Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ROR1 (cancer-related)
Karvonen H, Perttilä R, Niininen W, et al.Wnt5a and ROR1 activate non-canonical Wnt signaling via RhoA in TCF3-PBX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and highlight new treatment strategies via Bcl-2 co-targeting.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3288-3300 [PubMed
] Related Publications
B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with TCF3-PBX1 fusion gene expression has constitutively elevated levels of Wnt16b and ROR1 (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor), a ligand and a receptor from the Wnt signaling pathway, respectively. Although survival rate is usually high after the initial chemotherapy, many TCF3-PBX1 BCP-ALL patients relapse and subsequently develop treatment resistance, resulting in poor prognosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular signaling associated with Wnt16b and ROR1 overexpression in TCF3-PBX1 cell lines and primary samples, and to identify effective treatment options via ROR1 targeting. We detected higher ROR1 expression on TCF3-PBX1 leukemic cells even at a later stage of patient relapse, providing a strong rationale for the use of ROR1-targeted therapy. We found that Wnt5a-ROR1 signaling enhances proliferation of TCF3-PBX1 cells via RhoA/Rac1 GTPases activation and STAT3 upregulation. Wnt16b also activated the RhoA/Rac1 signaling cascade suggesting the activation of a non-canonical Wnt pathway in TCF3-PBX1 cells. Wnt16 could interact with ROR1 but not in TCF3-PBX1 cells, suggesting that Wnt5a is the ligand signaling via ROR1 in TCF3-PBX1 cells. By high throughput drug-sensitivity testing of TCF3-PBX1 cells before and after ROR1 knockdown we found that targeting ROR1 significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of Bcl-2 family inhibitors venetoclax and navitoclax, and this synergism was confirmed ex vivo using a drug-resistant primary sample from a relapsed TCF3-PBX1 patient. Our work underlines a new type of targeted combination therapy that could be clinically advantageous for patients with TCF3-PBX1 BCP-ALL.
Breast cancers enduring treatment with chemotherapy may be enriched for cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells, which have an enhanced capacity for self-renewal, tumor initiation, and/or metastasis. Breast cancer cells that express the type I tyrosine kinaselike orphan receptor ROR1 also may have such features. Here we find that the expression of ROR1 increased in breast cancer cells following treatment with chemotherapy, which also enhanced expression of genes induced by the activation of Rho-GTPases, Hippo-YAP/TAZ, or B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1). Expression of ROR1 also enhanced the capacity of breast cancer cells to invade Matrigel, form spheroids, engraft in Rag2
Xu GL, Shen J, Xu YH, et al.ROR1 is highly expressed in circulating tumor cells and promotes invasion of pancreatic cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5087-5094 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PaC) is an aggressive malignancy, which is associated with high levels of metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which may be considered a functional biomarker and promising treatment strategy for metastasis, are associated with the prognosis and progression of various metastatic cancers, including PaC. Receptor tyrosine kinase‑like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) expression contributes to cell metastasis and poor clinical outcomes in malignant tumors. The present study aimed to explore the function of ROR1 in PaC CTCs. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to examine the expression of ROR1, E‑cadherin and N‑cadherin. Cell proliferative and invasive ability was assessed by MTT and Transwell assays, respectively. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of ROR1 were augmented in PaC tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of ROR1 were higher in CTCs compared with in peripheral blood cells, and ROR1 was more highly expressed in CTCs than in cells. Notably, CTCs exhibited a markedly greater proliferative and invasive capacity than PANC‑1 and SW‑1990 cells, whereas knockdown of endogenous ROR1 by small interfering RNA led to suppression of the invasion of CTCs. In addition, it was revealed that the mechanism underlying the effects of ROR1 on PaC CTC metastasis may involve the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition process. In conclusion, ROR1 may be considered a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the treatment of PaC.
Karvonen H, Perttilä R, Niininen W, et al.Targeting Wnt signaling pseudokinases in hematological cancers.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(4):457-465 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent studies showed that several pseudokinases from the receptor tyrosine kinase family are important players in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, suggesting that targeting these proteins can play a therapeutic role in cancer treatment. Receptor Tyr kinase-like orphan receptors (RORs), protein Tyr kinase 7 (PTK7) (also called colon carcinoma kinase 4 (CCK4)), and receptor-like Tyr kinase (RYK) are Wnt ligand binding receptors within the non-canonical Wnt signaling, with important roles in development, tissue homeostasis, and organogenesis. At the cellular level, these receptors transduce signals important for cell survival, migration, polarization, and chemotaxis. Considerable progress has been made in the last decade in the field of pseudokinase signaling, improving our understanding of their structure-function mechanisms, and intracellular network of transduction components. Consequently, their role in various diseases, including cancer, is now scrutinized for therapeutic interventions to improve treatment outcome. In this article, we review findings regarding molecular mechanisms and targeted therapies for ROR1, PTK7, and RYK in hematological malignancies.
Daneshmanesh AH, Hojjat-Farsangi M, Ghaderi A, et al.A receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 inhibitor (KAN0439834) induced significant apoptosis of pancreatic cells which was enhanced by erlotinib and ibrutinib.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198038 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is a great unmet medical need in pancreatic carcinoma (PC) for novel drugs with other mechanisms of action than existing. PC cells express the onco-fetal RTK ROR1, absent on most normal post-partem cells. ROR1 is involved in proliferation, survival, EMT and metastasis of tumor cells in various malignancies. A small molecule inhibitor (KAN0439834) (530 Da) targeting the TK domain of ROR1 was developed and the activity in ROR1 expressing human PC cell lines (n = 8) evaluated. The effects were compared to a murine mAb against the external part of ROR1, gemcitabine, erlotinib and ibrutinib. KAN0439834 induced significant apoptosis of the tumor cells. EC50 values for KAN0439834 varied between 250-650 nM depending on the cell line. The corresponding values for erlotinib and ibrutinib were 10-40 folds higher. KAN0439834 was much more effective in inducing tumor cell death than the ROR1 mAb although both inhibited ROR1 phosphorylation and downstream non-canonical Wnt pathway molecules. Combination of KAN0439834 with erlotinib or ibrutinib had significant additive effects on tumor cell death. A first-in-class small molecule ROR1 inhibitor (KAN0439834) showed promising in vitro activity against a number of human PC cell lines. Interesting is the additive effects of erlotinib and ibrutinib which warrants further studies as both these agents are in clinical trials for pancreatic carcinoma.
Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncofetal antigen expressed on multiple tumors and has no significant expression on normal human tissues. ROR1 is highly upregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. NOD-scid IL2rg
Expression of the transmembrane pseudokinase ROR1 is required for survival of t(1;19)-pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19) pre-B-ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and many solid tumors. However, targeting ROR1 with small-molecules has been challenging due to the absence of ROR1 kinase activity. To identify genes that regulate ROR1 expression and may, therefore, serve as surrogate drug targets, we employed an siRNA screening approach and determined that the epigenetic regulator and E3 ubiquitin ligase, UHRF1, is required for t(1;19) pre-B-ALL cell viability in a ROR1-dependent manner. Upon UHRF1 silencing, ROR1 protein is reduced without altering ROR1 mRNA, and ectopically expressed UHRF1 is sufficient to increase ROR1 levels. Additionally, proteasome inhibition rescues loss of ROR1 protein after UHRF1 silencing, suggesting a role for the proteasome in the UHRF1-ROR1 axis. Finally, we show that ROR1-positive cells are twice as sensitive to the UHRF1-targeting drug, naphthazarin, and undergo increased apoptosis compared to ROR1-negative cells. Naphthazarin elicits reduced expression of UHRF1 and ROR1, and combination of naphthazarin with inhibitors of pre-B cell receptor signaling results in further reduction of cell survival compared with either inhibitor alone. Therefore, our work reveals a mechanism by which UHRF1 stabilizes ROR1, suggesting a potential targeting strategy to inhibit ROR1 in t(1;19) pre-B-ALL and other malignancies.
Saji T, Nishita M, Ogawa H, et al.Critical role of the Ror-family of receptor tyrosine kinases in invasion and proliferation of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.
Genes Cells. 2018; 23(7):606-613 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis and closely related to exposure to asbestos. MPM is a heterogeneous tumor with three main histological subtypes, epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and biphasic types, among which sarcomatoid type shows the poorest prognosis. The Ror-family of receptor tyrosine kinases, Ror1 and Ror2, is expressed in various types of tumor cells at higher levels and affects their aggressiveness. However, it is currently unknown whether they are expressed in and involved in aggressiveness of MPM. Here, we show that Ror1 and Ror2 are expressed in clinical specimens and cell lines of MPM with different histological features. Studies using MPM cell lines indicate that expression of Ror2 is associated tightly with high invasiveness of MPM cells, whereas Ror1 can contribute to their invasion in the absence of Ror2. However, both Ror1 and Ror2 promote proliferation of MPM cells. We also show that promoted invasion and proliferation of MPM cells by Ror signaling can be mediated by the Rho-family of small GTPases, Rac1, and Cdc42. These findings elucidate the critical role of Ror signaling in promoting invasion and proliferation of MPM cells.
Triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype that lacks effective targeted therapies. In the present study, we revealed that the expression of miR‑30a was significantly decreased in TNBC, and TNBC patients with low expression of miR‑30a were associated with high histological grade and more lymph node metastasis. Moreover, we found that miR‑30a suppressed TNBC cell epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by the overexpression of miR‑30a which increased the expression of epithelial marker E‑cadherin but decreased the expression of mesenchymal markers N‑cadherin and vimentin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR‑30a significantly suppressed TNBC cell invasion and migration, as well as inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. More importantly, RTK‑like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) was predicted as the direct target of miR‑30a, which was subsequently confirmed by luciferase assays. Forced expression of miR‑30a in TNBC cells decreased ROR1 expression, whereas the overexpression of ROR1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR‑30a in TNBC cell migration and invasion. Collectively, this study indicated that miR‑30a functions as a tumor‑metastasis suppressor miRNA in TNBC by directly targeting ROR1 and that miR‑30a may serve as a novel therapeutic target for TNBC.
Henry CE, Llamosas E, Daniels B, et al.ROR1 and ROR2 play distinct and opposing roles in endometrial cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 148(3):576-584 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, the Wnt signalling pathway and the ROR1 and ROR2 receptors have been implicated in a range of gynecological cancers. These receptors have been described as prospective therapeutic targets, and this study investigated such potential in an endometrial cancer context.
METHOD: Immunohistochemistry for ROR1 and ROR2 was performed in a patient cohort, and expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters including type, stage, grade, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular involvement, patient age and survival. The functional role of these receptors in endometrial cancer was investigated via siRNA knockdown of ROR1 and ROR2 in three cell line models (KLE, RL95-2 and MFE-319). Effects on proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion were measured.
RESULTS: High ROR1 expression in patient samples correlated with worse overall survival (p = 0.0169) while high ROR2 expression correlated with better overall survival (p = 0.06). ROR1 knockdown in KLE cells significantly decreased proliferation (p = 0.047) and reduced migration and invasion. ROR2 knockdown in RL95-2 cells increased cell migration and invasion (p = 0.011). Double ROR1 and ROR2 knockdown in MFE-319 cells decreased adhesion and significantly increased cell migration (P = 0.008) and invasion (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: ROR1 and ROR2 play distinct roles in endometrial cancer. ROR1 may promote tumor progression, similar to its role in ovarian cancer, while ROR2 may act as a tumor suppressor in endometrioid endometrial cancer, similar to its role in colorectal cancer. With several ROR-targeting therapies currently in development and phase I clinical trials for other tumor types, this study supports the potential of these receptors as therapeutic targets for women with endometrial cancer.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease with up-regulated expression of the transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase ROR1, a member of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we identified COBLL1 as a novel interaction partner of ROR1.
Guo X, Zheng H, Luo W, et al.5T4-specific chimeric antigen receptor modification promotes the immune efficacy of cytokine-induced killer cells against nasopharyngeal carcinoma stem cell-like cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):4859 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relapse and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are presumably attributed to cancer stem cells (CSCs). In recent years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune effector cells have been shown to have impressive antitumour efficacy. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate tumour-associated antigens predominantly expressed on NPC stem cells (NPCSCs) and determine their suitability for CAR-engineered cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy against NPC. By investigating the expression patterns of potential target antigens (ROR1, 5T4 and CAIX) in NPC, we found that the oncofetal antigen 5T4 was predominately expressed in NPC cell lines and tissues but absent in non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues. Moreover, significantly enhanced expression of 5T4 in NPC spheroids revealed its relationship with putative NPCSCs. Hence, we designed a CAR construct (5T4-28Z) specific for 5T4 and generated CAR-transduced CIK cells. Our results showed that the artificial CAR was efficiently expressed on the surface of CIK cells and that no native phenotypes were altered by the gene transduction. Functional assays revealed that 5T4-28Z-CIK cells possessed both CAR-mediated and CAR-independent anti-NPC activity and were capable of efficiently attacking NPC cells, especially NPCSC-like cells in vitro, suggesting that they might serve as an attractive tool for developing efficient therapies against NPC.
There is a lack of reliable prognosis biomarker in the current treatment of colorectal cancer. The receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in certain tumors. This study aimed to explore the prognostic significance of ROR1 in colorectal cancer. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of ROR1 in colorectal cancer was significantly higher than that in the adjacent normal tissues. ROR1 expression was positively associated with the clinical stage and lymph-node metastasis (p < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with higher ROR1 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that ROR1 is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (p = 0.002, HR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.314-3.292). Thus, our study demonstrated that ROR1 expression is correlated with malignant attributes and may serve as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.
Karvonen H, Niininen W, Murumägi A, Ungureanu DTargeting ROR1 identifies new treatment strategies in hematological cancers.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2017; 45(2):457-464 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a member of the ROR receptor family consisting of two closely related type I transmembrane proteins ROR1 and ROR2. Owing to mutations in their canonical motifs required for proper kinase activity, RORs are classified as pseudokinases lacking detectable catalytic activity. ROR1 stands out for its selective and high expression in numerous blood and solid malignancies compared with a minimal expression in healthy adult tissues, suggesting high potential for this molecule as a drug target for cancer therapy. Current understanding attributes a survival role for ROR1 in cancer cells; however, its oncogenic function is cancer-type-specific and involves various signaling pathways. High interest in ROR1-targeted therapies resulted in the development of ROR1 monoclonal antibodies such as cirmtuzumab, currently in a phase I clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite these advances in translational studies, the molecular mechanism employed by ROR1 in different cancers is not yet fully understood; therefore, more insights into the oncogenic role of ROR1 signaling are crucial in order to optimize the use of targeted drugs. Recent studies provided evidence that targeting ROR1 simultaneously with inhibition of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is more effective in killing ROR1-positive leukemia cells, suggesting a synergistic correlation between co-targeting ROR1 and BCR pathways. Although this synergy has been previously reported for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the molecular mechanism appears rather different. These results provide more insights into ROR1-BCR combinatorial treatment strategies in hematological malignancies, which could benefit in tailoring more effective targeted therapies in other ROR1-positive cancers.
Liu Z, Yanagisawa K, Griesing S, et al.TTF-1/NKX2-1 binds to DDB1 and confers replication stress resistance to lung adenocarcinomas.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(26):3740-3748 [PubMed
] Related Publications
TTF-1, also known as NKX2-1, is a transcription factor that has indispensable roles in both lung development and physiology. We and others have reported that TTF-1 frequently exhibits high expression with increased copy number in lung adenocarcinomas, and also has a role as a lineage-survival oncogene through transcriptional activation of crucial target genes including ROR1 and LMO3. In the present study, we employed a global proteomic search for proteins that interact with TTF-1 in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of this still enigmatic lineage-survival oncogene. Our results unexpectedly revealed a function independent of its transcriptional activity, as TTF-1 was found to interact with DDB1 and block its binding to CHK1, which in turn attenuated ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of CHK1. Furthermore, TTF-1 overexpression conferred resistance to cellular conditions under DNA replication stress (RS) and prevented an increase in consequential DNA double-strand breaks, as reflected by attenuated induction of pCHK2 and γH2AX. Our findings suggest that the novel non-transcriptional function of TTF-1 identified in this study may contribute to lung adenocarcinoma development by conferring tolerance to DNA RS, which is known to be inherently elicited by activation of various oncogenes.
Bone metastases remain a serious health concern because of limited therapeutic options. Here, we report that crosstalk between ROR1-HER3 and the Hippo-YAP pathway promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in a long noncoding RNA-dependent fashion. Mechanistically, the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 phosphorylates HER3 at a previously unidentified site Tyr1307, following neuregulin stimulation, independently of other ErbB family members. p-HER3 Tyr1307 recruits the LLGL2-MAYA-NSUN6 RNA-protein complex to methylate Hippo/MST1 at Lys59. This methylation leads to MST1 inactivation and activation of YAP target genes in tumour cells, which elicits osteoclast differentiation and bone metastasis. Furthermore, increased ROR1, p-HER3 Tyr1307 and MAYA levels correlate with tumour metastasis and unfavourable outcomes. Our data provide insights into the mechanistic regulation and linkage of the ROR1-HER3 and Hippo-YAP pathway in a cancer-specific context, and also imply valuable therapeutic targets for bone metastasis and possible therapy-resistant tumours.
ROR1 is an oncoembryonic orphan receptor found on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells, but not on normal postpartum tissues. ROR1 is a receptor for Wnt5a that may complex with TCL1, a coactivator of AKT that is able to promote development of CLL. We found the CLL cells of a few patients expressed negligible ROR1 (ROR1
Khan AS, Hojjat-Farsangi M, Daneshmanesh AH, et al.Dishevelled proteins are significantly upregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11947-11957 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Dishevelled (DVL) proteins are components of the Wnt signalling pathways, and increased expression is associated with various malignancies. Information on DVLs in chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of DVLs in CLL cells and association with Wnt pathways downstream of ROR1. DVL1, 2 and 3 were exclusively expressed in CLL cells as compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The expression of DVL1 and DVL3 proteins was significantly more pronounced in progressive than in non-progressive disease (p < 0.01), whereas the level of DVL2 was significantly higher in non-progressive as compared to progressive disease (p < 0.001). Treatment of CLL cells with anti-ROR1 specific monoclonal antibodies induced dephosphorylation of ROR1 as well as of tyrosine and serine residues of both DVL2 and DVL3. However, gene silencing of DVLs in the CLL cell line (EHEB) did not induce detectable apoptosis. Non-progressive CLL patients had a different protein activity pattern with regard to Wnt signalling pathway proteins as GSK-3β, β-catenin and AKT as compared to progressive disease. The DVL2 protein may play a role in the activation of signalling pathways in CLL during early stages of the disease, while DVL1 and 3 may have a role in later phases of the leukaemia.
Although exome sequencing data are generated primarily to detect single-nucleotide variants and indels, they can also be used to identify a subset of genomic rearrangements whose breakpoints are located in or near exons. Using >4,600 tumor and normal pairs across 15 cancer types, we identified over 9,000 high confidence somatic rearrangements, including a large number of gene fusions. We find that the 5' fusion partners of functional fusions are often housekeeping genes, whereas the 3' fusion partners are enriched in tyrosine kinases. We establish the oncogenic potential of ROR1-DNAJC6 and CEP85L-ROS1 fusions by showing that they can promote cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, we found that ∼4% of the samples have massively rearranged chromosomes, many of which are associated with upregulation of oncogenes such as ERBB2 and TERT. Although the sensitivity of detecting structural alterations from exomes is considerably lower than that from whole genomes, this approach will be fruitful for the multitude of exomes that have been and will be generated, both in cancer and in other diseases.
Jung EH, Lee HN, Han GY, et al.Targeting ROR1 inhibits the self-renewal and invasive ability of glioblastoma stem cells.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2016; 34(3):149-57 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most malignant of brain tumours and is difficult to cure because of interruption of drug delivery by the blood-brain barrier system, its high metastatic capacity and the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although CSCs are present as a small population in malignant tumours, CSCs have been studied as they are responsible for causing recurrence, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. CSCs have self-renewal characteristics like normal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is involved in stem cell maintenance and malignant properties in human glioblastoma. Knockdown of ROR1 caused reduction of stemness and sphere formation capacity. Moreover, down-regulation of ROR1 suppressed the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes and the tumour migratory and invasive abilities. The results of this study indicate that targeting ROR1 can induce differentiation of CSCs and inhibit metastasis in glioblastoma. In addition, ROR1 may be used as a potential marker for glioblastoma stem cells as well as a potential target for glioblastoma stem cell therapy.
Chien HP, Ueng SH, Chen SC, et al.Expression of ROR1 has prognostic significance in triple negative breast cancer.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 468(5):589-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR1) in a variety of human malignancies is associated with aggressive behaviour. Therapeutic agents targeting ROR1 have shown promising results in vivo and in vitro studies. In breast cancer, high-level expression of ROR1 mRNA is associated with high-grade tumours and metastasis. We investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of ROR1 expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). ROR1 was immunohistochemically stained on full-face sections of 210 TNBC patient samples. Forty-seven TNBC cases (22.4 %) showed strong ROR1 expression, which was associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.00015), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P = 0.00013) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.026) in univariate analyses. Results were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Seventy TNBC cases (33.3 %) with medullary features showed longer OS (P = 0.00013). We divided the whole series into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of medullary features. Strong ROR1 expression retained a predictive value of shorter DFS and DMFS in both subgroups. Our study suggests that strong ROR1 expression might be an independent adverse prognostic factor in TNBC patients and may serve as a potential marker for patient selection in ROR1-targeted therapy. More large-scale studies are needed to clarify its potential usefulness.
Bleckmann A, Conradi LC, Menck K, et al.β-catenin-independent WNT signaling and Ki67 in contrast to the estrogen receptor status are prognostic and associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer liver metastases.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2016; 33(4):309-23 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liver metastasis development in breast cancer patients is common and confers a poor prognosis. So far, the prognostic significance of surgical resection and clinical relevance of biomarker analysis in metastatic tissue have barely been investigated. We previously demonstrated an impact of WNT signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the value of established prognostic markers and WNT signaling components in liver metastases. Overall N = 34 breast cancer liver metastases (with matched primaries in 19/34 cases) were included in this retrospective study. Primaries and metastatic samples were analyzed for their expression of the estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor, HER-2, Ki67, and various WNT signaling-components by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, β-catenin-dependent and -independent WNT scores were generated and analyzed for their prognostic value. Additionally, the influence of the alternative WNT receptor ROR on signaling and invasiveness was analyzed in vitro. ER positivity (HR 0.09, 95 % CI 0.01-0.56) and high Ki67 (HR 3.68, 95 % CI 1.12-12.06) in the primaries had prognostic impact. However, only Ki67 remained prognostic in the metastatic tissue (HR 2.46, 95 % CI 1.11-5.44). Additionally, the β-catenin-independent WNT score correlated with reduced overall survival only in the metastasized situation (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.02-4.69, p = 0.0391). This is in line with the in vitro results of the alternative WNT receptors ROR1 and ROR2, which foster invasion. In breast cancer, the value of prognostic markers established in primary tumors cannot directly be translated to metastases. Our results revealed β-catenin-independent WNT signaling to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer liver metastasis.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have provided molecular targets for the development of novel, prognosis-improving agents in many cancers; however, resistances to these therapies occur. On the cellular level, one resistance mechanism is attributed to functional RTK redundancies and compensatory cross-signaling, leading to perception of RTKs as signaling and target networks. To provide a basis for better exploitation of this network in Ewing sarcoma, we generated comprehensive qPCR gene expression profiles of RTKs in Ewing sarcoma cell lines and 21 untreated primary tumors. Key findings confirm broad-spectrum RTK expressions with potential for signaling redundancy. Profile analyses with regard to patient risk-group further revealed several individual RTKs of interest. Among them, VEGFR3 and TIE1 showed high-level expressions and also were suggestive of poor prognosis in localized tumors; underscoring the relevance of angiogenic signaling pathways and tumor-stroma interactions in Ewing sarcoma. Of note, compared to localized disease, tumors derived from metastatic disease were marked by global high-level RTK expressions. Nine individual RTKs were significantly over-expressed, suggesting contributions to molecular mechanisms of metastasis. Of these, ROR1 is being pursued as therapeutic target in leukemias and carcinomas, but un-characterized in sarcomas. We demonstrate expression of ROR1 and its putative ligand Wnt5a in Ewing sarcomas, and of an active ROR1 protein variant in cell lines. ROR1 silencing impaired cell migration in vitro. Therefore, ROR1 calls for further evaluation as a therapeutic target in metastatic Ewing sarcoma; and described as a pseudo-kinase with several isoforms, underlines these additional complexities arising in our understanding of RTK signaling networks.
Ida L, Yamaguchi T, Yanagisawa K, et al.Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1, a target of NKX2-1/TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene, inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-mediated pro-apoptotic signaling in lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(2):155-61 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously identified receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) as a transcriptional target of the NKX2-1/TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinoma. ROR1 consequently sustains a favorable balance between pro-survival phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B and pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38MAPK signaling. In contrast to recent advances in understanding how ROR1 sustains pro-survival signaling, the mechanism of ROR1 repression of pro-apoptotic signaling remains rather elusive. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of ROR1-mediated inhibition of the ASK1-p38MAPK signaling pathway. Growth inhibition mediated by siROR1 was partially but significantly alleviated by ASK1 co-knockdown in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Also, ASK1 phosphorylation at Thr845, which reflects its activated state, was clearly inhibited by ROR1 overexpression in both steady state and oxidative stress-elicited conditions in MSTO-211H cells. In addition, we found that ROR1 was physically associated with ASK1 at the C-terminal serine threonine-rich domain of ROR1. Furthermore, ROR1 kinase activity was shown to be required to repress the ASK1-p38 axis and oxidative stress-induced cell death. The present findings thus support our notion that ROR1 sustains lung adenocarcinoma survival, at least in part, through direct physical interaction with ASK1 and consequential repression of the pro-apoptotic ASK1-p38 axis in a ROR1 kinase activity-dependent manner.
BACKGROUND: The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptors (ROR) family contains the atypical member ROR1, which plays an oncogenic role in several malignant tumors. However, the clinical potentials and underlying mechanisms of ROR1 in gastric cancer progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we validated the microRNA-mediated gene repression mechanism involved in the role of ROR1.
METHODS: Bioinformatic prediction, luciferase reporter assay, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were used to reveal the regulatory relationship between miR-27b-3p and ROR1. The expression patterns of miR-27b-3p and ROR1 in human gastric cancer (GC) specimens and cell lines were determined by microRNA RT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation, colony formation assay in soft agar in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo were performed to observe the effects of downregulation and upregulation miR-27b-3p expression on GC cell phenotypes.
RESULTS: miR-27b-3p suppressed ROR1 expression by binding to the 3'UTR of ROR1 mRNA in GC cells. miR-27b-3p was significantly downregulated and reversely correlated with ROR1 protein levels in clinical samples. Analysis of the clinicopathological significance showed that miR-27b-3p and ROR1 were closely correlated with GC characteristics. Ectopic miR-27b-3p expression suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar, xenograft tumors of GC cells. By contrast, miR-27b-3p knockdown enhanced these malignant behaviors. Our studies further revealed that the c-Src/STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in miR-27b-3p-ROR1-mediated cell proliferation regulation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that miR-27b-3p suppresses ROR1 expression through the binding site in the 3'UTR inhibiting the cell proliferation. These findings indicate that miR-27b-3p exerts tumor-suppressive effects in GC through the suppression of oncogene ROR1 expression and suggest a therapeutic application of miR-27b-3p in GC.
Tan H, He Q, Gong G, et al.miR-382 inhibits migration and invasion by targeting ROR1 through regulating EMT in ovarian cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(1):181-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in tumorigenesis. Decreased expression of miR‑382 has been observed in various types of cancers. However, the biological function of miRNA-382 in ovarian cancer is still largely unknown. Here, we found miR‑382 was downregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. miR‑382 inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, we identified receptor tyrosine kinase orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) as a target of miR‑382, and miR‑382 rescued the promotion effect of ROR1 on migration, invasion and EMT process in SKOV3 and COV434 cells. Collectively, these findings revealed that miR‑382 inhibits migration and invision by targeting ROR1 through regulating EMT in ovarian cancer, and might serve as a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer.
BACKGROUND: ROR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and several other malignancies but absent in most adult normal tissues. ROR1 is considered an onco-fetal antigen. In the present study we analysed spontaneous humoral and cellular immunity against ROR1 in CLL patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibodies against ROR1 were analysed in 23 patients and 20 healthy donors by ELISA and Western blot. Purified serum IgG from patients was tested for cytotoxicity against CLL cells using the MTT viability assay. A cellular immune response against ROR1 derived HLA-A2 restricted 9 aa and 16 aa long peptides were analysed using peptide loaded dendritic cells co-cultured with autologous T cells from CLL patients (n = 9) and healthy donors (n = 6). IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-17A-secreting T cells were assessed by ELISPOT and a proliferative response using a H3-thymidine incorporation assay.
RESULTS: The majority of CLL patients had antibodies against ROR1. Significantly higher titers of anti-ROR1 antibodies were noted in patients with non-progressive as compared to progressive disease. The extracellular membrane-close ROR1 KNG domain seemed to be an immunodominant epitope. Ten patients with high titers of anti-ROR1 binding antibodies were tested for cytotoxicity. Five of those had cytotoxic anti-ROR1 antibodies against CLL cells. ROR1-specific IFN-γ and IL-17A producing T cells could be detected in CLL patients, preferentially in non-progressive as compared to patients with progressive disease (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: ROR1 seemed to spontaneously induce a humoral as well as a T cell response in CLL patients. The data support the notion that ROR1 might be a specific neo-antigen and may serve as a target for immunotherapy.