Gene Summary

Gene:ROS1; ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase
Aliases: ROS, MCF3, c-ros-1
Summary:This proto-oncogene, highly-expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

In a study of 556 Chinese patients wih non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Rimkunas et al (2012) found 9 (2%) tumors expressed ROS1 and 22 (4%) expressed ALK. They used FISH to identify ALK or ROS1 rearrangements and RTPCR to identify fusion partners: and found fusions of CD74-ROS1, SLC34A2-ROS1, and FIG-ROS1. Davies (2012) found similar results: 1.2% of 424 NSCLCs had ROS1 rearrangements. Thet suggest ROS1 inhibition may be an effective treatment strategy for the subset of patients with NSCLC whose tumors express ROS1 fusion genes.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ROS1 (cancer-related)

Ito M, Miyata Y, Hirano S, et al.
Synchronicity of genetic variants between primary sites and metastatic lymph nodes, and prognostic impact in nodal metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2325-2333 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nodal positive lung adenocarcinoma includes wide range of survival. Several methods for the classification of nodal-positive lung cancer have been proposed. However, classification considering the impact of targetable genetic variants are lacking. The possibility of genetic variants for the better stratification of nodal positive lung adenocarcinoma was estimated.
METHODS: Mutations of 36 genes between primary sites and metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) were compared using next-generation sequencing. Subsequently, mutations in EGFR and BRAF, rearrangements in ALK and ROS1 were evaluated in 69 resected pN1-2M0 adenocarcinoma cases. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), post-recurrence survival (PRS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with respect to targetable variants and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy after recurrence.
RESULTS: About 90% of variants were shared and allele frequencies were similar between primary and metastatic sites. In 69 pN1-2M0 cases, EGFR/ALK were positive in primary sites of 39 cases and same EGFR/ALK variants were confirmed in metastatic LNs of 96.7% tissue-available cases. Multivariate analyses indicated positive EGFR/ALK status was associated with worse RFS (HR 2.366; 95% CI 1.244-4.500; P = 0.009), and PRS was prolonged in cases receiving TKI therapy (no post-recurrence TKI therapies, HR 3.740; 95% CI 1.449-9.650; P = 0.006). OS did not differ with respect to targetable variants or TKI therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Cases harbouring targetable genetic variants had a higher risk of recurrence, but PRS was prolonged by TKI therapy. Classification according to the targetable genetic status provides a basis for predicting recurrence and determining treatment strategies after recurrence.

Facchinetti F, Pilotto S, Metro G, et al.
Treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: 2018 guidelines of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM).
Tumori. 2019; 105(5_suppl):3-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment landscape of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically evolved in recent years, since the recognition of several clinical-biological entities requiring personalized treatment approaches, leading to significant improvements in patients' survival outcomes. In particular, targeted therapies acting against

Picco G, Chen ED, Alonso LG, et al.
Functional linkage of gene fusions to cancer cell fitness assessed by pharmacological and CRISPR-Cas9 screening.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2198 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many gene fusions are reported in tumours and for most their role remains unknown. As fusions are used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, and are targets for treatment, it is crucial to assess their function in cancer. To systematically investigate the role of fusions in tumour cell fitness, we utilized RNA-sequencing data from 1011 human cancer cell lines to functionally link 8354 fusion events with genomic data, sensitivity to >350 anti-cancer drugs and CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-fitness effects. Established clinically-relevant fusions were identified. Overall, detection of functional fusions was rare, including those involving cancer driver genes, suggesting that many fusions are dispensable for tumour fitness. Therapeutically actionable fusions involving RAF1, BRD4 and ROS1 were verified in new histologies. In addition, recurrent YAP1-MAML2 fusions were identified as activators of Hippo-pathway signaling in multiple cancer types. Our approach discriminates functional fusions, identifying new drivers of carcinogenesis and fusions that could have clinical implications.

Liang W, Guo M, Pan Z, et al.
Association between certain non-small cell lung cancer driver mutations and predictive markers for chemotherapy or programmed death-ligand 1 inhibition.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2014-2021 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to analyze the association between driver mutations and predictive markers for some anti-tumor agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 785 Chinese patients with NSCLC who underwent resection from March 2016 to November 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was investigated. The specimens were subjected to hybridization capture and sequence of 8 important NSCLC-related driver genes. In addition, the slides were tested for PD-L1, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and β-tubulin III by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 498 (63.4%) patients had at least 1 driver gene alteration. Wild-type, EGFR rare mutation (mut), ALK fusion (fus), RAS mut, RET fus and MET mut had relatively higher proportions of lower ERCC1 expression. EGFR 19del, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut, ALK fus, HER2 mut, ROS1 fus and MET mut were more likely to have TS low expression. Wild-type, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut and BRAF mut were associated with lower β-tubulin III expression. In addition, wild-type, RAS mut, ROS1 fus, BRAF and MET mut had higher proportion of PD-L1 high expression. As a pilot validation, 21 wild-type patients with advanced NSCLC showed better depth of response and response rate to taxanes compared with pemetrexed/gemcitabine (31.2%/60.0% vs 26.6%/45.5%). Our study may aid in selecting the optimal salvage regimen after targeted therapy failure, or the chemo-regimen where targeted therapy has not been a routine option. Further validation is warranted.

Leighl NB, Page RD, Raymond VM, et al.
Clinical Utility of Comprehensive Cell-free DNA Analysis to Identify Genomic Biomarkers in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 25(15):4691-4700 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Complete and timely tissue genotyping is challenging, leading to significant numbers of patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) being undergenotyped for all eight genomic biomarkers recommended by professional guidelines. We aimed to demonstrate noninferiority of comprehensive cell-free DNA (cfDNA) relative to physician discretion standard-of-care (SOC) tissue genotyping to identify guideline-recommended biomarkers in patients with mNSCLC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospectively enrolled patients with previously untreated mNSCLC undergoing physician discretion SOC tissue genotyping submitted a pretreatment blood sample for comprehensive cfDNA analysis (Guardant360).
RESULTS: Among 282 patients, physician discretion SOC tissue genotyping identified a guideline-recommended biomarker in 60 patients versus 77 cfDNA identified patients (21.3% vs. 27.3%;
CONCLUSIONS: In the largest cfDNA study in previously untreated mNSCLC, a validated comprehensive cfDNA test identifies guideline-recommended biomarkers at a rate at least as high as SOC tissue genotyping, with high tissue concordance, more rapidly and completely than tissue-based genotyping.

Sakai K, Ohira T, Matsubayashi J, et al.
Performance of Oncomine Fusion Transcript kit for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer specimens.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2044-2049 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene fusions play an important role in the carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. The recent association of four oncogenic driver genes, ALK, ROS1, RET, and NTRK1, as lung tumor predictive biomarkers has increased the need for precision medicine. We used formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of non-small cell lung cancer from 150 EGFR mutation-negative cases and 10 fusion status-known cases and compared the performance of the Oncomine Dx Fusion Transcript Test (ODxFT) with FISH break-apart for the detection of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusion genes. RNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue samples with or without macrodissection under hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the ALK fusion gene was independently determined using these assays. Fusion detection analyses were successfully carried out using ODxFT in 150 cases, with only one invalid case. ALK fusion genes were detected at a frequency of 7.3% (11/150) in the lung cancer specimens. Concordance rate between the ODxFT and ALK-FISH analyses was 99.3% (148/149). Sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% and 99.3%, respectively. All the samples with a known fusion status were accurately matched between the two assays. Our results show a high concordance rate between the ODxFT and ALK-FISH analyses. ODxFT was thus validated as an effective method for detecting clinically significant ALK fusion genes in paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

Singal G, Miller PG, Agarwala V, et al.
Association of Patient Characteristics and Tumor Genomics With Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using a Clinicogenomic Database.
JAMA. 2019; 321(14):1391-1399 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/10/2019 Related Publications
Importance: Data sets linking comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to clinical outcomes may accelerate precision medicine.
Objective: To assess whether a database that combines EHR-derived clinical data with CGP can identify and extend associations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical data from EHRs were linked with CGP results for 28 998 patients from 275 US oncology practices. Among 4064 patients with NSCLC, exploratory associations between tumor genomics and patient characteristics with clinical outcomes were conducted, with data obtained between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2018.
Exposures: Tumor CGP, including presence of a driver alteration (a pathogenic or likely pathogenic alteration in a gene shown to drive tumor growth); tumor mutation burden (TMB), defined as the number of mutations per megabase; and clinical characteristics gathered from EHRs.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), time receiving therapy, maximal therapy response (as documented by the treating physician in the EHR), and clinical benefit rate (fraction of patients with stable disease, partial response, or complete response) to therapy.
Results: Among 4064 patients with NSCLC (median age, 66.0 years; 51.9% female), 3183 (78.3%) had a history of smoking, 3153 (77.6%) had nonsquamous cancer, and 871 (21.4%) had an alteration in EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 (701 [17.2%] with EGFR, 128 [3.1%] with ALK, and 42 [1.0%] with ROS1 alterations). There were 1946 deaths in 7 years. For patients with a driver alteration, improved OS was observed among those treated with (n = 575) vs not treated with (n = 560) targeted therapies (median, 18.6 months [95% CI, 15.2-21.7] vs 11.4 months [95% CI, 9.7-12.5] from advanced diagnosis; P < .001). TMB (in mutations/Mb) was significantly higher among smokers vs nonsmokers (8.7 [IQR, 4.4-14.8] vs 2.6 [IQR, 1.7-5.2]; P < .001) and significantly lower among patients with vs without an alteration in EGFR (3.5 [IQR, 1.76-6.1] vs 7.8 [IQR, 3.5-13.9]; P < .001), ALK (2.1 [IQR, 0.9-4.0] vs 7.0 [IQR, 3.5-13.0]; P < .001), RET (4.6 [IQR, 1.7-8.7] vs 7.0 [IQR, 2.6-13.0]; P = .004), or ROS1 (4.0 [IQR, 1.2-9.6] vs 7.0 [IQR, 2.6-13.0]; P = .03). In patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies (n = 1290, 31.7%), TMB of 20 or more was significantly associated with improved OS from therapy initiation (16.8 months [95% CI, 11.6-24.9] vs 8.5 months [95% CI, 7.6-9.7]; P < .001), longer time receiving therapy (7.8 months [95% CI, 5.5-11.1] vs 3.3 months [95% CI, 2.8-3.7]; P < .001), and increased clinical benefit rate (80.7% vs 56.7%; P < .001) vs TMB less than 20.
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with NSCLC included in a longitudinal database of clinical data linked to CGP results from routine care, exploratory analyses replicated previously described associations between clinical and genomic characteristics, between driver mutations and response to targeted therapy, and between TMB and response to immunotherapy. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of creating a clinicogenomic database derived from routine clinical experience and provide support for further research and discovery evaluating this approach in oncology.

Fang F, Qiao XB, Yang L, et al.
[Diagnosis of lung biopsy employing the 2015 WHO criteria and detection of related oncogenic driver mutations].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 48(4):270-275 [PubMed] Related Publications

Furugaki K, Mochizuki M, Kohno M, et al.
Expression of C-terminal ALK, RET, or ROS1 in lung cancer cells with or without fusion.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):301 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations, including mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor or v-Ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog and fusion of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), RET proto-oncogene (RET), or v-ros UR2 sarcoma virus oncogene homolog 1 (ROS1), occur in non-small cell lung cancers, and these oncogenic drivers are important biomarkers for targeted therapies. A useful technique to screen for these fusions is the detection of native carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) protein by immunohistochemistry; however, the effects of other genetic alterations on C-terminal expression is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated whether C-terminal expression is specifically elevated by fusion with or without typical genetic alterations of lung cancer.
METHODS: In 37 human lung cancer cell lines and four tissue specimens, protein and mRNA levels were measured by capillary western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR, respectively.
RESULTS: Compared with the median of all 37 cell lines, mRNA levels at the C-terminus of all five of the fusion-positive cell lines tested (three ALK, one RET, and one ROS1) were elevated at least 2000-, 300-, or 2000-fold, respectively, and high C-terminal protein expression was detected. In an ALK fusion-positive tissue specimen, the mRNA and protein levels of C-terminal ALK were also markedly elevated. Meanwhile, in one of 36 RET fusion-negative cell lines, RET mRNA levels at the C-terminus were elevated at least 500-fold compared with the median of all 37 cell lines, and high C-terminal protein expression was detected despite the absence of RET fusion.
CONCLUSIONS: This study of 37 cell lines and four tissue specimens shows the detection of C-terminal ALK or ROS1 proteins could be a comprehensive method to determine ALK or ROS1 fusion, whereas not only the detection of C-terminal RET protein but also other methods would be needed to determine RET fusion.

Jankovic R, J Goncalves H, Cavic M, et al.
LungCARD - Report on worldwide research and clinical practices related to lung cancer.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):11-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The management of advanced lung cancer has evolved tremendously over the past two decades. Increasing understanding of the molecular changes that drive tumor progression has transformed the treatment of this disease. Nevertheless, various countries differ in the degree of implementation of genetic tests and the availability of innovative drugs. The LungCARD consortium created a questionnaire to collect information about the local research and clinical practices related to lung cancer diagnosis and therapy.
METHODS: A survey composed of 37 questions related to specific lung cancer pharmacogenomics and therapy, was distributed among 18 countries.
RESULTS: All together 36 responses were gathered, answered mainly by clinicians. The majority attends 50-200 cancer cases per month, 20-50% of all cancer cases are lung cancer patients, and more than 80% are with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted therapy is applied to 50% on average of all NSCLC patients. Forty five percent of participating medical oncologists are treating their patients with immunotherapy. More than 90% of the respondents are guided by results of genetic tests in introducing targeted treatment. As expected, the majority orders EGFR gene testing (85%), followed by ALK (58%) and KRAS testing (32%). Almost all (96%) agreed that more biomarkers should be included in routine genetic testing (ROS1, anti-PDL1, KRAS, MET, HER2, BRAF...), and that blood test is useful in pharmacogenomic testing.
CONCLUSION: There is a great variation between countries with respect to all discussed topics. However, the majority recognized a necessity of introducing next generation sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostics and potential of testing from blood. The biggest problem in the treatment of NSCLC is still an access to innovative drugs.

Cao B, Liu Y, Yin W, et al.
[A Single Center, Retrospective Analysis of Prognosis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2019; 22(3):143-150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a rare clinical event in lung cancer and the prognosis is very poor. There are limited data on what factors predict peritoneal progression and affect the outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate investigate the factors associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
METHODS: The patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Department of Medical Oncology and Radiation Sickness, Peking University Third Hospital were eligible for retrospective analysis between August 2010 and August 2018. Clinical factors such as age, gender, histology, pleural effusion and gene mutations with epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase/ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR/ALK/ROS1) were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: 1.44% (12/836) patients in this study developed peritoneal carcinomatosis and 12 patients with adenocarcinoma had metachronous NSCLC diagnosis and PC. Malignant pleural effusion rates at baseline and at PC diagnosis were separately 50% (6/12) and 100.0% (12/12). Among the 12 patients, 9 patients harbored EGFR/ALK/ROS1 mutation. The outcome of patients with EGFR/ALK/ROS1 mutation was significantly better than that of patients without EGFR/ALK/ROS1 mutation, the mOS1 and mOS2 were separately 26.0 months and 6.0 months versus 10.0 months and 1.5 months (P<0.05). The mOS2 of patients with aggressive treatment after PC diagnosis was 6.0 months, significantly better than 1.0 month of patients with best supportive care (P<0.05). The mOS2 of the patients with angiogenesis inhibitors based-treatment after PC diagnosis was 8.5 months, significantly longer than that of patients with other treatments (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Adenocarcinoma and malignant pleural effusion are highly associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Aggressive treatment for lung cancer with PC is encouraged when possible. More patients with PC may benefit from the treatment strategies with angiogenesis inhibitors. Further prospective trials are urgently needed.

Dong J, Zhang RY, Sun N, et al.
Bio-Inspired NanoVilli Chips for Enhanced Capture of Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Toward Non-Invasive Detection of Gene Alterations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(15):13973-13983 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in bodily fluids are emerging liquid biopsy markers for non-invasive cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Because the majority of EVs in circulation are not of tumor origin, it is critical to develop new platforms capable of enriching tumor-derived EVs from the blood. Herein, we introduce a biostructure-inspired NanoVilli Chip, capable of highly efficient and reproducible immunoaffinity capture of tumor-derived EVs from blood plasma samples. Anti-EpCAM-grafted silicon nanowire arrays were engineered to mimic the distinctive structures of intestinal microvilli, dramatically increasing surface area and enhancing tumor-derived EV capture. RNA in the captured EVs can be recovered for downstream molecular analyses by reverse transcription Droplet Digital PCR. We demonstrate that this assay can be applied to monitor the dynamic changes of ROS1 rearrangements and epidermal growth factor receptor T790M mutations that predict treatment responses and disease progression in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Newman S, Fan L, Pribnow A, et al.
Clinical genome sequencing uncovers potentially targetable truncations and fusions of MAP3K8 in spitzoid and other melanomas.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(4):597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spitzoid melanoma is a specific morphologic variant of melanoma that most commonly affects children and adolescents, and ranges on the spectrum of malignancy from low grade to overtly malignant. These tumors are generally driven by fusions of ALK, RET, NTRK1/3, MET, ROS1 and BRAF

Wang F, Diao XY, Zhang X, et al.
Identification of genetic alterations associated with primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR sensitive mutations.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019; 39(1):7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and application of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have greatly changed the therapeutic strategies of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the long-term efficacy of EGFR-TKI therapy is limited due to the development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the aberrant alterations of 8 driver genes and the primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in advanced NSCLC patients with activated EGFR mutations.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data from 416 patients with stage III/IV or recurrent NSCLC who received an initial EGFR-TKI treatment, from April 2004 and March 2011, at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Several genetic alterations associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs, including the alterations in BIM, ALK, KRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, MET, IGF1R, and ROS1, were detected by the routine clinical technologies. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between different groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log-rank test. A Cox regression model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with the PFS and OS.
RESULTS: Among the investigated patients, 169 NSCLC patients harbored EGFR-sensitive mutations. EGFR-mutant patients having PTEN deletion had a shorter PFS and OS than those with intact PTEN (P = 0.003 for PFS, and P = 0.034 for OS). In the combined molecular analysis of EGFR signaling pathway and resistance genes, we found that EGFR-mutant patients coexisted with aberrant alterations in EGFR signaling pathway and those having resistant genes had a statistically poorer PFS than those without such alterations (P < 0.001). A Cox proportional regression model determined that PTEN deletion (HR = 4.29,95% CI = 1.72-10.70) and low PTEN expression (HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.22-3.13), MET FISH + (HR = 2.83,95% CI = 1.37-5.86) were independent predictors for PFS in patients with EGFR-TKI treatment after adjustment for multiple factor.
CONCLUSIONS: We determined that the coexistence of genetic alterations in cancer genes may explain primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

Akamine T, Toyokawa G, Tagawa T, et al.
Lorlatinib for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2019; 55(2):107-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lorlatinib is a novel third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) which targets anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as well as receptor tyrosine kinase c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1). A critical limitation of conventional ALK/ROS TKIs is their association with acquired resistance mutations (particularly ALK G1202R and ROS1 G2032R) in the ALK or ROS1 gene, although these are not the only resistance mechanisms. Another limitation of this class of drugs is their inadequate efficacy against central nervous system metastasis, likely attributable to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, lorlatinib was developed to overcome these limitations by being more potent, selective and permeable to the BBB than previous-generation ALK/ROS1 TKIs and subsequently received breakthrough therapy designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2017. In September 2018, Japan became the first country where lorlatinib received approval for treating patients with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Eventually, the FDA approved lorlatinib (Lorbrena; Pfizer) in November 2018. Lorlatinib use is expected to increase in importance, owing to its promising efficacy in clinical trials.

Cheng X, Yin H, Fu J, et al.
Aggregate analysis based on TCGA: TTN missense mutation correlates with favorable prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(4):1027-1035 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lung cancer prevalence with its high mortality rate is a trending topic globally. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The human gene TTN encoding for TITIN protein is known as major mutation gene in many types of tumor including NSCLC. However, it is still controversial that TTN is a cancer-associated candidate considering tumor heterogeneity and complex genetic structure. In-depth researches on correlation between TTN mutation and NSCLC are still limited and discussable.
METHODS: Related somatic mutation profiles and attached clinical data were from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung project. Clinical relevance analysis of TTN mutation was evaluated using univariate analysis and a binary logistic regressive model. Survival analysis and screening of independent prognostic factors in mutation types were conducted by Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier methods.
RESULTS: Available data covering lung adenocarcinoma (n = 517) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (n = 492) were analyzed. TTN genetic mutations exhibited significant association with lung squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma possessed favorable overall survival benefits from TTN mutant type and both favorable overall survival and disease-free survival benefits from TTN/TP53 double mutation. For patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma, about 85% of subjects with TTN mutation harbored missense variations, which was an independent indicator of good prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Missense mutation of TTN may act as a beneficial role in lung squamous cell carcinoma, but not in lung adenocarcinoma.

Grosse A, Grosse C, Rechsteiner M, Soltermann A
Analysis of the frequency of oncogenic driver mutations and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with lung adenocarcinoma from Northeastern Switzerland.
Diagn Pathol. 2019; 14(1):18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma for oncogenic driver mutations has become standard in pathology practice. The aim of the study was to analyze the EGFR, KRAS, ALK, RET, ROS1, BRAF, ERBB2, MET and PIK3CA mutational status in a representative cohort of Swiss patients with lung adenocarcinoma and to correlate the mutational status with clinicopathological patient characteristics.
METHODS: All patients who underwent molecular testing of newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma during a 4-year period (2014-2018) were included. Molecular analyses were performed with Sanger sequencing (n = 158) and next generation sequencing (n = 311). ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion gene analyses were also performed with fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry/immunocytochemistry. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the medical records.
RESULTS: Of 469 patients with informative EGFR mutation analyses, 90 (19.2%) had EGFR mutations. KRAS mutations were present in 33.9% of the patients, while 6.0% of patients showed ALK rearrangement. BRAF, ERBB2, MET and PIK3CA mutations and ROS1 and RET rearrangements were found in 2.6%, 1.9%, 1.9%, 1.5%, 1.7% and 0.8% of the patients, respectively. EGFR mutation was significantly associated with female gender and never smoking status. ALK translocations were more frequent in never smokers, while KRAS mutations were more commonly found in ever smokers. The association between KRAS mutational status and female gender was statistically significant only on multivariate analysis after adjusting for smoking.
CONCLUSION: The EGFR mutation rate in the current study is among the higher previously reported mutation rates, while the frequencies of KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2 and PIK3CA mutations and ALK, ROS1 and RET rearrangements are similar to the results of previous reports. EGFR and KRAS mutations were significantly associated with gender and smoking. ALK rearrangements showed a significant association with smoking status alone.

Tanaka R, Sakamoto N, Suzuki H, et al.
Genotyping and cytomorphological subtyping of lung adenocarcinoma based on liquid-based cytology.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2019; 47(6):564-570 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples allow immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular testing of nucleic acids to be performed in the remaining fixed cells. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between gene mutational status and cytomorphological features in primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) using LBC materials.
METHODS: Forty consecutive patients with primary lung ADC underwent surgical resection in our hospital. Cytological material was obtained by scraping the cut-surface of the lesion, and samples were fixed and stored as LBC materials using CytoRich Red. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) gene rearrangements were detected, and cytomorphological studies were performed.
RESULTS: Twenty cases (50%) were positive for EGFR mutation and four (10%) were positive for KRAS mutation. ALK gene rearrangement was identified in one case (2.5%) by IHC and FISH, and ROS1 gene rearrangement was identified in one case (2.5%) by IHC and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The KRAS-positive group included higher proportions of cases with an inflammatory background (100%), predominantly papillary architecture (75%), and papillary-type ADC pattern (75%) compared with the EGFR-positive group and the other group, which included ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangements.
CONCLUSIONS: LBC material is suitable for use in molecular testing. Differences in major gene aberrations detected by this method might predict specific cytomorphological features.

Quaas A, Heydt C, Waldschmidt D, et al.
Alterations in ERBB2 and BRCA and microsatellite instability as new personalized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2019; 19(1):21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinomas of the small bowel are rare tumors usually with dismal prognosis. Most recently, some potentially treatable molecular alterations were described. We emphasize the growing evidence of individualized treatment options in small bowel carcinoma.
METHODS: We performed a DNA- based multi-gene panel using ultra-deep sequencing analysis (including 14 genes with up to 452 amplicons in total; KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, DDR2, ERBB2, KEAP1, NFE2L2, PIK3CA, PTEN, RHOA, BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53) as well as an RNA-based gene fusion panel including ALK, BRAF, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, MET, NRG1, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, RET and ROS1 on eleven formalin fixed and paraffin embedded small bowel carcinomas. Additionally, mismatch-repair-deficiency was analyzed by checking the microsatellite status using the five different mononucleotide markers BAT25, BAT26, NR-21, NR-22 and NR-27 and loss of mismatch repair proteins using four different markers (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2).
RESULTS: In five out of eleven small bowel carcinomas we found potentially treatable genetic alterations. Three patients demonstrated pathogenic (class 5) BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations - one germline-related in a mixed neuroendocrine-non neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN). Two additional patients revealed an activating ERBB2 mutation or PIK3CA mutation. Furthermore two tumors were highly microsatellite-instable (MSI-high), in one case associated to Lynch-syndrome. We did not find any gene fusions.
CONCLUSION: Our results underscore, in particular, the relevance of potentially treatable molecular alterations (like ERBB2, BRCA and MSI) in small bowel carcinomas. Further studies are needed to proof the efficacy of these targeted therapies in small bowel carcinomas.

Ho YH, Chen CL
Crizotinib-induced lichenoid drug eruption in a patient with lung cancer.
Cutis. 2018; 102(6):403-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Crizotinib was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)- or ROS1-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Since then, the number of indicated uses for crizotinib has substantially increased. However, the administration of crizotinib can be associated with various adverse events. It is important that clinicians identify adverse cutaneous manifestations of crizotinib and are aware of their outcomes and treatments to avoid unnecessarily discontinuing a potentially life-saving medication. We describe a case of lichenoid drug eruption (LDE) that appeared 4 weeks after initiation of treatment with crizotinib in a 61-year-old man with ALK-positive metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.

Yang J, Gong W
Lorlatinib for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019; 12(3):173-178 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 3-5% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)belonged to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC. The treatment drugs of ALK-positive NSCLC mainly included crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, and brigatinib. Although these drugs had some effects, most of them were usually easy to develop drug resistance. Lorlatinib is a new inhibitor of ALK for treating ALK-positive NSCLC,the effect is obvious, and not easy to develop resistance. Areas covered: The main mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of lorlatinib were introduced in this paper. Expert commentary: Lorlatinib is a new, reversible, ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitor of ALK and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1). It can inhibit tumor cell growth in ALK- and ROS1-overexpressing tumor cells. Clinical trial indicated that lorlatinib had obvious therapeutic effect for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. Lorlatinib could also pass through the blood-brain barrier, which had a good effect on patients with brain metastasis. Adverse events of lorlatinib were mostly mild and moderate in severity, and patients were easily tolerated. Most common adverse events were edema, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive effects, dyspnea, fatigue, weight gain, arthralgia, mood effects, and diarrhea.

Wang Y, Xu Y, Wang X, et al.
RET fusion in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and response to cabozantinib: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(3):e14120 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Lung cancer is a series of gene-driven disease. EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 are 3 major driver genes that play an important role in lung cancer development and precision management. Additionally, rare genetic alterations continue to be discovered and may become novel targets for therapy. The RET gene is one of such rare genetic alteration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this report, we present a RET-positive case that benefited from cabozantinib treatment.
PATIENT CONCERN: A 50-year-old male patient was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma 2 years ago, at that time he received palliative surgery of pulmonary carcinoma and completed 4 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin. Six months later, he was hospitalized in our cancer center due to the disease recurrence, presenting with pleural metastasis.
DIAGNOSIS: Gene alteration was examined using the intraoperative specimen by PCR method, and KIF5B/RET gene fusion was detected. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with late-stage lung adenocarcinoma with RET gene mutation.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received treatment with cabozantinib from June 2017.
OUTCOMES: Cabozantinib was administered (140 mg orally, once daily) for approximate 9 months, and his disease achieved stable disease (SD). During that period, there were no severe adverse events (AE), except for a grade II rash (CTCAE 4.0).
LESSONS: We found that the RET fusion gene is a novel driver molecular of lung adenocarcinoma in patients without common mutations in such genes as EGFR, ALK, and ROS1. This case report supports a rationale for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma patients with a RET fusion and provides alternative treatment options for these types of NSCLC patients.

Katsurada N, Tachihara M, Jimbo N, et al.
Successful Treatment of ROS1-rearranged Lung Cancer Complicated by Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy with Crizotinib Therapy.
Intern Med. 2019; 58(10):1467-1471 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by digital clubbing, arthritis, and periostitis. Tumor removal usually leads to the resolution of these symptoms. We herein report the efficacy of crizotinib treatment for treating the symptoms of HPO associated with c-ros oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1)-rearranged lung cancer. A 71-year-old woman presented with a pulmonary tumor and arthritis. She was diagnosed with a ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma [stage IIIB (cT4N2M0) ] with HPO. Crizotinib dramatically reduced the tumor size and resolved the symptoms. After two months of crizotinib treatment, she underwent lobectomy, and a pathological evaluation revealed ypstage IIIA (ypT3a, ypN1). Crizotinib treatment was effective for reducing the tumor size and improving the symptoms of HPO.

Yang T, Xu R, Yan B, et al.
Elevation of tumor mutation burden in ROS1-fusion lung adenocarcinoma resistant to crizotinib: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(52):e13797 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Although most of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with ROS1-fusions respond to crizotinb, acquired resistance eventually develop. The next-generations of ROS1 inhibitors have made some achievements, but the effects of immunotherapy have not been explored.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 44-year-old Chinese women presented with cough and dyspnea with a history of advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
DIAGNOSIS: A PET/CT scan revealed primary tumors in bilateral lung lobes and multiple metastases in lymph nodes and bones. And ultrasound-guided left cervical lymph node biopsy revealed the pathological diagnosis was poor differentiated lung adenocarcinoma.
INTERVENTIONS: The patients was started to be treated with 4 cycles of pemetrexed, carboplatin and bevacizumab, followed by one cycle of docetaxel, cisplatin and bevacizumab. As the ROS1-fusion was found by next generation sequencing, the patient received crizotinib treatment about 3 months.
OUTCOMES: After 5 cycles of chemotherapy, CT scans revealed increased size of bilateral lobe nodules indicative of progressive disease (PD). Then the patient received treatment of crizotinib and his progression-free survival reached 3 months. Due to uncontrollable disease progression, the patient expired.
LESSONS: The genetic profile of NSCLC patients might be altered in various therapeutic processes. Thus, repeated genetic testing might be important at each progression. Moreover, immunotherapy might be a powerful weapon to overcome the resistance to Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in future.

Cicek T, Ozturk A, Yılmaz A, et al.
Adequacy of EBUS-TBNA specimen for mutation analysis of lung cancer.
Clin Respir J. 2019; 13(2):92-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a minimally invasive technique with high sensitivity in the mediastinal staging of non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC). In recent years, molecular testing has been developed to study genetic mutations in NSCLC. There are studies revealing improved survival in advanced NSCLC using targeted therapy as the first-line treatment in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of EBUS-TBNA in providing adequate size specimens for EGFR, ALK and ROS1 genetic mutation analysis in patients with adenocarcinoma or not otherwise specified (NOS) lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Charts of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma or NOS via EBUS-TBNA were retrospectively reviewed. Information on patient demographics, number of lymph nodes sampled, their size and location, targeted gene mutations and the adequacy of the material sampled for the molecular testing was recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were included in the study, adenocarcinoma 86 (75%) and NOS 28 (25%). EGFR gene mutation was studied in all of the patients included in the study while ALK in 113 and ROS1 in 98. The material adequacy ratios for EGFR gene mutation, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements were found to be 88.6%, 93.8% and 91.8%, respectively. EGFR gene mutation, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements were found positive in 13 (11.4%), 9 (8%) and 1 (1%) patients, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that EBUS-TBNA provides adequate material for mutation analysis in patients with newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma or NOS lung cancer.

Ke L, Xu M, Jiang X, Sun X
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutations and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/Oncogene or C-Ros Oncogene 1 (ALK/ROS1) Fusions Inflict Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Female Patients Older Than 60 Years of Age.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:9364-9369 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Lung cancer has become a leading disease for the tumor-induced mortality. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80% of all lung cancers. The present research aimed to evaluate the correlation between the anaplastic lymphoma kinase/oncogene or c-ros oncogene 1 (ALK/ROS1) fusions or mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ages or gender of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Among 1449 NSCLC patients, 457 patients who were diagnosed as consecutive EGFR mutations or ALK/ROS1 fusions between November 2016 and February 2018 were involved in the present study. EGFR genes or ALK/ROS1 mutations were detected by using DNA sequencing technique and amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS). The mRNAs of ROS1 and ALK fusion were examined by using polymerase chain reaction technique and fusion gene detection kit. RESULTS Females were more often inflicted by the EGFR mutations, especially for the exon 19 deletion and L858R mutation. There were significantly more ALK/ROS1 fusions in females compared to males (P<0.05) and significantly more ALK/ROS1 fusions in <60 years of age patients compared to patients older than 60 years of age (P<0.05). Exon 21 L858R and L861Q dominantly occurred in patients ≥60 years of age and exon 19 deletion in patients <60 years of age. EML-ALK-1 mainly existed in the female NSCLC patients. CONCLUSIONS EGFR mutations and ALK/ROS1 fusions mainly occurred in the NSCLC female patients who were older than 60 years of age.

Hellerstedt BA, Vogelzang NJ, Kluger HM, et al.
Results of a Phase II Placebo-controlled Randomized Discontinuation Trial of Cabozantinib in Patients with Non-small-cell Lung Carcinoma.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2019; 20(2):74-81.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Cabozantinib, an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, AXL, ROS1, and RET was assessed in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) as part of a phase II randomized discontinuation trial with cohorts from 9 tumor types.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received cabozantinib 100 mg/day during a 12-week open-label lead-in stage. Those with stable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0 at week 12 were randomized to cabozantinib or placebo. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) at week 12 and progression-free survival (PFS) after randomization.
RESULTS: Sixty patients with NSCLC who had received a median of 2 prior lines of therapy were enrolled. ORR at week 12 was 10%; 6 patients had a confirmed partial response, and no patients had a complete response. Overall disease-control rate (ORR + stable disease) at week 12 was 38%. Tumor regression was observed in 30 (64%) of 47 patients with post-baseline radiographic tumor assessments, including 3 or 4 patients with KRAS or epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, respectively. Median PFS after randomization was 2.4 months for both the cabozantinib and placebo arms. Median PFS from first dose for the entire cohort was 4.2 months. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were fatigue (13%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (10%), diarrhea (7%), hypertension (7%), and asthenia (5%); 1 treatment-related grade 5 adverse event (hemorrhage) was reported during the lead-in stage.
CONCLUSION: Cabozantinib exhibited clinical activity based on ORR and regression of tumor lesions in pretreated patients with NSCLC, including in patients with KRAS mutations.

Lee J, Park CK, Yoon HK, et al.
PD-L1 expression in ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer: A study using simultaneous genotypic screening of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1.
Thorac Cancer. 2019; 10(1):103-110 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic characteristics of ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in routine genotypic screening in conjunction with the study of PD-L1 expression, a biomarker for first-line treatment decisions.
METHODS: Reflex simultaneous genotypic screening for EGFR by peptide nucleic acid clamping, and ALK and ROS1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on consecutive NSCLC cases at the time of initial pathologic diagnosis. We evaluated genetic aberrations, clinicopathologic characteristics, and PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) using a PD-L1 22C3 assay kit.
RESULTS: In 407 consecutive NSCLC patients, simultaneous genotyping identified 14 (3.4%) ROS1 and 19 (4.7%) ALK rearrangements, as well as 106 (26%) EGFR mutations. These mutations were mutually exclusive and were found in patients with similar clinical features, including younger age, a prevalence in women, adenocarcinoma, and advanced stage. The PD-L1 assay was performed on 130 consecutive NSCLC samples. High PD-L1 expression (TPS ≥ 50%) was observed in 29 (22.3%) tumors. PD-L1 expression (TPS ≥ 1%) was significantly associated with wild type EGFR, while ROS1 rearrangement was associated with high PD-L1 expression. Of the 14 cases with ROS1 rearrangement, 12 (85.7%) showed PD-L1 expression and 5 (35.7%) showed high PD-L1 expression.
CONCLUSION: In the largest consecutive routine Asian NSCLC cohort analyzed to date, we found that high PD-L1 expression frequently overlapped with ROS1 rearrangement, while it negatively correlated with EGFR mutations.

Zhang Q, Wu C, Ding W, et al.
Prevalence of ROS1 fusion in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Thorac Cancer. 2019; 10(1):47-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to investigate the clinicopathological features and prevalence of ROS1 gene fusion in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: The presence of ROS1 fusion was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Associations between ROS1 fusion and clinical characteristics were analyzed.
RESULTS: In total, 6066 patients with pathologically confirmed NSCLC and ROS1 fusion test results were enrolled. The average age was 60.89 ± 10.60 years and fusion was detected in 157 (2.59%) patients. Fusion frequency was significantly correlated with age, gender, smoking status (all P < 0.001), pathology type (P = 0.017), and lymph node metastasis stage (P = 0.027). ROS1 fusion-positive patients were significantly younger (55.68 ± 11.34 vs. negative 61.02 ± 10.44 years; P < 0.01). Fusion frequency was higher in women (3.71% vs. men 1.81%), never-smokers (3.33% vs. smokers 1.21%), and patients with adenocarcinoma (2.77% vs. squamous lung cancer 0.93%) and at advanced node stages (1.31%, 1.40%, 2.07%, and 3.23% for N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively). No significant correlation between ROS1 fusion status and pathological stage was found in subgroups classified by pathological, tumor, or metastasis stage (P > 0.05). Age, smoking status, and lymph node stage were statistically significantly correlated with ROS1 fusion frequency (all P < 0.05); gender and pathology type were not significantly correlated with ROS1 fusion status after adjusting for smoking status.
CONCLUSION: An overall ROS1 fusion frequency of 2.59% was confirmed in this study. ROS1 fusion was more prevalent among younger patients, never-smokers, and those at advanced node stages.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

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