Gene Summary

Gene:TSPAN31; tetraspanin 31
Aliases: SAS
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is thought to be involved in growth-related cellular processes. This gene is associated with tumorigenesis and osteosarcoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • TSPAN31
  • Liposarcoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • FISH
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Western Blotting
  • Tetraspanins
  • RT-PCR
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Lipoma
  • CGH
  • tRNA Methyltransferases
  • MDM2
  • Karyotyping
  • Adolescents
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cancer DNA
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Amplification
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 12
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Bone Cancer
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Consensus Sequence
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Vascular Neoplasms
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • CDK4
  • Base Sequence
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TSPAN31 (cancer-related)

Wang J, Zhou Y, Li D, et al.
TSPAN31 is a critical regulator on transduction of survival and apoptotic signals in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
FEBS Lett. 2017; 591(18):2905-2918 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tetraspanins are commonly believed to act as 'molecular facilitators', not directly involved in signal transduction. Tetraspanin 31 (TSPAN31), recently discovered to be linked to cancer, has not yet been studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we show that TSPAN31 is the natural antisense transcript of cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and regulates the expression of CDK4 mRNA and protein. Target analysis indicates that miR-135b can directly regulate TSPAN31 expression. miR-135b-induced TSPAN31 silencing increases CDK4 protein levels. Interestingly, p53 negatively regulates TSPAN31 expression. siRNA-induced TSPAN31 knockdown reduces the expression of Akt signaling pathway components phosphorylated Akt, p-GSK3β and β-catenin, and restrains β-catenin migration to cell nucleus. TSPAN31 knockdown also significantly inhibits HCC cell invasion and migration. These findings thus point to TSPAN31 as a novel regulator in transduction of intracellular survival and apoptotic signals.

Creytens D, Van Gorp J, Speel EJ, Ferdinande L
Characterization of the 12q amplicons in lipomatous soft tissue tumors by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-based copy number analysis.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(4):1835-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS) and de-differentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are characterized by amplified sequences derived from the long arm of chromosome 12. The goal of the present study was to identify, besides the well-known candidate genes, novel relevant genes in these large, complex 12q amplicons.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, genetic alterations in 19 different genes of 12q12-24 were evaluated in 77 lipomatous soft tissue tumors (including lipomas, WDLPS, DDLPS and pleomorphic liposarcomas).
RESULTS: We recorded several amplified genes of 12q13-15, including miR-26a-2, a gene not well studied in liposarcoma, and the well-known and previously described genes murine double minute 2 (MDM2), YEATS domain-containing protein 4 (YEATS4), high-mobility AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and tetraspanin 31 (TSPAN31). Interestingly, the amplification profiles of these six genes were found to be significantly different between WDLPS and DDLPS, more frequently having a high-level status in DDLPS than in WDLPS. In addition, DDLPS were found to have significantly higher mean amplification ratios compared to WDLPS. Moreover, we identified additional genes exclusively amplified in DDLPS in 12q13, 12q21 and 12q24, including glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1), mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase 12 (MAP3K12), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), ALX homeobox 1 (ALX1) and T-box 5 (TBX5).
CONCLUSION: Differences in amplification profiles among WDLPS and DDLPS may be related to progression/de-differentiation in liposarcomas and show how in the future amplification profiles could provide an adjunctive tool in characterizing progression to DDLPS. In addition, we identified additional genes exclusively amplified in DDLPS, which may play a role in liposarcomagenesis, particularly in the de-differentiation process.

Pedeutour F, Maire G, Pierron A, et al.
A newly characterized human well-differentiated liposarcoma cell line contains amplifications of the 12q12-21 and 10p11-14 regions.
Virchows Arch. 2012; 461(1):67-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
While surgery is the usual treatment for localized well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS/DDLPS), the therapeutic options for patients with advanced disease are limited. The classical antimitotic treatments are most often inefficient. The establishment of genetically characterized cell lines is therefore crucial for providing in vitro models for novel targeted therapies. We have used spectral karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome painting and locus-specific probes, and array-comparative genomic hybridization to identify the chromosomal and molecular alterations of a novel cell line established from a recurring sclerosing WDLPS. The karyotype was hypertriploid and showed multiple structural anomalies. All cells retained the presence of a giant marker chromosome that had been previously identified in the primary cell cultures. This giant chromosome contained high-level amplification of chromosomal regions 12q13-21 and lacked the alpha-satellite centromeric sequences associated with WDLPS/DDLPS. The 12q amplicon was large, containing 370 amplified genes. The DNA copy number ranged from 3 to 57. The highest levels of amplification were observed at 12q14.3 for GNS, WIF1, and HMGA2. We analyzed the mRNA expression status by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for six genes from this amplicon: MDM2, HMGA2, CDK4, TSPAN31, WIF1, and YEATS4. mRNA overexpression was correlated with genomic amplification. A second amplicon originating from 10p11-14 was also present in the giant marker chromosome. The 10p amplicon contained 62 genes, including oncogenes such as MLLT10, previously described in chimeric fusion with MLL in leukemias, NEBL, and BMI1.

Wang X, Asmann YW, Erickson-Johnson MR, et al.
High-resolution genomic mapping reveals consistent amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 gene in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(11):849-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) is one of the most common malignant mesenchymal tumors and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) is a malignant tumor consisting of both WDLS and a transformed nonlipogenic sarcomatous component. Cytogenetically, WDLS is characterized by the presence of ring or giant rod chromosomes containing several amplified genes, including MDM2, TSPAN31, CDK4, and others mainly derived from chromosome bands 12q13-15. However, the 12q13-15 amplicon is large and discontinuous. The focus of this study was to identify novel critical genes that are consistently amplified in primary (nonrecurrent) WDLS and with potential relevance for future targeted therapy. Using a high-resolution (5.0 kb) "single nucleotide polymorphism"/copy number variation microarray to screen the whole genome in a series of primary WDLS, two consistently amplified areas were found on chromosome 12: one region containing the MDM2 and CPM genes, and another region containing the FRS2 gene. Based on these findings, we further validated FRS2 amplification in both WDLS and DDLS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed FRS2 amplification in all WDLS and DDLS tested (n = 57). Real time PCR showed FRS2 mRNA transcriptional upregulation in WDLS (n = 19) and DDLS (n = 13) but not in lipoma (n = 5) and normal fat (n = 9). Immunoblotting revealed high expression levels of phospho-FRS2 at Y436 and slightly overexpression of total FRS2 protein in liposarcoma but not in normal fat or preadipocytes. Considering the critical role of FRS2 in mediating fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, our findings indicate that FRS2 signaling should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic target for liposarcoma.

Yu J, Deshmukh H, Payton JE, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identifies CDK4 and FOXM1 alterations as independent predictors of survival in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(7):1924-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are highly aggressive sarcomas with variable patient survival and few known prognostically relevant genomic biomarkers. To identify survival-associated genomic biomarkers, we performed high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a large set of MPNSTs.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Candidate gene alterations identified by aCGH in 38 MPNSTs were validated at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels on these same tumors and an independent set of 87 MPNST specimens.
RESULTS: aCGH revealed highly complex copy number alterations, including both previously reported and completely novel loci. Four regions of copy number gain were associated with poor patient survival. Candidate genes in these regions include SOX5 (12p12.1), NOL1 and MLF2 (12p13.31), FOXM1 and FKBP1 (12p13.33), and CDK4 and TSPAN31 (12q14.1). Alterations of these candidate genes and several others of interest (ERBB2, MYC and TP53) were confirmed by at least 1 complementary methodology, including DNA and mRNA quantitative real-time PCR, mRNA expression profiling, and tissue microarray-based fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis showed that CDK4 gain/amplification and increased FOXM1 protein expression were the most significant independent predictors for poor survival in MPNST patients (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new and independently confirmed candidate genes that could serve as genomic biomarkers for overall survival in MPNST patients.

Erickson-Johnson MR, Seys AR, Roth CW, et al.
Carboxypeptidase M: a biomarker for the discrimination of well-differentiated liposarcoma from lipoma.
Mod Pathol. 2009; 22(12):1541-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The discrimination between well-differentiated liposarcomas/atypical lipomatous tumors and lipomas can be diagnostically challenging at the histological level. However, cytogenetic identification of ring and giant rod chromosomes supports the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumor. These abnormal chromosomes are mainly composed of amplified genomic sequences derived from chromosome 12q13-15, and contain several genes, including MDM2, CDK4 (SAS), TSPAN31, HMGA2, and others. MDM2 is consistently amplified in well-differentiated liposarcomas/atypical lipomatous tumors, and up to 25% in other sarcomas. As part of a large genomic study of lipomatous neoplasms, we initially found CPM to be consistently amplified in well-differentiated liposarcomas/atypical lipomatous tumors. To further explore this initial finding, we investigated the copy number status of MDM2 and CPM by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a series of 138 tumors and 17 normal tissues, including 32 well-differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumors, 63 lipomas, 11 pleomorphic lipomas, 2 lipoblastomas, 30 other tumors and 17 normal fat samples. All 32 well-differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumors showed amplification of MDM2 and CPM, usually >20 copies per cell. The other tumors lacked MDM2 and/or CPM amplification. Chromogenic in situ hybridization confirmed the above results on a subset of these tumors (n=27). These findings suggest that identification of CPM amplification could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumors.

Trombetta D, Mertens F, Lonoce A, et al.
Characterization of a hotspot region on chromosome 12 for amplification in ring chromosomes in atypical lipomatous tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009; 48(11):993-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ring chromosomes are cytogenetic hallmarks of genomic amplification in several bone and soft tissue tumors, in particular atypical lipomatous tumors (ALT). In ALT, the ring chromosomes invariably contain amplified material from the central part of the long arm of chromosome 12, mainly 12q12-->15, but often also segments from other chromosomes are involved. Previous studies have shown that one of the recurrent amplicons in ALT, located in 12q13.3-14.1 and harboring the candidate target genes TSPAN31 and CDK4, often has a sharp centromeric border. To characterize this breakpoint region in more detail, 12 cases of ALT with ring chromosomes were analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the seven cases showing a sharply delineated amplicon in 12q13.3-14.1, the breakpoint region was further investigated by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Vectorette PCR. The breakpoints clustered to a 146-kb region containing 11 genes. Whereas there was no indication that the breakpoints gave rise to fusion genes, in silico analysis revealed that the breakpoint region was enriched for repeated elements that could be important for ring chromosome formation in ALT.

Italiano A, Bianchini L, Keslair F, et al.
HMGA2 is the partner of MDM2 in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas whereas CDK4 belongs to a distinct inconsistent amplicon.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 122(10):2233-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Data concerning the fine structure of the 12q13-15 amplicon which contains MDM2 and CDK4 in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS/DDLPS) are scarce. We investigated a series of 38 WDLPS/DDLPS using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with 17 probes encompassing the 12q13-15 region. In addition, using quantitative RT-PCR we studied the expression of MDM2, CDK4, DDIT3 (CHOP/GADD153), DYRK2, HMGA2, TSPAN31 and YEATS4 (GAS41) in 11 cases. We showed that CDK4 (12q14.1) belonged to a distinct amplicon than MDM2 (12q15). There was no continuity in the amplified sequences between MDM2 and CDK4. Moreover, while MDM2 was amplified and overexpressed in all cases, CDK4 was not amplified or overexpressed in 13% of cases. The centromeric border of the CDK4 amplicon was located immediately downstream the 5' end of DDIT3, a gene known for being involved in myxoid liposarcoma translocations. DDIT3 was amplified in 3 cases and overexpressed in 9 cases. The overexpression of DDIT3 was correlated to the CDK4 amplification and not to its own amplification status. This suggested that the CDK4 amplicon, as well as the overexpression of DDIT3, might be generated by the disruption of a fragile region in 5' DDIT3. HMGA2 was always amplified and rearranged indicating that it plays a central role in WDLPS/DDLPS. HMGA2 rearrangement frequently resulted in a loss of the 3' end region that is a binding site for let-7. We also found a frequent amplification and overexpression of YEATS4, an oncogene that inactivates P53, suggesting that YEATS4 might play an important role together with MDM2 in WDLPS/DDLPS oncogenesis.

Zhang H, Macdonald WD, Erickson-Johnson M, et al.
Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings of intimal sarcoma.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 179(2):146-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intimal sarcomas are exceptionally rare tumors that arise from the tunica intima of large vessels. Most intimal sarcomas are high-grade tumors that exhibit fibroblastic or myofibroblastic differentiation. We report the cytogenetic findings of a tumor from a 57-year-old man. The tumor had a pleomorphic and spindle-cell morphology, and it also exhibited a complex karyotype that was characterized by several numeric and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular cytogenetic analysis showed amplification of MDM2, SAS, and CDK4, but not of HMGA2, ATF1, or DDIT3, which supported the findings of a previous comparative genomic hybridization study. Further studies are needed to determine whether the cytogenetic abnormalities found in this case are recurrent events for this poorly characterized malignancy.

Ragazzini P, Gamberi G, Pazzaglia L, et al.
Amplification of CDK4, MDM2, SAS and GLI genes in leiomyosarcoma, alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
Histol Histopathol. 2004; 19(2):401-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
We evaluated amplification and overrepresentation of CDK4, MDM2, GLI and SAS genes of the 12q13-15 region, in a group of soft tissue sarcomas including leiomyosarcomas (LMS), alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) and embryonal (anaplastic and classic variants) rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMS), to ascertain genomic alterations and possible differences within histologic subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on DNA samples from 29 LMS, 9 ARMS, 7 anaplastic ERMS and 6 classic ERMS. Alteration of one or more of the 12q13-15 genes was revealed in 13/29 LMS (45%) and 12/22 RMS (54%) including 5/9 ARMS (56%), 5/7 anaplastic ERMS (71%) and 2/6 classic ERMS (33%). The potential importance of overproduction of protein products in neoplastic development, led us also to study a possible high expression of cdk4, mdm2 and gli proteins in immunohistochemical staining experiments on paraffin-embedded tissue samples of the same cases. Among LMS and RMS most cases with CDK4, MDM2 and GLI gene alterations also showed a simultaneous high expression of the relative protein. In summary, these results indicate that amplification or overerepresentation of genes at 12q13-15 region involve both LMS and RMS. Moreover these genes alterations reveal predominantly in the alveolar and in the anaplastic variant of the embryonal subtype. These two seem to have a more similar behavior than anaplastic and classic embryonal that are classified in the same subtype.

Nikitakis NG, Lopes MA, Pazoki AE, et al.
MDM2+/CDK4+/p53+ oral liposarcoma: case report and review of the literature.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001; 92(2):194-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although liposarcoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas, its location in the oral cavity is very rare. To our knowledge, only 43 cases of liposarcoma originating in the oral tissues have been reported in the English-language literature. In this article, we report a case of well-differentiated liposarcoma affecting the cheek of a 28-year-old man and review the oral liposarcoma literature. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor revealed an MDM2+/CDK4+/p53+ immunophenotype that is consistent with the immunohistochemical profile of well-differentiated liposarcoma originating in other areas of the body. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the DNA levels of the MDM2 (human homologue of the murine double-minute type 2), CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4), and SAS (sarcoma amplified sequence), genes was performed, revealing only SAS gene amplification. The possibility of misdiagnosis of oral liposarcoma because of its sometimes inconspicuous clinical and microscopic features is emphasized. Careful pathologic examination of liposarcoma is essential for discrimination from benign adipose tissue neoplasms and for precise histologic classification, both of major prognostic significance. Possible implications of molecular and cytogenetic analysis for unraveling the pathogenesis and determining the prognosis of liposarcoma are discussed.

Gamberi G, Ragazzini P, Benassi MS, et al.
Analysis of 12q13-15 genes in parosteal osteosarcoma.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000; (377):195-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
The region q13-15 of chromosome 12 frequently is altered in human sarcomas, and several genes, such as SAS, CDK4, and MDM2, have been found to be amplified in bone and soft tissue sarcomas. These genes and their products were studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis in 25 parosteal osteosarcoma samples (22 Grades I or II, three dedifferentiated) to evaluate if the possible alterations detected of the genes on chromosome 12 could have a role in the development of this rare bone tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumor sections to evaluate CDK4 and MDM2 protein expression. To measure the degree of SAS and CDK4 gene amplification, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was done on deoxyribonucleic acid derived from the same samples. The results showed that CDK4 protein was expressed in 92% of the cases. Strong and uniform CDK4 and MDM2 immunoreactivity was found respectively in three of three and two of three dedifferentiated parosteal osteosarcomas. SAS and CDK4 genes were found to be amplified fourfold in two Grade II tumors and in one dedifferentiated tumor. These findings, which should be investigated further, might suggest a possible role of the chromosome 12 genes in the pathogenesis of parosteal osteosarcoma.

Yotov WV, Hamel H, Rivard GE, et al.
Amplifications of DNA primase 1 (PRIM1) in human osteosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 26(1):62-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the involvement of PRIM1 in osteosarcoma by differential display, Northern and Southern hybridization, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on interphase nuclei. In total, 22 pediatric oncology specimens were tested. PRIM1 was found to be amplified in 41% of the samples. PRIM1 is coamplified with the core 12q13 amplicon genes CDK4, SAS, and OS9, and was physically mapped very close to them. PRIM1 is therefore a new candidate for the role of a major target gene of 12q13 amplifications in human cancers. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 26:62-69, 1999.

Ragazzini P, Gamberi G, Benassi MS, et al.
Analysis of SAS gene and CDK4 and MDM2 proteins in low-grade osteosarcoma.
Cancer Detect Prev. 1999; 23(2):129-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The region q13-15 of chromosome 12 contains SAS, CDK4, and MDM2 genes that are rearranged or amplified in a variety of human sarcomas. This study evaluated SAS gene amplification, and MDM2 and CDK4 protein expression in 20 tumor samples of central low-grade osteosarcoma (16 primary, 3 recurrences, 1 lung metastasis). SAS amplification was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while from the same paraffin-embedded samples, MDM2 and CDK4 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. MDM2 and CDK4 proteins were found strongly expressed in 35% and 65%, respectively, of the samples. SAS was found amplified in 15% of the samples. These findings indicate that these genes may be involved in tumorigenesis and progression of low-grade osteosarcoma.

Wunder JS, Eppert K, Burrow SR, et al.
Co-amplification and overexpression of CDK4, SAS and MDM2 occurs frequently in human parosteal osteosarcomas.
Oncogene. 1999; 18(3):783-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amplification of genes in the 12q13-15 region occurs frequently in several malignancies including osteosarcoma. The products of these amplified genes are thought to provide cancer cells with a selective growth advantage; however, the specific gene(s) driving this amplicon is unknown. We have previously shown that the SAS gene is amplified in most parosteal osteosarcomas. In this study we analysed additional putative growth regulatory genes in this chromosomal region in 24 primary osteosarcoma specimens. CDK4 and SAS were coamplified in 6/6 parosteal tumors, and MDM2 was also amplified in 4/5 parosteal cases. In comparison, amplification occurred in only 2/16 classical intramedullary osteosarcomas and involved the SAS gene. Each amplified gene had a correspondingly elevated mRNA level. Four high grade intramedullary tumors had elevated mRNA expression of SAS, but did not exhibit gene amplification. Gene amplification/overexpression was not associated with metastatic disease and did not change markedly with tumor progression, as evidenced by analysis of sequential tumor specimens from eight patients. Three other genes in the 12q13-15 region (CDK2, WNT1 and WNT10b) were not amplified in any of the tumors. The different patterns of gene amplification and overexpression of CDK4, SAS and MDM2 in parosteal and intramedullary osteosarcomas may help explain the disparity in the biological behaviour of these two types of osteosarcoma.

Kanoe H, Nakayama T, Murakami H, et al.
Amplification of the CDK4 gene in sarcomas: tumor specificity and relationship with the RB gene mutation.
Anticancer Res. 1998 Jul-Aug; 18(4A):2317-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amplification of the CDK4 gene, which encodes a key molecule in the cell cycle, has been shown in some types of human neoplasms, including bone and soft tissue tumors. It is also reported that the CDK4 gene is coamplified with other sequences in the 12q13-15 region, including the MDM2 and SAS genes. Using 146 DNA samples derived from a variety of bone and soft tissue tumors, we have studied the pattern of amplification of these three genes, CDK4, MDM2, and SAS, to investigate whether there are any tumor type specific patterns of amplification. Amplification of at least one of these three genes was found in 18 tumors, and five different patterns of amplification were observed. Amplification of all of these three genes was detected in 9 cases. Amplification of the CDK4 gene without MDM2 amplification was observed in osteosarcomas and a chondrosarcoma but not in soft tissue tumors, whereas amplification of MDM2 gene alone was observed in malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs), liposarcomas, and lipomas, but not in bone tumors. These results suggested that the CDK4 region is the primary target for amplification in bone tumors, whereas the MDM2 region is in soft tissue tumors. We also investigated the relationship of CDK4 amplification with retinoblastoma (RB) gene mutations in osteosarcomas, for which we have already performed the mutation analyses in detail. Interestingly, contrary to the prevailing theory that CDK4 amplification is an alternative mechanism for RB gene mutation, we found that three of four cases with amplification of the CDK4 gene showed loss of expression of the RB protein, one of which was proved to have an gross DNA alteration in the RB locus. This redundancy of mutations may indicate that the amplification of CDK4 may have some roles other than the inactivation of the RB protein in the development of osteosarcomas.

Noble-Topham SE, Burrow SR, Eppert K, et al.
SAS is amplified predominantly in surface osteosarcoma.
J Orthop Res. 1996; 14(5):700-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of several types of human tumors is related to amplification of genes that are involved in cell growth. The protein products of these genes give the cells a selective growth advantage. The q13-15 region of chromosome 12 is frequently altered in human sarcomas, and the SAS gene has been identified in an amplification unit mapping to this region. Gene amplification of SAS was analyzed to determine the frequency of genetic alteration of this gene in osteosarcoma. Using Southern blot analysis as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction, SAS was found to be amplified in 10 (36%) of 28 osteosarcomas. Gene amplification was evaluated in subtypes of osteosarcoma. All seven surface osteosarcomas displayed amplified SAS. In contrast, SAS was amplified in only two (13%) of 15 intramedullary osteosarcomas. The finding that all surface osteosarcomas demonstrated SAS gene amplification suggests that this gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma subtypes and that surface osteosarcoma may be genetically different from high-grade intramedullary osteosarcoma.

Jankowski SA, De Jong P, Meltzer PS
Genomic structure of SAS, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily amplified in human sarcomas.
Genomics. 1995; 25(2):501-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
SAS is a recently identified member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) that is frequently amplified in human sarcomas. To further its characterization and to confirm its classification, the genomic structure of the SAS gene was determined. The SAS gene covers approximately 3.2 kb of DNA. It contains six exons within its translated region, three of which are highly conserved in the TM4SF. 5' to the translation start site are two putative transcription start sites, two CCAAT consensus sequences, and potential binding sites for both Sp1 and ATF transcription factors. Comparison of SAS organization to human ME491, CD9, and CD53 and murine CD53 and TAPA-1 confirms that SAS is a member of this family of genes and is consistent with the theory that these genes arose through duplication and divergent evolution.

Jankowski SA, Mitchell DS, Smith SH, et al.
SAS, a gene amplified in human sarcomas, encodes a new member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily of proteins.
Oncogene. 1994; 9(4):1205-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amplification of 12q13-14 occurs in a subset of human sarcomas including malignant fibrous histiocytoma and liposarcoma. This chromosomal region has previously been found to include a number of growth-related genes including the GLI proto-oncogene and the p53-associated protein, MDM2. We now report the characterization of SAS (sarcoma amplified sequence), a novel transcript found in this region. Sequence analysis demonstrates that SAS is a novel member of a transmembrane protein family (transmembrane 4 superfamily or TM4SF) thought to be involved in growth-related cellular processes. This observation adds a TM4SF protein to the cluster of genes at 12q13-14 frequently amplified in human sarcomas.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SAS, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/SAS.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999