Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: RMI1 (cancer-related)
Naarmann-de Vries IS, Sackmann Y, Klein F, et al.Characterization of acute myeloid leukemia with del(9q) - Impact of the genes in the minimally deleted region.
Leuk Res. 2019; 76:15-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia is an aggressive disease that arises from clonal expansion of malignant hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow. Deletions on the long arm of chromosome 9 (del(9q)) are observed in 2% of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Our deletion analysis in a cohort of 31 del(9q) acute myeloid leukemia patients further supports the importance of a minimally deleted region composed of seven genes potentially involved in leukemogenesis: GKAP1, KIF27, C9ORF64, HNRNPK, RMI1, SLC28A3 and NTRK2. Importantly, among them HNRNPK, encoding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is proposed to function in leukemogenesis. We show that expression of HNRNPK and the other genes of the minimally deleted region is significantly reduced in patients with del(9q) compared with normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia. Also, two mRNAs interacting with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, namely CDKN1A and CEBPA are significantly downregulated. While the deletion size is not correlated with outcome, associated genetic aberrations are important. Patients with an additional t(8;21) show a good prognosis. RUNX1-RUNX1T1, which emerges from the t(8;21) leads to transcriptional down-regulation of CEBPA. Acute myeloid leukemia patients with mutations in CEBPA have a good prognosis as well. Interestingly, in del(9q) patients with CEBPA mutation mRNA levels of HNRNPK and the other genes located in the minimally deleted region is restored to normal karyotype level. Our data indicate that a link between CEBPA and the genes of the minimally deleted region, among them HNRNPK contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia with del(9q).
Bloom syndrome is a recessive human genetic disorder with features of genome instability, growth deficiency and predisposition to cancer. The only known causative gene is the BLM helicase that is a member of a protein complex along with topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1 and 2, which maintains replication fork stability and dissolves double Holliday junctions to prevent genome instability. Here we report the identification of a second gene, RMI2, that is deleted in affected siblings with Bloom-like features. Cells from homozygous individuals exhibit elevated rates of sister chromatid exchange, anaphase DNA bridges and micronuclei. Similar genome and chromosome instability phenotypes are observed in independently derived RMI2 knockout cells. In both patient and knockout cell lines reduced localisation of BLM to ultra fine DNA bridges and FANCD2 at foci linking bridges are observed. Overall, loss of RMI2 produces a partially active BLM complex with mild features of Bloom syndrome.
RMI1/BLAP75 (RecQ-mediated genome instability 1/Bloom-associated protein 75) is an OB-fold protein highly conserved from yeast to human. Previous studies showed that RMI1 is required for the stability of the BLM/RMI1/Top3α complex and for the suppression of elevated sister chromatids exchange (SCE). The presence of RMI1 strongly stimulates Holliday dissolution activity of the Bloom helicase in vitro. The in vivo function of RMI1, however, remains largely undefined. To address this question, we generated RMI1 knockout mice through homologous replacement targeting. We found that, while RMI1 +/⁻ mice showed no obvious developmental phenotype, deletion of both mRMI1 alleles resulted in early embryonic lethality before implantation. To determine whether RMI1 plays a role in tumorigenesis, we generated RMI1/p53 double heterozygous mice and analyzed their onset of ionizing radiation-induced tumor development. RMI1 +/⁻/p53 +/⁻ mice succumbed to tumor with a higher frequency and exhibited a substantially shortened survival when compared to the wild type, RMI1 +/⁻ and p53 +/⁻ cohorts. These results demonstrated a dual-role of RMI1 in embryonic development and tumor suppression.
Frank B, Hoffmeister M, Klopp N, et al.Colorectal cancer and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes WRN, RMI1 and BLM.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(3):442-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
RecQ helicase family members are involved in multiple DNA repair pathways, protecting the genome from incorrect recombination during mitosis and maintaining its stability. Deficiencies in genes encoding the RecQ helicases WRN and BLM lead to rare autosomal recessive diseases, Werner and Bloom syndromes, which have been implicated in early onset of aging, and predisposition to various types of cancer. We investigated associations of WRN, BLM and BLM-associated protein (BLAP75/RMI1) gene polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), genotyping WRN V114I (rs2230009), WRN L1074F (rs2725362), WRN C1367R (rs1346044), RMI1 S455N (rs1982151) and BLM P868L (rs11852361). A large population-based case-control study, including 1795 CRC cases and 1805 controls, found no evidence for an association between the selected allelic variants in DNA repair-related genes and CRC risk. However, we detected a significant association of BLM P868L with an increased rectal cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.64 and P = 0.04), suggesting a potential cancer-site specificity. This is the first study to analyze the associations between polymorphisms in WRN, BLM and RMI1 and CRC risk. Although none of them showed a significant association with CRC, the association of BLM P868L with rectal cancer risk requires further investigation.
Luedeke M, Linnert CM, Hofer MD, et al.Predisposition for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer by variants in DNA repair genes.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(11):3030-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The somatic fusion of TMPRSS2 to ETS oncogenes is a common event in prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized that defects in DNA repair may lead to an increase of chromosomal rearrangements and thus to the occurrence of ETS oncogene fusion. We have previously conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive PCa families, revealing potential susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5q14, 9q21, 10q26, 11q24, 12q15, 13q12, 18q, and Xq27. In the present study, nine candidate genes from these regions were selected from the context of DNA repair and screened for mutations in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive families. Thirteen nonsynonymous variants, 5 of which had a minor allele frequency of <0.05, were genotyped in 210 familial cases, 47 of which with a known TMPRSS2-ERG status, 329 sporadic cases, and 512 controls. Significant association of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive PCa was found with rare variants in the genes for POLI [variant F532S: P = 0.0011; odds ratios (OR), 4.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.84-11.56] and ESCO1 (variant N191S: P = 0.0034; OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 1.62-11.28). Additional findings, regardless of TMPRSS2-ERG status, were the overrepresentation of a rare BRCA2 variant (V2728I: P = 0.03; OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 1.19-32.00) in familial PCa and of a common allele of RMI1 (variant N455S: P = 0.02; OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.70) in unselected PCa cases. The DNA repair genes POLI and ESCO1 are proposed as susceptibility genes for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive PCa that warrant further investigation.
BACKGROUND: Mutations altering BLM function are associated with highly elevated cancer susceptibility (Bloom syndrome). Thus, genetic variants of BLM and proteins that form complexes with BLM, such as TOP3A and RMI1, might affect cancer risk as well.
METHODS: In this study we have studied 26 tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in RMI1, TOP3A, and BLM and their associations with cancer risk in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplatic syndromes (AML/MDS; N = 152), malignant melanoma (N = 170), and bladder cancer (N = 61). Two population-based control groups were used (N = 119 and N = 156).
RESULTS: Based on consistency in effect estimates for the three cancer forms and similar allelic frequencies of the variant alleles in the control groups, two SNPs in TOP3A (rs1563634 and rs12945597) and two SNPs in BLM (rs401549 and rs2532105) were selected for analysis in breast cancer cases (N = 200) and a control group recruited from spouses of cancer patients (N = 131). The rs12945597 in TOP3A and rs2532105 in BLM showed increased risk for breast cancer. We then combined all cases (N = 584) and controls (N = 406) respectively and found significantly increased risk for variant carriers of rs1563634 A/G (AG carriers OR = 1.7 [95%CI 1.1-2.6], AA carriers OR = 1.8 [1.2-2.8]), rs12945597 G/A (GA carriers OR = 1.5 [1.1-1.9], AA carriers OR = 1.6 [1.0-2.5]), and rs2532105 C/T (CT+TT carriers OR = 1.8 [1.4-2.5]). Gene-gene interaction analysis suggested an additive effect of carrying more than one risk allele. For the variants of TOP3A, the risk increment was more pronounced for older carriers.
CONCLUSION: These results further support a role of low-penetrance genes involved in BLM-associated homologous recombination for cancer risk.
Bloom Syndrome is an autosomal recessive cancer-prone disorder caused by mutations in the BLM gene. BLM encodes a DNA helicase of the RECQ family, and associates with Topo IIIalpha and BLAP75/RMI1 (BLAP for BLM-associated polypeptide/RecQ-mediated genome instability) to form the BTB (BLM-Topo IIIalpha-BLAP75/RMI1) complex. This complex can resolve the double Holliday junction (dHJ), a DNA intermediate generated during homologous recombination, to yield noncrossover recombinants exclusively. This attribute of the BTB complex likely serves to prevent chromosomal aberrations and rearrangements. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel member of the BTB complex termed BLAP18/RMI2. BLAP18/RMI2 contains a putative OB-fold domain, and several lines of evidence suggest that it is essential for BTB complex function. First, the majority of BLAP18/RMI2 exists in complex with Topo IIIalpha and BLAP75/RMI1. Second, depletion of BLAP18/RMI2 results in the destabilization of the BTB complex. Third, BLAP18/RMI2-depleted cells show spontaneous chromosomal breaks and are sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate treatment. Fourth, BLAP18/RMI2 is required to target BLM to chromatin and for the assembly of BLM foci upon hydroxyurea treatment. Finally, BLAP18/RMI2 stimulates the dHJ resolution capability of the BTB complex. Together, these results establish BLAP18/RMI2 as an essential member of the BTB dHJ dissolvasome that is required for the maintenance of a stable genome.
Broberg K, Höglund M, Gustafsson C, et al.Genetic variant of the human homologous recombination-associated gene RMI1 (S455N) impacts the risk of AML/MDS and malignant melanoma.
Cancer Lett. 2007; 258(1):38-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The newly identified protein BLAP75/RMI1 associates with the helicase BLM and is critical for the function of the homologous recombination complex. Mutations altering BLM function are associated with highly elevated cancer susceptibility (Bloom's syndrome). We have analyzed the common polymorphism Ser455Asn in RMI1 and its association with cancer risk in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, N=93), myelodysplatic syndromes (MDS, N=74), and malignant melanoma (MM, N=166). Two control groups were used: one population-based (N=119) and one recruited from spouses of cancer patients (N=189). The results showed a consistent pattern, where carriers of the Asn variant had a significantly increased risk of AML/MDS. The risk of AML/MDS for SerAsn+AsnAsn subjects was odds ratio (OR)=1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.5 or MM was OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2. Age might modify the effect of RMI1 on cancer risk. This was most evident for MM: AsnAsn homozygotes > or =64 years showed OR=2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.0, whereas individuals <64 years showed OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.31-2.5. These results indicate a role of low-penetrance genes involved in BLM-associated homologous recombination for cancer risk.
Taniwaki M, Daigo Y, Ishikawa N, et al.Gene expression profiles of small-cell lung cancers: molecular signatures of lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(3):567-75 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To characterize the molecular mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and identify molecules to be applied as novel diagnostic markers and/or for development of molecular-targeted drugs, we applied cDNA microarray profile analysis coupled with purification of cancer cells by laser-microbeam microdissection (LMM). Expression profiles of 32,256 genes in 15 SCLCs identified 252 genes that were commonly up-regulated and 851 transcripts that were down-regulated in SCLC cells compared with non-cancerous lung tissue cells. An unsupervised clustering algorithm applied to the expression data easily distinguished SCLC from the other major histological type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identified 475 genes that may represent distinct molecular features of each of the two histological types. In particular, SCLC was characterized by altered expression of genes related to neuroendocrine cell differentiation and/or growth such as ASCL1, NRCAM, and INSM1. We also identified 68 genes that were abundantly expressed both in advanced SCLCs and advanced adenocarcinomas (ADCs), both of which had been obtained from patients with extensive chemotherapy treatment. Some of them are known to be transcription factors and/or gene expression regulators such as TAF5L, TFCP2L4, PHF20, LMO4, TCF20, RFX2, and DKFZp547I048 as well as those encoding nucleotide-binding proteins such as C9orf76, EHD3, and GIMAP4. Our data provide valuable information for better understanding of lung carcinogenesis and chemoresistance.
Sweetser DA, Peniket AJ, Haaland C, et al.Delineation of the minimal commonly deleted segment and identification of candidate tumor-suppressor genes in del(9q) acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005; 44(3):279-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 9, del(9q), is a recurring chromosomal aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is frequently associated with t(8;21). The critical gene products affected by del(9q) are unknown but likely cooperate with the AML1/ETO fusion gene created by t(8;21) in leukemogenesis. In 43 AML samples with del(9q), we used high-density microsatellite markers to define the commonly deleted region (CDR) to less than 2.4 Mb. We found no homozygous loss at any locus tested. The CDR contains 7 known genes, FRMD3, UBQLN1, GKAP42, KIF27, HNRPK, SLC28A3, and NTRK2, and 4 novel genes, RASEF, C9orf103, C9orf64, and C9orf76. In addition, TLE1 and TLE4 are adjacent to the CDR. We performed a comprehensive mutational analysis of the coding regions of all these genes. No sequence variations absent in normal controls were seen in more than a single del(9q) AML sample. Expression of 7 of the 10 genes examined was significantly down-regulated in del(19q)AML as compared with the CD34-purified progenitors from normal individuals, a pattern distinct from that seen in AML samples with a normal karyotype. The results of our studies are consistent with a model of tumor suppression mediated by haploinsufficiency of critical genes in del(9q) AML.