Gene Summary

Gene:SPP1; secreted phosphoprotein 1
Aliases: OPN, BNSP, BSPI, ETA-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the attachment of osteoclasts to the mineralized bone matrix. The encoded protein is secreted and binds hydroxyapatite with high affinity. The osteoclast vitronectin receptor is found in the cell membrane and may be involved in the binding to this protein. This protein is also a cytokine that upregulates expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-12. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SPP1 (cancer-related)

Li Y, He S, He A, et al.
Identification of plasma secreted phosphoprotein 1 as a novel biomarker for upper tract urothelial carcinomas.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 113:108744 [PubMed] Related Publications
The key prognostic factor at the time of diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) is whether the tumor is in the muscle-invasive or non-muscle invasive stage. It is critical to identify novel molecular biomarkers for early detection and target therapy. Plasma proteins secreted by tumor tissues have excellent potential as biomarkers for UTUC. In this study, we conducted a systematic study to identify plasma markers for UTUC based on RNA-seq data from five UTUC tissues and paired adjacent noncancerous mucosa. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) was the most significant gene that coding secretory protein. Then, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of SPP1 in UTUC. Results found that SPP1 mRNA was upregulated in UTUC cells and tissues, and high SPP1 mRNA expression level was closely related to advanced stage and high grade. Moreover, it is suggested that plasma SPP1 may be a potential biomarker to help identify early-stage UTUC patients and predict invasive and high-grade UTUC. In conclusion, plasma SPP1 is a novel biomarker for UTUC.

Ferrari E, Wittig A, Basilico F, et al.
Urinary Proteomics Profiles Are Useful for Detection of Cancer Biomarkers and Changes Induced by Therapeutic Procedures.
Molecules. 2019; 24(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer treatment modality where two different agents (

Yang H, Wu J, Zhang J, et al.
Integrated bioinformatics analysis of key genes involved in progress of colon cancer.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(4):e00588 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is one of most malignant cancers around worldwide. Nearly 20% patients were diagnosed at colon cancer with metastasis. However, the lack of understanding regarding its pathogenesis brings difficulties to study it.
METHODS: In this study, we acquired high-sequence data from GEO dataset, and performed integrated bioinformatic analysis including differently expressed genes, gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways analysis, protein-protein analysis, survival analysis to analyze the development of colon cancer.
RESULTS: By comparing the colon cancer tissues with normal colon tissues, 109 genes were dysregulated; among them, 83 genes were downregulated and 26 genes were upregulated. Two clusters were founded based on the STRING database and MCODE plugin of cytoscape software. Then, six genes with prognostic value were filtered out in UALCAN website.
CONCLUSION: We found that SPP1, VIP, COL11A1, CA2, ADAM12, INHBA could provide great significant prognostic value for colon cancer.

Alsarkhi LK, Weber GF
Anti‑osteopontin autoantibodies in various types of cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3879-3889 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aberrant processing of biomolecules by cancer cells may give rise to autoimmune phenomena. The metastasis gene osteopontin is alternatively spliced only in transformed cells, and the variants promote tumor progression. They may also serve as tumor‑associated antigens, and their neutralization by autoantibodies could favorably affect prognosis. A competitive solid‑phase ELISA format was applied to determine reactivity toward recombinant osteopontin in human serum or plasma samples. Approximately 35% of thyroid cancer patients and 15% of other cancer patients were found to harbor autoantibodies directed to osteopontin variants, averaging 21% of patients across all cancers studied. The reactivity of the autoantibodies was consistent with the differential appearance of splice variants in individual malignancies. In thyroid cancer, autoantibodies were found to be more frequently associated with a milder form of the disease. The junctions of osteopontin splice variants produced by cancers represent tumor‑associated neo‑epitopes. Whereas the uniqueness of their sequences renders the acquisition of tolerance during immune maturation improbable, their immunogenicity is predicted to be low. The rare occurrence of antibodies to either osteopontin‑b or osteopontin‑c suggests that the breaking of tolerance to full‑length osteopontin is more prevalent in tumor autoimmunity than a reaction to a poorly immunogenic neo‑epitope.

Han B, Huang J, Han Y, et al.
The microRNA miR-181c enhances chemosensitivity and reduces chemoresistance in breast cancer cells via down-regulating osteopontin.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 125:544-556 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent challenge in cancer care and one of the leading causes for failing breast cancer therapies. There is accumulative clinical and experimental evidence indicating that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in developing therapeutic resistance in cancer cells. We aimed to explore key miRNAs and associated mechanisms by which breast cancer develops chemoresistance. In this study, we found that a particular miRNA species, miR-181c, was significantly low-expressed in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which developed chemoresistance towards doxorubicin (Adriamycin, ADR, subclone renamed as MCF-7/ADR) than in the wild-type MCF-7 cells. Induced overexpression of miR-181c significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reversed the chemoresistance towards doxorubicin, and reduced the growth of resistant breast cancer xenograft tumors in vitro and in vivo. Using a bioinformatics approach, we also identified osteopontin (OPN) as a direct target of miR-181c. In contrast to low miR-181c expression in MCF-7/ADR cells, OPN showed a reversely high expression in resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Our results suggest that miR-181c may regulate chemosensitivity and chemoresistance by downregulating OPN, resulting in enhanced p53-dependent transactivation and apoptosis in resistant breast cancer cells. This study provides new insights to develop effective interventions for cancer patients with acquired resistance to chemotherapy.

Zhang X, Zhang L, Tan X, et al.
Systematic analysis of genes involved in oral cancer metastasis to lymph nodes.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral cancer remains a deadly disease worldwide. Lymph node metastasis and invasion is one of the causes of death from oral cancer. Elucidating the mechanism of oral cancer lymph node metastasis and identifying critical regulatory genes are important for the treatment of this disease. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (gene signature) and pathways that contribute to oral cancer metastasis to lymph nodes. The GSE70604-associated study compared gene profiles in lymph nodes with metastasis of oral cancer to those of normal lymph nodes. The GSE2280-associated study compared gene profiles in primary tumor of oral cancer with lymph node metastasis to those in tumors without lymph node metastasis. There are 28 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showing consistent changes in both datasets in overlapping analysis. GO biological process and KEGG pathway analysis of these 28 DEGs identified the gene signature CCND1, JUN and SPP1, which are categorized as key regulatory genes involved in the focal adhesion pathway. Silencing expression of CCND1, JUN and SPP1 in the human oral cancer cell line OECM-1 confirmed that those genes play essential roles in oral cancer cell invasion. Analysis of clinical samples of oral cancer found a strong correlation of these genes with short survival, especially JUN expression associated with metastasis. Our study identified a unique gene signature - CCND1, JUN and SPP1 - which may be involved in oral cancer lymph node metastasis.

Zhao L, Chi W, Cao H, et al.
Screening and clinical significance of tumor markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(1):143-154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In order to identify potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and treatment targets for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the present study obtained the gene expression profiles in HNSCC through public data mining, and core genes were identified using a series of bioinformatics analysis methods and databases. A total of nine hub genes (SPP1, ITGA6, TMPRSS11D, MMP1, LAMC2, FAT1, ACTA1, SERPINE1 and CEACAM1) were identified to be significantly correlated with HNSCC. Furthermore, overall survival analysis demonstrated that the expression values of hub genes were associated with overall survival in HNSCC. Furthermore, certain of the identified genes, including, TMPRSS11D, ACTA1 and CEACAM1, have not been thoroughly investigated in HNSCC previously. Taken together, the nine hub genes obtained by screening in the present study may serve as potential tumor markers and important prognostic indicators for HNSCC.

Ferreira LB, Lima RT, Bastos ACSDF, et al.
OPNa Overexpression Is Associated with Matrix Calcification in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteopontin (OPN) spliced variants (OPN-SV: OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc) are aberrantly expressed in tumors and frequently associated with cancer progression. This holds true for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), which is the most common type of thyroid cancer (TC). PTC often presents with desmoplasia and dystrophic calcification, including psammoma bodies (PB). This work aimed to investigate total OPN (tOPN) and OPN-SV expression and their association with the presence of PB in the PTC classical variants (cPTC), as well as the involvement of OPN-SV in matrix calcification of TC cell lines. We found that cPTC samples presenting PB showed higher OPN expression levels. In TC cell lines, OPNa overexpression promotes higher matrix calcification and collagen synthesis when compared to that of clones overexpressing OPNb or OPNc. In response to OPN knockdown, calcification was inhibited, paralleled with the downregulation of calcification markers. In conclusion, our data evidenced that OPN expression is associated with the presence of PB in cPTC samples. Among the OPN-SV, OPNa is the main contributor to matrix calcification in tested TC cells, providing clues to a better understanding on the biology and ethiopathogenesis of the calcification process in TC cells.

Li L, Wang R, He S, et al.
The identification of induction chemo-sensitivity genes of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinical utilization.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 275(11):2773-2781 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify potential molecular markers for induction chemotherapy of Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
METHODS: Differently expressed genes between chemo-sensitive group (seven cases) and chemo-insensitive (five cases) group after induction chemotherapy by TPF were identified by microarrays. Bayes network and Random forest analyses were employed to identify core genes for induction chemotherapy. The diagnostic value of these core genes was also evaluated by ROC analysis.
RESULTS: Six genes (SPP1, FOLR3, KYNU, LOC653219, ADH7 and XAGE1A) are highly expressed, while seven gene (CADM1, NDUFA4L2, CCND2, RARRES3, ERAP2, LYD6 and CNTNAP2) present significantly low expression. Among these genes, genes CADM1, FOLR3, KYNU, and CNTNAP2 are core candidates for LSCC chemo-sensitivity. And that the low expression of CADM1 may result in chemo-sensitivity, which leads to high expression of gene FOLR3 and KYNU, and low expression of gene CNTNAP2. Besides, ROC analysis shows that these four genes exhibit effective diagnostic value for induction chemo-sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: CADM1 may be a potential molecular marker for LSCC induction chemotherapy, while CADM1, FOLR3, KYNU, and CNTNAP2 may provide essential guidance for LSCC diagnosis and follow-up treatment strategies.

Li S, Yang R, Sun X, et al.
Identification of SPP1 as a promising biomarker to predict clinical outcome of lung adenocarcinoma individuals.
Gene. 2018; 679:398-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
We identified and investigated the prognostic value of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients and evaluate the relationship between the SPP1 expression level and clinical characteristics. First, SPP1 was identified through four LUAD datasets in GEO database and validated by the TCGA database. Then a total of 149 lung adenocarcinoma patients were included, as well as their clinicopathological characteristics collected in the study. The expression levels of SPP1 and adjacent normal tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The association between SPP1 and its prognostic value was systematically evaluated. Results showed high SPP1 level predicted poorer LUAD survival by univariate Cox analysis (P = 0.017), and the multivariate result was also significant (P = 0.021). Subgroup analysis suggested the prognostic value of SPP1 was significant in stage T1 (log rank P = 0.011), stage N0 (log rank P = 0.046) and stage N1 (log rank P = 0.009) patients. After including these markers into a nomogram, the Harrell's C-index of the nomogram was 0.694. In summary, our findings suggest that SPP1 is an independent biomarker with prognostic significance in LUAD.

Yamada D, Fujikawa K, Kawabe K, et al.
RUNX2 Promotes Malignant Progression in Glioma.
Neurochem Res. 2018; 43(11):2047-2054 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor. However, therapeutic strategies against malignant gliomas have not been completely established. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential gene for skeletal development but its regulatory role in the malignant progression of glioma remains unclear. Here we investigated expression levels of RUNX2 in glioma tissues and its regulatory effects on aberrant growth of glioma cells. RUNX2 mRNA levels were higher in GBM tissues than that of normal brains or low-grade gliomas. RUNX2 protein was detected in five out of seven human GBM cell lines and its level was positively correlated with proliferative capacity. Stable transduction of dominant-negative Runx2 in rat-derived C6 glioma cells not only inhibited the promoter activity containing Runx2 response element, but also decreased mRNA expression levels of Runx2 target genes, such as Mmp13 and Spp1, as well as the proliferative capacity. Furthermore, transient introduction of Runx2-targeted siRNAs into C6 glioma cells significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of Mmp13 and Spp1 and the proliferative capacity. Furthermore, Runx2 knockdown suppressed both Ccnd1 mRNA expression and activation of the Ccnd1 promoter by forskolin, a PKA-activating reagent, in C6 glioma cells. Our results demonstrate that cross-talk between cAMP/PKA signaling and RUNX2 promotes a malignant phenotype of glioma cells.

Hauptman N, Boštjančič E, Žlajpah M, et al.
Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Most Prominent Gene Candidates to Distinguish Colorectal Adenoma from Adenocarcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9416515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death by cancer worldwide. Bowel cancer screening programs enable us to detect early lesions and improve the prognosis of patients with CRC. However, they also generate a significant number of problematic polyps, e.g., adenomas with epithelial misplacement (pseudoinvasion) which can mimic early adenocarcinoma. Therefore, biomarkers that would enable us to distinguish between adenoma with epithelial misplacement (pseudoinvasion) and adenoma with early adenocarcinomas (true invasion) are needed. We hypothesized that the former are genetically similar to adenoma and the latter to adenocarcinoma and we used bioinformatics approach to search for candidate genes that might be potentially used to distinguish between the two lesions. We used publicly available data from Gene Expression Omnibus database and we analyzed gene expression profiles of 252 samples of normal mucosa, colorectal adenoma, and carcinoma. In total, we analyzed 122 colorectal adenomas, 59 colorectal carcinomas, and 62 normal mucosa samples. We have identified 16 genes with differential expression in carcinoma compared to adenoma:

D'Souza AM, Jiang Y, Cast A, et al.
Gankyrin Promotes Tumor-Suppressor Protein Degradation to Drive Hepatocyte Proliferation.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 6(3):239-255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background & Aims: Uncontrolled liver proliferation is a key characteristic of liver cancer; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. Elucidation of these mechanisms is necessary for the development of better therapy. The oncogene Gankyrin (Gank) is overexpressed in both hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. The aim of this work was to determine the role of Gank in liver proliferation and elucidate the mechanism by which Gank promotes liver proliferation.
Methods: We generated Gank liver-specific knock-out (GLKO) mice and examined liver biology and proliferation after surgical resection and liver injury.
Results: Global profiling of gene expression in GLKO mice showed significant changes in pathways involved in liver cancer and proliferation. Investigations of liver proliferation after partial hepatectomy and CCl
Conclusions: These studies show that Gank promotes hepatocyte proliferation by elimination of TSPs. This work provides background for the development of Gank-mediated therapy for the treatment of liver cancer. RNA sequencing data can be accessed in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus: GSE104395.

Im E, Yeo C, Lee EO
Luteolin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via inhibiting the AKT/osteopontin pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells.
Life Sci. 2018; 209:259-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, possesses anti-cancer effects including induction of apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of osteopontin (OPN) in luteolin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep-1 cells with high OPN expression.
MAIN METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability. Cell cycle analysis was performed to identify apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by detecting cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments using a cell death detection ELISA
KEY FINDINGS: Cytotoxic effect of luteolin was higher in cancer cell line SK-Hep-1 cells than in normal cell line AML12 cells. Luteolin led a significantly increase in apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase 8, -9 and -3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which was completely blocked by Z-VAD-FMK, a pan caspase inhibitor. Luteolin significantly downregulated the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), Mcl-1 and Bid. Furthermore, luteolin effectively decreased OPN expression at both mRNA and protein level. Exogenous OPN markedly blocked apoptosis induction, caspases activation, PARP cleavage, downregulation of XIAP and Mcl-1 in luteolin-treated cells. Luteolin impaired the AKT pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of AKT. SC79, an AKT activator, blocked apoptosis induction, caspases activation, PARP cleavage, downregulation of OPN, XIAP, Mcl-1 and Bid in luteolin-treated cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated that luteolin inhibits the AKT/OPN pathway, thereby inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis in human HCC SK-Hep-1 cells with little toxicity.

Gao X, Sheng Y, Yang J, et al.
Osteopontin alters DNA methylation through up-regulating DNMT1 and sensitizes CD133+/CD44+ cancer stem cells to 5 azacytidine in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):179 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), CD133+/CD44+ cells are one subgroup with high stemness and responsible for metastatic relapse and resistance to treatment. Our previous studies have demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) plays critical roles in HCC metastasis. We further investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the role of OPN in regulating the stemness of HCC epigenetically and explored possible targeting strategy.
METHODS: CD133+/CD44+ subgroup sorting from HCC cell lines and HCC tissues was used to investigate the effects of OPN knockdown on stemness. iTRAQ and MedIP-sequencing were applied to detect the protein profile and epigenetic modification of CD133+/CD44+ subgroup with or without OPN knockdown. The antitumor effects of 5 Azacytidine were examined in cultured HCC cells and patient derived xenograft (PDX) models.
RESULTS: OPN was accumulated in CD133+/CD44+ subgroup of HCC cells. Knocking down OPN significantly inhibited the sphere formation and stemness-related genes expression, and delayed tumor initiation of CD133+/CD44+ subgroup of HCC cells. Employing MedIP-sequencing, dot blot and iTRAQ analyses of CD133+/CD44+ SCR and CD133+/CD44+ shOPN cells, we found that OPN knockdown leaded to reduction in DNA methylation with particular enrichment in CGI. Meanwhile, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the main methylation maintainer, was downregulated via proteomics analysis, which mediated OPN altering DNA methylation. Furthermore, DNMT1 upregulation could partially rescue the properties of CD133+/CD44+ shOPN cells. Both in vitro and in vivo assays showed that CD133+/CD44+ cells with high OPN levels were more sensitive to DNA methylation inhibitor, 5 Azacytidine (5 Aza). The above findings were validated in HCC primary cells, a more clinically relevant model.
CONCLUSIONS: OPN induces methylome reprogramming to enhance the stemness of CD133+/CD44+ subgroup and provides the therapeutic benefits to DNMT1 targeting treatment in HCC.

Caraballo ER, Palacios DA, Suk-Ouichai C, et al.
Open partial nephrectomy when a non-flank approach is required: indications and outcomes.
World J Urol. 2019; 37(3):515-522 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate indications/outcomes for open partial nephrectomy (OPN) when non-flank approaches are required, with comparison to patients managed with the flank approach. Outcomes with a non-flank approach are presumed less favorable yet there have been no previous reports on this topic.
METHODS: 2747 OPNs were performed (1999-2015) and 76 (2.8%) required a non-flank approach. We also reviewed all traditional flank OPNs performed during odd years in this timeframe yielding 1467 patients for comparison.
RESULTS: Overall, median tumor size was 3.5 cm and 274 patients (18%) had a solitary kidney. Non-flank patients were younger, and tumor size and clinical/pathologic stage were significantly increased for this cohort, but the groups were otherwise comparable. Indications for non-flank OPN included large tumor size/locally advanced disease (n = 21), need for simultaneous surgery (n = 25), previous flank incision or failed thermoablation (n = 13), or congenital/vascular abnormalities (n = 9). The most common non-flank approach was anterior subcostal (n = 39, 51%). Operative times, estimated blood loss, positive margins, and functional decline were all modestly increased for non-flank patients. Intraoperative and genitourinary complications were more common in non-flank patients (p < 0.05), although all were manageable, typically with conservative measures. There were no mortalities among non-flank patients and none required long-term dialysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our series, the first to address this topic, suggests that outcomes with non-flank OPN are generally less advantageous likely reflecting increased tumor/operative complexity. However, complications in this challenging patient population are manageable and final dispositions are generally favorable. Our findings should be useful for counseling regarding potential outcomes when a non-flank incision is required.

Chang J, Bhasin SS, Bielenberg DR, et al.
Chemotherapy-generated cell debris stimulates colon carcinoma tumor growth via osteopontin.
FASEB J. 2019; 33(1):114-125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colon cancer recurrence after therapy, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), remains a challenge in the clinical setting. Chemotherapy reduces tumor burden by inducing cell death; however, the resulting dead tumor cells, or debris, may paradoxically stimulate angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor growth. Here, we demonstrate that 5-FU-generated colon carcinoma debris stimulates the growth of a subthreshold inoculum of living tumor cells in subcutaneous and orthotopic models. Debris triggered the release of osteopontin (OPN) by tumor cells and host macrophages. Both coinjection of debris and systemic treatment with 5-FU increased plasma OPN levels in tumor-bearing mice. RNA expression levels of secreted phosphoprotein 1, the gene that encodes OPN, correlate with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer and are elevated in chemotherapy-treated patients who experience tumor recurrence vs. no recurrence. Pharmacologic and genetic ablation of OPN inhibited debris-stimulated tumor growth. Systemic treatment with a combination of a neutralizing OPN antibody and 5-FU dramatically inhibited tumor growth. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of tumor progression mediated by OPN released in response to chemotherapy-generated tumor cell debris. Neutralization of debris-stimulated OPN represents a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome the inherent limitation of cytotoxic therapies as a result of the generation of cell debris.-Chang, J., Bhasin, S. S., Bielenberg, D. R., Sukhatme, V. P., Bhasin, M., Huang, S., Kieran, M. W., Panigrahy, D. Chemotherapy-generated cell debris stimulates colon carcinoma tumor growth via osteopontin.

Silva MA, Lopes DS, Teixeira SC, et al.
Genotoxic effects of BnSP-6, a Lys-49 phospholipase A
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 118(Pt A):311-319 [PubMed] Related Publications
Herein we evaluated the genotoxic effects of BnSP-6, a Lys-49 phospholipase A

Katoh M
Multi‑layered prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation, organ fibrosis and cancer associated with canonical WNT/β‑catenin signaling activation (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(2):713-725 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.

Choe EK, Yi JW, Chai YJ, Park KJ
Upregulation of the adipokine genes ADIPOR1 and SPP1 is related to poor survival outcomes in colorectal cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2018; 117(8):1833-1840 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We thus evaluated the expression of the adipokine gene family in CRC tissues and its clinicopathological implications.
METHODS: Correlations between the mRNA expression levels of the adipokine gene family (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1/2, LEP, LEPR, RETN, RETNLB, RBP4, SFRP5, NAMPT, and SPP1) in CRC tissue and clinicopathologic factors were analyzed using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database.
RESULTS: Tissue samples from 369 patients were analyzed, and 82 deaths occurred during follow-up (median, 670 days). Overall, mortality was associated with positive venous invasion, higher TNM stage, and increased ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1 gene) and SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein gene 1) mRNA expression. Higher ADIPOR1 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-8.13) and SPP1 (OR: 2.31, 95%CI: 1.49-3.59) levels were independently associated with increased mortality. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed shorter overall survival times in patients with higher ADIPOR1 (P = 0.006) and SPP1 (P < 0.001) expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ADIPOR1 and SPP1, among the adipokine gene family, in cancer tissue is associated with poor survival in CRC, suggesting a potential mechanism linking obesity and CRC. ADIPOR1 and SPP1 expression could become useful prognostic indicators after further validation.

Wang R, Jin Y, Yao XH, et al.
A novel mechanism of the M1-M2 methionine adenosyltransferase switch-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(9):1201-1212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) manifests as a highly metastatic cancer with extremely poor prognosis. However, mechanisms underlying metastasis of HCC are not fully understood. Here, we showed that switching gene expression from MAT1A to MAT2A (M1-M2 switch) promoted cancer invasion and metastasis. Reversion of the M1-M2 switch repressed, whereas enhancing the M1-M2 switch promoted the ability of HCC cells to metastasize. Moreover, we provided clinical data showing that tipping the balance between MAT1A and MAT2A expression correlated with increased metastasis and inferior recurrence-free survival in HCC patients. Molecular pathways analysis showed that downregulation of MAT1A, which augmented osteopontin (OPN) expression through decreasing methylation of the OPN promoter, and MAT2A upregulation, which induced integrin β3 (ITGB3) expression by binding to ITGB3 promoter, collaboratively triggered ERK signaling and thereby promoted metastasis. Thus, the simultaneous downregulation of MAT1A and upregulation of MAT2A are necessary and sufficient for HCC metastasis in the process of M1-M2 switch. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into cancer metastasis. Inhibition and prevention of the M1-M2 switch would offer a novel therapeutic option for treatment of HCC.

James NE, Cantillo E, Oliver MT, et al.
HE4 suppresses the expression of osteopontin in mononuclear cells and compromises their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer cells.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2018; 193(3):327-340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancers are known to evade immunosurveillance and to orchestrate a suppressive immune microenvironment. Here we examine the role of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), an ovarian cancer biomarker, in immune evasion. Through modified subtractive hybridization analyses we have characterized the gene targets of HE4 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and established a preliminary mechanism for HE4-mediated immune failure in ovarian tumours. Upon exposure of purified PMBCs to HE4, osteopontin (OPN) and dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) emerged as the most suppressed and up-regulated genes, respectively. SKOV3 and OVCAR8, human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, exhibited enhanced proliferation in conditioned media from HE4-exposed PBMCs, an effect that was attenuated by the addition of recombinant OPN or OPN-inducible cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-Ɣ]. Additionally, upon co-culture with PBMCs, HE4-silenced SKOV3 cells were found to be more susceptible to cytotoxic cell death. The relationship between HE4 and OPN was reinforced further through the analysis of serous ovarian cancer patient samples. In these biopsy specimens, the number of OPN

Song X, Yang C, Zhang H, et al.
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) Expression on Endothelial Cells in Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: A Review of 70 cases and Tissue Microarray Analysis.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2018; 127(6):357-366 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its related molecules (cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes [CREG], osteopontin [OPN], proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src [c-Src], and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and explore the correlation between clinical prognosis and HIF-1α expression.
METHODS: The study performed a retrospective review of the clinical records of patients with JNA treated between 2003 and 2007. Specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for HIF-1α, CREG, OPN, c-Src, and VEGF expression, and microvessel density (MVD) was assessed by tissue microarray. The correlation between expression levels and clinicopathological features including age, tumor stage, intraoperative blood loss, and recurrence was analyzed.
RESULTS: HIF-1α, CREG, OPN, c-Src, and VEGF were upregulated in endothelial cells (ECs) of patients with JNA, and strong correlations in the expression of these molecules were observed. HIF-1α expression was higher in young patients ( P = .032) and in recurrent cases ( P = .01). Survival analysis showed that low HIF-1α levels in ECs predicted longer time to recurrence (log rank test P = .006). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that HIF-1α was a prognostic factor for recurrence (area under the curve = 0.690, P = .019). No correlation was found between the expression of molecules and Radkowski stage or intraoperative blood loss.
CONCLUSION: In cases of JNA treated surgically, HIF-1α expression in ECs is a useful prognostic factor for tumor recurrence.

Abdel-Hafiz SM, Hamdy HE, Khorshed FM, et al.
Evaluation of Osteopontin as a Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV Cirrhosis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(4):1021-1027 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a high incidence disease in Egypt with a poor prognosis and survival. Biomarkers are important for diagnosis of HCC at an early stage. Osteopontin (OPN), a glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, osteoblasts, and T cells, is also highly expressed in a variety of tumors, such as examples in the breast, colon, and stomach. The present study aimed to correlate the serum level of OPN in HCV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma patients, with OPN expression in tumor and non-tumor liver tissues in order to identify its efficacy as a biomarker for diagnosis. Material and Methods: Out of total of 146 patients, 80 were selected for inclusion in the study. Blood samples as well as specimens of tumor and non-tumor liver tissue were collected. In addition, blood samples from 20 healthy volunteers were obtained as controls. Serum OPN and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were evaluated by ELISA for HCC and control groups. OPN and AFP gene expression were examined by real-time PCR, after homogenization and DNA extraction from serum samples and liver tissues. Results: It was found that serum OPN levels were significantly higher in the HCC group compared to normal group (P=0.009), with a strong positive correlation with AFP expression. However, there was no significant difference between OPN expression in tumor and non-tumor liver tissue. Conclusion: Serum OPN is highly suggested to be a professional candidate for HCC early diagnosis, with a diagnostic ability and accuracy equal or higher than for AFP.

Chang AC, Chen PC, Lin YF, et al.
Osteoblast-secreted WISP-1 promotes adherence of prostate cancer cells to bone via the VCAM-1/integrin α4β1 system.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 426:47-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in prostate cancer (PCa) that is associated with severe complications such as fracture, bone pain and hypercalcemia. The cross-talk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. In our previous data, we have described how the involvement of the Wnt-induced secreted protein-1/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (WISP-1/VCAM-1) system in this tumor-bone interaction contributes to human PCa cell motility. In this study, we found that WISP-1 regulates bone mineralization by inducing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), BMP4 and osteopontin (OPN) expression in osteoblasts. We also found that WISP-1 inhibited RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, osteoblast-derived WISP-1 enhanced VCAM-1 expression in PCa cells and subsequently promoted the adherence of cancer cells to osteoblasts. Furthermore, endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in PCa cells was regulated by osteoblast-derived WISP-1, which promoted integrin α4β1 expression in osteoblasts via the MAPK pathway. Pretreatment of PCa cells with VCAM-1 antibody or osteoblasts with integrin α4β1 antibody attenuated the adherence of PCa cells to osteoblasts, suggesting that integrin α4β1 serves as a ligand that captures VCAM-1

Mirzaei A, Mohammadi S, Ghaffari SH, et al.
Osteopontin b and c Splice isoforms in Leukemias and Solid Tumors: Angiogenesis Alongside Chemoresistance
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(3):615-623 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein involved in regulation of various influences on tumor progression, such as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted molecule supporting angiogenesis in various cancers through activation of the PI3K/AKT/ERK1/2 pathway. OPN and VEGF have a number of isoforms with various activities. In spite of the well-defined association between OPN and VEGF isoform expression and cure rate for solid tumors, there is a scarcity of information as to any association in leukemia. Based on the critical role of OPN in cell survival, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that OPN and VEGF isoform expression levels may impact on chemoresistance and relapse in leukemia the same as in solid tumors. Hence, the aim of our review was to explain relationships between OPN and VEGF isoforms and angiogenesis and related pathways in chemoresistance of leukemia and solid tumors. Our findings demonstrated that OPNb and OPNc alongside with VEGF isoforms and other gene pathways are involved in angiogenesis and also might promote chemoresistance and even recurrence in leukemia and solid tumors. To sum up, targeting OPN isoforms, particularly b and c, might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of leukemia as well as solid tumors.

Han C, Bellone S, Siegel ER, et al.
A novel multiple biomarker panel for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 149(3):585-591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Since the majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. There is no single biomarker with the sensitivity and specificity required for effective cancer screening; therefore, we investigated a panel of novel biomarkers for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
METHODS: Twelve serum biomarkers with high differential gene expression and validated antibodies were selected: IL-1Ra, IL-6, Dkk-1, uPA, E-CAD, ErbB2, SLPI, HE4, CA125, LCN2, MSLN, and OPN. They were tested using Simple Plex™, a multi-analyte immunoassay platform, in samples collected from 172 patients who were either healthy, had benign gynecologic pathologies, or had high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, ROC area under the curve (AUC), and standard error (SE) of the AUC were obtained. Univariate ROC analyses and multivariate ROC analyses with the combination of multiple biomarkers were performed.
RESULTS: The 4-marker panel consisting of CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6 had the highest ROC AUC. When evaluated for the ability to distinguish early stage ovarian cancer from a non-cancer control, not only did this 4-marker panel (AUC=0.961) performed better than CA 125 alone (AUC=0.851; P=0.0150) and HE4 alone (AUC=0.870; P=0.0220), but also performed significantly better than the 2- marker combination of CA125+HE4 (AUC=0.922; P=0.0278). The 4-marker panel had the highest average sensitivity under the region of its ROC curve corresponding to specificity ranging from 100% down to ~95%.
CONCLUSION: The four-marker panel, CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6, shows potential in detecting serous ovarian cancer at earlier stages. Additional validation studies using the biomarker combination in ovarian cancer patients are warranted.

Pudova EA, Kudryavtseva AV, Fedorova MS, et al.
HK3 overexpression associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(Suppl 3):113 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The main cause of death in CRC includes tumor progression and metastasis. At molecular level, these processes may be triggered by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and necessitates specific alterations in cell metabolism. Although several EMT-related metabolic changes have been described in CRC, the mechanism is still poorly understood.
RESULTS: Using CrossHub software, we analyzed RNA-Seq expression profile data of CRC derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Correlation analysis between the change in the expression of genes involved in glycolysis and EMT was performed. We obtained the set of genes with significant correlation coefficients, which included 21 EMT-related genes and a single glycolytic gene, HK3. The mRNA level of these genes was measured in 78 paired colorectal cancer samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Upregulation of HK3 and deregulation of 11 genes (COL1A1, TWIST1, NFATC1, GLIPR2, SFPR1, FLNA, GREM1, SFRP2, ZEB2, SPP1, and RARRES1) involved in EMT were found. The results of correlation study showed that the expression of HK3 demonstrated a strong correlation with 7 of the 21 examined genes (ZEB2, GREM1, TGFB3, TGFB1, SNAI2, TWIST1, and COL1A1) in CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of HK3 is associated with EMT in CRC and may be a crucial metabolic adaptation for rapid proliferation, survival, and metastases of CRC cells.

Fei HJ, Chen SC, Zhang JY, et al.
Identification of significant biomarkers and pathways associated with gastric carcinogenesis by whole genome-wide expression profiling analysis.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):955-966 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of gastric cancer (GC) is extremely high in East Asia. GC is also one of the most common and lethal forms of cancer from a global perspective. However, to date, we have not been able to determine one or several genes as biomarkers in the diagnosis of GC and have also been unable to identify the genes which are important in the therapy of GC. In this study, we analyzed all genome-wide expression profiling arrays uploaded onto the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to filtrate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal stomach tissues and GC tissues. GSE13911, GSE19826 and GSE79973 were based on the GPL570 platform, and GSE29272 was based on the GPL96 platform. We screened out the DEGs from the two platforms and by selecting the intersection of these two platforms, we identified the common DEGs in the sequencing data from different laboratories. Finally, we obtained 3 upregulated and 34 downregulated DEGs in GC from 384 samples. As the number of downregulated DEGs was greater than that of the upregulated DEGs, functional analysis and pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the downregulated DEGs. Through our analysis, we identified the most significant genes associated with GC, such as secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), sulfatase 1 (SULF1), thrombospondin 2 (THBS2), ATPase H+/K+ transporting beta subunit (ATP4B), gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) and gastrokine 1 (GKN1). The prognostic power of these genes was corroborated in the Oncomine database and by Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM-plotter) analysis. Moreover, gastric acid secretion, collecting duct acid secretion, nitrogen metabolism and drug metabolism were significantly related to GC. Thus, these genes and pathways may be potential targets for improving the diagnosis and clinical effects in patients with GC.

Kumar D, Haldar S, Gorain M, et al.
Epoxyazadiradione suppresses breast tumor growth through mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-dependent apoptosis by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancers among women around the world. Among several subtypes, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly aggressive and chemoresistant. Treatment of TNBC patients has been challenging due to heterogeneity and devoid of well-defined molecular targets. Thus, identification of novel effective and selective agents against TNBC is essential.
METHODS: We used epoxyazadiradione to assess the cell viability, mitochondrial potential, ROS level, cell migration, apoptosis and protein expression in cell culture models of TNBC MDA-MB-231 and ER+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The molecular mechanism was examined in two different type of breast cancer cells in response to epoxyazadiradione. We have also analyzed the effect of epoxyazadiradione on breast tumor growth using in vivo mice model.
RESULTS: In this study, we for the first time investigated that out of 10 major limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica, epoxyazadiradione exhibits most potent anti-cancer activity in both TNBC and ER+ breast cancer cells. Epoxyazadiradione induces apoptosis and inhibits PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial potential, cell viability, migration and angiogenesis. It also inhibits the expression of pro-angiogenic and pro-metastatic genes such as Cox2, OPN, VEGF and MMP-9 in these cells. Furthermore, epoxyazadiradione attenuates PI3K/Akt-mediated AP-1 activation. Our in vivo data revealed that epoxyazadiradione suppresses breast tumor growth and angiogenesis in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that epoxyazadiradione inhibits PI3K/Akt-dependent mitochondrial depolarisation, induces apoptosis and attenuates cell migration, angiogenesis and breast tumor growth suggesting that this compound may act as a potent therapeutic agent for the management of breast cancer.

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