, as shown using mouse models of CML in which Mir126a (encoding miR-126) was conditionally knocked out in ECs and/or LSCs. Inhibition of BCR-ABL by TKI treatment caused an undesired increase in endogenous miR-126 levels, which enhanced LSC quiescence and persistence. Mir126a knockout in LSCs and/or ECs, or treatment with a miR-126 inhibitor that targets miR-126 expression in both LSCs and ECs, enhanced the in vivo anti-leukemic effects of TKI treatment and strongly diminished LSC leukemia-initiating capacity, providing a new strategy for the elimination of LSCs in individuals with CML.

Suarez-Kelly LP, Akagi K, Reeser JW, et al.
Metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and somatic loss of heterozygosity.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018; 4(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is rare and has a poor prognosis. Here we describe genetic analysis of a 41-yr-old female patient with MBC and neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). She initially presented with pT3N1a, grade 3 MBC, but lung metastases were discovered subsequently. To identify the molecular cause of her NF1, we screened for germline mutations disrupting

Cao H, Alrejaye N, Klein OD, et al.
A review of craniofacial and dental findings of the RASopathies.
Orthod Craniofac Res. 2017; 20 Suppl 1:32-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The RASopathies are a group of syndromes that have in common germline mutations in genes that encode components of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and have been a focus of study to understand the role of this pathway in development and disease. These syndromes include Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML or LEOPARD syndrome), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome (NFLS or Legius syndrome) and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM). These disorders affect multiple systems, including the craniofacial complex. Although the craniofacial features have been well described and can aid in clinical diagnosis, the dental phenotypes have not been analysed in detail for each of the RASopathies. In this review, we summarize the clinical features of the RASopathies, highlighting the reported craniofacial and dental findings.
METHODS: Review of the literature.
RESULTS: Each of the RASopathies reviewed, caused by mutations in genes that encode different proteins in the Ras pathway, have unique and overlapping craniofacial and dental characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: Careful description of craniofacial and dental features of the RASopathies can provide information for dental clinicians treating these individuals and can also give insight into the role of Ras signalling in craniofacial development.

Kimura R, Yoshida Y, Maruoka R, et al.
Legius syndrome: A case report.
J Dermatol. 2017; 44(4):459-460 [PubMed] Related Publications
Legius syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by heterozygous germ line loss-of-function SPRED1 mutation. In Japan, a family with Legius syndrome was first described in 2015 by Sakai et al. We described a first solitary case of Legius syndrome identified by next-generation sequencing in Japan. A 37-year-old woman presented with multiple café-au-lait macules and freckles but has no other features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Sequencing results showed the presence of a mutation in exon 2 of SPRED1 c.70C>T, resulting in the protein at position 24 (p.Arg24X). When a dermatological clinician sees an adult patient showing only pigmented lesions and no other specifically diagnostic features of NF-1, it is important to suspect the possibility of Legius syndrome.

Sharma P, Saraya A, Sharma R
Potential diagnostic implications of miR-144 overexpression in human oesophageal cancer.
Indian J Med Res. 2016; 143(Supplement):S91-S103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Insidious symptomatology, late clinical presentation and poor prognosis of oesophageal cancer (EC) highlight the pressing need for novel non-invasive biomarkers for early tumour diagnosis and better prognosis. The present study was carried out to evaluate the clinical significance of circulating and tissue miR-144 expression in oesophageal cancer.
METHODS: Clinical significance of miR-144 expression was evaluated in preneoplastic (12) and neoplastic (35) oesophageal cancer tissues as well as matched distant non-malignant tissues using real-time PCR (qPCR). Circulating levels of miR-144 were also analyzed in serum samples of EC patients as well as normal individuals to determine the diagnostic potential of miR-144. Further, targets of miR-144 were predicted using bioinformatic tools and their gene ontology (GO) terms were assigned.
RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant upregulation of miR-144 in 29 of 35 (83%) EC tissues as compared to matched distant non-malignant tissues (P=0.010). a0 ll the dysplastic tissues showed upregulation of miR-144 as compared to their matched distant non-malignant tissues. Relative levels of circulating miR-144 in serum significantly distinguished EC patients from normal controls (P=0.015; AUC = 0.731) with high sensitivity of 94.7 per cent. Bioinformatically predicted target, PUR-aplha (PURA) was found to be significantly (P=0.018) downregulated in 81 per cent (26/32) EC patients and its expression was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with miR-144 expression at mRNA level.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed significant upregulation of miR-144 in serum samples of EC patients indicating its potential as minimally invasive marker. Further studies need to be done to understand the role of miR-144 in the pathogenesis of EC.

Evans DG, Bowers N, Burkitt-Wright E, et al.
Comprehensive RNA Analysis of the NF1 Gene in Classically Affected NF1 Affected Individuals Meeting NIH Criteria has High Sensitivity and Mutation Negative Testing is Reassuring in Isolated Cases With Pigmentary Features Only.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 7:212-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The detection rate for identifying the underlying mutation in neurocutaneous syndromes is affected by the sensitivity of the mutation test and the heterogeneity of the disease based on the diagnostic criteria. Neurofibromatosis type (NF1) has been defined for 29years by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) criteria which include ≥6 Café au Lait macules (CAL) as a defining criterion. The discovery of SPRED1 as a cause of Legius syndrome which is manifested by CAL, freckling and learning difficulties has introduced substantial heterogeneity to the NIH criteria.
METHODS: We have defined the sensitivity of comprehensive RNA analysis on blood of presumed NF1 patients meeting NIH criteria with at least one nonpigmentary criterion and determined the proportion of children with ≥6 CAL and no family history that has an NF1 or SPRED1 genetic variant. RNA analysis was carried out from 04/2009-12/2015 on 361 NF1 patients.
FINDINGS: A presumed causative NF1 mutation was found in 166/171 (97.08%-95% CI 94.56-99.6%) of familial cases and 182/190 (95.8%-95% CI 92.93-98.65%) sporadic de novo cases. Two of thirteen (15%) mutation negative individuals had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) compared to 2/348 (0.6%) with an NF1 variant (p=0.007). No SPRED1 variants were found in the thirteen individuals with no NF1 variant. Of seventy-one individuals with ≥6 CAL and no non-pigmentary criterion aged 0-20years, 47 (66.2%) had an NF1 variant six (8.5%) a SPRED1 variant and 18 (25.3%) no disease causing variant. Using the 95.8% detection rate the likelihood of a child with ≥6 CAL having constitutional NF1 drops from 2/3 to 1/9 after negative RNA analysis.
INTERPRETATION: RNA analysis in individuals with presumed NF1 has high sensitivity and includes a small subset with DNET without an NF1 variant. Furthermore negative analysis for NF1/SPRED1 provides strong reassurance to children with ≥6 CAL that they are unlikely to have NF1.

Hirata Y, Brems H, Suzuki M, et al.
Interaction between a Domain of the Negative Regulator of the Ras-ERK Pathway, SPRED1 Protein, and the GTPase-activating Protein-related Domain of Neurofibromin Is Implicated in Legius Syndrome and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(7):3124-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Constitutional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a phenotype known as Legius syndrome, which consists of symptoms of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities, and macrocephaly. Legius syndrome resembles a mild neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) phenotype. It has been demonstrated that SPRED1 functions as a negative regulator of the Ras-ERK pathway and interacts with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the effects of the mutations identified in Legius syndrome and NF1 on this interaction have not yet been investigated. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid system and an immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293 cells, we found that the SPRED1 EVH1 domain interacts with the N-terminal 16 amino acids and the C-terminal 20 amino acids of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) of neurofibromin, which form two crossing α-helix coils outside the GAP domain. These regions have been shown to be dispensable for GAP activity and are not present in p120(GAP). Several mutations in these N- and C-terminal regions of the GRD in NF1 patients and pathogenic missense mutations in the EVH1 domain of SPRED1 in Legius syndrome reduced the binding affinity between the EVH1 domain and the GRD. EVH1 domain mutations with reduced binding to the GRD also disrupted the ERK suppression activity of SPRED1. These data clearly demonstrate that SPRED1 inhibits the Ras-ERK pathway by recruiting neurofibromin to Ras through the EVH1-GRD interaction, and this study also provides molecular basis for the pathogenic mutations of NF1 and Legius syndrome.

Ekvall S, Wilbe M, Dahlgren J, et al.
Mutation in NRAS in familial Noonan syndrome--case report and review of the literature.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Noonan syndrome (NS), a heterogeneous developmental disorder associated with variable clinical expression including short stature, congenital heart defect, unusual pectus deformity and typical facial features, is caused by activating mutations in genes involved in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a clinical and molecular characterization of a small family with Noonan syndrome. Comprehensive mutation analysis of NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, CBL, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, MAP2K2, MAP2K1, SPRED1, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS was performed using targeted next-generation sequencing. The result revealed a recurrent mutation in NRAS, c.179G > A (p.G60E), in the index patient. This mutation was inherited from the index patient's father, who also showed signs of NS.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe clinical features in this family and review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlations for NS patients with mutations in NRAS. Neither of affected individuals in this family presented with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), which together with previously published results suggest that the risk for NS individuals with a germline NRAS mutation developing JMML is not different from the proportion seen in other NS cases. Interestingly, 50% of NS individuals with an NRAS mutation (including our family) present with lentigines and/or Café-au-lait spots. This demonstrates a predisposition to hyperpigmented lesions in NRAS-positive NS individuals. In addition, the affected father in our family presented with a hearing deficit since birth, which together with lentigines are two characteristics of NS with multiple lentigines (previously LEOPARD syndrome), supporting the difficulties in diagnosing individuals with RASopathies correctly. The clinical and genetic heterogeneity observed in RASopathies is a challenge for genetic testing. However, next-generation sequencing technology, which allows screening of a large number of genes simultaneously, will facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis of patients with RASopathies.

Li Z, Chen P, Su R, et al.
Overexpression and knockout of miR-126 both promote leukemogenesis.
Blood. 2015; 126(17):2005-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is generally assumed that gain- and loss-of-function manipulations of a functionally important gene should lead to the opposite phenotypes. We show in this study that both overexpression and knockout of microRNA (miR)-126 surprisingly result in enhanced leukemogenesis in cooperation with the t(8;21) fusion genes AML1-ETO/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and AML1-ETO9a (a potent oncogenic isoform of AML1-ETO). In accordance with our observation that increased expression of miR-126 is associated with unfavorable survival in patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we show that miR-126 overexpression exhibits a stronger effect on long-term survival and progression of AML1-ETO9a-mediated leukemia stem cells/leukemia initiating cells (LSCs/LICs) in mice than does miR-126 knockout. Furthermore, miR-126 knockout substantially enhances responsiveness of leukemia cells to standard chemotherapy. Mechanistically, miR-126 overexpression activates genes that are highly expressed in LSCs/LICs and/or primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, likely through targeting ERRFI1 and SPRED1, whereas miR-126 knockout activates genes that are highly expressed in committed, more differentiated hematopoietic progenitor cells, presumably through inducing FZD7 expression. Our data demonstrate that miR-126 plays a critical but 2-faceted role in leukemia and thereby uncover a new layer of miRNA regulation in cancer. Moreover, because miR-126 depletion can sensitize AML cells to standard chemotherapy, our data also suggest that miR-126 represents a promising therapeutic target.

Baras AS, Gandhi N, Munari E, et al.
Identification and Validation of Protein Biomarkers of Response to Neoadjuvant Platinum Chemotherapy in Muscle Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131245 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) for patients with muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (MIBC) treated with cystectomy alone is approximately 50%. Platinum based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) plus cystectomy results in a marginal 5-10% increase in 5-year CSS in MIBC. Interestingly, responders to NAC (METHODS: mRNA expression data from a prior report on a NAC-treated MIBC cohort were re-analyzed in conjunction with the antibody database of the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) to identify candidate protein based biomarkers detectable by immunohistochemistry (IHC). These candidate biomarkers were subsequently tested in tissue microarrays derived from an independent cohort of NAC naive MIBC biopsy specimens from whom the patients were treated with neoadjuvant gemcitabine cisplatin NAC and subsequent cystectomy. The clinical parameters that have been previously associated with NAC response were also examined in our cohort.
RESULTS: Our analyses of the available mRNA gene expression data in a discovery cohort (n = 33) and the HPA resulted in 8 candidate protein biomarkers. The combination of GDPD3 and SPRED1 resulted in a multivariate classification tree that was significantly associated with NAC response status (Goodman-Kruskal γ = 0.85 p<0.0001) in our independent NAC treated MIBC cohort. This model was independent of the clinical factors of age and clinical tumor stage, which have been previously associated with NAC response by our group. The combination of both these protein biomarkers detected by IHC in biopsy specimens along with the relevant clinical parameters resulted in a prediction model able to significantly stratify the likelihood of NAC resistance in our cohort (n = 37) into two well separated halves: low-26% n = 19 and high-89% n = 18, Fisher's exact p = 0.0002).
CONCLUSION: We illustrate the feasibility of translating a gene expression signature of NAC response from a discovery cohort into immunohistochemical markers readily applicable to MIBC biopsy specimens in our independent cohort. The results from this study are being characterized in additional validation cohorts. Additionally, we anticipate that emerging somatic mutations in MIBC will also be important for NAC response prediction. The relationship of the findings in this study to the current understanding of variant histologic subtypes of MIBC along with the evolving molecular subtypes of MIBC as it relates to NAC response remains to be fully characterized.

Assinder SJ, Beniamen D, Lovicu FJ
Cosuppression of Sprouty and Sprouty-related negative regulators of FGF signalling in prostate cancer: a working hypothesis.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:827462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulation of FGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling is common in prostate cancer. Normally, to moderate RTK signalling, induction of Sprouty (SPRY) and Sprouty-related (SPRED) antagonists occurs. Whilst decreased SPRY and SPRED has been described in some cancers, their role in prostate cancer is poorly understood. Therefore, we hypothesise that due to the need for tight regulation of RTK signalling, SPRY and SPRED negative regulators provide a degree of redundancy which ensures that a suppression of one or more family member does not lead to disease. Contrary to this, our analyses of prostates from 24-week-old Spry1- or Spry2-deficientmice, either hemizygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the null allele, revealed a significantly greater incidence of PIN compared to wild-type littermates. We further investigated redundancy of negative regulators in the clinical setting in a preliminary analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus and Oncomine human prostate cancer datasets. Consistent with our hypothesis, in two datasets analysed a significant cosuppression of SPRYs and SPREDs is evident. These findings demonstrate the importance of negative regulators of receptor tyrosine signalling, such as Spry, in the clinical setting, and highlight their importance for future pharmacopeia.

Gleize V, Alentorn A, Connen de Kérillis L, et al.
CIC inactivating mutations identify aggressive subset of 1p19q codeleted gliomas.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 78(3):355-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: CIC gene is frequently mutated in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p19q codeletion. However, clinical and biological impact remain poorly understood.
METHODS: We sequenced the CIC gene on 127 oligodendroglial tumors (109 with the 1p19q codeletion) and analyzed patients' outcome. We compared magnetic resonance imaging, transcriptomic profile, and CIC protein expression of CIC wild-type (WT) and mutant gliomas. We compared the level of expression of CIC target genes on Hs683-IDH1(R132H) cells transfected with lentivirus encoding mutant and WT CIC.
RESULTS: We found 63 mutations affecting 60 of 127 patients, virtually all 1p19q codeleted and IDH mutated (59 of 60). In the 1p19q codeleted gliomas, CIC mutations were associated with a poorer outcome by uni- (p = 0.001) and multivariate analysis (p < 0.016). CIC mutation prognostic impact was validated on the TCGA cohort. CIC mutant grade II codeleted gliomas spontaneously grew faster than WTs. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an enrichment of proliferative pathways and oligodendrocyte precursor cell gene expression profile in CIC mutant gliomas, with upregulation of normally CIC repressed genes ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and CCND1. Various missense mutations resulted in CIC protein expression loss. Moreover, a truncating CIC mutation resulted in a defect of nuclear targeting of CIC protein to the nucleus in a human glioma cell line expressing IDH1(R132H) and overexpression of CCND1 and other new target genes of CIC, such as DUSP4 and SPRED1.
INTERPRETATION: CIC mutations result in protein inactivation with upregulation of CIC target genes, activation of proliferative pathways, inhibition of differentiation, and poorer outcome in patients with a 1p19q codeleted glioma.

Delire B, Stärkel P
The Ras/MAPK pathway and hepatocarcinoma: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2015; 45(6):609-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major health problem, often diagnosed at an advanced stage. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is to date the sole approved systemic therapy. Several signalling pathways are implicated in tumour development and progression. Among these pathways, the Ras/MAPK pathway is activated in 50-100% of human HCCs and is correlated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this work was to review the main intracellular mechanisms leading to aberrant Ras pathway activation in HCC and the potential therapeutic implications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is based on the material found on PubMed up to December 2014. 'Ras signaling, Ras dysregulation, Ras inhibition, MAPK pathway, cancer, hepatocarcinoma and liver cancer' alone or in combination were the main terms used for online research.
RESULTS: Multiple mechanisms lead to the deregulation of the Ras pathway in liver cancer. Ras and Raf gene mutations are rare events in human hepatocarcinogenesis in contrast to experimental models in rodents. Downregulation of several Ras/MAPK pathway inhibitors such as GAPs, RASSF proteins, DUSP1, Sprouty and Spred proteins is largely implicated in the aberrant activation of this pathway in the context of wild-type Ras and Raf genes. Epigenetic or post-transcriptional mechanisms lead to the downregulation of these tumour suppressor genes.
CONCLUSION: Ras/MAPK pathway effectors may be considered as potential therapeutic targets in the field of HCC. In particular after the arrival of sorafenib, more Ras/MAPK inhibitors have emerged and are still in preclinical or clinical investigation for HCC therapy.

Olsson L, Albitar F, Castor A, et al.
Cooperative genetic changes in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with deletions or mutations of IKZF1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(5):315-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
In contrast to IKZF1 deletions (ΔIKZF1), IKZF1 sequence mutations (mutIKZF1) have been reported to be rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and their clinical implications are unknown. We performed targeted deep sequencing of all exons of IKZF1 in 140 pediatric cases, eight (5.7%) of which harbored a mutIKZF1. The probabilities of relapse (pRel) and event-free survival (pEFS) did not differ between cases with or without mutIKZF1, whereas pEFS was decreased and pRel increased in ΔIKZF1-positive case. Coexisting microdeletions, mutations (FLT3, JAK2, SH2B3, and SPRED1), and rearrangements (ABL1, CRLF2, JAK2, and PDGFRB) in 35 ΔIKZF1 and/or mutIKZF1-positive cases were ascertained using fluorescence in situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism array, Sanger, and targeted deep sequencing analyses. The overall frequencies of copy number alterations did not differ between cases with our without ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1. Deletions of HIST1, SH2B3, and the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1), associated with deregulation of CRLF2, were more common in ΔIKZF1-positive cases, whereas PAR1 deletions and JAK2 mutations were overrepresented in the combined ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1 group. There was no significant impact on pRel of the deletions in ΔIKZF1-positive cases or of JAK2 mutations in cases with ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1. In contrast, the pRel was higher (P = 0.005) in ΔIKZF1/mutIKZF1-positive cases with PAR1 deletions.

Sharma SB, Lin CC, Farrugia MK, et al.
MicroRNAs 206 and 21 cooperate to promote RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling by suppressing the translation of RASA1 and SPRED1.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(22):4143-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the low prevalence of activating point mutation of RAS or RAF genes, the RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. Indeed, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), there is recurrent genetic alteration of pathway components. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) methods, we observed that the zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) can promote RAS-ERK signaling in TNBC cells. Endogenous KLF4 bound to the promoter regions and promoted the expression of two microRNAs (miRs), miR-206 and miR-21 (i.e., miR-206/21). Antisense-mediated knockdown (anti-miR) revealed that miR-206/21 coordinately promote RAS-ERK signaling and the corresponding cell phenotypes by inhibiting translation of the pathway suppressors RASA1 and SPRED1. In TNBC cells, including cells with mutation of RAS, the suppression of either RASA1 or SPRED1 increased the levels of GTP-bound, wild-type RAS and activated ERK 1/2. Unlike the control cells, treatment of RASA1- or SPRED1-suppressed cells with anti-miR-206/21 had little or no impact on the level of activated ERK 1/2 or on cell proliferation and failed to suppress tumor initiation. These results identify RASA1 and SPRED1 mRNAs as latent RAS-ERK pathway suppressors that can be upregulated in tumor cells by anti-miR treatment. Consequently, KLF4-regulated miRs are important for the maintenance of RAS-ERK pathway activity in TNBC cells.

Pasmant E, Parfait B, Luscan A, et al.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 molecular diagnosis: what can NGS do for you when you have a large gene with loss of function mutations?
Eur J Hum Genet. 2015; 23(5):596-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is challenging owing to the large size of the tumour suppressor gene NF1, and the lack of mutation hotspots. A somatic alteration of the wild-type NF1 allele is observed in NF1-associated tumours. Genetic heterogeneity in NF1 was confirmed in patients with SPRED1 mutations. Here, we present a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of NF1 and SPRED1 using a multiplex PCR approach (230 amplicons of ∼150 bp) on a PGM sequencer. The chip capacity allowed mixing 48 bar-coded samples in a 4-day workflow. We validated the NGS approach by retrospectively testing 30 NF1-mutated samples, and then prospectively analysed 279 patients in routine diagnosis. On average, 98.5% of all targeted bases were covered by at least 20X and 96% by at least 100X. An NF1 or SPRED1 alteration was found in 246/279 (88%) and 10/279 (4%) patients, respectively. Genotyping throughput was increased over 10 times, as compared with Sanger, with ∼90[euro ] for consumables per sample. Interestingly, our targeted NGS approach also provided quantitative information based on sequencing depth allowing identification of multiexons deletion or duplication. We then addressed the NF1 somatic mutation detection sensitivity in mosaic NF1 patients and tumours.

Haydn JM, Hufnagel A, Grimm J, et al.
The MAPK pathway as an apoptosis enhancer in melanoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):5040-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibition of RAF/MEK/ERK signaling is beneficial for many patients with BRAF(V600E)-mutated melanoma. However, primary and secondary resistances restrict long-lasting therapy success. Combination therapies are therefore urgently needed. Here, we evaluate the cellular effect of combining a MEK inhibitor with a genotoxic apoptosis inducer. Strikingly, we observed that an activated MAPK pathway promotes in several melanoma cell lines the pro-apoptotic response to genotoxic stress, and MEK inhibition reduces intrinsic apoptosis. This goes along with MEK inhibitor induced increased RAS and P-AKT levels. The protective effect of the MEK inhibitor depends on PI3K signaling, which prevents the induction of pro-apoptotic PUMA that mediates apoptosis after DNA damage. We could show that the MEK inhibitor dependent feedback loop is enabled by several factors, including EGF receptor and members of the SPRED family. The simultaneous knockdown of SPRED1 and SPRED2 mimicked the effects of MEK inhibitor such as PUMA repression and protection from apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that MEK inhibition of BRAF(V600E)-positive melanoma cells can protect from genotoxic stress, thereby achieving the opposite of the intended anti-tumorigenic effect of the combination of MEK inhibitor with inducers of intrinsic apoptosis.

Pasmant E, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Petit A, et al.
SPRED1, a RAS MAPK pathway inhibitor that causes Legius syndrome, is a tumour suppressor downregulated in paediatric acute myeloblastic leukaemia.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(5):631-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutional dominant loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a rare phenotype referred as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-like syndrome or Legius syndrome, consisted of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities and macrocephaly. SPRED1 is a negative regulator of the RAS MAPK pathway and can interact with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. Individuals with NF1 have a higher risk of haematological malignancies. SPRED1 is highly expressed in haematopoietic cells and negatively regulates haematopoiesis. SPRED1 seemed to be a good candidate for leukaemia predisposition or transformation. We performed SPRED1 mutation screening and expression status in 230 paediatric lymphoblastic and acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AMLs). We found a loss-of-function frameshift SPRED1 mutation in a patient with Legius syndrome. In this patient, the leukaemia blasts karyotype showed a SPRED1 loss of heterozygosity, confirming SPRED1 as a tumour suppressor. Our observation confirmed that acute leukaemias are rare complications of the Legius syndrome. Moreover, SPRED1 was significantly decreased at RNA and protein levels in the majority of AMLs at diagnosis compared with normal or paired complete remission bone marrows. SPRED1 decreased expression correlated with genetic features of AML. Our study reveals a new mechanism which contributes to deregulate RAS MAPK pathway in the vast majority of paediatric AMLs.

Ekvall S, Sjörs K, Jonzon A, et al.
Novel association of neurofibromatosis type 1-causing mutations in families with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.
Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(3):579-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is a rare condition with clinical features of both neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). All three syndromes belong to the RASopathies, which are caused by dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway. The major gene involved in NFNS is NF1, but co-occurring NF1 and PTPN11 mutations in NFNS have been reported. Knowledge about possible involvement of additional RASopathy-associated genes in NFNS is, however, very limited. We present a comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of eight affected individuals from three unrelated families displaying features of NF1 and NFNS. The genetic etiology of the clinical phenotypes was investigated by mutation analysis, including NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, SPRED1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and CBL. All three families harbored a heterozygous NF1 variant, where the first family had a missense variant, c.5425C>T;p.R1809C, the second family a recurrent 4bp-deletion, c.6789_6792delTTAC;p.Y2264Tfs*6, and the third family a splice-site variant, c.2991-1G>A, resulting in skipping of exon 18 and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. These NF1 variants have all previously been reported in NF1 patients. Surprisingly, both c.6789_6792delTTAC and c.2991-1G>A are frequently associated with NF1, but association to NFNS has, to our knowledge, not previously been reported. Our results support the notion that NFNS represents a variant of NF1, genetically distinct from NS, and is caused by mutations in NF1, some of which also cause classical NF1. Due to phenotypic overlap between NFNS and NS, we propose screening for NF1 mutations in NS patients, preferentially when café-au-lait spots are present.

Brems H, Legius E
Legius syndrome, an Update. Molecular pathology of mutations in SPRED1.
Keio J Med. 2013; 62(4):107-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are the hallmark of Von Recklinghausen disease, or neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In 2007 we reported that some individuals with multiple CALMs have a heterozygous mutation in the SPRED1 gene and have NF1-like syndrome, or Legius syndrome. Individuals with Legius syndrome have multiple CALMs with or without freckling, but they do not show the typical NF1-associated tumors such as neurofibromas or optic pathway gliomas. NF1-associated bone abnormalities and Lisch nodules are also not reported in patients with Legius syndrome. Consequently, individuals with Legius syndrome require less intense medical surveillance than those with NF1. The SPRED1 gene was identified in 2001 and codes for a protein that downregulates the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway; as does neurofibromin, the protein encoded by the NF1 gene. It is estimated that about 1-4% of individuals with multiple CALMs have a heterozygous SPRED1 mutation. Mutational and clinical data on 209 patients with Legius syndrome are tabulated in an online database (http://www.lovd.nl/SPRED1). Mice with homozygous knockout of the Spred1 gene show learning deficits and decreased synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons similar to those seen in Nf1 heterozygous mice, underlining the importance of the RAS-MAPK pathway for learning and memory. Recently, specific binding between neurofibromin and SPRED1 was demonstrated. SPRED1 seems to play an important role in recruiting neurofibromin to the plasma membrane.

Hamby SE, Reviriego P, Cooper DN, et al.
Screening in silico predicted remotely acting NF1 gene regulatory elements for mutations in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Hum Genomics. 2013; 7:18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a neuroectodermal disorder, is caused by germline mutations in the NF1 gene. NF1 affects approximately 1/3,000 individuals worldwide, with about 50% of cases representing de novo mutations. Although the NF1 gene was identified in 1990, the underlying gene mutations still remain undetected in a small but obdurate minority of NF1 patients. We postulated that in these patients, hitherto undetected pathogenic mutations might occur in regulatory elements far upstream of the NF1 gene. In an attempt to identify such remotely acting regulatory elements, we reasoned that some of them might reside within DNA sequences that (1) have the potential to interact at distance with the NF1 gene and (2) lie within a histone H3K27ac-enriched region, a characteristic of active enhancers. Combining Hi-C data, obtained by means of the chromosome conformation capture technique, with data on the location and level of histone H3K27ac enrichment upstream of the NF1 gene, we predicted in silico the presence of two remotely acting regulatory regions, located, respectively, approximately 600 kb and approximately 42 kb upstream of the NF1 gene. These regions were then sequenced in 47 NF1 patients in whom no mutations had been found in either the NF1 or SPRED1 gene regions. Five patients were found to harbour DNA sequence variants in the distal H3K27ac-enriched region. Although these variants are of uncertain pathological significance and still remain to be functionally characterized, this approach promises to be of general utility for the detection of mutations underlying other inherited disorders that may be caused by mutations in remotely acting regulatory elements.

Olsson L, Castor A, Behrendtz M, et al.
Deletions of IKZF1 and SPRED1 are associated with poor prognosis in a population-based series of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed between 1992 and 2011.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(2):302-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the favorable prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a substantial subset of patients relapses. As this occurs not only in the high risk but also in the standard/intermediate groups, the presently used risk stratification is suboptimal. The underlying mechanisms for treatment failure include the presence of genetic changes causing insensitivity to the therapy administered. To identify relapse-associated aberrations, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism array analyses of 307 uniformly treated, consecutive pediatric ALL cases accrued during 1992-2011. Recurrent aberrations of 14 genes in patients who subsequently relapsed or had induction failure were detected. Of these, deletions/uniparental isodisomies of ADD3, ATP10A, EBF1, IKZF1, PAN3, RAG1, SPRED1 and TBL1XR1 were significantly more common in B-cell precursor ALL patients who relapsed compared with those remaining in complete remission. In univariate analyses, age (≥10 years), white blood cell counts (>100 × 10(9)/l), t(9;22)(q34;q11), MLL rearrangements, near-haploidy and deletions of ATP10A, IKZF1, SPRED1 and the pseudoautosomal 1 regions on Xp/Yp were significantly associated with decreased 10-year event-free survival, with IKZF1 abnormalities being an independent risk factor in multivariate analysis irrespective of the risk group. Older age and deletions of IKZF1 and SPRED1 were also associated with poor overall survival. Thus, analyses of these genes provide clinically important information.

Kachroo N, Valencia T, Warren AY, Gnanapragasam VJ
Evidence for downregulation of the negative regulator SPRED2 in clinical prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(3):597-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SPRED1 and 2 are key negative regulators of MAPK signalling in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate the expression and functional role of SPREDs in prostate cancer.
METHODS: A transcriptome bank of microdissected grade-specific primary cancers was constructed and interrogated for transcript expression of prostate cancer genes, known negative signalling regulators as well as SPRED1 and 2. The effect of SPRED2 manipulation was tested in in vitro assays.
RESULTS: In a panel of 5 benign glands and 15 tumours, we observed concomitant downregulation of the negative regulators SEF and DUSP1 in tumours with increasing Gleason grade. Profiling in the same cohorts revealed downregulation of SPRED2 mRNA in tumours compared with benign glands (P<0.05). By contrast, SPRED1 expression remained unchanged. This observation was further validated in two additional separate cohorts of microdissected tumours (total of n=10 benign and n=58 tumours) with specific downregulation of SPRED2 particularly in higher grade tumours. In functional assays, SPRED2 overexpression reduced ERK phosphorylation and inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration in response to different growth factors and full-media stimulation (P<0.001). Conversely, SPRED2 suppression by siRNA enhanced the mitogenic response to growth factors and full media (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: These data suggest first evidence that SPRED2 is downregulated in prostate cancer and warrants further investigation as a potential tumour-suppressor gene.

McClatchey AI, Cichowski K
SPRED proteins provide a NF-ty link to Ras suppression.
Genes Dev. 2012; 26(14):1515-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in the SPRED1 (Sprouty-related protein with an EVH [Ena/Vasp homology] domain 1) and NF1 (neurofibromatosis 1) genes underlie clinically related human disorders. The NF1-encoded protein neurofibromin is a Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and can directly limit Ras activity. Spred proteins also negatively regulate Ras signaling, but the mechanism by which they do so is not clear. In the July 1, 2012, issue of Genes & Development, Stowe and colleagues (pp. 1421-1426) present evidence that Spred1 recruits neurofibromin to the membrane, where it dampens growth factor-induced Ras activity, providing a satisfying explanation for the overlapping features of two human diseases.

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