Gene Summary

Gene:SCGB1A1; secretoglobin family 1A member 1
Aliases: UGB, UP1, CC10, CC16, CCSP, UP-1, CCPBP
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the secretoglobin family of small secreted proteins. The encoded protein has been implicated in numerous functions including anti-inflammation, inhibition of phospholipase A2 and the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands. Defects in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to asthma. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Pulmonary Surfactants
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase
  • Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Lung
  • TP53
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Respiratory Mucosa
  • Uteroglobin
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Proteins
  • Proteolipids
  • Gene Expression
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Lung Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 11
  • Wound Healing
  • Promoter Regions
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • Transcription Factors
  • RT-PCR
  • Hyperplasia
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer RNA
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Bronchi
  • Epithelial Cells
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Tripartite Motif Proteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Carcinogens
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SCGB1A1 (cancer-related)

Khosravi N, Caetano MS, Cumpian AM, et al.
IL22 Promotes
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(7):788-797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Zhang W, Cui Q, Qu W, et al.
TRIM58/cg26157385 methylation is associated with eight prognostic genes in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):206-216 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to analyze the differentially expressed genes related to the tripartite motif containing 58 (TRIM58)/cg26157385 methylation sites, and consequently to provide theoretical basis for elucidating the influence of TRIM58/cg26157385 methylation on lung cancer prognosis. Methylation‑sequencing information, mRNA expression profiling data and clinical data were downloaded from cBioPortal database to screen out candidate genes related to the methylation of TRIM58/cg26157385 in squamous cell lung carcinoma. The differentially expressed genes related to TRIM58 methylation were extracted form both training dataset and validation dataset. Cox regression analysis, risk scoring system construction, correlation analysis between the expression value of genes and clinical information were conducted to reveal TRIM58 methylation‑related factors. Additionally, GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Based on their expression level and the corresponding survival information for 347 out of 370 samples with squamous cell lung carcinoma, 183 genes significantly associated with prognosis were gained, and the top 8 ones, including alpha‑2‑macroglobulin‑like 1 (A2ML1), cyclin‑E1 (CCNE1), COBL, establishment of sister chromatid cohesion N‑acetyltransferase 2 (ESCO2), G protein‑coupled receptor 115 (GPR115), matrix metalloproteinases 10 (MMP10), OVO homologue‑like 1 (OVOL1) and secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), were candidate signature genes significantly correlated with TRIM58 methylation. Furthermore, targeted therapy was significantly correlated with prognosis. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal cells in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients were abnormal and the homeostasis was disturbed. Eight genes, including A2ML1, CCNE1, COBL, ESCO2, GPR115, MMP10, OVOL1 and SCGB1A1, were significantly related to TRIM58 methylation and treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma, and may be used as potential prognostic biomarkers. The present study would help to elucidate the influence of TRIM58/cg26157385 methylation on lung cancer prognosis.

Perloy A, Schouten LJ, van den Brandt PA, et al.
The Role of Genetic Variants in the Association between Dietary Acrylamide and Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2018 May-Jun; 70(4):620-631 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the association between dietary acrylanide and advanced prostate cancer, we examined acrylamide-gene interactions for advanced prostate cancer risk by using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants (n = 58,279 men) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily acrylamide intake was calculated. At baseline, 2,411 men were randomly selected from the full cohort for case-cohort analysis. Fifty eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two gene deletions in genes in acrylamide metabolism, DNA repair, sex steroid systems, and oxidative stress were analyzed. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 1,608 male subcohort members and 948 advanced prostate cancer cases were available for Cox analysis. Three SNPs showed a main association with advanced prostate cancer risk after multiple testing correction: catalase (CAT) rs511895, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) rs5275, and xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) rs2228001. With respect to acrylamide-gene interactions, only rs1800566 in NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and rs2301241 in thioredoxin (TXN) showed a nominally statistically significant multiplicative interaction with acrylamide intake for advanced prostate cancer risk. After multiple testing corrections, none were statistically significant. In conclusion, no clear evidence was found for interaction between acrylamide intake and selected genetic variants for advanced prostate cancer risk.

Agaimy A, Fonseca I, Martins C, et al.
NUT Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 3 Cases and a Survey of NUT Expression in Salivary Gland Carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(7):877-884 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NUT carcinoma (NC) represents a rare subset of highly aggressive poorly differentiated carcinomas characterized by rearrangement of the NUT (aka NUTM1, nuclear protein in testis) gene, most commonly fused to BRD4. Originally described as a mediastinal/thymic malignancy, NC has been reported at a variety of anatomic regions including the upper and lower aerodigestive tract. To date, only 7 NC cases of probable salivary gland origin have been reported. We herein describe 3 new cases (all affecting the parotid gland) in 2 women (39- and 55-y old) and 1 man (35-y old). Histologic examination showed poorly differentiated neoplasms composed of poorly cohesive small-sized to medium-sized cells with variable squamoid cell component that was focal and abrupt. Immunohistochemistry showed uniform expression of p63 and distinctive punctate expression of the NUT antigen in the tumor cell nuclei. Review of the reported salivary gland NC cases (total, 10) showed a male:female ratio of 1.5:1 and an age range of 12 to 55 years (median, 29 y). Site of the primary tumor was the parotid (7), sublingual (2), and submandibular (1) glands. All presented as rapidly growing masses treated by surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Initial nodal status was positive in 8/10. At last follow-up (1 to 24 mo; median, 5 mo), 7/10 patients died of disease at a median of 5.5 months (1 to 24 mo) and only 2 were disease free at 7 and 14 months. Of 9 cases with genetic data, the fusion partner was BRD4 (n=7), non-BRD4/3 (n=1), or undetermined (n=1). None of 306 carcinomas spanning the spectrum of salivary carcinoma types screened by NUT immunohistochemistry was positive. This is the first small series on salivary NC highlighting the importance to include this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinomas and in cases of presumable poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin.

Kim J, Do EJ, Moinova H, et al.
Molecular Imaging of Colorectal Tumors by Targeting Colon Cancer Secreted Protein-2 (CCSP-2).
Neoplasia. 2017; 19(10):805-816 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A versatile biomarker for detecting colonic adenoma and colon cancer has yet to be developed. Colon cancer secreted protein-2 (CCSP-2) is a protein specifically expressed and secreted in colon adenomas and cancers. We developed a fluorescent imaging method based on CCSP-2 targeting for a more sensitive and specific detection of colorectal tumors. CCSP-2 expression was evaluated in human colon adenoma and colorectal specimens. Anti-CCSP-2 antibody was labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye, FPR-675, and molecular imaging of surgical human colorectal tumors was performed. Immunohistochemistry identified CCSP-2 expression in 87.0% of colorectal cancer specimens and 89.5% of colon adenoma specimens. Fluorescence imaging of surgical human colon specimens after spraying treatment with the probe permitted a clear distinction of cancer from paired normal colon tissue (target-to-background ratio, 4.09±0.42; P<.001). CCSP-2 targeting imaging was also evaluated in patient-derived colon cancer xenograft mouse and liver metastasis murine models. CCSP-2-positive colon cancer xenografts and liver metastases were visualized by near-infrared fluorescence imaging after intravenous injection of the probe, which showed significantly higher fluorescence. Our results show that CCSP-2 is a promising marker for colorectal tumor detection in clinical settings and that a CCSP-2-targeting molecular imaging strategy might improve the diagnosis of colorectal tumors in metastatic or recurrent cancers and aid in early colonoscopic detection of premalignant lesions.

Korytny A, Nasser R, Geffen Y, et al.
BMJ Case Rep. 2017; 2017 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 56-year-old man with lymphoma developed orchitis followed by septic arthritis of his right glenohumeral joint. Synovial fluid cultures were negative but PCR amplification test was positive for

Motooka Y, Fujino K, Sato Y, et al.
Pathobiology of Notch2 in lung cancer.
Pathology. 2017; 49(5):486-493 [PubMed] Related Publications
Notch signalling has been reported to be involved in initiation, progression, and suppression in various types of cancer. The pathological significance of Notch1 has been well studied in lung cancer, but that of Notch2 remains unclear. An immunohistochemical study was performed to clarify the expression of NOTCH2 in non-neoplastic lung tissues and lung cancers in comparison with Clara (Club) cell 10 kDa protein (CC10), and western blotting analysis was performed to detect NOTCH2 in human cancer cell lines. A Notch2 gene knockdown experiment was carried out to reveal the function of Notch2. Transient transfection of the intracellular domain of the Notch2 (N2ICD) gene was used. In addition, the relationship of the expressions of Notch1, 2, and 3 was studied. Immunohistochemical study of lung tissues revealed that NOTCH2 was detected in bronchiolar epithelial cells and was often colocalised with CC10, and that adenocarcinoma tissues were more positively stained than those of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. In human lung cancer cell lines, expression of NOTCH2 was similar to that of NOTCH1, and preferentially detected in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines. Knockdown of the Notch2 gene in NSCLC cell lines showed no remarkable changes in expression of molecules associated with cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and motility, and the seemingly unvalued effects of Notch2 gene knockdown could be masked by concomitant Notch1 activation, as indicated by an increase in the intracellular domain of NOTCH1. Additionally, transient transfection of the N2ICD gene induced CC10 expression in an adenocarcinoma cell line. The present study revealed that Notch2 is important in Club cell differentiation in normal lungs and adenocarcinoma. Notch2 is regulated mutually with Notch1, and the balance of the expression of Notch receptors could determine the biological behaviours of lung cancer cells.

Fujimoto J, Nunomura-Nakamura S, Liu Y, et al.
Development of Kras mutant lung adenocarcinoma in mice with knockout of the airway lineage-specific gene Gprc5a.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(8):1589-1599 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the urgency for prevention and treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), we still do not know drivers in pathogenesis of the disease. Earlier work revealed that mice with knockout of the G-protein coupled receptor Gprc5a develop late onset lung tumors including LUADs. Here, we sought to further probe the impact of Gprc5a expression on LUAD pathogenesis. We first surveyed GPRC5A expression in human tissues and found that GPRC5A was markedly elevated in human normal lung relative to other normal tissues and was consistently downregulated in LUADs. In sharp contrast to wild-type littermates, Gprc5a

Roswall N, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Ketzel M, et al.
Modeled traffic noise at the residence and colorectal cancer incidence: a cohort study.
Cancer Causes Control. 2017; 28(7):745-753 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Traffic noise has become an increasing public health concern, associated with pervasive negative health effects, most likely through pathways of sleep disruption and stress. Both sleep disruption and stress have been associated with colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between residential traffic noise and colorectal cancer incidence.
METHODS: Traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to 2012 for 51,283 Danes in the Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the association between residential traffic noise 5 and 10 years before diagnosis, and overall colorectal cancer incidence, as well as subtypes (rectal, proximal, and distal colon). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as crude and adjusted for potential confounders.
RESULTS: During follow-up, 1,134 colorectal cancers developed (737 colon, 397 rectal). We found no association between residential road traffic noise and rectal cancer. We observed an association with distal colon cancer: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40, but not for proximal colon cancer: 0.99 (0.83-1.18), per 10 dB, 10 years preceding diagnosis. There was no association between railway noise and colorectal cancer, or any subtype.
CONCLUSION: The present study suggested that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise might increase the risk for colon cancer, especially distal colon cancer.

Nagaraj AS, Lahtela J, Hemmes A, et al.
Cell of Origin Links Histotype Spectrum to Immune Microenvironment Diversity in Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer Driven by Mutant Kras and Loss of Lkb1.
Cell Rep. 2017; 18(3):673-684 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancers exhibit pronounced functional heterogeneity, confounding precision medicine. We studied how the cell of origin contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity following conditional expression of Kras

Eszlinger M, Böhme K, Ullmann M, et al.
Evaluation of a Two-Year Routine Application of Molecular Testing of Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspirations Using a Seven-Gene Panel in a Primary Referral Setting in Germany.
Thyroid. 2017; 27(3):402-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Major differences with respect to the diagnostic performance of a "ruling in" approach in the presurgical diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) have been reported. Therefore, the aim of this prospective multicenter study was to investigate the specific diagnostic impact of mutation testing using a seven-gene panel in a routine primary referral setting analyzing FNAs from endocrinology and nuclear medicine practices in Germany.
METHODS: RNA and DNA was extracted from 564 routine air-dried FNA smears obtained from 64 physicians and cytologically graded by one experienced cytopathologist. PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while BRAF and RAS mutations were detected by pyrosequencing. Molecular data were compared to histology and follow-up >1 year, which were available for 322/348 patients undergoing surgery and 33/74 patients having follow-up. Histology results were obtained from the local routine pathologists who were blinded to the molecular test results.
RESULTS: BRAF and RET/PTC mutations were associated with carcinoma in 98% and 100% of samples, respectively. RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutations were associated with carcinoma in 31% and 0% of samples, respectively. Thirty-six percent of the carcinomas were identified by molecular testing in the atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm categories, with malignancy rates of 15% and 17%, respectively. Due to a low percentage of RAS mutation-positive carcinomas in combination with a rather high percentage of RAS mutation-positive benign nodules, the positive predictive values of 41% and 36% in the atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm categories offer only limited diagnostic potential.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the data suggest that the application of the current seven-gene panel in a routine primary referral setting does not improve the presurgical diagnosis of thyroid FNAs. While the diagnostic relevance of RAS mutations in thyroid tumors needs further investigation, more comprehensive mutation panels with more cancer-specific mutations may improve the presurgical diagnosis of thyroid FNAs.

Wang DH, Lee HS, Yoon D, et al.
Progression of EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma is Driven By Alveolar Macrophages.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(3):778-788 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinomas with mutations in the EGFR have unprecedented initial responses to targeted therapy against the EGFR. Over time, however, these tumors invariably develop resistance to these drugs. We set out to investigate alternative treatment approaches for these tumors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To investigate the immunologic underpinnings of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, we utilized a bitransgenic mouse model in which a mutant human EGFR gene is selectively expressed in the lungs.
RESULTS: EGFR oncogene-dependent progression and remission of lung adenocarcinoma was respectively dependent upon the expansion and contraction of alveolar macrophages, and the mechanism underlying macrophage expansion was local proliferation. In tumor-bearing mice, alveolar macrophages downregulated surface expression of MHC-II and costimulatory molecules; increased production of CXCL1, CXCL2, IL1 receptor antagonist; and increased phagocytosis. Depletion of alveolar macrophages in tumor-bearing mice resulted in reduction of tumor burden, indicating a critical role for these cells in the development of EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma. Treatment of mice with EGFR-targeting clinical drugs (erlotinib and cetuximab) resulted in a significant decrease in alveolar macrophages in these mice. An activated alveolar macrophage mRNA signature was dominant in human EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas, and the presence of this alveolar macrophage activation signature was associated with unfavorable survival among patients undergoing resection for EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Because of the inevitability of failure of targeted therapy in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), these data suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting alveolar macrophages in EGFR-mutant NSCLC have the potential to mitigate progression and survival in this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 23(3); 778-88. ©2016 AACR.

Huang Q, Schneeberger VE, Luetteke N, et al.
Preclinical Modeling of KIF5B-RET Fusion Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(10):2521-2529 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RET fusions have been found in lung adenocarcinoma, of which KIF5B-RET is the most prevalent. We established inducible KIF5B-RET transgenic mice and KIF5B-RET-dependent cell lines for preclinical modeling of KIF5B-RET-associated lung adenocarcinoma. Doxycycline-induced CCSP-rtTA/tetO-KIF5B-RET transgenic mice developed invasive lung adenocarcinoma with desmoplastic reaction. Tumors regressed upon suppression of KIF5B-RET expression. By culturing KIF5B-RET-dependent BaF3 (B/KR) cells with increasing concentrations of cabozantinib or vandetanib, we identified cabozantinib-resistant RET

Holmes B, Lee J, Landon KA, et al.
Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibition Synergizes with Reduced Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-mediated Translation of Cyclin D1 and c-MYC mRNAs to Treat Glioblastoma.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(27):14146-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous work has demonstrated an intrinsic mRNA-specific protein synthesis salvage pathway operative in glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells that is resistant to mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. The activation of this internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mRNA translation initiation pathway results in continued translation of critical transcripts involved in cell cycle progression in the face of global eIF-4E-mediated translation inhibition. Recently we identified compound 11 (C11), a small molecule capable of inhibiting c-MYC IRES translation as a consequence of blocking the interaction of a requisite c-MYC IRES trans-acting factor, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, with its IRES. Here we demonstrate that C11 also blocks cyclin D1 IRES-dependent initiation and demonstrates synergistic anti-GBM properties when combined with the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor PP242. The structure-activity relationship of C11 was investigated and resulted in the identification of IRES-J007, which displayed improved IRES-dependent initiation blockade and synergistic anti-GBM effects with PP242. Mechanistic studies with C11 and IRES-J007 revealed binding of the inhibitors within the UP1 fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, and docking analysis suggested a small pocket within close proximity to RRM2 as the potential binding site. We further demonstrate that co-therapy with IRES-J007 and PP242 significantly reduces tumor growth of GBM xenografts in mice and that combined inhibitor treatments markedly reduce the mRNA translational state of cyclin D1 and c-MYC transcripts in these tumors. These data support the combined use of IRES-J007 and PP242 to achieve synergistic antitumor responses in GBM.

Ludovini V, Bianconi F, Siggillino A, et al.
Gene identification for risk of relapse in stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients: a combined methodology of gene expression profiling and computational gene network analysis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(21):30561-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Risk assessment and treatment choice remains a challenge in early non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to identify novel genes involved in the risk of early relapse (ER) compared to no relapse (NR) in resected lung adenocarcinoma (AD) patients using a combination of high throughput technology and computational analysis. We identified 18 patients (n.13 NR and n.5 ER) with stage I AD. Frozen samples of patients in ER, NR and corresponding normal lung (NL) were subjected to Microarray technology and quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR). A gene network computational analysis was performed to select predictive genes. An independent set of 79 ADs stage I samples was used to validate selected genes by Q-PCR.From microarray analysis we selected 50 genes, using the fold change ratio of ER versus NR. They were validated both in pool and individually in patient samples (ER and NR) by Q-PCR. Fourteen increased and 25 decreased genes showed a concordance between two methods. They were used to perform a computational gene network analysis that identified 4 increased (HOXA10, CLCA2, AKR1B10, FABP3) and 6 decreased (SCGB1A1, PGC, TFF1, PSCA, SPRR1B and PRSS1) genes. Moreover, in an independent dataset of ADs samples, we showed that both high FABP3 expression and low SCGB1A1 expression was associated with a worse disease-free survival (DFS).Our results indicate that it is possible to define, through gene expression and computational analysis, a characteristic gene profiling of patients with an increased risk of relapse that may become a tool for patient selection for adjuvant therapy.

Chen C, Breslin MB, Lan MS
Ectopic expression of a small cell lung cancer transcription factor, INSM1 impairs alveologenesis in lung development.
BMC Pulm Med. 2016; 16:49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulinoma associated-1 (INSM1) gene is expressed exclusively in early embryonic neuroendocrine tissues, but has been found highly re-activated in most of the neuroendocrine tumors including small cell lung carcinoma.
METHODS: In order to elucidate the functional effects of INSM1 in normal lung development, we used a conditional lung-specific INSM1 transgenic mouse model. Transgenic (Tet-on system) CMV-INSM1 responder mice were bred with the lung-specific, club cell secretory protein (CCSP) promoter-rtTA activator mice to produce bi-transgenic progeny carrying both alleles, CCSP-rtTA and Tet-on-INSM1. Mice were fed with doxycycline containing food at the initial mating day to the postnatal day 21. Lung samples were collected at embryonic day 17.5, newborn, and postnatal day 21 for analyses.
RESULTS: Northern blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that doxycycline induced respiratory epithelium-specific INSM1 expression in bi-transgenic mice. Samples from postnatal day 21 mice revealed a larger lung size in the bi-transgenic mouse as compared to the single-transgenic or wild-type littermates. The histopathology results showed that the alveolar space in the bi-transgenic mice were 4 times larger than those in the single transgenic or wild-type littermates. In contrast, the size was not significantly different in the lungs collected at E17.5 or newborn among the bi-transgenic, single transgenic, or wild type mice. The respiratory epithelium with INSM1 ectopic expression suppressed cyclin D1 signal. Further in vitro studies revealed that the ectopic expression of INSM1 suppresses cyclin D1 expression and delays cell cycle progression.
CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that CCSP promoter-driven INSM1 ectopic expression impairs normal lung development especially in postnatal alveologenesis.

Ferrer-Mayorga G, Gómez-López G, Barbáchano A, et al.
Vitamin D receptor expression and associated gene signature in tumour stromal fibroblasts predict clinical outcome in colorectal cancer.
Gut. 2017; 66(8):1449-1462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high CRC incidence and mortality, suggesting a protective effect of vitamin D against this disease. Given the strong influence of tumour stroma on cancer progression, we investigated the potential effects of the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
DESIGN: Expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and two 1,25(OH)
RESULTS: High VDR expression in tumour stromal fibroblasts was associated with better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival in CRC, independently of its expression in carcinoma cells. 1,25(OH)

Bodei L, Kidd M, Modlin IM, et al.
Measurement of circulating transcripts and gene cluster analysis predicts and defines therapeutic efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016; 43(5):839-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective method for treating neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is limited, however, in the prediction of individual tumor response and the precise and early identification of changes in tumor size. Currently, response prediction is based on somatostatin receptor expression and efficacy by morphological imaging and/or chromogranin A (CgA) measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of circulating NET transcripts as a measure of PRRT efficacy, and moreover to identify prognostic gene clusters in pretreatment blood that could be interpolated with relevant clinical features in order to define a biological index for the tumor and a predictive quotient for PRRT efficacy.
METHODS: NET patients (n = 54), M: F 37:17, median age 66, bronchial: n = 13, GEP-NET: n = 35, CUP: n = 6 were treated with (177)Lu-based-PRRT (cumulative activity: 6.5-27.8 GBq, median 18.5). At baseline: 47/54 low-grade (G1/G2; bronchial typical/atypical), 31/49 (18)FDG positive and 39/54 progressive. Disease status was assessed by RECIST1.1. Transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and multianalyte algorithmic analysis (NETest); CgA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene cluster (GC) derivations: regulatory network, protein:protein interactome analyses.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES: chi-square, non-parametric measurements, multiple regression, receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier survival.
RESULTS: The disease control rate was 72 %. Median PFS was not achieved (follow-up: 1-33 months, median: 16). Only grading was associated with response (p < 0.01). At baseline, 94 % of patients were NETest-positive, while CgA was elevated in 59 %. NETest accurately (89 %, χ(2) = 27.4; p = 1.2 × 10(-7)) correlated with treatment response, while CgA was 24 % accurate. Gene cluster expression (growth-factor signalome and metabolome) had an AUC of 0.74 ± 0.08 (z-statistic = 2.92, p < 0.004) for predicting response (76 % accuracy). Combination with grading reached an AUC: 0.90 ± 0.07, irrespective of tumor origin. Circulating transcripts correlated accurately (94 %) with PRRT responders (SD+PR+CR; 97 %) vs. non-responders (91 %).
CONCLUSIONS: Blood NET transcript levels and the predictive quotient (circulating gene clusters+grading) accurately predicted PRRT efficacy. CgA was non-informative.

Pan D, Jiang C, Ma Z, et al.
MALT1 is required for EGFR-induced NF-κB activation and contributes to EGFR-driven lung cancer progression.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(7):919-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been implicated in having a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of many types of human cancers. Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can directly activate NF-κB, the mechanism by which EGFR induces NF-κB activation and the role of NF-κB in EGFR-associated tumor progression is still not fully defined. Herein, we found that mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is involved in EGFR-induced NF-κB activation in cancer cells, and that MALT1 deficiency impaired EGFR-induced NF-κB activation. MALT1 mainly functions as a scaffold protein by recruiting E3 ligase TRAF6 to IKK complex to activate NF-κB in response to EGF stimulation. Functionally, MALT1 inhibition shows significant defects in EGFR-associated tumor malignancy, including cell migration, metastasis and anchorage-independent growth. To further access a physiological role of MALT1-dependent NF-κB activation in EGFR-driven tumor progression, we generated triple-transgenic mouse model (tetO-EGFR(L858R); CCSP-rtTA; Malt1(-/-)), in which mutant EGFR-driven lung cancer was developed in the absence of MALT1 expression. MALT1-deficient mice show significantly less lung tumor burden when compared with its heterozygous controls, suggesting that MALT1 is required for the progression of EGFR-induced lung cancer. Mechanistically, MALT1 deficiency abolished both NF-κB and STAT3 activation in vivo, which is a result of a defect of interleukin-6 production. In comparison, MALT1 deficiency does not affect tumor progression in a mouse model (LSL-K-ras(G12D); CCSP-Cre; Malt1(-/-)) in which lung cancer is induced by expressing a K-ras mutant. Thus, our study has provided the cellular and genetic evidence that suggests MALT1-dependent NF-κB activation is important in EGFR-associated solid-tumor progression.

Kim JM, Kang HJ, Kim SY, et al.
BDNF promoter methylation associated with suicidal ideation in patients with breast cancer.
Int J Psychiatry Med. 2015; 49(1):75-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been considered a risk factor for suicidality. BDNF secretion is influenced by epigenetic (DNA methylation) and genetic (val66met polymorphism) profiles. We aimed to investigate the independent effects of BDNF promoter methylation status on suicidal ideation as well as the effects of its interaction with the val66met polymorphism in patients with breast cancer.
METHODS: A total of279 patients with breast cancer were evaluated 1 week after breast surgery, and 244 (87%) were followed up 1 year later. Suicidal ideation was identified using the item addressing suicidal thoughts on the Beck Depression Inventory. The independent effects of BDNF methylation status on suicidal ideation at two points was investigated using multivariable logistic regression models. The two-way interactive effects of BDNF methylation status and the val66met polymorphism on suicidal ideation were also estimated using the same models.
RESULTS: Increased BDNF methylation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and depression 1 year after breast surgery, and this association was independent of potential covariates, including previous depression, current depressive symptoms, and BDNF genotype. No significant methylation-genotype interactions were found.
CONCLUSIONS: The BDNF hypothesis and the epigenetic origin of suicidality in patients with breast cancer were supported. BDNF gene methylation status may be a biological marker for suicidality in patients with breast cancer.

Zhang X, Lou Y, Wang H, et al.
Wnt signaling regulates the stemness of lung cancer stem cells and its inhibitors exert anticancer effect on lung cancer SPC-A1 cells.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(4):95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt signaling plays an important role in regulating the activity of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in a variety of cancers. In this study, we explored the role of Wnt signaling in the lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs). LCSCs were obtained by sphere culture, for which human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A1 was treated with IGF, EGF and FGF-10. The stemness of LCSCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and pathway analysis was performed by functional genome screening and RT-PCR. The relationship between the identified signaling pathway and the expression of the stemness genes was explored by agonist/antagonist assay. Moreover, the effects of different signaling molecule inhibitors on sphere formation, cell viability and colony formation were also analyzed. The results showed that LCSCs were successfully generated as they expressed pluripotent stem cell markers Nanog and Oct 4, and lung distal epithelial markers CCSP and SP-C, by which the phenotype characterization of stem cells can be confirmed. The involvement of Wnt pathway in LCSCs was identified by functional genome screening and verified by RT-PCR. The expression of Wnt signaling components was closely related to the expression of the Nanog and Oct 4. Furthermore, targeting Wnt signaling pathway by using different signaling molecule inhibitors can exert anticancer effects. In conclusion, Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the stemness regulation of LCSCs and might be considered as a potential therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.

Dogan I, Kawabata S, Bergbower E, et al.
SOX2 expression is an early event in a murine model of EGFR mutant lung cancer and promotes proliferation of a subset of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 85(1):1-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Primary and acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in EGFR mutant lung cancer occurs primarily through secondary mutations in EGFR or Met amplification. Drug resistance can also be mediated by expression of pluripotency transcription factors, such as OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG that decrease terminal differentiation. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of SOX2 in model systems of EGFR mutant tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry was used to assess expression of pluripotency transcription factors in lungs of transgenic mice or in human NSCLC cell lines. Expression of SOX2 was reduced by shRNA knockdown, and response to erlotinib and cellular proliferation were assessed.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Induction of mutant EGFR in transgenic CCSP-rtTA/TetO-EGFR(L858R/T790M) mice correlated with increased OCT4 and SOX2 expression in lung tissue prior to tumor development. Established lung tumors retained SOX2 expression. To assess a role for SOX2 in tumorigenesis, a panel of NSCLC cell lines with activating EGFR mutations was assessed for SOX2 expression. Two of six cell lines with mutant EGFR showed detectable SOX2 levels, suggesting SOX2 expression did not correlate with EGFR mutation status. To assess the role of SOX2 in these cell lines, HCC827 and H1975 cells were infected with lentivirus containing SOX2 shRNA. Knockdown of SOX2 decreased proliferation in both cell lines and increased sensitivity to erlotinib in HCC827 cells. Because constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is associated with EGFR TKI resistance, cells were treated with PI3K/AKT inhibitors and expression of SOX2 was examined. PI3K/Akt inhibitors decreased SOX2 expression in a time-dependent manner. These data suggest targeting SOX2 may provide therapeutic benefit in the subset of EGFR-mutant tumors with high constitutive levels of SOX2, and that until more direct means of inhibiting SOX2 are developed, PI3K/Akt inhibitors might be useful to inhibit SOX2 in EGFR TKI resistant tumors.

Yan C, Ding X, Wu L, et al.
Stat3 downstream gene product chitinase 3-like 1 is a potential biomarker of inflammation-induced lung cancer in multiple mouse lung tumor models and humans.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61984 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Over-activation of the signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway in lung alveolar type II (AT II) epithelial cells induces chronic inflammation and adenocarcinoma in the lung of CCSP-rtTA/(tetO)7-CMV-Stat3C bitransgenic mice. One of Stat3 downstream genes products, chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) protein, showed increased concentration in both bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood of doxycycline-treated CCSP-rtTA/(tetO)7-CMV-Stat3C bitransgenic mice. When tested in other inflammation-induced lung cancer mouse models, the CHI3L1 protein concentration was also highly increased in BALF and blood of these models with tumors. Immunohistochemical staining showed strong staining of CHI3L1 protein around tumor areas in these mouse models. Analysis of normal objects and lung cancer patients revealed a significant elevation of CHI3L1 protein concentration in human serum samples from all categories of lung cancers. Furthermore, recombinant CHI3L protein stimulated proliferation and growth of Lewis lung cancer cells. Therefore, secretory CHI3L1 plays an important role in inflammation-induced lung cancer formation and potentially serve as a biomarker for lung cancer prediction. Based on our previous publication and this work, this is the first animal study linking overexpression of CHI3L1 to various lung tumor mouse models. These models will facilitate identification of additional biomarkers to predict and verify lung cancer under various pathogenic conditions, which normally cannot be done in humans.

Kim JM, Kim SW, Stewart R, et al.
Serotonergic and BDNF genes associated with depression 1 week and 1 year after mastectomy for breast cancer.
Psychosom Med. 2012; 74(1):8-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been investigated as candidate genes for depression occurring in medical disorders. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HTR2a) genes have been investigated as risk factors for depression but rarely in combination with medical conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms of interest in 5-HTT, 5-HTR2a, and BDNF genes are associated with depression after mastectomy for breast cancer.
METHODS: A total of 309 patients with breast cancer were evaluated 1 week after mastectomy, and 244 patients (79%) were followed up 1 year later. Depression (major and minor depressive disorders) was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and was classified into prevalent, persistent, and incident depression. Individual associations with 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region, serotonin transporter intron 2 variable number tandem repeat, 5-HTR2a 1438A/G, 5-HTR2a 102T/C, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were estimated using logistic regression models, and gene-gene interactions were investigated using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method.
RESULTS: At baseline, 74 patients (24%) were classified with prevalent depression, and at follow-up, 19 patients (8%) and 25 patients (10%) were classified with persistent and incident depression, respectively. The BDNF Met/Met genotype was independently associated with prevalent (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-6.14) and persistent (odds ratio = 8.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-51.6) depression. No associations with 5-HTT and 5-HTR2a genes (all p values > .21) were found, and no significant gene-gene interactions were identified (all p values > .36).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a role of BDNF, not serotonin, in the etiology of depression occurring in women with breast cancer who received a mastectomy.

Ali HR, Dawson SJ, Blows FM, et al.
Cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer: pathological, clinical and prognostic significance.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(6):R118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis states that tumours consist of a cellular hierarchy with CSCs at the apex driving tumour recurrence and metastasis. Hence, CSCs are potentially of profound clinical importance. We set out to establish the clinical relevance of breast CSC markers by profiling a large cohort of breast tumours in tissue microarrays (TMAs) using immunohistochemistry (IHC).
METHODS: We included 4, 125 patients enrolled in the SEARCH population-based study with tumours represented in TMAs and classified into molecular subtype according to a validated IHC-based five-marker scheme. IHC was used to detect CD44/CD24, ALDH1A1, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) and integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6). A 'Total CSC' score representing expression of all four CSC markers was also investigated. Association with breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) at 10 years was assessed using a Cox proportional-hazards model. This study was complied with REMARK criteria.
RESULTS: In ER negative cases, multivariate analysis showed that ITGA6 was an independent prognostic factor with a time-dependent effect restricted to the first two years of follow-up (hazard ratio (HR) for 0 to 2 years follow-up, 2.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.2 to 4.8; P = 0.009). The composite 'Total CSC' score carried independent prognostic significance in ER negative cases for the first four years of follow-up (HR for 0 to 4 years follow-up, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6; P = 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Breast CSC markers do not identify identical subpopulations in primary tumours. Both ITGA6 and a composite Total CSC score show independent prognostic significance in ER negative disease. The use of multiple markers to identify tumours enriched for CSCs has the greatest prognostic value. In the absence of more specific markers, we propose that the effective translation of the CSC hypothesis into patient benefit will necessitate the use of a panel of markers to robustly identify tumours enriched for CSCs.

Yang YS, Yang MC, Weissler JC
Pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like 2 expression is associated with the development of lung adenocarcinoma and emphysema.
Lung Cancer. 2011; 74(1):12-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous study of transgenic mice with long-term expression of pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like 2 (PLAGL2), a surfactant protein C (SP-C) transactivator, in type II cells showed the manifestation of centrilobular emphysema in vivo. Since emphysema is an independent risk factor for bronchogenic carcinoma, we hypothesized that the mouse lungs with induced PLAGL2-expression had increased incidences in developing lung adenocarcinoma. To test the hypothesis, mouse lungs were examined for the presence of tumors. Male mice with induced PLAGL2-expression in the lungs were more vulnerable to tumorigenesis than female mice (p<0.05). Epithelial cells expressing pro-SP-C and Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) at the terminal bronchioles and the bronchoalveolar duct junction (BADJ) were increased in the induced transgenic mice, suggesting a role of PLAGL2 in expanding SP-C expression cells. Co-expression of TTF-1, pro-SP-C and CD133 (a stem-cell marker) in cancer and distal airway epithelial cells indicated that both cells were derived from common progenitors. This result supported a common-cell-origin mechanism for the comorbid diseases - emphysema and lung cancer. Furthermore, a public lung cancer gene expression profiling database was examined to determine the relevance of PLAGL2 expression and lung adenocarcinoma in humans. Patients with high PLAGL2 expression in lung tumors were readily found. Female patients (N=218) with low PLAGL2 expression (the lowest quartile of total patients) at the early-stage of disease had better prognosis in survival. Male patients, on the other hand, had no such correlation. Generally, their survival rate was significantly poorer than of female patients. Taken together, our data suggested a pathological role of PLAGL2 in lung adenocarcinoma development and a preferable prognosis of low PLAGL2 expression in female patients.

Fukazawa T, Maeda Y, Matsuoka J, et al.
Targeting KRAS mutation-bearing lung cancer in vivo by pulmonary surfactant-adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.
Anticancer Res. 2010; 30(12):4925-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pulmonary surfactant has been used as a carrier to deliver a therapeutic virus to dysfunctional lung cells that reside within an intricate lung structure. To investigate whether pulmonary surfactant enhances the efficacy of intratracheal instillation of a therapeutic virus to target KRAS mutation-bearing lung cancer in vivo, we developed a recombinant adenovirus that induces cell death only in lung cancer cells and injected the adenovirus into a mouse model of KRAS mutation-positive lung cancer intratracheally with and without surfactant. A therapeutic adenovirus that induces cell death only in lung cancer cells was constructed by combining a cancer-specific human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter fused to CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα) with a modified lung-specific Clara cell-specific 10-kDa protein (CC10) promoter fused to cytotoxic adenovirus type 5 early region 1A (E1A). CEBPα is induced only in cancer cells and activates the CC10 promoter, which in turn induces cytotoxic E1A, and causes cell death only in lung cancer cells in vitro. This adenovirus was intratracheally administered to the model mice (CCSP-rtTA/Tet-op-K-Ras4bG12D bitransgenic mice) in the presence and absence of pulmonary surfactant. Intratracheally administered therapeutic adenovirus with pulmonary surfactant spread to airways, as well as to the alveolar region of the lung, and caused a reduction of lung tumors developed. The therapeutic adenovirus without pulmonary surfactant spread only to airways and was ten-fold less effective in tumor reduction. Here, we demonstrate that pulmonary surfactant is an efficient tool to intratracheally deliver a therapeutic virus to treat KRAS mutation-positive lung cancer in vivo.

Bahrami A, Folpe AL
Adult-type fibrosarcoma: A reevaluation of 163 putative cases diagnosed at a single institution over a 48-year period.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2010; 34(10):1504-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult-type fibrosarcoma (FS) was once considered the most common adult sarcoma, but is now considered a diagnosis of exclusion. No recent series has critically reevaluated putative FSs to estimate their true incidence. One hundred ninety-five cases diagnosed as adult FS in somatic soft tissue were retrieved from our institutional archives for the period 1960 to 2008. Thirty-two cases with insufficient material were excluded. On the basis the morphology of the final 163 cases, immunohistochemical studies (IHC) was conducted using some combination of: wide-spectrum cytokeratin (CK), EMA, high molecular weight CK, S100, Melan A, HMB-45, CD34, TLE1, CD31, HHV8, smooth muscle actin, desmin, ALK1, CD99, Myo-D1, myogenin, c-kit, INI1, CD21, p63, calretinin, WT1, and TTF1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for SYT gene rearrangement was done in 6 putative CK-negative synovial sarcomas (SS). Revised diagnoses were based on clinical, morphologic, IHC, and molecular findings. The original group of putative FS occurred in 84 males and 79 females (median 52.5 y, range 2 to 99 y), and involved various anatomic sites. Only 26 cases met WHO criteria for FS, including 2 postradiation FS. These occurred in 16 males and 10 females (median 50 y, range 6 to 74 y), and involved the lower extremities (12 cases), head/ neck (5 cases), trunk (4 cases), upper extremities (3 case), and mediastinum/abdomen (2 cases). Clinical follow-up information was available for 24 of 26 (92%) cases, with a median of 5 years follow-up (range <1 to 35 y). Twelve patients (50%) died of locally aggressive and/or metastatic disease (median follow-up 1-year; range <1 to 8 y), 6 patients (25%) were alive without disease (median follow-up 11.5 y; range 2.5 to 35 y), and 6 patients (25%) died of other causes (median follow-up 10 y; range 9 to 18 y) (). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was positive for SYT gene rearrangement in all cases tested. Non-FS (137 cases) were reclassified as: undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (32 cases), SS (21 cases), solitary fibrous tumor (14 cases), myxofibrosarcoma (11 cases), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (8 cases), FS dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and desmoplastic melanoma (4 cases each), low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, desmoid-type fibromatosis, rhabdomyosarcoma, myofibroblastic sarcoma, spindle-cell liposarcoma (3 cases each), sclerosing epithelioid FS, fibroma-like epithelioid sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, cellular fibrous histiocytoma (2 cases each), and others (17 cases). Using modern diagnostic criteria with ancillary IHC and molecular genetics, we have been able to reclassify 84% of putative FS. Exclusive of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, the distinction of which from FS is subjective, 64% of putative FS were reclassified, most commonly as monophasic SS and solitary fibrous tumor. We conclude that true FS is exceedingly rare, accounting for <1% of approximately 10,000 adult soft tissue sarcomas seen at our institution during this time period, and should be diagnosed with great caution.

Wang IC, Zhang Y, Snyder J, et al.
Increased expression of FoxM1 transcription factor in respiratory epithelium inhibits lung sacculation and causes Clara cell hyperplasia.
Dev Biol. 2010; 347(2):301-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Foxm1 is a member of the Forkhead Box (Fox) family of transcription factors. Foxm1 (previously called Foxm1b, HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is expressed in multiple cell types and plays important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of Foxm1 from mouse respiratory epithelium during initial stages of lung development inhibits lung maturation and causes respiratory failure after birth. However, the role of Foxm1 during postnatal lung morphogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, Foxm1 expression was detected in epithelial cells of conducting and peripheral airways and changing dynamically with lung maturation. To discern the biological role of Foxm1 in the prenatal and postnatal lung, a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a constitutively active form of FoxM1 (FoxM1 N-terminal deletion mutant or FoxM1-ΔN) under the control of lung epithelial-specific SPC promoter was produced. Expression of the FoxM1-ΔN transgene during embryogenesis caused epithelial hyperplasia, inhibited lung sacculation and expression of the type II epithelial marker, pro-SPC. Expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant during the postnatal period did not influence alveologenesis but caused focal airway hyperplasia and increased proliferation of Clara cells. Likewise, expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant in conducting airways with Scgb1a1 promoter was sufficient to induce Clara cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, FoxM1-ΔN cooperated with activated K-Ras to induce lung tumor growth in vivo. Increased activity of Foxm1 altered lung sacculation, induced proliferation in the respiratory epithelium and accelerated lung tumor growth, indicating that precise regulation of Foxm1 is critical for normal lung morphogenesis and development of lung cancer.

Kurotani R, Kumaki N, Naizhen X, et al.
Secretoglobin 3A2/uteroglobin-related protein 1 is a novel marker for pulmonary carcinoma in mice and humans.
Lung Cancer. 2011; 71(1):42-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, also called uteroglobin-related protein (UGRP) 1, is a downstream target for a homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1, which is critical for the development of lung, thyroid and ventral forebrain. Both SCGB3A2 and NKX2-1 are expressed in airway epithelial cells and the latter also in alveolar Type II cells. NKX2-1 has been used clinically for diagnosis of human pulmonary tumors. Recently, the expression of SCGB3A2 was reported in human carcinomas, suggesting the use of this protein as a tumor marker. In this study, 28 lung tumors from aging B6;129 mice and nine lung adenocarcinomas from CC10TAg transgenic mice that express SV40 large T antigen under the mouse Scgb1a1 (CC10) gene promoter, were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses for the expression of NKX2-1 and SCGB3A2. NKX2-1 was expressed in all types of tumors albeit more focally in carcinomas. In contrast, SCGB3A2 normally expressed in Clara cells, was negative in Type II cell hyperplasias and adenomas. However, it was expressed in alveolar Type II cell carcinomas and Clara cell adenocarcinomas. In these carcinomas, SCGB3A2 expression was observed in the portion of the tumor where NKX2-1 expression was reduced or almost abolished. As a comparison, the expression of SCGB3A2 and NKX2-1 from 23 human non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens was also examined. The results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 is a useful marker for diagnosis of pulmonary tumors both in mice and humans.

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