|Gene:||CLIP1; CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein 1|
|Aliases: || RSN, CLIP, CYLN1, CLIP170, CLIP-170 |
|Summary:||The protein encoded by this gene links endocytic vesicles to microtubules. This gene is highly expressed in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin disease. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]|
|Databases:||OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||CAP-Gly domain-containing linker protein 1|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019|
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CLIP1 (cancer-related)
Rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent a novel molecular target in a small subset of tumors. Although ALK rearrangements are usually assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular approaches have recently emerged as relevant alternatives in routine laboratories. Here, we evaluated the use of two different amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods (AmpliSeq and Archer
Phosphorylation of end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a key member of microtubule plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), by apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) has been demonstrated to promote the stability of astral microtubules during mitosis by stimulating the binding of EB1 to microtubule plus ends. However, the roles of other members of the +TIPs family in ASK1/EB1-mediated regulation of astral microtubules are unknown. Herein, we show that ASK1-mediated phosphorylation of EB1 enhances the localization of cytoplasmic linker protein 170 (CLIP-170) and p150glued to the plus ends of astral microtubules. Depletion of ASK1 or expression of phospho-deficient or phospho-mimetic EB1 mutants results in changes in the levels of plus-end localized CLIP-170 or p150glued. Mechanistic studies reveal that EB1 phosphorylation promotes its interactions with CLIP-170 and p150glued, thereby recruiting these +TIPs to microtubules. Structural analysis suggests that serine-40 is the primary phosphorylation site on EB1 that exerts these effects. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the interactions of EB1 with other +TIPs.
Microtubules regulate signaling, trafficking, and cell mechanics, but the respective contribution of these functions to cell morphogenesis and migration in 3D matrices is unclear. Here, we report that the microtubule plus-end tracking protein (+TIP) SLAIN2, which suppresses catastrophes, is not required for 2D cell migration but is essential for mesenchymal cell invasion in 3D culture and in a mouse cancer model. We show that SLAIN2 inactivation does not affect Rho GTPase activity, trafficking, and focal adhesion formation. However, SLAIN2-dependent catastrophe inhibition determines microtubule resistance to compression and pseudopod elongation. Another +TIP, CLASP1, is also needed to form invasive pseudopods because it prevents catastrophes specifically at their tips. When microtubule growth persistence is reduced, inhibition of depolymerization is sufficient for pseudopod maintenance but not remodeling. We propose that catastrophe inhibition by SLAIN2 and CLASP1 supports mesenchymal cell shape in soft 3D matrices by enabling microtubules to perform a load-bearing function.
Non-cytotoxic concentrations of microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) interfere with the dynamics of interphase microtubules and affect cell migration, which could impair tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. The underlying mechanisms however are still ill-defined. We previously established that directed cell migration is dependent on stabilization of microtubules at the cell leading edge, which is controlled by microtubule +end interacting proteins (+TIPs). In the present study, we found that eribulin, a recently approved MTA interacting with a new class of binding site on β-tubulin, decreased microtubule growth speed, impaired their cortical stabilization and prevented directed migration of cancer cells. These effects were reminiscent of those observed when +TIP expression or cortical localization was altered. Actually, eribulin induced a dose-dependent depletion of EB1, CLIP-170 and the tubulin polymerase ch-TOG from microtubule +ends. Interestingly, eribulin doses that disturbed ch-TOG localization without significant effect on EB1 and CLIP-170 comets, had an impact on microtubule dynamics and directed migration. Moreover, knockdown of ch-TOG led to a similar inhibition of microtubule growth speed, microtubule capture and chemotaxis. Our data suggest that eribulin binding to the tip of microtubules and subsequent loss of ch-TOG is a priming event leading to alterations in microtubule dynamics and cancer cell migration.
The mechanisms of cancer cell adaptation to the anti-microtubule agents of the taxane family are multifaceted and still poorly understood. Here, in a model of breast cancer cells which display amplified microtubule dynamics to resist Taxol®, we provide evidence that septin filaments containing high levels of SEPT9_i1 bind to microtubules in a way that requires tubulin long chain polyglutamylation. Reciprocally, septin filaments provide a scaffold for elongating and trimming polyglutamylation enzymes to finely tune the glutamate side-chain length on microtubules to an optimal level. We also demonstrate that tubulin retyrosination and/or a high level of tyrosinated tubulin is crucial to allow the interplay between septins and polyglutamylation on microtubules and that together, these modifications result in an enhanced CLIP-170 and MCAK recruitment to microtubules. Finally, the inhibition of tubulin retyrosination, septins, tubulin long chain polyglutamylation or of both CLIP-170 and MCAK allows the restoration of cell sensitivity to taxanes, providing evidence for a new integrated mechanism of resistance.
Ding Z, Liu Y, Yao L, et al.Spy1 induces de-ubiquitinating of RIP1 arrest and confers glioblastoma's resistance to tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis through suppressing the association of CLIPR-59 and CYLD.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(13):2149-59 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade-IV glioma, is resistant to TNF-α induced apoptosis. CLIPR-59 modulates ubiquitination of RIP1, thus promoting Caspase-8 activation to induce apoptosis by TNF-α. Here we reported that CLIPR-59 was down-regulated in GBM cells and high-grade glioma tumor samples, which was associated with decreased cancer-free survival. In GBM cells, CLIPR-59 interacts with Spy1, resulting in its decreased association with CYLD, a de-ubiquitinating enzyme. Moreover, experimental reduction of Spy1 levels decreased GBM cells viability, while increased the lysine-63-dependent de-ubiquitinating activity of RIP1 via enhancing the binding ability of CLIPR-59 and CYLD in GBM, thus promoting Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 activation to induce apoptosis by TNF-α. These findings have identified a novel Spy1-CLIPR-59 interplay in GBM cell's resistance to TNF-α-induced apoptosis revealing a potential target in the intervention of malignant brain tumors.
Activating kinase fusions have recently been described as early oncogenic events that are mutually exclusive with HRAS and BRAF mutations in Spitz tumors. Here, we report a series of 32 Spitz tumors with ALK fusions (6 Spitz nevi, 22 atypical Spitz tumors, and 4 spitzoid melanomas) in patients ranging from 5 months to 64 years (median=12 y) of age. The tumors typically presented as exophytic papules on the extremities and were occasionally darkly pigmented. In addition to ALK fusions previously described in other tumor types (NPM1-ALK, TPR-ALK), we identified 2 novel ALK fusions (CLIP1-ALK and GTF3C2-ALK) in our cohort of Spitz tumors. Array comparative genomic hybridization of 19 of these tumors demonstrated a high frequency of chromosome 2 aberrations (where ALK resides, 63%) and chromosome 1p loss in 37% of the cases. Spitz tumors with ALK fusions demonstrated unique histopathologic features. Clefts and small vesicle-like spaces were arrayed between plump spindled melanocytes with fibrillar cytoplasm and enlarged nuclei. These melanocytes were typically arrayed in elongated and fusiform nests with radial orientation. The tumors often had extension into the dermis or subcutis with a wedge-shaped or bulbous lower border (45% and 17%, respectively). An infiltrative growth pattern was often present at the periphery of the tumor and was highlighted by ALK immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, Spitz tumors with ALK rearrangement show distinct histopathologic features that should aid in improving classification of these diagnostically challenging tumors.
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with the worst prognosis among all the major human malignancies. The propensity to rapidly metastasize contributes significantly to the highly aggressive feature of pancreatic cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying this remain elusive, and proteins involved in the control of pancreatic cancer cell motility are not fully characterized. In this study, we find that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a member of the class II HDAC family, is highly expressed at both protein and mRNA levels in human pancreatic cancer tissues. HDAC6 does not obviously affect pancreatic cancer cell proliferation or cell cycle progression. Instead, it significantly promotes the motility of pancreatic cancer cells. Further studies reveal that HDAC6 interacts with cytoplasmic linker protein 170 (CLIP-170) and that these two proteins function together to stimulate the migration of pancreatic cancer cells. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the progression of pancreatic cancer and suggest HDAC6 as a potential target for the management of this malignancy.
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) signaling continues to be essential in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Taxel-based chemotherapy is the current standard treatment for CRPC patients. Unfortunately, almost all patients eventually develop resistance toward this chemotherapy. Significantly, it was recently found that the anti-tumor effect of paclitaxel in CRPC is due to its inhibition of AR activity via its inhibition of microtubule dynamics. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a critical regulator in many cell cycle events, is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) and linked to tumor grades. Of note, we have previously shown that Plk1 phosphorylates CLIP-170 and p150(Glued) , two important regulators of microtubule dynamics.
METHODS: We compared paclitaxel-mediated phenotypes (inhibition of the AR signaling, decrease of microtubule dynamics and cell death) of PCa cells expressing different forms of CLIP-170 and p150(Glued) with different Plk1 phosphorylation states.
RESULTS: We show that Plk1 phosphorylation of CLIP-170 and p150(Glued) affects cellular responses to paclitaxel. Expression of Plk1-unphosphorylatable mutants of CLIP-170 and p150(Glued) results in increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, increased protein degradation of the AR, and decreased nuclear accumulation of the AR in response to androgen in prostate cancer cells. Finally, we show that cells expressing unphosphorylatable mutants of CLIP-170 have defective microtubule dynamics, thus providing a new mechanism to understand how Plk1-associated kinase activity promotes constitutive activation of AR signaling in CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a combination of inhibition of Plk1 and paclitaxel might be a novel avenue for treatment of CRPC.
Angiogenesis, the expansion of preexisting blood vessels, is a complex process required for tumor growth and metastasis. Although current antiangiogenic strategies have shown promising results in several cancer types, identification of additional antiangiogenic targets is required to improve the therapeutic response. Herein, we show that the microtubule-binding protein CLIP-170 (cytoplasmic linker protein of 170 kDa) is highly expressed in breast tumor samples and correlates positively with blood vessel density. Depletion of CLIP-170 significantly impaired vascular endothelial tube formation and sprouting in vitro and inhibited breast tumor growth in mice by decreasing tumor vascularization. Our data further show that CLIP-170 is important for the migration but not the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. In addition, CLIP-170 promotes the polarization of endothelial cells in response to the angiogenic stimulus. These findings thus demonstrate a critical role for CLIP-170 in tumor angiogenesis and suggest its potential as a novel antiangiogenic target.
Sun X, Li D, Yang Y, et al.Microtubule-binding protein CLIP-170 is a mediator of paclitaxel sensitivity.
J Pathol. 2012; 226(4):666-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CLIP-170 is a microtubule-binding protein and participates in diverse microtubule-associated cellular activities by regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we provide evidence that CLIP-170 is a mediator of the sensitivity of the anti-microtubule drug paclitaxel in breast cancer. In vitro cell proliferation assays reveal that CLIP-170 expression in breast cancer cell lines correlates with their sensitivity to paclitaxel. In addition, CLIP-170 expression in clinical samples of breast cancer correlates with the pathological response of tumours to paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy. Mitotic index and caspase-3 activity analyses reveal that CLIP-170 increases the abilities of paclitaxel to block cell cycle progression at mitosis and to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. By microtubule sedimentation assay and binding affinity analysis, we further find that CLIP-170 promotes paclitaxel binding to microtubules. In vitro tubulin polymerization assay shows that CLIP-170 enhances the activity of paclitaxel to promote microtubule assembly. These results demonstrate that CLIP-170 mediates paclitaxel sensitivity in breast cancer via a microtubule-dependent mechanism.
The tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) gene encodes the protein tuberin, which functions as a key negative regulator of both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) C1-dependent cell growth and proliferation. Loss-of-function mutations of TSC2 result in mTORC1 hyperactivity and predispose individuals to both tuberous sclerosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. These overlapping diseases have in common the abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells. Although the origin of these cells is unknown, accumulating evidence suggests that a metastatic mechanism may be involved, but the means by which the mTOR pathway contributes to this disease process remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that tuberin regulates the localization of E-cadherin via an Akt/mTORC1/CLIP170-dependent, rapamycin-sensitive pathway. Consequently, Tsc2(-/-) epithelial cells display a loss of plasma membrane E-cadherin that leads to reduced cell-cell adhesion. Under confluent conditions, these cells detach, grow in suspension, and undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is marked by reduced expression levels of both E-cadherin and occludin and increased expression levels of both Snail and smooth muscle actin. Functionally, the Tsc2(-/-) cells demonstrate anchorage-independent growth, cell scattering, and anoikis resistance. Human renal angiomyolipomas and lymphangioleiomyomatosis also express markers of EMT and exhibit an invasive phenotype that can be interpreted as consistent with EMT. Together, these results suggest a novel relationship between TSC2/mTORC1 and the E-cadherin pathways and implicate EMT in the pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex-related diseases.
Suzuki K, Takahashi KRegulation of lamellipodia formation and cell invasion by CLIP-170 in invasive human breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008; 368(2):199-204 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lamellipodia formation necessary for cell invasion is regulated by Rac1. We report here that lamellipodia formation and three-dimensional invasion were significantly promoted by HGF and serum, respectively, in invasive human breast cancer cells. Rac1 formed a complex with CLIP-170, IQGAP1, and kinesin in serum-starved cells, and stimulation of the cells with HGF and serum caused the partial release of IQGAP1 and kinesin from Rac1-CLIP-170 complex. The HGF-induced release of the proteins and promotion of lamellipodia formation were inhibited by an inhibitor of PI3K. Moreover, downregulation of CLIP-170 by siRNA released IQGAP1 and kinesin from Rac1 and promoted lamellipodia formation and invasion, independent of HGF and serum. The results suggest that promotion of lamellipodia formation and invasion by HGF or serum requires PI3K-dependent release of IQGAP1 and kinesin from Rac1-CLIP-170 complex and that CLIP-170 prevents cells from the extracellular stimulus-independent lamellipodia formation and invasion by tethering IQGAP1 and kinesin to Rac1.
Watanabe T, Noritake J, Kaibuchi KRoles of IQGAP1 in cell polarization and migration.
Novartis Found Symp. 2005; 269:92-101; discussion 101-5, 223-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cell polarization and migration are fundamental processes in all organisms and are stringently regulated during tissue development, chemotaxis and wound healing. Migrating cells have a polarized morphology with an asymmetric distribution of signalling molecules and the cytoskeleton. Linkage of microtubule plus ends to the cortical region is essential for polarized migration. +TIPs, including CLIP-170 and APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) are thought to function as capturing devices at specialized cortical regions. Rho family GTPases, particularly Rac1 and Cdc42, play pivotal roles in cell polarization and migration acting through their effectors. We found that IQGAP1, an effector of Rac1 and Cdc42, interacts with CLIP-170. Activated Rac1 and Cdc42 enhance the binding of IQGAP1 to CLIP-170, and capture GFP-CLIP-170 at the base of leading edges and filopodia, respectively. Recently, we found that IQGAP1 directly binds to APC in addition to CLIP-170. IQGAP1 and APC interdependently localize to leading edges in migrating cells. IQGAP1 can link APC to actin filaments in vitro. Thus, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 in response to migration signals leads to recruitment of IQGAP1 and APC which, together with CLIP-170, form a complex that links the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule dynamics during cell polarization and migration.
Chen Y, Zhu MH, Yu GZ, et al.[Influence of Smad4-independent pathway of transforming growth factor beta1 on the biological activity of pancreatic cancer cells].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2005; 34(7):413-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study effects of the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the growth of Smad4-null pancreatic cancer cells.
METHODS: TGF-beta1 eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3. Effects of the expressison of TGF-beta1 was studied by growth curve analysis and flow cytometry. Cell motility was monitored by wound-healing assay. Western blot was used to estimate the expression level of p21(WAF/CLIP1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.
RESULTS: Transfection of TGF-beta1 changed the morphology of BxPC3 into spindle shaped cells. The growth rate of BxPC3 began to decrease after the fourth day of TGF-beta1 transfection, compared with the control groups. Flow cytometry showed that the percentages of cells in the S phase were (27.53 +/- 0.02)%, (26.32 +/- 0.01)% and (17.01 +/- 0.03)% in naïve BxPC3, vector-control group and TGF-beta1 transfection group respectively. Lesser cells entered the S phase after TGF-beta1 transfection (P < 0.01), but no difference was seen between the BxPC3 and vector groups (P > 0.05). The expression of p21(WAF/CLIP1) increased upon the expression of TGF-beta1.
CONCLUSION: The Smad4-independent pathway of TGF-beta1 not only induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer BxPC3, but also inhibits its growth through the up-regulation of p21(WAF/CLIP1).
Kapelko-Słowik K, Wołowiec D, Sedek K, et al.[Expression of p16INK4a, p15INK4b, p21WAF1/Clip1 cell cycle inhibitors on blastic cells in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) ].
Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2002; 108(3):849-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk) play the important role in neoplastic transformation. Their activity depends on interaction with proteins called inhibitors. There are two groups of inhibitors: INK4 (p16INK4a, p15INK4b, p18INK4c, p19INK4d) and proteins p21WAF1/Clip1, p27Kip1, p57Kip2. Alteration of inhibitors expression was assessed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), but the results are not clear. The aim of our study was to estimate p16INK4a, p15INK-4b, p21WAF1/Clip1 expression in blast cells in patients with AML and ALL by cytochemistry method and to compare with the result of treatment. Forty-two patients were included in the study, 23 with AML and 19 with ALL. Expression of inhibitors was considered as positive when detected in > 5% of blast cells. Complete remission (CR) rate in patients with positive expression p16INK4a and p15INK4b was statistically significantly higher than in patients with negative expression: for p16INK4a chi 2 = 7.78, p < 0.01, for p15INK4b, chi 2 with Yates' modification = 3.94, p < 0.05. There was no difference in CR rate in patients with positive and negative p21WAF1/Clip1 expression. Moreover the patients with simultaneous expression of three inhibitors reached CR more often than the others: chi 2 = 7.43, p = 0.01 for AML and chi 2 = 6.74, p < 0.01 for ALL. Our study indicates that estimation of p16INK4a, p15INK4b, p21WAF1/Clip1 expression in blast cells can be used as prognostic factor in acute leukemia.
Sahin U, Neumann F, Tureci O, et al.Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cell-associated autoantigen CLIP-170/restin is a marker for dendritic cells and is involved in the trafficking of macropinosomes to the cytoskeleton, supporting a function-based concept of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.
Blood. 2002; 100(12):4139-45 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Little is known about the distribution in normal cells of CLIP-170, a linkage mediator between endocytic vesicles and microtubules, and restin, a splice variant encoded by the same gene and marker for Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin disease. Although only trace amounts of CLIP-170/restin are present in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) + CD40L-activated B cells express high levels of CLIP-170/restin. CLIP-170/restin colocalizes preferentially with membranes of intermediate macropinocytic vesicles, suggesting a new function of CLIP-170/restin in the trafficking of macropinosomes to the cytoskeleton, which is a crucial step in antigen presentation. The strong expression of CLIP-170/restin in HRS cells, DCs, and activated B cells underscores their functional similarities supporting a function-based concept of HRS cells as professional antigen-presenting cells.
The purpose of this study was to identify autoantigens that are recognized by human sera and are associated with a speckled cytoplasmic fluorescent staining pattern on tissue culture cells, and to determine clinical features associated with specific autoantibodies. A serum from a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus was used to identify a 3.7-kb cDNA insert from a HeLa cell expression library. The purified cDNA (VLK2.1) encoded a peptide of 1051 amino acids that shared 98.4% similarity with the carboxyl terminal portion of a previously reported 170 kD protein named cytoplasmic linker protein-170 (CLIP-170). Antibodies affinity purified with the recombinant CLIP-170 protein, the prototype human serum and a monoclonal antibody raised against CLIP-170 exhibited identical speckled staining of the cytoplasm in HEp-2 cells. The human autoantibodies reacted with the purified recombinant protein in a Western immunoblot and immunoprecipitated the in vitro translated recombinant protein. Three additional human sera also immunoprecipitated the recombinant CLIP-170 protein. The clinical diagnoses in these patients were limited scleroderma, glioblastoma and idiopathic pleural effusion. This is the first report that identifies CLIP-170 as a human autoantigen.